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517(075)

22.16173

( )

30

-
-
(. - ,

. . )

- ,

. .

30

. .

, . .

. 3- .
. . { .: , 2012.
ISBN 978-5-7417-0437-0
. 1. . { 2012. { 275 .
ISBN 978-5-7417-0429-5

I

8
, I . , .
.
.

- - -

, , -

, .

517(075)

22.16173

c . ., 2012

ISBN 978-5-7417-0437-0
ISBN 978-5-7417-0429-5 (. 1)



-
( ), 2012

2012

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .

I.

1.

2.
3.
4.

4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

24
32

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

. . . .

39

1.

39

2.

3.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

4.

. . . . . . . . .

55

II.

5.

6.

7.

8.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

7.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

8.

9.

. . . . . . . . .

57
63

. { .

64

. . . .

72

II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.

. . . . . . . . . . 119

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

III

IV.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

2.

. . . . . . . . . . . 140

4.

. . 148

3.

5.

6.

7.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 146

. . . 152

. 158

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
IV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

. . . . . . . . . . . . 178

1.

2.

4.

. . . . . 188

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

VI.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

. 181

3.

79

1.

V.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .

6.

41

III.

3.

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.

1.

2.

3.

. 207

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

4.

5.

6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

VI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

VII.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

1.

2.

3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
VIII.

1.

. . . . . . . . . . 256

. . . . . . . . 256

2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

4.

3.



VIII

. . . . . . . . . . 263

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

, - . , , ; , .
,
, .
, ,
, 30 .
,
.
.. , .. , .. - .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .

.
, ,
.. , .. -, .. , .. .

6

. , ,
, , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. . , , , , ,
, , .
.. .. , , .. , .
, , .

I.

1.

, , .

| , , .
.
,
, ( , ) . ,
N, | Z, | Q.
( R)
, .
.
1.1.
Q Q A A (A A = , A A = Q), x A,
x A x < x . A , A |
.
= A|A .
.
1) A = {r Q: r 6 1}; A = {r Q: r > 1}.
2) A = {r Q: r < 1}; A = {r Q: r > 1}.
3) A = {r Q: r 6 0 r > 0, r2 < 2}; A = {r Q: r > 0,
r2 > 2}.
8

, ,

r2 = 2.

, 1) A
, A . 2) A , A
. 3) A ,
A .
, , 3) A
( ,
| ).
. A
r. r > 0, r2 < 2. ,

2
r + n1 , n N , r + n1 <
< 2. , r2 +
1
2r + 1
2
+ 2r
n + n2 < 2, r + n < 2,

+ 1 . n r + 1 A: .. n > 2r
n
2 r2
, r | A. , A
.

, , A

, A .
r1 A, r2 A | .
r0 , r1 < r0 < r2 (, r0 =
6 A, r0 < r2 ,
= 21 (r1 + r2 )). r0 > r1 , r0
r0
6 A | ,

A, A .

, .
I. ,
.
II. ,
.
III. ,
.
9

2) > > , > ; < < , <


( ).
1.1.
( 6= ), > , < .
A B | ; A 6= B . , A B ,
A B.
A B ,
6 B . r1 , r1 A, r1
A B ,
r2 , r2 B , r2
6 A. r2 A , r1 B , ..
r1 < r2 r2 < r1 . , A B , A B .


( ,
).

1.2 ( ). , > ,
r , > r > .
> , B
A B

A
r

( ). , . 1.2
r ,
r A, r
6 B (. . 1.2).
, > r > . | , r 6= > r > ; . |
, A. A
, r A, ( > r > ).

. r
( r1 , r2
r1 ..).
1.3 ( ).

n,

1.2.
III .
I II , (
). I II

. , I .
, 1) . 2) | 1. 3) | ( 2,
).
1.3. () II III .
R. II .
, ,
.
| , | .
1.4. = A|A
= B|B , A = B , A = B ( , A = B ).
1.5. . , > , A B (..
A B ); < , A B (.. A B ); .
> , <
A . . 1.1 A

, > .

B
B
. 1.1
, :
1) < , >
> ;
10

= A|A . r A (
, Q) , r > .
n > r, n > .

. , ,
| , . , ,
.
.
1.1. | .

s s , s

s s < ,


6 6 s , s 6 6 s ,

= .

