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Episode 1

Principles of Learning

1. Effective learning begins


with the setting of clear and
high expectations and learning
outcomes.

2. Learning is an active
process.

3. Learning is the discovery of


personal meaning and
relevance of ideas.

4. Learning is a cooperative
and collaborative process.
Learning is enhanced in an
atmosphere of cooperation and
collaboration.

What did the Teacher do which


applies/contradicts the learning
principle?
Application of
Non-application of
the Principle
the Principle
Ms. Mesias writes
None.
her lesson
objective and
intended outcomes
and shared it with
the class.
Ms. Mesias lets the
None.
learners do the
learning activity
and enjoy it.
The teacher relates None.
the lesson to the
needs, interest and
problem of the
learners. The topic
presses on the
relevance,
importance, role of
a woman in the
society and how to
treat them.
Ms. Mesias group
None.
the class into five
groups and let each
group present their
work and outcome
through musicale
and interpretation
of each topic.

1. Which principle/s of learning was/were most applied?


The principles most applied were learning is an active process and learning is a
cooperative and collaborative process.
2. Which principle of learning was least applied? Why the principles
was/were not very much applied? Give instances where this/these
principle/s could have been applied?
Based on my observation of Ms. Mesias class, she made sure that that her
teaching strategy correlates with the different principles of learning. Even learning
sometimes is a painful process, she made sure that the students understand and
that it should be accompanied by sacrifice. She made the learning very enjoyable
for the students.
3. How did the application of these principles affect learning?
Based on my observation, I can really say that the teacher is teaching effectively
because she considers how learning takes place. The principles of teaching is
already proven and tested, forged and fortified by years of observation and
experience by so many educators. By integrating the lessons through these proven
principles, Ms. Mesias was able to draw the students interest, motivate them; made
learning enjoyable for them and even mould their behavior towards learning.
4. How did the non-application of these principles affect learning?
I cant say something based on the class that I observed but to me, nonapplication of the different principles in learning is just like playing a game without a
game plan. The teacher would be lost in the equation and she/he would not be
connected to the students. This would result in a negative impact on the students
and surely affect their learning.
5. Do you agree with the principles of learning? Or have you discovered
that they are not always correct?
I strongly agree with the principles in learning. We must learn the different
principles by heart in order to become an effective teacher.
Practices worth adopting
Begin each lesson by setting objectives based on the three domains of
knowledge, learning outcomes and making sure objectives are SMART.
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Let the students to be active on activities in order for them to discover


personal meaning and relevance of the ideas they are about to encounter
and experience.
Implement groupworks and activities because learning is improved in
cooperation and collaboration atmosphere.

Practices to avoid and improve on

To teach anyone anything out of significance. It is unwise to impose


learning on our students. They must be engaged to activities which are
significant or connected to real life experiences.
To expect immediate results. Learning is an evolutionary process, it takes
time. In order to become a much more effective teacher, we must be
PATIENT.
Being insensitive. Learning is both intellectual and emotional process and
sometimes can be painful due to frustrations. We must appeal to the
students intellect as well as their emotions. We must make the students
understand that even learning is a difficult task; it will lead to inner joy
eventually.

Lesson learned
Abiding from the different principles of learning simply means teaching
effectively and efficiently. It is a total package, not only we teach students
academically but we mould them to become a good individual ready to take on the
challenges in life in the future.
Learning process is something that has significance to the learners.
Learners should be given a chance to relate the topic to their own interests,
problems and needs.
Learner has their own unique way of learning based on multiple intelligences.
Learner should be emotionally and intellectually healthy.
Learning sometimes is physically, emotionally and mentally draining.
Learning sometimes is self-discovery.
Learning is more effective when the learner themselves tried it in their own way.
Learners learning experience is the best learning process.
Learning can be enhanced through group activities.
Learning does not take effect overnight.
Learning is a give-and-take process.
Episode 2 2.1
The resource teacher began her lesson
by stating her objective and what she
expects from her students at the end
of the lesson.
Mrs. Pandan imparts her lesson
objective including plans and purpose
of the lesson to her student.
The lesson objectives for her class
were to find P(X) is divided by (x-r), to

prove remainder theorem and


incorporate the value of being
compassionate. It is very clear that
the objective has clear focus, thus the
teacher was able to have a concrete
picture of the behavior of the students
towards the lesson.
2.2

The Resource Teacher began his


lesson by stating his objective and
what he expects from his students at
the end of the lesson.
Mr. Balino discussed the lesson
objectives to the students, making
sure his students understand the
importance and relevance of the
lesson.

