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SERV1777

January 2004

SERVICE TRAINING
TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

DISTRIBUTOR-TYPE MECHANICAL
FUEL PUMP
3044C/3046C TIER II ENGINES

Meeting Guide 777

DISTRIBUTOR-TYPE MECHANICAL
FUEL PUMP
3044C/3046 TIER II ENGINES
AUDIENCE
Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of engine systems operation,
diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT
This presentation covers the distributor-type mechanical fuel pump used in the 3044C/3046
engines for machine and industrial applications. This presentation describes the fuel injection
pump components and operation and covers in-chassis fuel system testing and adjusting
procedures.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

locate and identify the major components in the fuel injection pump;
explain the function of the major components in the fuel injection pump;
explain the operation of the fuel injection pump and governor; and
perform in-chassis fuel system adjustments.

REFERENCES
3044C Engine Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting Service Manual
3044C Industrial Engines Operation and Maintenance Manual

Estimated Time: 1 Hour


Illustrations: 26
Handouts: 3
Form: SERV1777
Date: 1/04
2004 Caterpillar Inc.

RENR7578
SEBU7578

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................5
FUEL SYSTEM............................................................................................................................7
Fuel Injection Nozzles ..........................................................................................................10
Fuel Injection Pump..............................................................................................................12
Mechanical Governor Operation...........................................................................................22
Timing Advance Mechanism ................................................................................................27
Fuel Pump Operation ............................................................................................................28
In-chassis Fuel System Tests and Adjustments ....................................................................29
Fuel Injection Timing............................................................................................................31
Fuel Injection Pump Removal ..............................................................................................33
CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................................34
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE...........................................................................35
VISUAL LIST ............................................................................................................................36
HANDOUTS...............................................................................................................................37

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NOTES

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DISTRIBUT OR-TYPE MECHANICAL


FUEL PUMP
3044C/3046C T ier II ENGINES

2004 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION
This presentation will discuss the distributor-type mechanical fuel pump used in the
Caterpillar 3044C/3046C engines. Future Caterpillar engines may also be equipped with this
fuel pump.
The 3044C/3046C (Perkins 800 Series) engines provide power for machine and industrial
applications and are built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). These engines meet U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier II Emissions Regulations for North America and
Stage II European Emissions Regulations.
NOTE: The 3044C-T engine was used for the out-of-chassis photos in this presentation.
Components and systems may not be exactly the same for all applications using these engines.
Refer to the appropriate machine service literature for the most accurate information.

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DISTRIBUTOR-TYPE FUEL INJECTION PUMP


ENGINE APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS

ENGINE
3044CT

Skid Steer Loaders:


236B/242B/246B/248B/252B/257B/
262B/267B/268B/277B/287B
906/908 Compact Wheel Loaders

3044C and 3044CT

Industrial

3054C

Backhoe Loaders (Future)

3046CT

D3G/D4G/D5G Track-type Tractors

The distributor-type fuel injection pump covered in this presentation is used on the engines
shown in the table above.

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FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Nozzles

High Pressure Fuel Lines


Fuel Return Lines
Overflow Rest rict ion
Fuel
Supply Line

Distributor Head
Injection
Pump

Fuel Transfer
Pump

Fuel Filt er / Wat er Separat or

Fuel
Tank

FUEL SYSTEM
The engine is equipped with an axial piston distributor injection pump that is mechanically
governed. The distributor-type injection pump delivers fuel to all cylinders through a single
axially moving piston. The movement of the piston is parallel to the fuel injection pump drive
shaft.
When the engine is cranking, the fuel is pulled from fuel tank through the primary fuel
filter/water separator by an electric fuel transfer pump. When the fuel passes through the water
separator, the water flows to the bottom of the water separator bowl. From the fuel transfer
pump, the fuel flows through the fuel supply line to the fuel injection pump.
The injection pump distributes fuel through fuel delivery valves, located in the injection pump
distributor head, and high pressure fuel lines to the fuel injection nozzles.

