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A Multicultural Organizational Development

Checklist for Student Affairs


Ingrid Grieger
Multicultural organizational development
(MOD) has been posited as a useful model for
facilitating comprehensive long-term change for
divisions of student affairs committed to transforming themselves into multicultural organizations. Based on the principles of MOD, the
Multicultural Organizational Development
Checklist for Student Affairs is a pragmatic and
systemic guide for student affairs practitioners.
The checklist includes 58 items, embedded within
11 categories. The checklist itself and suggestions for implementation are provided.
Experts in the field of student affairs have
asserted that realization of the pluralism
imperative is the most significant challenge ever
faced by higher education (Kuh, 1990, p. 93).
Other writers have contended that so critical is
the pluralism imperative that it is hard to
imagine the twenty-first century as a workable
enterprise for the United States without colleges
and universities imparting the necessary skills
and sensitivities for living successfully amid
ethnic diversity (Kramer & Weiner, 1994, p.
42). Educating an increasingly diverse group of
students to become multiculturally competent in
a more pluralistic society thus has become central
to the educational mission of American colleges
and universities. As partners in this educational
enterprise, divisions of student affairs must
assume their vital institutional role in supporting,
facilitating, and enhancing the multicultural
mission of higher education.
Student affairs professionals have recognized the significance of addressing the issues
of pluralism, diversity, and multiculturalism
(Brown, 1991; McEwen & Roper, 1994; Upcraft
& Barr, 1990). For example, in their work on
exemplary leadership in student affairs, Clement
and Rickard (1992) cited student affairs admini-

strators as articulating a moral imperative to


speak for those whose voices are not heard and
to affirm the dignity of all students. Further, the
proliferation of professional publications,
seminars, conferences, and training programs
regarding multiculturalism speak to its importance within the student affairs profession
(Barr, 1990; Grieger & DOnofrio, 1995;
Grieger, Levy, & Tully,1995; Kuh, 1990; Pope,
1993; Tully, Levy, & Grieger, 1995).
Although well intentioned, the increasing
efforts to address multiculturalism in higher
education in general, as well as in divisions of
student affairs in particular, have often been
fragmented, reactive, crisis oriented, uncoordinated, and at worst, counterproductive
(Coln, 1991; Green, 1988; Jackson & Holvino,
1988; Jacoby, 1991; Stage & Hamrick, 1994; Sue
& Sue, 1990). In addition, the quality of multiculturalism training for student affairs professionals has been called into question. For
example, McEwen and Roper (1994) have noted
that masters level programs in student affairs
have not adequately prepared graduates in the
areas of multicultural knowledge and experiences. Furthermore, student affairs professionals
appear to be unsure about the definition of the
very term multicultural, as well as about how
they can systematically and effectively participate in creating a diversity-positive campus
climate and a truly multicultural campus environment (McEwen & Roper, 1994; Pope, 1993;
Stage & Hamrick, 1994). Clearly, a model is
needed for systemic, coherent, and comprehensive divisionwide change that contains, as
Stage and Hamrick (1994) have suggested,
multilayered, self-reinforcing approaches addressing a variety of targets (p. 331). Further,
efforts toward change must be strategically
planned and ongoing, based on a clear insti-

Ingrid Grieger is Director of Iona College Counseling Center, New Rochelle, New York.

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tutional and divisional definition of multicultural,