Mr. Padreganda imparts his lesson


objective including plans and purpose
of the lesson to his students.
The lesson objective was focused on
Natural Human Law making it clear
with the students. It was also more
focused on the Affective domain since
the subject is Edukasyon sa
Pagpapakatao.

The lesson objectives were to


recognize the components required to
assemble a PC, assemble and
disassemble parts of a PC and to
incorporate the value of hardwork.
Having these SMART objectives, the
teacher was able to easily formulate a
test to measure the attainment of his
objective.

2.3
The Resource Teacher began his
lesson by stating his objective and
what he expects from his students at
the end of the lesson.

Lesson Objectives of ICT Class of Mr. Norman Balino:


1. Recognize the components required to assemble a PC.
2. Assemble and disassemble parts of a PC.
3. Appreciate the value of hardwork.
The development of his lesson was fluent being guided with this set of lesson
objectives. Its a complete package because it is based on the three domain of
knowledge.
1. Why is it sound teaching practice for a teacher to begin with the end
in mind and to share his/her lessons objectives or intended learning
outcomes with his/her students?
It is an important practice for a teacher to begin with the end in mind so
that he/she will have a sense of direction and target throughout the
development of the lesson. Class interruption will be minimized, hence the
lesson will be more focused and teaching will be more effective and efficient. It is
also important the teacher shares his/her lesson objectives to the student in
order to make them own the objective and make it their personal target. In that
way, they will become self-motivated to learn and less external motivation is
needed.
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2. Did you find the lesson objectives or intended learning outcome


SMART? Support your answer?
Yes, definitely. The lesson objectives of my resource teachers were SMART
because it was easy for them to formulate assessment after the lesson. They
were able draw out the expected behavior that their students will show towards
their lesson. The scope of the lesson was clear and focused.
3. Do SMART objective help the lesson more focused?
Based on my observation, it is an absolute YES.
4. Were the lesson objectives/intended learning outcomes in the
cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains? Support your answer.
This lesson objective of Mr. Balinos ICT class:
1. Recognize the components required to assemble a PC. (Cognitive Domain)
2. Assemble and disassemble parts of a PC. (Psychomotor Domain)
3. Appreciate the value of hardwork. (Affective Domain)
The objectives were very clear that it abide on the three domain of
knowledge.
5. Is it necessary to have objectives always in the 3 domains cognitive,
psychomotor and affective? Why or why not?
Yes, as much as possible we should always incorporate our lesson objectives
with the three domains of knowledge mainly because of it wholeness and
completeness for it dwells on knowledge and values or on skills and values or on
knowledge and skills or on knowledge, skills and values. There must be a
balance between the three.
My reflection
Meaningful goals are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and defined
within a timeframe for completion. A SMART objective includes measures that you
can track to gauge progress. SMART objectives contain the potential to focus
attention, work plans, and commitment to performance targets. Because
meaningful and practical measures are built in, SMART objectives also enable
feedback and learning that can keep you on track to success. When our lesson
objectives are SMART, it is quite easy to find out at the end of our lesson if we
attained the objective or not.
Integrating the lessons objectives in the three domains makes the lesson
more meaningful mainly because it dwells on knowledge, skills and values. When
we teach knowledge accompanied by values this will touch students and bring out
the change in them. If we teach only skill unaccompanied by values, we may
contribute to the formation of people who will have the skills to oppress and to take
advantage of the unskilled. So it is very important that our lessons get direction
from objectives in the two or three domains with the affective always present.

http://www.searchquotes.com/search/Education_Significance_Of_Goals_And_O
bjective/

Our lesson objective should involve our students mental, physical and
emotional aspect in order for them to understand the true value of the
lesson.

Episode 3 3.1
The teacher taught Remainder
Theorem. She was focused on
concepts, principles and theory.
The teacher asked two volunteers to
solve the given set of polynomials
using long and synthetic division.
The teacher grouped them and gave
them a problem set. She encouraged
the student to solve on their own first
before asking for help. She then asked
for a volunteer to show the solution on
the board. She then asked a volunteer
student using the remainder theorem
and compared the answer of the
synthetic and long division.