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The fuel injection nozzles spray atomized fuel into the cylinder. Excess fuel from the nozzles is
routed through fuel return lines to the fuel tank. Excess fuel from the injection pump flows
through the overflow restriction to the tank, which provides cooling and venting for the injection
pump.
Routing excess fuel back to the fuel tank allows air in the fuel to flow back to the fuel tank. The
fuel that flows into the fuel injection pump housing lubricates and cools the internal components
and removes small air bubbles.
The fuel injection pump requires fuel for lubrication to avoid damaging the precision parts in the
pump. The engine must not be started until the fuel injection pump is full of fuel. The fuel
system must be primed when any part of the fuel system is drained. Prime the fuel system when
a fuel filter is changed, a fuel line is removed, or the fuel injection pump is replaced.

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5
2
1

4
3

This view shows the fuel system main components on a 3044C turbocharged engine in a
"B" Series Skid Steer Loader:
- fuel injection pump (1)
- fuel nozzles (2)
- fuel filter/water separator (3)
- fuel transfer pump (4)
- fuel return line (5)

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Fuel Inlet

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE

Body

NATURALLY ASPIRATED ENGINES


INDIRECT INJECTION

Fuel Return

Spring

Retaining Nut

Nozzle Tip
Assembly

Fuel Injection Nozzles


This illustration shows an indirect injection nozzle used in a naturally aspirated engine. Fuel
under high pressure enters the fuel inlet and flows to the bottom of the needle valve in the
nozzle tip assembly. The fuel pressure pushes the needle valve against the spring. When the
fuel pressure is greater than the spring force, the needle valve moves up.
When the needle valve opens, fuel under high pressure flows through the single orifice and into
the cylinder. The fuel is injected into the cylinder as a very fine spray. When the fuel is injected
into the cylinder, the fuel pressure in the nozzle body decreases. When the spring force exceeds
the nozzle body fuel pressure, the needle valve moves to the closed position.
The seat of the needle valve has a close fit with the inside of the nozzle, which makes a positive
seal when the valve is closed.
When the fuel is injected into the cylinder, a small quantity of fuel will leak into the spring
chamber which lubricates the moving parts of the fuel injection nozzle. The excess fuel from
the spring chamber flows through a passage in the fuel injection nozzle body and returns to the
tank.

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Fuel Inlet
Fuel Return

FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE


TURBOCHARGED ENGINES
DIRECT INJECTION

Body
Spring

Retaining Nut

Nozzle Tip

This illustration shows a direct injection nozzle used in a turbocharged engine. This nozzle
operates the same as the indirect injection nozzle previously described. The nozzle tip contains
multiple orifices rather than the one orifice used in the indirect injection nozzle.

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FUEL INJECTION PUMP


Flyweight

Control
Lever

Governor Lever
Full-load Adjusting
Screw

Drive
Shaft

Engine Shutoff Solenoid

Distributor Head
Control Sleeve
Feed Pump
Plunger

Roller Holder
Cam Plate

Timing
Advance
Mechanism

Plunger Return Spring

Delivery Valve

High Pressure
Pump Chamber

7
Fuel Injection Pump
This cutaway illustration of the distributor-type injection pump shows some of the major
components. The distributor pump has only one high pressure pump chamber and one plunger
regardless of the number of cylinders in the engine. The fuel is delivered through a groove in
the plunger to the outlet ports as determined by the number of cylinders in the engine.
The injection pump consists of the following subassemblies:
Feed pump: Consists of a vane-type pump that pulls fuel from the tank and supplies fuel to the
high pressure pump chamber. The feed pump is driven by the pump drive shaft.
High pressure pump with distributor: Delivers fuel under high pressure through a plunger to
the delivery valves. The plunger moves axially due to the rotation of the cam plate. The
plunger is also driven by the pump drive shaft.
Mechanical governor: Controls engine speed through various load ranges. The flyweights
control the governor lever position.
Timing advance mechanism: Adjusts the start of fuel delivery as a function of pump speed
and load.
Engine shutoff solenoid: When de-energized, blocks fuel to the plunger fill port to stop the
engine.

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4
5
2

This view shows the injection pump on a 3044C engine. Components visible in this view of the
injection pump are:
- low idle adjustment screw (1)
- high idle adjustment screw (2)
- full load adjustment screw (3)
- speed control lever (4)
- engine shutoff solenoid (5)
- timing advance mechanism (6)
- distributor head (7)
- fuel inlet (8)
- timing control valve (9, if equipped)
The timing control valve prevents the engine timing from retarding when the engine load
decreases if the temperature is below 60C (140F) or when the pump is used at high altitudes.