( ,

, .)
, 6 ,
, ( >).
6= , > . 1.2
r r , > r > r >
> . = r
r
s s . s 6 6 s , s 6 6 s , s > r > r > s ,
s s > r r , , s s < .

. , ( , , )
(, ). , 1.2
:
(, R, > ) ( r Q : > r > ).

.
11

12

1.1 :

Q, > 0 s , s Q :

(s 6 6 s , s 6 6 s , s s < ) = .


, , .
, , , . (), (),
() ..;
: ; , .. ,
. ,
.
, .
1.6.
R R A A (A A = , A A = R), x A,
x A x < x .

A
A ;
.
,
III .
A
1.4 (). A|

A,
A .
A | A; A
| A . , A|A
| Q,

13

x X
x > m. M X , m | .
X ,

.
X
:
M R : x X x 6 M.
(1.1)
:
m R : x X x > m.

X = Q [0; 1], .. X |
[0; 1]. ,
x X 0 6 x 6 1.
1, 0.
, , 2, | 1.
,
.

X , , ,
, .. . (1.1)? ,
M x X x 6 M .
, M x X , x > M .
,
X :
M R x X : x > M.
(1.2)
(1.1) (1.2), :
1) , .. ,
;
1.1.

15

. A, A .
A; , | A (, A , , | A ).
, A,
A, .. A, > .
1.2 r , >
> r > . , r A; , r A. , r
Q, ,
r > . ,
| A.

, ,
.
Q R,
.
.
, III ,
.
. ,
.

R Q.
| , , |
Q.
2.

X , , , M ,
x X x 6 M .
X , , , m ,
1.7.

14

2) , , ;
3) , ,
.
1.2. N ( n N n > 1),
( M R n N: n > M | ).
1.8.
X R, X ,
X .
(..
) :
( x X x 6 ) ( < x X : x > ).

(1.3)

() .
sup (supremum):
= sup X.


X R, X ,
X .
:
1.9.

( x X x > ) ( > x X : x < ).

(1.4)

inf (in mum):


= inf X.

, sup X |
X , inf X |
. , .
,
, ;
16

,
.
1.2. X R

, = sup X . X R , = inf X .
, -

.
| X , x X
x 6 . C ,
< , , > ; , <

X , . , = sup X .
,
() , () . , () .

1.3.

X =

1; ...
1; 12 ; 13 ; . . . ; n

| -

n1 , n N. , 1; 1.2 sup X = 1
( ).
, , n = 1, 2, . . . n1 > 0; ,
. , inf X = 0 ( , ).
, x X
x > 0. > 0 , r , 0 < r < ( 1.2),
n , n > 1r , .. n1 < r ( ). x = n1 < . , > 0
x X , x < . , inf X = 0.

1.5 ( () ).

, ,
17

).

1.3. M

X,

sup X 6 M . m
X , inf X > m.

. , ,
.

, -

(, ,
).
X R
. 1.2
.
X .
R , A |
X ( X ), A |
. , A A = , A A = R,
x A x A x < x
(, x 6= x , x > x , x
, , x | ,
). X A ( - X
, X ,
, ).

A, A . | A, , X A, |
X , .. A | . , |
A ( ). , | X ,
, .. = sup X .
, .
= sup X = sup X , < ( ).
, = sup X < , x
X , . , = sup X .

, sup X |
X , inf X |
X ( 1.5 ,
, 18

( , ).
10 0,01 .., n-

c2
c2
c1
cn
c1
cn + 1
+
+
+ . . . + n ; c0 +
+ ... +
c0 +
.
10 102
10
10 102
10n

c1 , c2 , . . . , cn | , .. , 0, 1, . . . , 9. n-
1
10n , :

( x X x 6 M ) sup X 6 M ;
( x X x > m) inf X > m.

, ,

( x X x < M ) sup X 6 M ;

(c0 , c1 c2 . . .cn ; c0 , c1 c2 . . .(cn + 1)).

( x X x > m) inf X > m,

.. ()
. 1.3
x X x > 0, inf X = 0.
1.10. X R
, sup X = +. X
R , inf X = .
3.