Episode 3 3.2

The teacher inculcated to the students


the value of responsibility and
compassion. She asked the student
how they would relate these values in
their work. The students responded
positively.

The teacher let the students prepare


an inventory of the components and
materials needed for the assembly of
PC and the step by step procedures.

My resource teacher taught his


students the components of a PC and
how to assemble and disassemble the
different parts. The focus of the lesson
was terms and concepts.

After having demonstrated the step by


step procedures, the students were
allowed to do hands-on on the
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assembly of the computer


components. They were able to install
the drives, CPU, CP fan, memory
modules on the motherboard.
Sir Balino inculcated to the students
the value of hardwork and patience.
Whatever they do, they should exert
effort and patience in order to be
successful. Just like their task, it was
not easy but with heart, hardwork and
The teacher focused on vocabulary,
terms, facts and principles. He
discussed on the Natural Human Law.
The teacher grouped the students and
asked them to brainstorm and write a
paragraph as their own reflection
about Natural Human Laws after the
discussion.

patience, they can be successful in


what they do.

Episode 3 3.3

others as the way they want to be


treated.

They then explained their output


infront of the class together with a
brief interpretative presentation
through a song.
Sir Padreganda inculcated the value of
equality and justice to his students. He
instilled to them to always have a fair
treatment towards others and to treat

1. Where the lessons focused on information/cognitive domain only or


mental procedures only or psychomotor/physical skills only? Or were
the lessons combinations of two or three? Explain your answer.
Based on my observations, the lessons were combinations of cognitive
domain, mental procedures and psychomotor skills. The teacher made sure to
integrate the lesson in these three procedures to have a balance learning
development for the students. A great proof of that is the class of Mr. Balino.
2. Were the lessons focused on cognitive content only or psychomotor
content only or affective content only? Or were the lessons combination
of two or three? Explain your answer.
The lessons were clearly a combination of the three domain of knowledge
namely the cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Just like the class of Ms.
Pandan, even though she was teaching mathematics, she was able to
incorporate the value of compassion in the lesson which is under the affective
domain.
3. What was the effect on learning when teaching was focused only in one
domain?
There would be an imbalance of learning if the teacher focuses only in a
single domain. Say for example only cognitive domain, we cannot teach only
knowledge, and it gets boring if this is the primary concern of the teacher. As
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much as possible, me must involve the three domains so that the skills and
values behind the lesson will be implemented and understand by the students.
4. Is it really possible to teach only in one domain like affective only or
cognitive or psychomotor only? Or based on Kendalls and Marzanos
taxonomy, information only or mental procedures only or psychomotor
procedures only? Explain your answer.
Yes, ofcourse no one can stop a teacher if she/he wants to teach
implementing only a single domain of knowledge. But the point here is how to
become a more effective and efficient educator. In my own opinion, I believe that
by following the three domains or the three procedures based on Kendalls and
Marzanos Taxonomy, we can improve our desired outcome of teaching and we
can create a great atmosphere for students learning that we can never achieve
by implementing a single domain in our lessons.
5. Do Kendalls and Marzanos knowledge taxonomy and Blooms
taxonomy of learning activities contradict each other? Explain your
answer.
In my own opinion, Kendalls and Marzanos knowledge taxonomy and
Blooms taxonomy of learning activities do not totally contradict each other. The
only difference is the Mental Procedures in Kendalls and Marzanos taxonomy is
mainly focus on intellect while the Affective Domain of Blooms taxonomy is
more on values we learn and about to apply in our daily lives based on the
lesson.
Based on my observations in class and my understanding of the domains of
knowledge and learning activities from Bloom, Kendall and Marzano teaching in
the three domains is much more effective and can make the teaching-learning
activity more meaningful and relevant to the students and to me also as a future
teacher. This is achievable. I must be creative in order to implement these
domains in my teaching career in the future.