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INJECTION PUMP
COMPONENTS

Orifice
Idling Spring

To Tank
Flyweight

Control Lever

Full-load Adjusting Screw

Control Lever Shaft

Tension Lever
Governor Lever Assembly

Governor Spring
From Transfer Pump
Regulating Valve

Engine Shutoff
Solenoid
Plunger
Plunger Barrel

Delivery Valve

Drive Shaft

Feed Pump
Cam Plate

Driving Gear
Cross Coupling

Timer Piston

Roller Holder

Roller

Control Sleeve
Plunger Return Spring

The feed pump, located inside the pump housing, is driven by the pump drive shaft. The pump
drive shaft is driven by the engine. The vane-type feed pump delivers fuel at a constant volume
per revolution regardless of pump speed. The fuel feed pressure is controlled by the pressure
regulating valve that is located in the upper part of the feed pump. The fuel flows into the
injection pump chamber through a delivery port in the feed pump cover.
The cam plate is also driven by the drive shaft. The cam plate rides on the rollers of the roller
holder, which is located between the cam plate and the feed pump. The position of the roller
holder is determined by the position of the timing advance mechanism. The position of the
timing advance mechanism is determined by the feed pump pressure acting on the timer piston,
which is used to advance the injection timing.

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The distributor plunger and the cam plate are held against the roller holder by the distributor
plunger return springs. As the cam plate and the distributor plunger rotate, they also move back
and forth over the rollers an amount equal to the height of the cam lobes. The distributor
plunger moves inside the distributor head, which is attached to the pump housing. The motion
of the plunger, within the distributor head, delivers fuel under high pressure to the combustion
chamber of each cylinder through delivery valves, high pressure lines, and injector nozzles.
The quantity of high pressure fuel delivered to each cylinder is determined by the position of the
control sleeve on the plunger. The governor controls the position of the control sleeve through
the flyweights and governor lever assembly. A gear attached to the pump drive shaft spins the
centrifugal flyweight assembly.
With the ignition switch in the OFF position, the engine shutoff solenoid is de-energized and
fuel flow to the plunger barrel is blocked. The engine shutoff solenoid is located on the top of
the distributor head.
NOTE: To crank the engine without starting, remove one of the engine shutoff solenoid wires.

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Key

From
Fuel Tank

Pressure
Chamber

Regulating Valve

To Pump
Housing

FEED PUMP

From Timing
Advance Unit
Spring Cavity
Drive shaft

Rotor

Blade

10
The vane-type feed pump, located inside the injection pump, draws fuel from the tank through
the fuel filter/water separator and transfer pump and supplies it to the pump housing.
The feed pump rotor is connected to the drive shaft by a woodruff key, and is driven by the
pump drive shaft. As the rotor spins, centrifugal force holds the vanes against the wall of the
concentric ring (pressure chamber) that is held stationary against the pump housing. Due to the
off-center location of the concentric ring, with respect to the rotor, fuel becomes trapped
between the vanes and is pressurized and forced out through the delivery port in the feed pump
cover and into the pump housing.
The pressure regulating valve is located in the upper portion of the injection pump housing on
the drive end. The pressure regulating valve controls fuel pressure within the pump housing,
proportional to pump speed.
As fuel pressure increases with pump speed, the piston within the pressure regulator valve is
forced against the tension of the regulator spring. Fuel flows through a port in the regulator
allowing excess fuel to return to the intake port and keeping the fuel pressure proportional to
pump speed. This fuel pressure is also used to actuate the timing advance mechanism by acting
directly against the timer piston.