and clearly articulated as well-conceptualized
goals and objectives.
Pope (1993) has proposed multicultural
organizational development (MOD) as a model
for multicultural change that appears to be particularly applicable to and promising for the
profession of student affairs. Similarly, Sue
(1995) has argued that effective and systemic
multicultural change begins with understanding
the applicability of MOD to achieving diversity
goals. In fact, Sue (1995) has stated that, MOD
represents the next major frontier on which the
issues of diversity will be fought (p. 490). Both
Pope (1993) and Sue (1995) have offered
powerful and persuasive rationales for MOD as
the model of choice for implementing coherent,
long-lasting multicultural organizational change.
Pope (1993) has highlighted the need to
develop strategies to integrate simultaneously
cultural diversity and social-justice issues into
long-range planning processes and other currently utilized organizational change strategies
(p. 204). She suggests the development of
instrumentation to help identify and monitor
strategies and interventions, as well as practices
and structures, in student affairs. An example of
such an instrument was put forth by Ponterotto,
Alexander, and Grieger (1995). They developed
a thematic, goal-oriented checklist to serve as a
guide for the establishment of systemwide
multicultural competencies in counselor training
programs. The themes included in the Multicultural Competency Checklist for Counselor
Training Programs (Ponterotto et al., 1995) were
derived from a content analysis of the literature
describing model multicultural training
programs.
This article will present an adaptation of the
qualitative checklist methodology noted above
for implementing systemic and proactive multicultural transformation in divisions of student
affairs and will ground it firmly upon the theoretical model of MOD. This approach offers a
straightforward, concrete, and specific application of MOD that builds upon the work of Pope
(1993) and Sue (1995), which readers are
strongly urged to review. This article will suggest
an inclusive definition of multicultural, and

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review relevant concepts of OD and MOD.


Further, it will present the Multicultural Organizational Development Checklist for Student
Affairs, and highlight major categories, as well
as offer suggestions for use and implementation.
The checklist is included in its entirety in the
appendix and should be referred to for clarification. Finally, directions for future qualitative
and quantitative research will be suggested.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT,
MULTICULTURALISM, AND
MULTICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
Organizational development (OD) is a wellestablished model in business and industry for
effecting long-term systemic change that moves
an organization to a higher level of functioning
(Burke, 1982; Gibson, Ivancevich, & Donnelly,
1994; Schermerhorn, 1993; Stoner, Freeman, &
Gilbert, 1995). OD involves a planned, longrange, systemwide effort based on a shared
diagnosis, and use of applied behavioral science.
This effort is also focused on organizational
structures, values, functions, processes, service
delivery, competencies training, and products that
enhance an organizations effectiveness (Burke,
1982; Chesler, 1994; Conyne, 1991; French &
Bell, 1981; Pope, 1993; Sue, 1991, 1995).
Bennis (1969) offered perhaps the most cogent
and relevant definition of OD as it applies
specifically to student affairs: a response to
change, a complex educational strategy intended
to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and
structure of organizations so that they can better
adapt to new technologies, markets and challenges and the dizzying rate of change itself
(p. 2). The general goals of student affairs have
been criticized as being amorphous, unresponsive
to change, and unmeasurable (Barr & Albright,
1990). Also, efforts to provide multicultural
training and development and to establish multicultural campus environments have been noted
to be disorganized, diffuse, and nonsystematic
(DAndrea & Daniels, 1995; Pope, 1993;
Reynolds, 1995); therefore, the usefulness of a
holistic, specific, and planned educational
strategy that responds effectively to change is

Journal of College Student Development

MOD Checklist

clear. OD offers a general framework from which


to conceptualize and to plan divisionwide
strategic change in student affairs. However, the
global construct of organizational development
is missing the specific focus on multiculturalism
and the related issue of social justice. The latter
is a basic component of MOD which, to create
diversity-positive multicultural organizations,
addresses race, ethnicity, gender, class, and other
factors pertaining to discrimination from a social
justice perspective (Sue, 1995).
Before proceeding with a more detailed
discussion of MOD, however, the term multicultural must be defined. In fact, the term has
been and remains a subject of debate, particularly
with regard to how broadly or narrowly it may
be defined (Lee, 1991; Pedersen, 1991; Pope,
1995; Pope, 1993; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis,
1992; Triandis, Bontempo, Leung, & Hui, 1990).
Within the context of student affairs, some
professionals have argued that multicultural
should be defined as broadly as possible to reflect
the full range of diversity that currently exists
on American college campuses (Pope, 1993).
The current reality, then, indicates the inclusion
of such variables as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual
orientation, religion, age, learning disabilities,
physical disabilities, nationality, and HIV serostatus (Grieger et al., 1995). Further, as additional
disenfranchised or underrepresented groups
come forward, they should be considered for
inclusion within multicultural. DAndrea and
Daniels (1995) have defined multiculturalism as
an individuals or an organizations commitment
to increase awareness and knowledge about
human diversity in ways that are translated into
more respectful human interactions and effective
interconnection (p. 18). Similarly, Sue (1995)
has defined multicultural organizations as ones
that value diversity and evidence continuing attempts to accommodate ongoing cultural change
(p. 485). For this discussion, multicultural will
be defined as broadly and inclusively as possible
with regard to target groups, and it will also
include attitudinal and behavioral components
that demonstrate a commitment to valuing
diversity and to adapting to continuous cultural
change.
Sue (1995) has posited that models of MOD

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are similar to those that have been promulgated


to describe racial and ethnic identity development (Cross, 1971, 1991; Helms, 1984, 1986,
1990; Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). Sue (1995)
has suggested that an organization moves through
the following stages:
1.