. = A|A (
A ).
c0 A.
c0 + 1 | A . ,
(c0 ; c0 + 1). [c0 ; c0 + 1] 10
0,1: [c0 ; c0 + 0, 1]; [c0 + 0, 1; c0 + 0, 2]; . . . ; [c0 +
+ 0, 9; c0 + 1] ,
:

c0 +

c1
c1 + 1
; c0 +
10
10

c1 = 0, 1, . . . , 9
19

, cn = 9,
cn1 1,
cn + 1 0. cn = cn+1 = . . . = cn+k = 9,
cn1
1, cn + 1, cn+1 + 1, . . . , cn+k + 1 .
, , c1 , c2 , . . . , cn , . . . c0 , c1 c2 . . .cn . . .
.
, :
c0 = 3,

c1 = 1,

c2 = 4,

c3 = 1,
c4 = 5,

c5 = 9,

c6 = 2,

c7 = 6, . . .

:
(3; 4);

(3, 1; 3, 2);

(3, 141; 3, 142);

(3, 14159; 3, 14160);

(3, 14; 3, 15);

(3, 1415; 3, 1416);

(3, 141592; 3, 141593);

(3, 1415926; 3, 1415927); . . .

101n
n-
20

, | n- ; n n . :

,
(n + 1)- :

0 = 3; 0 = 4; 2 = 3, 14; 2 = 3, 15;

, ( , ,
, ). :

5 = 3, 14159; 5 = 3, 14160.

3, 1415926 . . . .
,
: (4; 3); (3, 2; 3, 1) .. c0 = 4;
1 = 3, 2 = c0 + 0, 8; 1 = 3, 1 = c0 + 0, 9 ..; c1 = 8;
c2 = 5; c3 = 8; c4 = 4; c5 = 0; c6 = 7; c7 = 3, . . .
(4), 8584073 . . .
, n = 0, 1, 2 . . .
n < < n ,

n n =

1
.
10n

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

2, 011 = 2, 011000 . . . 2, 011 = 2, 010999 . . .;


2, 011 = (3), 989000 . . .

cn 6= 0,

: = c0 Z.

n = 0.
n-
. 101n .
, :
= c0 , c1 c2 . . . cn 000 . . .

( ). ,
21

,
. .

n 6 6 n ,

c0 , c1 c2 . . . cn . . . |
(c0 Z; c1 , c2 , . . . = 0, 1, . . . , 9). n = 1, 2, . . .
rn = c0 , c1 c2 . . .cn rn = rn + 101n =
= c0 , c1 c2 . . .(cn + 1) | . ,
n > m rn > rm , rn >
> r n > rm .
n < m.
cn+1
cn+2
cm
+
+ ... + m 6
10n+1 10n+2
10

1
1
1
+
+ ... + m .
69
10n+1 10n+2
10

rm rn 6 9

1
1
1
10m+1
10n+1
= n m < n,
1
10
10
10
10 1

rm rn = rm rn 101n < 0. , m n rm < rn .



A = {r1 , r2 , . . . , rn , . . .} B = {r1 , r2 , . . . , rn , . . .}.

m = 1, 2, . . .
n, A
rn < rm
, 1.3

,
= sup A 6 rm

n n =

1
.
10n

, .

m = 1, 2, . . .

, m = 1, 2, . . . rn > rm n, 23

r1

r2

r1 < < r2 r2 r1 < .

,

.
| , r2 = + 4 , r1 =
= 4 . , r1 < < r2 , r2 r1 = 2 < .
| , , ,
, n < < n , n n = 101n .
r2 = n , r1 = n ; r2 r1 = 101n < n1
( 10n > n n , , ).

n > 1 , , n1 < r2 r1 < .


, .
,
22

B , 1.3

1.6. , -

rm rn =

2, 011 = (3), 988999 . . .

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

1.4. | .

, | n :
= c0 , c1 c2 . . .cn ,

= c0 , c1 c2 . . .(cn 1)999 . . .

= inf B > rm ,

m = 1, 2, . . .

1.3 , m =
= 1, 2, . . ., , > . , n = 1, 2, . . .
rn 6 6 6 rn , rn rn = 101n <

1 < n > 1 ( | < n

). 1.1 = . rn 6 6 rn
n = 1, 2, . . .,
.


1.1. , , rn 6 6 rn rn 6 6 rn ,
rn rn = 101n < ( |
) , = .
4.


(, , ,
) ,
,
.
| . a, b, a , b ,
a < < a ,

b < < b .