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INJECTION PUMP
PLUNGER OPERATION / INTAKE STROKE

Drive
Roller
Shaft Gear Holder

Control
Sleeve

Engine Shutoff Solenoid


Spill
Port

Inlet Port
Plunger
Inlet Slot

Pressure Chamber
Plunger Barrel
To Injection
Nozzle

Feed Pump

Roller

Cam Plate

Outlet
Plunger
Return Spring Slot

Delivery Valve

11

The drive shaft drives the feed pump, the cam plate, and the plunger simultaneously. Plunger
back and forth movement is accomplished through the movement of the cam lobes over the
roller holder assembly rollers. When the plunger inlet slot and the inlet port of the plunger
barrel align, fuel enters the pressure chamber.
After the plunger barrel inlet port has been closed from the rotation of the plunger, the cam lobe
moves the plunger to the right and increases fuel pressure. When the plunger outlet slot and the
plunger barrel outlet port align and the fuel pressure exceeds the delivery valve spring force, the
delivery valve opens and fuel flows to the injection nozzle.
When the plunger spill port is not blocked by the control sleeve end face, fuel is allowed to flow
into the injection pump housing and fuel delivery is completed.
The plunger barrel has only one inlet port, but has an outlet port for each engine cylinder.
However, although the plunger has the same number of inlet slots as engine cylinders, it has
only one outlet slot.

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INJECTION PUMP
INTAKE STROKE
Engine Shutoff Solenoid

Plunger

Intake Port

Inlet Slot

Pressure Chamber

Plunger Spring

Delivery Valve

Delivery Spring

12

During the injection pump intake stroke, the plunger moves left and fuel from the feed pump
fills the pressure chamber between the plunger and plunger barrel. At the same time, the
plunger rotates to align the plunger inlet slot with the intake port in the distributor head.

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INJECTION PUMP
INJECTION STROKE

Outlet Slot

To Injection
Nozzle
Outlet Port

13

During the injection stroke, as the plunger rotates, the intake port is closed and fuel becomes
trapped within the pressure chamber. The plunger moves to the right, caused by the cam lobe
acting on the roller, and fuel pressure increases. As the outlet port aligns with a passage in the
distributor head, fuel is directed to the delivery valve.
The delivery valve opens and pressurized fuel is sent to the injection nozzle.

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INJECTION PUMP
END OF INJECTION

Control Sleeve

Spill Port

To Injection
Nozzle

14

Injection continues as the plunger moves farther to the right until the plunger spill port is beyond
the end of the control sleeve. Fuel in the plunger chamber returns to the pump housing through
the spill port. Pressure in the plunger chamber decreases and spring force closes the delivery
valve.
When the delivery valve closes, the fuel between the injector nozzle and delivery valve is
blocked.

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ENGINE SHUTOFF SOLENOID


Solenoid Valve
Spring
Fuel Passage

Armature
Inlet Port

SHUTOFF

DURING OPERATION

15

When the ignition switch is turned to the START position (left view), the engine shutoff
solenoid is energized and the solenoid valve lifts against spring force and opens the inlet port to
the plunger pressure chamber. After the engine has started and the ignition switch is in the ON
position, the current flows through a resistor to the solenoid. The current is reduced but
maintains enough energy to hold the valve open.
Turning the ignition switch to the OFF position (right view) shuts off the current to the solenoid.
With no current to hold the valve open, spring force closes the valve. The fuel passage is
blocked, which shuts off the fuel supply and stops the engine.

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INJECTION PUMP
GOVERNOR COMPONENTS
Control Lever
Governor Spring

Flyweight

Governor Sleeve

Corrector Lever
Tensioning Lever

Gear

Starting Spring
Starting Lever

Governor Lever
Assembly

Drive Shaft

Gear

Control
Sleeve

Decreasing Injection Quantity

Ball Fulcrum
Joint
Increasing Injection Quantity

Shorter Effective Stroke


Longer Effective Stroke

16

Mechanical Governor Operation


The mechanical governor automatically controls the engine speed and output by adjusting the
fuel injection quantity according to the load on the engine, the distance the accelerator pedal is
depressed, and the position of the governor lever assembly. The governor moves the control
sleeve in the pump to change the effective stroke of the pump plunger and then controls the
injection quantity regardless of the position of the control (throttle) lever.
The plunger stroke remains constant while the control sleeve position is controlled by the
governor. For less fuel, the effective stroke is reduced by moving the control sleeve away from
the plunger barrel, thus allowing the trapped fuel pressure to release sooner. For increased fuel,
moving the control sleeve closer to the plunger barrel keeps the fuel pressure trapped longer, and
increases the effective stroke.
The injection volume is controlled by the centrifugal force of the flyweights generated by the
rotation of the pump drive shaft. The injection volume is controlled very accurately at high
speeds, but less accurately at low speeds.