Monocultural. The organization is Eurocentric and excludes women and minorities


or views them as tokens, is insensitive to
the relevance of culture, and subscribes to
a melting-pot philosophy.

2.

Nondiscriminatory. The organization has


policies, activities and procedures relevant
to multicultural issues. However, the approach is nonsystemic and does not represent full commitment to multiculturalism;
rather it is designed to meet legal standards
for nondiscrimination;

3.

Multicultural. The organization actively


values diversity and has a vision that reflects
a multicultural commitment which permeates
all aspects of the organization. The policies
and procedures address issues of racism and
sexism, and allow equal access and opportunities to the organizations constituencies.
Further, the philosophical premise underlying a multicultural organization is social
justice; a truly multicultural organization
will not tolerate racism, sexism, homophobia, or other forms of discrimination. By
addressing issues of equal access and
opportunity, by embracing diversity as an
asset, and by informing its decisions and
policies by precepts of fairness and nondiscrimination, a multicultural organization
demonstrates its commitment to social
justice in its day-to-day practices (Jackson
& Holvino, 1988).

To summarize, a multicultural organization:


(a) is inclusive in composition of staff and
constituencies served; (b) is diversity-positive in
its commitment, vision, mission, values, processes, structure, policies, service delivery, and
allocation of resources; (c) is permeated by a
philosophy of social justice with decisions
informed by consideration of ensuring fairness,
ending oppression, and guaranteeing equal access

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Grieger

to resources and opportunities for all groups; (d)


regards diversity as an asset and values the
contributions of all members; (e) values and
rewards multicultural competencies, including
diversity-positive attitudes, knowledge about
salient aspects of diverse groups, and skills in
interacting with and serving diverse groups
effectively, sensitively, and respectfully; and (f) is
fluid and responsive in adapting to ongoing
diversity-related change. MOD is a planned,
proactive, comprehensive, systemic, and longrange process that transforms an organization
from monocultural to multicultural.
THE MOD CHECKLIST: PURPOSE AND
DEVELOPMENT
Purpose
Upcraft (1993, 1994) has noted the importance
of translating student development theories
which sometimes seem unrelated to the realities
of campus life and actual professional practice
into information and strategies of pragmatic
value to the practitioner. Yet, Pope (1993) has
noted the paucity of outcomes research on MOD
in general, and specifically which MOD strategies and interventions work best in divisions of
student affairs. Sue (1995) cautioned that prior
to implementing multicultural interventions, both
individual and systemic barriers to valuing
diversity must be understood. Similarly, Butler
(1993) recommended conducting a bias audit
as a first step to creating a bias-free workplace.
Researchers have questioned which strategies for
teaching multicultural competencies are most
effective (DAndrea & Daniels, 1995; DAndrea,
Daniels, & Heck, 1991; Reynolds, 1995) and
how these competencies might accurately be
measured (Ponterotto, Rieger, Barrett, & Sparks,
1994). Even within the counseling profession,
which has recognized the significance of
multicultural competency for 2 decades, only
recently have specific competencies been clearly
delineated (Sue et al., 1992). And, as noted
above, the promulgation of a coherent, comprehensive multicultural curriculum in student
affairs preparation programs is in its formative
stages (McEwen & Roper, 1994).

