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METALLURGY I

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MINGGU X
Crystal Structures of Iron
Fe Fe3C Phase Diagram
Steels
Cast Iron
Dosen:
Wahyu Wijanarko
Mechanical Engineering
ITS- Surabaya

Jadwal kuliah :
Tiap hari Senin pukul 07.00 08.40 Ruang C-117

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Crystal Structures of iron

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Crystal Structures of iron

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Reactions (Summary)

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Fe - Fe3C Phase Diagram

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Fe - Fe3C Phase Diagram

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Four Solid Phases

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Four Solid Phases

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Three Invariant Reactions

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Critical Temperatures

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Plain Carbon Steels

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Plain Carbon Steels


Plain Carbon Steels
1. They are very satisfactory where strength and other requirement
are not too severe
2. They are used successfully at ordinary temperatures and in
atmospheres that are not highly corrosive
3. Plain-carbon steels can be produced in a great range of strengths
Carbon Steels Limitation
at a relatively Plain
low cost
1. They cannot be strengthened beyond about 100.000 psi without
significant loss in toughness (impact resistance) and ductility
2.

Large section cannot be made with a martensitic structure


throughout, and thus are not deep-hardenable

3.

Rapid quench rates are necessary for full hardening in mediumcarbon plain carbon steels to produce a martensitic structure. This
rapid quenching leads to shape distortion and cracking of heattreated steel

4.

Plain-carbon steels show a marked softening with increasing


tempering temperature

5.

Plain-carbon steels have poor impact resistance at low


temperatures
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6.

Plain-carbon steels have poor corrosion resistance for many

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Effect of Other Elements in Plain Carbon Steels


Plain carbon steels contain the following other elements:
Sulfur up to 0.05 percent
Sulfur in commercial steels is generally kept below 0.05 percent
Sulfur combines with iron to form iron sulfide (FeS), which usually occurs as a grain boundary
precipitation
FeS is hard and has a low melting point, it can cause cracking during hot working of steel (hot-short)
Manganese up to 1.0 percent
Manganese is present in all comercial plain carbon steels, in range of 0.03 to 1.00 percent
The fuction of manganese in counteracting the ill effects of sulfur
Manganese combines with the sulfur persent in the steels to produce manganese sulfide (MnS)
Phosphorus up to 0.04 percent
The phosphorus content is generally kept below 0.04 percent
This small quantity tends to dissolve in ferrite, increasing the strength and hardness slightly
In large quantities, phosphorus reduces ductility, thereby increasing the tendency of the steel to crack
when cold worked (cold-short)
Silicon up to 0.30 percent
Most comercial steels contain between 0.05 and 0.3 percent silicon
Silicon dissolves in ferrite, increasing the strength of the steel without greatly decreasing the ductility
Silicon is used as a deoxidizer, and forms SiO2 or silicate inclusions

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Alloying Steels
Plain Carbon Steels
Plain-carbon steels properties are
not always adequate for all
engineering applications of steel

1.
2.
3.

4.

Alloy Steels
Alloy steels have been developed which,
although they cost more, are more
economical for many uses
In some applications, alloy steels are
the only materials that are able to meet
engineering requirements
The principal element that are added to
make alloy steels are nickel, chromium,
molybdenum, manganese, silicon, and
vanadium
Other elements sometimes added are
cobalt, cooper, and lead
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Eutectoid Steel

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Eutectoid Steel

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Eutectoid Steel

Fe3C

-Fe
-Fe

Fe3C

Fe3C

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Eutectoid Steel

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Hypoeutectoid Steel

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Hypoeutectoid Steel

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Hypoeutectoid Steel

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Hypereutectoid Steel

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Hypereutectoid Steel

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Hypereutectoid Steel

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Summary

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Hardness and Strength

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Toughness and Ductility

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Properties

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Cast Iron

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White Cast Iron

Chemical composition:

Carbon 1.8-3.6 %
Silicon 0.5-1.9 %
Manganese
0.25-0.80
Sulfur 0.06-0.20
%
Phosphorus
0.06-0.18

%
%

Solidification rate fast enough


Carbon combined with iron cementite (hard,
brittle)
Microstructure pearlite in a white interdendritic
network of cementite
Shows a white crystalline fractured surface
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White Cast Iron

High compressive strength and excellent wear resistance


but extremely brittle and difficult to machine
Used where:
resistance to wear is most important
The service does not require ductility

White cast iron Malleable cast iron (malleabilization)


Mechanical properties:

Hardness brinell
375 600
BHN
Tensile strength 20.000 70.000
psi
Compressive strength 200.000 250.000 psi
Modulus of elasticity 24 28 milion psi
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White Cast Iron


Pada x3 :
Fasa

liquid

primer

Komposisi

4.3% C (titik E)

2% C (titik C)

Jumlah relatif

22%

78%

reaksi eutectic
liquid + Fe3C (ledeburite)

Pada x1 : -fasa liquid


-komposisi kimia 2.5%C
-jumlah relatif 100%
Pada x2 : -mulai terbentuk primer

Fasa

Fe3C

+ primer

Komposisi

6.67% C (titik D)

2% C (titik C)

Jumlah relatif

11%

89%

Pada
x :
Fasa 4

Fe3C

+ primer

Komposisi

6.67% C (titik K)

0.8% C (titik J)

Jumlah relatif

29%

71%

reaksi eutectoid
Fasa
+ Fe3C (pearlite)
Fe C
3

Komposisi

6.67% C

0.025% C

Jumlah relatif

37%

63%
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White Cast Iron

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METALLURGY I
(RM-1420)

MINGGU XI-XIII

TRANSFORMASI
Dosen:
Wahyu Wijanarko
Mechanical Engineering
ITS- Surabaya

NON EKUILIBRIUM
Jadwal kuliah :
Tiap hari Senin pukul 07.00 08.40 Ruang C-117