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The governor is located in the top section of the injection pump and includes the centrifugal
flyweights, governor lever assembly, governor spring, and control lever.
The flyweight assembly, located on the governor shaft, is rotated approximately 1.6 times the
speed of the pump drive shaft and is driven by a gear on the drive shaft and a gear on the
flyweight assembly. As the drive shaft rotates it spins the flyweight assembly causing the
flyweights to move outward.
The four flyweights move against the thrust washer and the governor sleeve on the governor
shaft. The governor sleeve acts on the governor lever assembly. The governor lever assembly
consists of the corrector lever, tensioning lever, starting lever, starting spring, and the ball joint.
Before the engine is started, the starting lever is separated from the tensioning lever by the
starting spring. The starting lever moves the governor sleeve to close the flyweights. The ball
joint, at the bottom of the starting lever, pivots at the fulcrum and moves the control sleeve to
the FUEL ON position for engine starting.
After the engine has started, the centrifugal force of the flyweights overcomes the force of the
governor spring, moving the control sleeve back to the position where the force on the
flyweights is balanced with the tension of the governor spring.

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GOVERNOR OPERATION
IDLING
Governor Spring

Governor Sleeve
Idling Spring

Cont rol Lever Shaft


Flyweight

Tension Lever
Correct or Lever
Pivot Bolt ( Fixed)

St art ing Lever


Fulcrum
Plunger

Cont rol Sleeve


Effect ive St roke

17

Once the engine has started, the control lever (not visible) is returned to the idle position. The
control lever is attached to the control lever shaft. With little or no tension on the governor
spring, the centrifugal force of flyweight is counterbalanced by the force of the idling spring.
The control sleeve moves left, to a position where the forces on the flyweights and springs are
balanced, maintaining the desired idling speed.

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GOVERNOR OPERATION
HIGH IDLE
Idling Spring

Governor Spring

Full-load
Adjust ing
Screw

Cont rol Lever Shaft

Flyweight

Correct or lever
Tension Lever

Governor Sleeve

Pivot Bolt ( Fixed)

St art ing Lever


Fulcrum
Spill Port

Cont rol Sleeve

18

When the throttle lever is moved to the HIGH IDLE position from LOW IDLE with no load on
the engine, governor spring tension increases and initially moves the tension lever left. The
tension lever and starting lever move the governor sleeve to the left. The ball joint, at the
bottom of the starting lever, pivots at the fulcrum and moves the control sleeve to the right
which increases the plunger effective stroke and increases fuel flow to the fuel nozzles.
As the engine starts to overspeed, the centrifugal force of the flyweights causes the flyweights to
move out. As the flyweights move out, flyweight force overcomes the tension of the governor
spring. The governor sleeve moves back to the right, contacting and moving the starting lever
and tension lever to the right. The ball joint pivots at the M2 fulcrum and moves the control
sleeve to the left. The control sleeve allows fuel to flow out the spill port which decreases fuel
to the nozzles.
The control sleeve will continue to move to the left until the governor spring and the flyweights
reach the equilibrium point. At this point, the governor is in the NO LOAD MAXIMUM
SPEED condition or at HIGH IDLE.

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GOVERNOR OPERATION
FULL LOAD
Governor Spring

Idling Spring

Full-load
Adjust ing Screw

Cont rol Lever Shaft

Flyweight

Correct or Lever
Tension Lever

Governor Sleeve
St art ing Lever

Pivot Bolt ( Fixed)

Fulcrum
Cont rol Sleeve

Effect ive St roke

19

As the load on the engine increases, the rotating speed of the flyweights is reduced. The
governor spring, idling spring, and tension lever overcome the flyweight force and move the
governor sleeve to the right to increase fuel flow. The increase in fuel flow results in higher
engine torque at the lower engine speed.
The tension lever travel is limited by the pin, which is attached to the pump housing. The full
load fuel injection quantity can be adjusted with the full load adjustment screw. Turning the
adjustment screw in will increase the fuel setting and turning the screw out will decrease the fuel
setting.
NOTE: The full load adjustment should only be performed on the fuel test bench by a qualified
technician. The full load adjustment should never be performed in-chassis.