564

Although experts have cautioned against


moving to intervention before establishing a firm
empirical base, student affairs professionals
currently working on American campuses know
the pluralism imperative will not wait and timely
intervention is needed. Currently, a pragmatic,
comprehensive intervention strategy with research and evaluation components would be most
useful. The MOD Checklist (MODC) for Student
Affairs (see Appendix) represents an attempt to
translate the theoretical model of MOD into the
specifics of everyday pragmatic professional
practice, while building ongoing diagnosis and
evaluation into its methodology. The MODC
should serve as a road map for divisions of
student affairs that are committed to a long-term
systemic process of transformation into a multicultural organization. It provides a comprehensive and self-perpetuating agenda expressed
as specific goals and objectives, to serve as a
guide for the transformational process.
Development
Inasmuch as the MODC is intended to serve as
an evolving, nondefinitive guide for student
affairs professionals, development of the checklist followed qualitative, rather than quantitative,
procedures. Therefore, traditional Likert-type
quantitative psychometric validation procedures
were not intended vis--vis the checklist. Development of the MODC followed the theme
analysis model put forth in Ponterotto et al.
(1995). The author reviewed the multicultural
student affairs literature and a theme analysis (cf.
Ponterotto & Casas, 1991) revealed 11 distinct
categories of multicultural development. Table
1 contains each theme, along with representative
supporting citations. To emerge as a theme, the
issue had to be discussed repeatedly across
articles. To apply each theme to student affairs
practices, the author wrote 58 checklist items, 2
to 12 items per theme. The prototype checklist
was then presented to three independent student
affairs professionals (all published and experienced in the area) for validation and comments.
The author made minor changes in category and
item wording according to these comments. The
appendix contains the final version approved by
the author and the reviewers.

Journal of College Student Development

MOD Checklist

DISCUSSION
The MODC (see Appendix) begins at the level
of vision and mission, because for comprehensive multicultural organizational change to
occur it must be imbued in the very mission of
the organization (Senge, 1990). Similarly, the
chief student affairs officer and other student
affairs professionals must fully commit to the
process and be willing to speak that commitment
within the division and across the campus
(Bennett & Shayner, 1988; Clement & Rickard,
1992; Creamer & Creamer, 1986; Sue, 1995).
The composition of the division itself should be
diverse; this is an obvious, yet in practice often
overlooked, aspect of creating a multicultural
organization. To have credibility with its
constituencies, the division must itself be a model
for diversity (Ponterotto, Lewis, & Bullington,
1990; Wright, 1990).
The most complex categories relate to multicultural competency. The student affairs profession has not yet established or adopted specific
multicultural competencies. However, Sue et al.
(1992) have delineated multicultural counseling
competencies and standards, and McEwen and
Roper (1994) have suggested 12 areas of multicultural competency for student affairs preparation curricula. Divisions of student affairs can
draw on these rich, well-conceptualized, fully
researched sources to formulate their own criteria
for multicultural competencies and training goals.
Student activities and services are the central
function within divisions of student affairs and
constitute another significant area of the checklist. The thematic thrust of this category is that
although the student development perspective
already informs programming and services for
students, diversity and multiculturalism should
also permeate those functions. In addition,
student affairs professionals should provide
leadership training to empower underrepresented
groups of students and forums for dialogue
among diverse groups of students. (Bennett &
Shayner, 1988). Although student services are
addressed as one inclusive item, division of
student affairs would promulgate subgoals and
objectives appropriate to each student service.
The category of assessment, with sub-

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categories of diagnosis and evaluation, is


fundamental to the implementation of the MODC
as are OD change process. The diagnosis
interventionevaluation paradigm is not only
the distinguishing characteristic of OD, but it is
also essential to coherently evaluating any change
or learning process (Burke, 1982; Gibson, et al.,
1994; Pope, 1993; Schermerhorn, 1993; Sue,
1991; 1995). Thus, although the assessment
category is placed at the end of the MODC,
student affairs professionals should understand
that diagnosis precedes intervention and that both
diagnosis and evaluation are ongoing processes.
That is, feedback from evaluations leads to new
interventions and initiatives, which are in turn
evaluated in a self-perpetuating process. This
process should lead to more refined interventions
to address the needs of constituencies.
IMPLEMENTING THE MOD CHECKLIST
FOR STUDENT AFFAIRS
As has been noted, the MODC is meant to serve
as a model, road map, or guide for the implementation of holistic multicultural change within
a division of student affairs. Student affairs
professionals should adapt the MODC to the
specific needs, structure, and functions of their
particular division. Because the checklist is a
qualitative measure, its users do not calculate a
cutoff or total score. The checklist is not a Likerttype quantitative instrument that has undergone
rigorous psychometric validation procedures.
Rather, a strength of the MODC is its flexibility,
allowing student affairs programs to use it as they
see fit. MODC Users may want to prioritize their
goals and objectives, specify action steps for
achieving them, and note who is responsible for
overseeing the process to completion.
The MODC should be introduced into a division in a nonthreatening way, using a shared
power strategy. This strategy is based on empowerment, rather than control, and is highly participatory and consensual (Schermerhorn, 1993).
Given the time and energy needed to implement
MOD and given the sensitivity of multicultural
issues, members of a division will be more likely
to commit to and fully engage in the process