(1.5)

+
,
a, b, a , b , (1.5),
1.11.

a + b < < a + b .
24

(1.6)

. , , ,
,

+ .
I) . {a + b} (1.5).
a + b . = sup{a + b}
(1.5).
(1.5) a + b 6 .
a , b (1.5)
a+b < a +b a, b (1.5),
1.3, 6 a + b . , (1.5) a + b 6 6 a + b .
. a, b , = a+b.
1.2 a0 , b0 ,
a < a0 < , b < b0 < . , = a + b < a0 + b0 ,
sup{a + b} (1.5).
, a + b < . , < a + b .
(1.6).
II) . 1.4
a, a , b, b (1.5) , a a < 2 ,
b b < 2 .
0 < (a + b ) (a + b) = (a a) + (b b) <


+ = ,
2 2

.
1.1 ,
(1.6).
III) . | , = +
1.11, .

,
.
25

. (a a) (a a ) = 2(a a) < ,
1.1 = + = 0.

1) { 4), .
.
5) 1 2 | , 1 = 2 .
, 1 + + 2 = 1 + ( + 2 ) = 1 + 0 = 1 ;
, 1 + + 2 = (1 + ) + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2 .

, 1 = 2 .
6) > , + > + R.
1.2 r1 r2 ,
> r1 > r2 > . 1.4
c c , c < < c , c c < r1 r2 .

r1 + c > r2 + c ( );
+ > r1 + c; + < r2 + c ( ).
, + > + .

7) > , > , + > + .


.

8) > , < .
9) > 0, < 0.
1.12.
+ ().
10) + = , = (
).
, + + () = + ( + ()) = + 0 = ;
, + + () = + () = . ,
= .

11) ( + ) = = .
27


;
( , ).

1) + = + ().
a, b, a , b , (1.5). + + (
, )

a + b < + < a + b ;
b + a < + < b + a .

,
a + b = b + a, a + b = b + a ,
+ + , ( II 1.11). 1.1 + = + .

2) ( + ) + = + ( + ) ().
3) + 0 = .
4) ,
= ,
, + = 0.
| , = , () | . = A|A

| . = A|A ,

A | A , A |
A . ,

, A , A
, .. | . a a , a < < a ,
a < < a.
= + a a <
< < a a. 1.4 a a
2 , |
26

12) > , > 0; <


, < 0.
1.13. ( )
, ||
, > 0, , < 0.
13) || 6 6 ||.
14) 6 6 , > 0, || 6 .
15) | + | 6 || + ||.
+ 6 || + || ( 13 7) + > ||
|| = (|| + ||) ( 13, 7 11), 14
| + | 6 || + ||.

16) | | > || ||.


.
1.14. I. |
, .. > 0, > 0.
a, b, a , b ,
(1.7)
0 < a < < a , 0 < b < < b .

, a, b, a ,
b , (1.7),
(1.8)
ab < < a b .
II.
0 = 0 = 0.

III. ,
,
|| ||, , || ||,
.
I 1.14 1.11. , , . .
28

n | ,
. 1.14 , a b , n. 1.4

a, a , b, b (1.7) , a
, b b < .
a < 2n
2n
0 < a b ab = a b a b + a b ab =

= a (b b) + b(a a) < n

+n
= ,
2n
2n

(
, a < n, b < b < n). 1.1
, (1.8).


. , .
17) || = || ||.
18) = ().
19) () = () ().
20) 1 = .
21) ,
= 1 , , = 1.
18) { 21) ,

. 1) { 4) 18) { 21)
, .
22) .
23) ( + ) = + ( ).
, , , . a, b, c, a , b , c | 29

,
(1.9)
0 < a < < a , 0 < b < < b , 0 < c < < c .
n | , , ,
, , a , b , c ,
n. ( + ) + ( ,
)
(a + b)c < ( + ) < (a + b )c ,
ac + bc < + < a c + b c

( ). (a + b)c = ac + bc,
(a + b )c = a c + b c . ( + )
+ ,
.
, 1.4
a, a , b, b , c, c (1.9) ,
a a <

. , , .
n , | , n | :

,
4n

c c <

4n

( + ) = + .

, ,

. , ,
+ , .

