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THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION OF THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
1.1
1.2
1.3

Preamble
Objective
Scope of study

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chapter two starts here
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CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
1.1 Chemical composition of palm oil
1.2 Carotenes
1.3 Phosphatides
1.4 Gums
1.5 Compositions and standards of palm oil
1.6 Spoilage factors of palm oil
1.7 Preventive measures
1.8 Inhibitors
1.9 Refining of creebe palm oil
1.10 Degumming
1.11 Neutralization
1.12 Bleaching
1.13 Deodorization
1.14 Chemical bleaching method

1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29
1.30
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37

Accretion bleaching
Bleaching by adsorption
Adsorption
Uses of adsorption
Physical adsorption
Chemisorptions
Adsorbents
Bauxite
Decolourising carbons
Gas-adsorbent carbon
Molecular screening activated carbon
Synthetic polymeric adsorbents
Silica Gel
Alumna
Bone char.
Charcoal
Properties of charcoal
Activated charcoal
Methods of charcoal activation
Properties of activated charcoal
Chemical properties of activated charcoal
Physical properties of activated charcoal
Uses of activated charcoal

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chapter three starts here
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CHAPTER THREE
2.0 Experimental method
2.1 Materials
2.2 Material treatment
2.3 Charcoal activation using acid
2.4 Charcoal activation by heat treatment
2.5 Degumming of Palm oil
2.6 Neutralization
2.7 Bleaching of palm oil
2.8 Experimental set-up
2.9 Characterization of palm oil
Specific gravity
2.10 Iodine value
2.11 Free fatty acid

2.12 Saponification value


2.13 Esterification value
2.14 Process flow chart
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chapter four starts here
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CHAPTER FOUR
3.0 Experimental result
3.1 Effect of bleaching sample
3.2 Effect of temperature on bleaching
3.3 Colour observation at absorbance
3.4 Concise table for characterization
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chapter five starts here
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CHAPTER FIVE
4.0 Discussion
4.1 Conclusion
4.2 Recommendation
References
Table of nomenclature
Appendices
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-----------------------------------The bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal


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