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TIMING ADVANCE MECHANISM

Roller Holder
Assembly
Roller
Drive Shaft

To Feed
Pump Inlet

Timer Spring Slide Pin Timer Piston

Timer Cover
Plate
Low Pressure
Chamber

High Pressure
Chamber

20

Timing Advance Mechanism


The timing advance mechanism is located in the lower part of the pump housing and moves
back and forth during engine operation to control timing advance.
When static, the timer piston is held against the timer cover plate by the tension of the timer
spring (left view).
As engine speed increases, fuel feed pump speed increases and injection pump internal pressure
increases. Fuel under pressure moves the timer piston against timer spring force (right view).
The timer piston moves the slide pin. The slide pin links the roller holder and the timer piston.
The roller holder pivots in the opposite direction of the injector pump rotation. When the roller
holder pivots, the cam lobes contact the rollers sooner and injection timing is advanced.
Since fuel feed pressure is proportional to pump speed, timer movement is also proportional to
pump speed.

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INJECTION PUMP
COMPONENTS
Idling Spring

Flyweight

Control Lever
Control Lever Shaft

Full-load Adjusting Screw


Tension Lever
Governor Lever Assembly

Governor Spring
From Transfer Pump

Engine Shutoff
Solenoid

Regulating Valve

Plunger
Plunger Barrel

Delivery Valve

To Injection Nozzle

Drive Shaft

Feed Pump
Cam Plate

Driving Gear
Timer Piston
Cross Coupling

Roller Holder

Roller

Control Sleeve
Plunger Return Spring

21

Fuel Pump Operation


This illustration shows all the internal pump components during the injection stroke.
As previously discussed, the feed pump delivers fuel at a constant volume to the pump housing.
As the cam plate and distributor plunger rotate, they move over the rollers and the fuel is
pressurized. As the outlet port aligns with a passage in the distributor head, fuel is directed to
the delivery valve.
The delivery valve opens and pressurized fuel is sent to the injection nozzle.

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2
1

22

In-chassis Fuel System Tests and Adjustments


HIGH and LOW IDLE can be checked in-chassis. LOW IDLE may be adjusted in-chassis,
while HIGH IDLE should only be adjusted on a test bench. The most accurate way to correctly
test and adjust the pump and governor is on the test bench.
The high idle (1) and low idle (2) screws adjust maximum and minimum engine speed. The full
load adjustment screw (3) limits the plunger effective stroke during FULL LOAD conditions.
Maximum horsepower is achieved when the tension lever contacts the full load stop pin (with
the engine at FULL LOAD rpm). A misadjusted full load adjustment screw can cause the
engine horsepower to be out of specification. FULL LOAD rpm cannot be adjusted in-chassis.
If the engine has a power problem, other areas to check include: the fuel grade and quality,
external linkage, altitude deration, plugged air and fuel filters, air in the fuel lines, fuel nozzles,
and injection timing.
NOTE: The adjustment screws for HIGH IDLE and FULL LOAD are sealed at the factory to
prevent tampering. HIGH IDLE will vary from one machine to another due to parasitic loads or
due to slight differences in the governor spring. As with other Caterpillar engines, the FULL
LOAD rpm is critical. FULL LOAD rpm cannot be adjusted in-chassis. Attempting to adjust
HIGH IDLE in-chassis may result in the FULL LOAD rpm being out of specification, which
can affect engine performance.

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23

If engine performance is low, a malfunctioning fuel injection nozzle may be the cause. To test a
fuel injection nozzle in-chassis, operate the engine at LOW IDLE and check the engine speed.
After recording the LOW IDLE rpm, loosen the connection at the fuel supply line (1) to the
suspected injector. Do not bend the metal fuel line. With the fuel supply line loose, operate the
engine again at LOW IDLE and check the engine rpm.
If the engine speed decreases from the previous LOW IDLE measurement, the performance
problem is probably not related to that injector. If the low idle speed remains the same as before
disconnecting the fuel supply line, remove the injector and test it on a nozzle test stand. If the
injector is defective, either repair or replace it. Then, recheck the engine performance.
To remove a fuel injection nozzle, loosen the fuel return line (2) from each injector and remove
the return line. Remove the high pressure fuel injection line. Loosen the bolt (3) and remove
the clamp. The injector should pull straight out of the head. If the injector does not slide out of
the head easily, use a wrench to turn the injector while pulling the injector out.
NOTE: Cylinder compression can also be checked by removing the fuel injection nozzle and
installing a compression pressure gauge, hose, and the proper fitting.