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within a model of shared power (Belkin, 1978;


Erez & Arad, 1986; Levy, 1988; Rogers, 1969).
The introduction of the MODC may best be
accomplished within the context of a professional
development session for all division personnel,
including support staff. The session should
outline the goals and principles of OD and MOD,
as well as provide ample opportunity for
members of the division to express their reactions
to and concerns about undertaking a large-scale
change process. Some division members will
certainly be concerned about ostensibly being
asked to do more at a time of staff reductions
and diminishing resources. These concerns must
be acknowledged as absolutely valid and true.
Nevertheless, multicultural issues must be
addressed if divisions of student affairs are to
be viable, credible, and effective as diversity
increases into the 21st century. Furthermore,
many of the activities delineated as goals in the
checklist are probably already being carried out
in some fashion; in some cases, MOD may
simply require a shift of emphasis or focus.
Introducing change into any environment is often
met with resistance, the individual introducing
the MODC should meet the inevitable resistance
with sensitivity, reassurance, and care.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
FOR RESEARCH
The MODC is based on OD principles of a
planned, long-term, systemic, action-oriented
organizational change process using applied
behavioral science (Schermerhorn, 1993). It is
further based on the goal of MOD, to create
socially just environments that reflect, value, and
nurture diversity (Pope, 1993). Far from being
rigid and definitive, the MODC is a first attempt
at creating a road map for large-scale strategic
planning for multiculturalism in student affairs.
Practitioners are encouraged to modify and adapt
it for use in their particular settings.
MOD in student affairs is in its infancy with
regard to theoretical advances and research
support, and it requires empirical investigation
of both a quantitative and qualitative nature. To
assess the current status of MOD within divisions
of student affairs nationwide researchers could
develop a quantitative survey based on the check566

list. Qualitative research could include case studies


of model divisions of student affairs with regard
to MOD progress. The results of such studies
would yield strategies for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating MOD on campus. Given
the changing demographic face of America and
the recent debate over diversity issues such as
affirmative action, the empirical study of
campus MOD clearly will become increasingly
important.
Correspondence concerning this article should be
addressed to Ingrid Grieger, Iona College Counseling
Center, 715 North Avenue, New Rochelle, NY 10801;
telephone 914-633-2038; ixg1%iona.bitnet @
cunyvm.cuny.edu

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Journal of College Student Development

MOD Checklist

APPENDIX
Multicultural Organizational Development (MOD) Checklist for Student Affairs

GOALS
Met

Unmet

Timetable
In
for
Progress Completion

Mission
1.

The mission, philosophy and goals of the division of student


affairs clearly address issues of diversity and multiculturalism.

2.

The mission, philosophy, and goals of each office within the


division clearly address issues of diversity and multiculturalism.

Leadership and Advocacy


3.

Women, persons of color, and members of other underrepresented


populations are in positions of leadership within the division.

4.

The chief student affairs officer is a vocal advocate for diversity and
multiculturalism within the division and on an institutional level.

5.

Student affairs professionals view advocacy for diversity and


multiculturalism on campus as a part of their role and function.

6.

Student affairs professionals collaborate with faculty and others to


advocate for a positive campus climate with regard to diversity.

7.

A clearly defined advocacy/ombudsperson/ special services position exists


within the division to address the needs of a diverse student population
(e.g., students with disabilities, older students, religious and racial/ethnic
minority students, female students, etc.) albeit with a clear understanding
that advocacy is the responsibility of all student affairs professionals.