1. The students will be able to identify and recognize the appropriate uses of the
different hand tools and equipments used in Computer Hardware Servicing.
(Cognitive Domain)
2. The students will be able to prepare hand tools and equipment for Computer
Hardware Servicing according to function and task requirement. (Psychomotor)
3. The students will be able to appreciate the value of responsibility towards work
and in the workplace. (Affective)

1. The students will be able to identify object/s to be measured. (Declarative


Knowledge)
2. The students will be able to perform calculation needed to complete task using
the four mathematical operations. (Mental Procedures)
3. The students will be able to install/use the appropriate data storage needed
based on the result of the calculation. (Psychomotor Procedures)
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Episode 4 4.1
Blooms level of processing
cognitive activities
1. Remembering

2. Comprehending

3. Applying

4. Analyzing

5. Evaluating

6. Creating

Levels of processing
1. Retrieval

What learning activity/ies in the


classroom did I observe in each
level?
The teacher conducted a review on the
students about their previous lessons in
their previous grade such as the long
division and the synthetic division.
The teacher asked the students:
How are we able to relate synthetic and
long division in our lesson today which is
the remainder theorem?
After discussing the remainder theorem
and giving some examples, the teacher
gave a set of polynomial to be solved
using the synthetic and long division and
the remainder theorem.
The teacher asked the students:
What do you think of the answers using
long/synthetic division compared to the
remainder theorem?
The teacher asked a volunteer student to
evaluate the two answers using
substitution and it was proved that the
remainder theorem has the same answer
with the long/synthetic division.
The teacher gave another set of
polynomials to be solves using the
remainder theorem and to be checked
using elimination not substitution.

Write down instances where Teacher


made learners to do any of these.
Information Student/s gave information
asked.
Sir Balino asked the students of what
they already know about computer
hardware, students responded well.
Mental Procedures Student/s
determined if information is accurate or
inaccurate.
The teacher instructed the students to
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refer to their learning module for the


identification of the computer parts and
the assembly procedures.
Psychomotor
Procedures/Motor
or
physical
skills

Student/s
executed/performed procedures.

2. Comprehension

Sir Balino allowed the student to


disassemble and assemble parts of a PC.
Student/s constructed symbolic
representation of information.
Students draw a flowchart depicting the
flow of computer assembly procedures.
Student/s integrated information,
paraphrased information.
The students integrated the procedures
with the Occupational Health and Safety
policies.

Levels of Processing

Write down instances where Teacher


made learners to do any of these.
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3. Analysis

Student/s specified logical consequences


of information.
Mr. Balino asked the students to
remember and always abide to the
Occupational Health and safety
Procedures while uninstalling and
installing parts of the computer.
Student/s stated generalizations.
The students stated the summary if
steps of uninstalling computer parts.
Student/s identified factual/logical errors.
Students discovered some components
is fitted with slots and cannot be done in
any other position. It needs to be
snapped into the slot.
Student/s did classifying.
The teacher told the students to classify
the computer components whether it is
an input or output devices.
Student/s matched, identified similarities
and differences.

4. Knowledge Utilization

The students identified the difference of


an IDE to a SATA connector, AMD to Intel
processors and the similarities and
differences of the RAM.
Student/s tested hypotheses.
In teacher Pandans class, she let the
students solve the equation using the
substitution method after having the
answer from long and synthetic division
to prove the remainder theorem.
Student/s experimented.
In Mr. Balinos class, the students tried to
experiment on ways how to properly
remove the CPU and its fan out from the
slot; those who havent done it properly
were given instruction afterwards.

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Levels of Processing

Write down instances where Teacher


made learners to do any of these.
Student/s solved problems given by the
teacher.
Ms. Pandan gave her students an
equation on the board for them to solve
it individually using either synthetic or
long division.
Student made a decision.

5. Meta-cognitive system

The students under Ms. Pandan decided


whether to solve the given equation
using either synthetic and long division.
Some chose synthetic division while
others chose long division.
Student/s specified their learning goal.
Students told Sir Balino that they are
interested in Computer Hardware
Servicing and that they want to acquire
the skill towards global competitiveness.
Student/s monitored their own learning.
Students of Mr. Balino asked him to
check their outputs if they have done it
right and ask for corrections.
Student/s monitored the clarity and
accuracy of their own learning process.
If they are not sure of what they are
doing, students asked Mr. Balino for the
accuracy and correctness of the steps
that they are doing in their activity.