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24
Fuel Injection Timing
Incorrect fuel injection timing can cause poor engine performance. The fuel pump drive shaft
drives the cam plate. Rotating the fuel pump relative to the cam plate changes fuel injection
timing.
To check timing, the No. 1 cylinder must be at Top Center (TC). Remove the valve cover and
rotate the engine in the normal direction of engine rotation until the inlet valve of the No. 4
cylinder has just opened and the exhaust valve of the No. 4 cylinder has not completely closed.
Align the TC mark (1) on the crankshaft pulley with the pointer (2) on the timing case.
Remove the bolt (3) from the port plug (4) in the distributor head and install dial indicator
192-3331 (5). Set a preload on the dial indicator of approximately 10 mm (0.4 in.). The dial
indicator measures the cam lift at the end of the plunger while manually rotating the engine.
Rotate the crankshaft in the opposite direction of engine rotation until the reading on the dial
indicator stabilizes indicating the bottom of plunger lift. Set the dial indicator to zero.

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Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of engine rotation until the 5 mark (6) on the
crankshaft pulley is aligned with the pointer on the timing case. The dial indicator reading
should be 0.5 mm (0.020 in.).
If the dial indicator reading is not 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) with the crankshaft pulley at the 5 mark,
adjust the timing by rotating the pump. The pump flange bolt holes are slotted so the pump can
be rotated.
Loosen the flange nuts and the nut (7) securing the pump head to a bracket on the engine block.
The outboard flange nut (8) is visible in this view. Rotate the pump while observing the dial
indicator to obtain a reading of 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) and then tighten the nuts.
NOTE: The injections lines have been removed in this view for clarity. The injection lines
may not need to be removed to install the dial indicator.

STMG 777
1/04

- 33 -

4
1
7

25
Fuel Injection Pump Removal
The injection pump and pump drive gear can be removed as a unit. If the pump drive gear (1)
must be removed from the pump, remove the nut (2) on the end of the pump drive shaft. Loosen
the pump drive gear from the pump drive shaft while the pump is secured in the engine to aid in
removal. Using the appropriate puller, loosen the pump drive gear from the pump drive shaft.
Remove the fuel lines (3), fuel return line bolt (4), and the nut (5) securing the pump head to a
bracket on the engine block. Loosen the pump flange nuts (6) and remove the the pump housing
bolts (7). Four of the pump housing bolts are visible in the bottom right view.
Remove the pump and pump drive gear together. If necessary, remove the nut on the end of the
pump drive gear and remove the gear from the pump drive shaft.
NOTE: Ensure the pump drive gear teeth are properly aligned with the idler gear teeth during
the installation procedure, by using the reference marks (8) on the gear teeth. If the marks are
not visible, mark the teeth before removal to ensure correct alignment upon installation.

STMG 777
1/04

- 34 -

26

CONCLUSION
This presentation has provided information for the distributor-type mechanical fuel injection
pump on the 3044C/3046C engines and future 3054C engines. When used in conjunction with
the Service Manual, the information in this package should permit the technician to analyze
problems in the fuel injection system on these engines.

STMG 777
1/04

- 35 -

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE


Black - Mechanical connection. Seal

Red - High pressure oil

Dark Gray - Cutaway section

Red/White Stripes - 1st pressure reduction

Light Gray - Surface color

Red Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in pressure

White - Atmosphere or
Air (no pressure)

Pink - 3rd reduction in pressure

Purple - Pneumatic pressure

Red/Pink Stripes - Secondary source oil pressure

Yellow - Moving or activated components

Orange - Pilot, signal, or Torque Converter oil

Cat Yellow - (restricted usage)


Identification of components
within a moving group

Orange/White Stripes Reduced pilot, signal, or TC oil pressure

Brown - Lubricating oil

Orange Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in


pilot, signal, or TC oil pressure.

Green - Tank, sump, or return oil

Blue - Trapped oil

Green/White Stripes Scavenge Oil or Hydraulic Void

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE


This illustration identifies the meanings of the colors used in the hydraulic schematics and
cross-sectional views shown throughout this presentation.

