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Semester 1 Study Guide

Name: _____________________________ Date: ___________ Period: _____

1. How do you determine the hardness of a mineral?

By scratching it on known substances and checking the
mohs hardness scale.
--------------------------------------------------------2. Which mineral is harder than Calcite and softer than

Mohs Hardness Scale



--------------------------------------3. Which minerals can

Scratch Topaz?

Corundum & diamond













--------------------------------------------------------4. In the boxes, write the formation process that is

occurring at each point. (Cooling/Hardening,
Weathering/Erosion/Cementation, Heat/Pressure,

5. Match the characteristics with the name of each rock.

(Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic)
-Wavy Bands


-Coarse Grained
-Cooled Slowly

Igneous (Intrusive)

-Plant Fossil
-Composed of


--------------------------------------------------------6. What type of rock is formed when sand, soil, and

sediments are cemented together in layers?
--------------------------------------------------------7. What type of rock forms when intense heat and
pressure changes the structure, texture, or composition
of a sedimentary rock?
--------------------------------------------------------8. Which type of rock could contain fossils?
--------------------------------------------------------9. What is the formation process of sedimentary rocks?

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Compaction,


Point 1


Point 2

Cooling & Hardening

Point 3

Weathering,Erosion,Compaction, Cementation

Point 4

Heat & Pressure

Point 5


Point 6


Point 7


Point 8

Heat &I Pressure

--------------------------------------------------------10. Which type of rock is formed when magma cools and

hardens below the surface of the earth? Name some
characteristics & give an example (Hint: Kitchen
Intrusive igneous
Characteristics: Large Crystals, Cools slowly below earth
surface, Course Grained, Formed from Magma
Example is Granite
--------------------------------------------------------11. Which type of rock is formed when lava flows out of
a volcano and cools above the surface of the Earth?
Name some characteristics of this rock
Extrusive Igneous
Characteristics: Fine Grained, Small or no crystals, Cools
quickly on the earths surface, Formed from lava

12. What is weathering?

20. Explain Ice Wedging

The process of breaking rock into sediment.

The repeating pattern or water seeping into cracks of

rock and freezing/expanding and thawing.
------------------------------------------------------------21. Why is the soil at Red Top Mountain red? What is
the reason the soil is red in color? What type of
weathering is this?

------------------------------------------------------------13. The movement of rock particles by wind, water,

ice, or gravity is known as
------------------------------------------------------------14. The weathering process in which rocks are
physically broken into smaller pieces and without
changing the chemical composition is called
Mechanical or Physical Weathering
------------------------------------------------------------15. The weathering process that breaks down rocks
through chemical change is called

The Iron found in the soil has go through the chemical

weathering process of oxidation and turned to rust n
------------------------------------------------------------22. Which type of climate would cause the MOST
amount of weathering?

Warm Topical/Wet climate

Chemical weathering

------------------------------------------------------------16. Jenny observed rust on statues, buildings. What

type of weathering is she observing?

------------------------------------------------------------23. Name a landform that could be made by water

erosion over thousands or millions of years.

Grand Canyon
Oxidation (Chemical Weathering)
-------------------------------------------------------------17. Rain, sleet, or snow that contains high
concentration of acids is called

------------------------------------------------------------22. Which layer of soil contains the LEAST fertile soil

and contains the LEAST decayed organic materials

Acid Precipitation
------------------------------------------------------------18. What causes acid rain?

Carbon dioxide from air pollution

23. Label the soil horizons.

19. Which type of weathering are the following?

Physical (P) or Chemical (C) Use letters P or C
A. __C___ Acid rain reacting with roof tops
B. __C___ Iron turning into rust
C. __P___ Ice wedging
D. __C___ Limestone changing to stalagmites
E. __P___ Tree roots expanding
F. __P___ Water flowing over rocks

Topsoil (where most humus is found)

Partially weathered bedrock

Name each Earth layer and describe the composition, temperature, & Density each layer.



Composition, Temperature, & Density


Solid Rock, 0-1000 degrees, 3 g/cm


Semi Solid & Molten Rock,

1400-3000 degrees, 3.4-5.4 g/cm

Outer Core

Liquid Iron & Nickel, 4000-5000 degrees,

10-12.3 g/cm

Inner Core

Solid Iron & Nickel, 5000-6000 degrees,

15 g/cm

25. Answer yes or no.

____N_____The Inner Core is mostly liquid iron

28. Which Earth layers contain iron and nickel?

____N_____The Mantle is hotter than the Outer Core

Inner & Outer Core

--------------------------------------------------------------29. Which layer is made up solid iron/nickel?

___Y______The Inner Core is denser than the Outer Core

_____N____The Crust is hotter than the Mantle

____Y_____Crust and Mantle are both made out of rocks

____Y_____Inner core and outer core are made out of iron

____N_____Crust and Mantle are both are semi-solid rocks

Inner Core
-------------------------------------------------------------30. Which earth layer is all liquid?
Outer Core
-------------------------------------------------------------31. Which layer is the thinnest?
-------------------------------------------------------------32. Which layer is the DENSEST?
Inner Core

____N_____Crust and Mantle are both easy to travel through

-------------------------------------------------------------33. Compared to the Earth's crust, the Mantle is

____N____The Inner Core is liquid and the Outer Core is solid

Hotter, Thicker, Denser

__Y_____The Inner Core is solid and the Outer Core is liquid

____N_____The Inner Core is less dense than the Outer Core

-------------------------------------------------------------26. Which is the outermost layer of the Earth?

-------------------------------------------------------------27. Which layer is made up of semi-solid (molten)

-------------------------------------------------------------34. From lowest to the highest temperatures, write

the correct order of the Earth layers?
Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core
-------------------------------------------------------------35. How do density, temperature, and pressure
change as you move from crust to the core?
Density, temperature, & pressure all increase

36. What evidence do we have that prove that the

continents are drifting?

40. At which type of plate boundary are mountains

formed? What type of plates are involved?
When a continental plate collides with another
continental plate at a convergent boundary

Fossils of the same organisms found on different


41. Type of boundary formed when plates slide past

one another.
Transform Boundary

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37. At which location is new rock being formed?

Mid Ocean Ridge / Divergent Boundary
-------------------------------------------------------------38. At which location is rock being destroyed?
Subduction Zones / Convergent Boundary
-------------------------------------------------------------39. At which type of tectonic plate boundary is Seafloor spreading occurring?
Divergent Boundary

42. What type of boundary creates a subduction

zone? What type of plate get pushed into the mantle?
Convergent Boundary, the oceanic plate is pushed
into the mantle and destroyed.