Levels of Processing

Write down instances where Teacher


made learners to do any of these.
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6. Self-system

Students believed in the importance of


what they learn.
After the activity, Mr. Balino asked the
students to write a reflection on the
importance of the activity, and the value
of hardwork and patience towards the
activity. They realized the importance of
Safety towards the working environment.
Students were convinced in their ability
to learn.
With teamwork, the students were able
to improve confidence within
themselves, thus they believe in their
ability to learn because of what they had
just learned in the activity and about to
learn in the upcoming topics.
Students were motivated to learn and
felt good about the learning task.
The students of Mr. Balino enjoyed the
activity very well that after the class
they were very excited for their new
lesson to learn further on Computer
Hardware Servicing.

1. Were all Blooms levels of processing information demonstrated by the


learners in class? Why or why not?
Majority of Blooms levels of processing were obviously demonstrated by the
learners in the class. It was evident in the instances that I enlisted in the table.
2. Which level/s of processing cognitive information in Blooms taxonomy
was most displayed? Least demonstrated? Give proof.
As what I have observed, I think all of the levels of processing cognitive
information in Blooms taxonomy were displayed especially during Mrs. Pandans
Mathematics class, but what stood out the most are applying and creating. After
discussing the remainder theorem and giving some examples, the teacher gave
a set of polynomial to be solved using the synthetic and long division and the
remainder theorem. The teacher gave another set of polynomials to be solves
using the remainder theorem and to be checked using elimination not
substitution. As a future teacher, we must be creative in implementing these
specific levels of processing so that learning of the students will be more
effective.
3. Were all of Kendalls and Marzanos levels of processing of information,
mental and physical procedures demonstrated by the learners? Why or
why not?
Yes, based on my observation all of Kendalls and Marzanos level of
processing of information whether its mental or physical were demonstrated by
the learners. A good proof of that is when Mr. Balino in his CHS class instructed

13

his students to do a flowchart of uninstalling computer components and


implementing their flowchart in action.
4. Which levels of Kendalls and Marzanos processing information was
most demonstrated? Least demonstrated? Give proof.
All levels of Kendalls and Marzanos processing information were
demonstrated but to me the one that is stood out is the knowledge utilization.
Evidence of this is when Maam Pandan let the students solve the equation using
the substitution method after having the answer from long and synthetic division
to prove the remainder theorem. In Computer Hardware Servicing class, Mr.
Balinos class, the students tried to experiment on ways how to properly remove
the CPU and its fan out from the slot; those who havent done it properly were
given instruction afterwards.
5. Are Blooms cognitive taxonomy of learning activities (cognitive,
affective, and psychomotor) very different from the new taxonomy of
Kendall and Marzano (informative, metacognitive procedures and
psychomotor)? Explain your answer?
I think Blooms taxonomy of learning activities is not different from the new
taxonomy of Kendall and Marzano. In fact, they are very similar. For me the only
difference is that in Blooms revised taxonomy, application comes first before
analyzing, whereas in the new taxonomy of Kendall and Marzano it is the other
way around.

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My reflections
Based on my observation, higher levels of processing information were
implemented by the teacher in the class and were demonstrated by the students. At
first it wasnt really clear to me how to implement the higher levels of processing
information, because on what mostly I have experienced during my elementary and
high school days, were are limited mostly to the lower levels of information
processing such as remembering or retrieval, but with the observation I had, it gave
an idea and a concrete goal plan on achieving it. Also guided with the principles of
teaching-learning and with the taxonomy I can implement the higher level of
information processing in the future.
The teachers that I had just observed really know what and how to teach.
They contribute greatly to the level of processing that the students do in school. In
fact, it is their teaching strategy that indulge students into the higher level of
information processing. If the students are engaged only in low level information
processing, learning wont be as effective and remarkable compared with those
students engaged in higher level of information processing. In such cases, the
teachers are to be blamed because they are the facilitator, the classroom director.
1. Remembering
The students will be able to identify the basic symbols used in creating a
flowchart and technical drawing.
2. Understanding
The students will be able to carry out mensuration and calculation.
3. Application
The students will be able to perform safety procedures in using hand tools and
equipment.
4. Analyzing
The students will be able compare different products/services in computer
hardware servicing business.
5. Evaluating
The students can assess the condition of all hand tools and equipment for
proper operation and safety.
6. Creating
The students can create a flowchart that depicts a simple scenario in
preparing hand tools for computer hardware servicing.