Policies
8.

The division has promulgated and distributed to all students clearly articulated
policies and procedures relevant to a diverse student population (e.g., HIV, AIDS,
sexual assault, sexual harassment, bias incidents, nondiscrimination on the
basis of race, ethnicity, religion, age, sexual orientation, nationality, etc.).

9.

The student code of conduct clearly prohibits engaging in racist, sexist,


biased, sexually harassing, or sexually or physically assaultive behavior.

10. Infringements of the student code of conduct in the areas delineated above
are taken seriously and disciplinary sanctions are imposed.
11. Infringements of the student code of conduct in the areas
delineated above are viewed as signals for ongoing assessment,
dialogue, and intervention with regard to valuing diversity.

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GOALS
Met

Unmet

Timetable
In
for
Progress Completion

Recruitment and Retention


12. Staffing patterns within the division reflect campus demographics & diversity.
13. Women, persons of color, and members of other underrepresented
populations are actively recruited for positions within the division.
14. Student affairs professionals actively assist the institution in
efforts to recruit and retain a diverse student population.
15. Multicultural competencies (i.e., attitudes, knowledge, and
skills) are a hiring criterion for student affairs professionals.
16. Performance appraisals of student affairs professionals include a review
of their contributions to creating a multicultural organization.

Expectations for Multicultural Competency


17. Student affairs professionals possess multicultural competencies
appropriate for their role and function.
18. Student affairs professionals are knowledgeable about the specific multicultural competencies that have been delineated for their particular discipline.
19. Student affairs professionals are knowledgeable about the standards of
ethical practice with regard to multiculturalism within their particular discipline.
20. Student affairs professionals take responsibility for continuously developing
and enhancing their multi- cultural competencies by remaining current on the
professional literature and by availing themselves of training opportunities.

Multicultural Competency Training


21. The division provides systematic ongoing training regarding the development
of multicultural competencies (i.e., attitudes, knowledge, and skills).
22. Support staff, including office managers, clerical staff, graduate assistants,
and student workers, are systematically trained in multicultural awareness.
23. Residence hall staff, including residence hall directors, resident advisors,
security personnel, and others who have contact with students in residence
halls are systematically trained in multicultural awareness.
24. Review of multicultural competency training and education literature
regarding effective training models informs multicultural competency
training within the division.
25. Professionals designated to provide multicultural competency
training within the division are fully competent to do so.
26. Funds are available for professional development opportunities
with regard to multiculturalism (e.g., inviting trainers to
campus, attendance at conferences, off-campus training, etc.).

Scholarly Activities
27. Student affairs professionals engage in research, writing, and
professional presentations on multicultural issues.
28. Financial and administrative support are available for student affairs
professionals to engage in scholarly activities pertaining
to multicultural issues.
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MOD Checklist

GOALS
Met

Unmet

Timetable
In
for
Progress Completion

Student Activities and Services


29. Student groups and organizations reflect campus demographics (e.g., Black
Students Association, Gay/Lesbian Students Association, Italian Heritage
Society, Women Students Concerns Group, etc.).
30. Student activities are planned and designed to meet the
cocurricular needs of a diverse student population.
31. Student activities include the systematic development of leadership skills in
people who are female, members of an ethnic/racial minority, physically
disabled, and members of other underrepresented student groups.
32. Mechanisms are in place for ongoing cross-cultural communication and dialogue among student groups and organizations.
33. Annual programming for students reflects an appreciation for diversity
and addresses multicultural issues (e.g., New Student Orientation,
Black History Month, Womens History Month, Minority Career
Day, Disabilities Awareness Day, Gay Awareness Day).
34. Psychoeducational workshops, lectures, and presentations offered
on campus by student affairs professionals regularly address
issues of diversity and multiculturalism.
35. Programs offered in residence halls regularly address issues of
diversity and multiculturalism.
36. Student affairs professionals actively support and attend campus events
that celebrate diversity.
37. Programs offered by student affairs professionals are physically
accessible and provide interpreters for hearing-impaired persons
and bilingual translators when appropriate.
38. All student services are fully responsive to the needs of
a diverse student population.
39. All student affairs publications, including the student handbook, office
brochures, flyers, resource guides, and announcements, are multiculturally
sensitive in use of language, photographs, and illustrations.
40. Student groups and organizations are expected to be multiculturally sensitive
in their distribution of printed materials, such as advertisements and flyers.

