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Jack Fowlkes
Mrs. DeBock
English IV H.
29 October 2015
Essential question: How do the ways environmental influences people affect the ways people use
or view addictive or illegal substances?
Working thesis: Environmental factors are influential to peoples habits and health regarding
Refined thesis: Environmental, psychological, and demographic factors contribute to habits of
people with substances abuse.
Annotated Bibliography
"Alcohol and Tobacco Advertising." Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit:
Gale, 2014. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
People see around 3000 advertisements a day, and are literally everywhere in America.
Ex. Companies create an advertising campaign to target certain audiences. Advertising can be
shown influential in regard to addictive alcohol and tobacco products: advertising, though
expensive, is a powerful tool. Advertising should be a tool, When used to promote a product
that has serious health risks, however, it can also be a topic of great controversy (Alcohol and
Tobacco Advertising 1). Advertising doesnt increase consumer using but makes a consumer
form an opinion, or preferred brand. 40% of youth are exposed to the tobacco advertisements are

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proportionately aimed at younger audiences 12-20. Limits are in place for advertising on both
alcohol and tobacco in America. This source shows how advertising is influential and education
is key.
Atilola, O., et al. "Role Of Personal And Family Factors In Alcohol And Substance Use Among
Adolescents: An International Study With Focus On Developing Countries. "Journal Of
Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing 21.7 (2014): 609-617. Academic Search Complete.
Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
This was a study on factors in alcohol and substance abuse in adolescents, in developing
countries relatively poor compared to the world. Most of the 2454 studied were students. For the
socio-demographic questionnaire, The checklist assessed items such as parents marital status,
parental educational and occupational status, current caregiving arrangements, parental alcohol
or drug use, personal engagement in regular physical exercise, self-reported level of religious
engagement and other similar data. (Alcohol And Substance Use Among Adolescents 611) The
ones conducting this research also measured the scale of substance use or alcohol, and also the
social economic position of the families. 44.7% had CRAFFT (substance/alcohol use) scores
that were indicative of problematic substance use or abuse. This translates to 18.3% of the total
sample. However, pair-wise comparison showed that substance use varied significantly across
countries (not shown in table) (Atilola et al 612). However cultural factors could not be
measured country to country. It shows that substance use and alcohol does not change much
around the world, it is a pretty constant social issue.
Dick, Danielle M., and Linda C. Hancock. "Integrating Basic Research With
Prevention/Intervention To Reduce Risky Substance Use Among College

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Students." Frontiers In Psychology 6.(2015): 1-6. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27

Oct. 2015.
The researchers conducted a university-wide research project focused on how genetic and
environmental influences factor on substance abuse and mental health among the college
students. On the college campus, Nearly half (47%) of all students meet criteria for an alcohol
or marijuana use disorder at least once in the first 3 years of college (Caldiera et al., 2009). The
research to improve prevention, identification, and treatment of substance use and mental health
problems on college campuses and to translate these findings into policy and practice, should be
made into working policies (Dick and Hancock 2). The DNA analyzed has shown certain
predispositions that can lead to different personal behaviors that can affect their drinking or
substance use habits. The programs were tailored to a low level response to alcohol. Practitioners
and scientists that can find such patterns and habits of people should work together. The college
campus is a great setting to implement such combined efforts to reduce the abuse of substances.
It shows great promise. You can compare the relationship between substance use and student
success and that might change some opinions and importance of the topic to some new people.
This provides evidence for the ability to integrate such ideas into action for our communities and
possibly positively influence more people because that is how you make awareness.
Durbin. "The Pros And Cons Of E-Cigarette Regulations." Congressional Digest 94.4 (2015):
10-31. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Oct. 2015
The ads are aimed at middle and high school kids. From 2011 to 2013 use of e cigarettes
rose 265 percent. Samples and vendors give these away and there is little regulation on the
industry as a whole such as product ingredient labeling, safety information, sale to minors, etc.

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April of 2014 the FDA published that it would use its authority to regulate e-cigarettes, although
not fully thought out. It is a new product that gained popularity quickly. Laws arey in place,
marketing new tobacco products illegal without prior FDA authorization. The law also gives
FDA the authority to place restrictions on the sale and marketing of newly deemed tobacco
products, especially those that pose a risk to children, as a condition of FDA authorization
(Durbin 10). Unfortunately, even though that is true the FDA still allows companies two years to
leave their product on the market before creators must submit new product applications. SO even
though these new products are regulated there are still ways around it and action does not happen
quickly for these products as demand stays/increases. The tobacco crisis wasnt an accident
either, The surgeon general concluded that the tobacco epidemic was initiated and has been
sustained by the aggressive strategies of the tobacco industry, which deliberately misled the
public on the risks of smoking cigarettes. The founder and president of blu eCigs touched on the
fact that harm reduction can play an important role in reduction of the use of traditional tobacco
cigarettes, and not to lead to reduction in overall use. Rather he targets consumers still on the
addictive properties of his product, although a possible safer, or just another alternative. This
shows that even though you can know what is better than the substance use for whatever reasons,
is hard to overcome when people are always not focused on themselves.
Eryilmaz, Ali. "Meaning Of Life-Setting Life Goals: Comparison Of Substance Abusers And
Non-Abusers." Turkish Psychological Counseling & Guidance Journal 5.42 (2014): 235243. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
This study compares young men that are substance abusers and are non substance users
and their outlook on life. Studies into substance addiction have revealed several risk and

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protective factors (Deren, 1986). As far as protective factors are concerned, it has been
suggested that some of these factors have a lot to do with individuals themselves, their family,
school, peers and the wider environment they are associated with (Belcher & Shinitzky, 1998).
As to the individual-based factors, they have been documented to be such positive protective
factors as high levels of intelligence, self-esteem, and tendency for optimism (Neher & Short,
1998). However, it is also possible to view the meaning of life and life goals among positive
factors that can protect the youth from abusing substance (Miller, Davies, & Greenwald,
2000)236. It is interesting to note that studies into the relationship between the meaning of life
and substance-abusing have focused on these two variables more on a religious basis (Sinha,
Cnaan & Gelles, 2007). Furthermore, they have assumed that attributing religion-related
meanings to life contributes a good deal to improving their physical and mental health by way of
enabling individuals to avoid abusing substance (McBride, Mutch, & Chitwood, 1996)236. This
shows the difficulties of people dealing with alcohol/substance use compared to people that do
not use substances and their mutual goals.
Warren, Jane1, et al. "Assessing The Impact Of Addictions Education On Attitudes Of Students:
A Preliminary Investigation." Journal Of Alcohol & Drug Education 57.3 (2013): 1826. Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
The education of addiction can influence the attitudes of students on it. Even counselors
said they were more confident working with patients with addiction if they learned about it in
school. One essential area is addressing attitudes toward addictions, persons with addictions, and
addictions treatment. Substance abuse often evokes moralistic and moralistic attitudes from
professionals, and may not even know they have these beliefs and pass them on. Effective

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education is the key to effective learning. Chappel and Veach (1987) completed a five-year
study of 212 medical students who participated in substance abuse education and used the SAAS
to measure five attitudes (permissiveness, non-stereotyping, treatment intervention, treatment
optimism, and nonmoralism) in the students (19). After the class there was a rise in treatment
intervention attitudes and a decrease in permissiveness. There is, in descending order of
importance from the study, permissiveness, non-stereotyping, non-moralism, treatment
intervention, and treatment optimism. This provides evidence that learning for yourself is the
only way to make a real change to anyone or maybe leave an impact on someone else, regarding
the issue being researched.