STMG 777
1/04

- 36 -

ILLUSTRATION LIST
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Fuel injection pump


Fuel pump engine applications
Fuel system block diagram
Fuel system components
Indirect injection nozzle
Direct injection nozzle
Fuel injection pump cutaway
Fuel injection pump components
Injection pump sectional view
Feed pump
Injection pump--Plunger operation
Injection pump--Intake stroke
Injection pump--Injection stroke

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Injection pump--End of injection


Engine shutoff solenoid
Mechanical governor
Governor--Idle position
Governor--High idle
Governor--Full load
Timing advance mechanism
Fuel pump adjustment screws
Fuel nozzle
Fuel injection timing
Injection pump removal
Fuel injection pump

Red Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in pressure


Pink - 3rd reduction in pressure
Red/Pink Stripes - Secondary source oil pressure
Orange - Pilot, signal, or Torque Converter oil
Orange/White Stripes Reduced pilot, signal, or TC oil pressure

Light Gray - Surface color

White - Atmosphere or
Air (no pressure)

Purple - Pneumatic pressure

Yellow - Moving or activated components

Cat Yellow - (restricted usage)


Identification of components
within a moving group

Green/White Stripes Scavenge Oil or Hydraulic Void

Blue - Trapped oil

- 37 -

Green - Tank, sump, or return oil

Orange Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in


pilot, signal, or TC oil pressure.

Red/White Stripes - 1st pressure reduction

Dark Gray - Cutaway section

Brown - Lubricating oil

Red - High pressure oil

Black - Mechanical connection. Seal

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

STMG 777
1/04
Handout No. 1

16

15

INJECTION PUMP

9
8

10

14

15

16

11

12

13
- 38 -

14

13

12

11

10

Identify Components

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct response.


Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation.

Fuel Injection Pump Checklist

STMG 777
1/04
Handout No. 2

STMG 777
1/04

- 39 -

Handout No. 3

Engine In-Chassis Test Sheet


Machine Model

Dealer

Name/Code

Customer

Machine S/N

Job

Engine S/N

Date

S.M.H.

Technician

VISUAL CHECKS: Fuel Level

Engine Oil level

Coolant level

Hydraulic Oil level

Oil/Coolant/Fuel Leaks

Air Filter and Precleaner Inspection

TEST

SPECS

Engine rpm:

High Idle
Low Idle
Full Load Engine rpm

Fuel Injection Timing:

Timing Mark
Plunger Lift
Valve Clearance

Cylinder Compression:

No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6

ACTUAL

COMMENTS

STMG 777
1/04

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Handout No. 4

Distributor-type Mechanical Fuel Pump Posttest


I. Modified True/False: If the question is false, circle the word or words that make the
statement incorrecct and replace with the words(s) to make the statement correct.
1. The injection pump distributes fuel through fuel delivery valves, located in the injection
pump distributor head, and high pressure fuel lines to the fuel injection nozzles.
a. True
b. False
2. Plunger back and forth movement is accomplished through the rotation of the pump
drive shaft.
a. True
b. False
3. The governor changes the length of the plunger stroke to control the injection quantity.
a. True
b. False
4. The fuel pump is rotated relative to the cam plate to change fuel injection timing.
a. True
b. False
5. How many high pressure pump chambers and plungers are in the distributor pump.
a.
b.
c.
d.

One
Two
Four
Depends on the number of cylinders in the engine

II. Circle the best answer.


6. The fuel feed pressure is controlled by the __________________________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.

transfer pump
shutoff solenoid
pressure regulating valve
timer piston

7. When the ignition switch is turned to the START position, the engine shutoff solenoid is:
a. energized
b. de-energized

STMG 777
1/04

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Handout No. 5

Posttest Answers
I. Modified True/False: If the question is false, circle the word or words that make the
statement incorrecct and replace with the words(s) to make the statement correct.
1. a. True
2. b. False. Replace rotation of the pump drive shaft with movement of the cam lobes
over the roller holder assembly roller
3. b. False. Replace changes the length of the plunger stroke with moves the control
sleeve in the pump to change the effective stroke of the pump plunger
4. a. True
5. a. True
II. Circle the best answer.
6. c. pressure regulating valve
7. a. energized