Internships and Field Placements


41. Interns and practicum students are exposed to a diverse client population.
42. Internships and practicums offered within the division specifically include
training in multicultural competencies.
43. Student affairs professionals supervising interns and practicum students are
knowledgeable about multicultural aspects of supervision.
44. Interns and practicum students are specifically trained in multicultural
aspects of ethical professional practice.
45. Internship or practicum evaluations include an appraisal of
students multicultural competency.

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GOALS
Met

Unmet

Timetable
In
for
Progress Completion

Physical Environment
46. All offices and spaces used by student affairs professionals
are physically accessible.
47. Artwork, posters, & other visual displays reflect an appreciation for diversity.
48. Multicultural student groups have appropriate spaces on campus
(e.g., Multicultural Resource Center, Womens Resource Center).

ASSESSMENT
Diagnosis
49. This checklist or a similar instrument is used for diagnostic purposes.
50. Individual and systemic barriers to creating a multicultural organization
within the division of student affairs are assessed.
51. Individual and institutional barriers to creating a multicultural campus
environment are assessed.
52. Student needs with regard to multicultural issues are assessed regularly.
53. Student attitudes about campus climate with regard to diversity are
assessed regularly (e.g., focus groups, surveys.)
54. When using standardized diagnostic instruments, student affairs
professionals are aware of possible cultural bias.

Evaluation
55. Goals within the division are examined and evaluated annually
with regard to multiculturalism.
56. The effectiveness of multicultural programs, strategies, and interventions
is systematically evaluated.
57. Systematic evaluations of student services include a multicultural component.
58. This checklist or a similar instrument is reviewed, discussed, and updated
annually within the division.

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MOD Checklist

TABLE 1
Literature Support For MOD Checklist Categories

Checklist Category

Citation Support

Mission

DAndrea & Daniels, 1995; Ponterotto et al., 1990;


Senge, 1990

Leadership and Advocacy

Bennett & Shayner, 1988; Brown, 1990; Clement &


Rickard, 1992; Coln, 1991; Creamer & Creamer,
1986; DAndrea & Daniels, 1995; Green, 1988;
Hughes, 1988; Morrison, 1992; Sue, 1995; Upcraft &
Barr, 1990

Policies

Green, 1988; Ponterotto et al., 1990; Sue, 1995

Recruitment and Retention

Green, 1988; Ponterotto et al., 1990; Sue et al., 1992;


Wright, 1990

Expectations for Multicultural Competency Pope-Davis & Coleman, 1995; Pope-Davis & Dings,
1995; Sodowsky & Impara (in press); Sue et al., 1992
Multicultural Competency Training

DAndrea & Daniels, 1995; DAndrea et al., 1991;


LaFromboise & Foster, 1992; McEwen & Roper, 1994;
Ponterotto et al., 1994; Pope-Davis & Coleman, 1995;
Pope-Davis & Dings, 1995; Reynolds, 1995; Sodowsky
& Impara (in press); Sue, 1995; Sue et al., 1992

Scholarly Activities

Ponterotto et al., 1995; Ponterotto & Casas, 1991

Student Activities & Services

Atkinson & Lowe, 1995; Atkinson, Morton & Sue,


1993; Grieger & DOnofrio (in press); Grieger &
Ponterotto, 1995; Guido-DiBrito & Batchelor, 1988;
Leong, Wagner & Tata, 1995; Merta, 1995; Ponterotto
& Casas, 1991; Sue & Sue, 1990

Internship and Field Placement

Brown & Landrum-Brown, 1995; Pedersen, 1995

Physical Environment

Hourihan, 1980; Ponterotto et al., 1995; Rothstein,


1991

Assessment

Burke, 1982; Coln, 1991; Gibson et al.,1994; Grieger,


1990; Helms, 1992; Hood & Johnson, 1991; Ponterotto
& Casas, 1991; Pope, 1993; Schermerhorn, 1993; Sue,
1995; Suzuki & Kugler 1995

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1996

VOL

37

NO

573