24) (1) = .
25) > , > 0, > ; > , < 0,
< .
1.15.
, 6= 0, 1 .
26) = , = 1 , .. =
( , 6= 0).
30

<

<
r

<

s p

. 1.3

(. . 1.3): s r < r r < 3 ; p s < p p < 3 ;

p r = p s + s s + s r < 3 + 3 + 3 = .

,
r p ,
r < < p ,

1.1 = .

n = | {z . . . };

b b <

ac + b c bc + bc bc = c (a a) + a(c c) + c (b b) +
+ n + n + n = . 1.1
+ b(c c) < n 4n
4n
4n
4n

1
1 1
27)
, () = .
||
28) 6= 0,
= || .
29) > > 0, 1 < 1 ; < < 0,
1 > 1 .
30) | , n |
, n n , :

n =
| + +{z. . . + } .

,
4n

(a + b )c (a + b)c = a c + b c ac bc = a c ac + ac

r < < p ,

p r < .

0 = 1, 6= 0; n = 1n , 6= 0, n N.
(
).
, 1.1 ,
.
.
1.5. | .

s s , s 6 6 s ,
s 6 6 s , s s < , = .
> 0 | ; s s
| , s 6 6 s , s 6 6 s ,
s s < 3 ( = 3 ).
1.4 r , r , p , p

r < s < r ,

p < s < p ,

r r <

,
3

p p <

.
3
31

5.

1.16. A B
(), A B
() .
( | , | ..).
, ,
, .
1.4.
( n 2n),
.
1.17. ,
(..
).
32

1.6. .

x1 ,
A. ,
x2 , x3

.. A. {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,
. . .} A (, A).

A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .}, B \ A = {b1 , . . . , bk } |


( , ), AB = A(B\A) =
= {b1 , . . . , bk , a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .} | .
2) A B . B \ A , , . B \ A , .. , A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .}, B \ A = {b1 ,
b2 , . . . , bn , . . .} A B = A (B \ A) = {a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , . . . , an ,

bn , . . .} | .

1.7.

B A; A | , B | .
, B | . A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . .}.
, B : b1 =
= an1 . n2 ,
an2 B ; b2 = an2 (, n2 > n1 ). n3 , an3
B ; b3 = an3 (n3 > n2 > n1 ), .. B
an , : bk = ank . , B ,
B | .

1.7. Q .

, Q+ ,
, (x
x), , {0}
1.8 . Q+ (. . 1.5):
1
1

1.8. ,
| .

,
B \ A , B , A (
B \ A | . . 1.4).

. 1.4

(.. ,
).

,
[0; 1) ( R | ,
[0; 1) R | ). , [0; 1), .. [0; 1) = {1 , 2 , . . . , n , . . .}.
:
(1)

(2) (2)

(2)

1 = 0, c1 c2 . . .ck . . .;
2 = 0, c1 c2 . . .ck . . .;
...

...
(n) (n)

...
(n)

n = 0, c1 c2 . . .ck . . .;
...

...

4
3

...

3
4

4
4

...

...

...

...

...

3
2

3
3

4 . .?
.
2

. Z (
33

(1) (1)

...

3
1

,
( 21 = 24 = . . .
..). , Q+ | . , .

. 1.4

-4
1

2
2

2
3

2
4

. 1.5

A B = A (B \ A);

1.8.

...

B = (B \ A) (A B),

,
,
.
1) A | , B | .

-2
1

1
2

?
1
3

1
4

...

,
( ).
= 0, 1 2 . . .n . . . , 1 6= c(1)
1 ,
(2)
(n)
2 6= c2 , . . . , n 6= cn , . . . , i 6= 9, i = 1, 2, 3, . . . (
1.6). i , i = 1,
2, 3, . . . , [0; 1). ,
[0; 1) .

1.

n-
, ,
, .
, .
|
, II III ( )
. III,
, n-
xn , ,
..
| ,
. , , , ..,
, , , .

( Q R).

2. .

(0; 1) ,
0 [0; 1).
(a; b)
, (0; 1) (a; b) x = a+t(ba); t (0; 1)
x (a; b).

I. . , 35

Q).

34

1.1. ,
= A|A , A = {r Q: 2r < 4}; A = {r Q: 2r > 4}
2.
1.2.
= A|A , A = {r Q: 2r > 3}; A = {r Q: 2r > 3}.
, A , A (
log2 3).
1.3. Z. , :
36

, (
; , ,
).
1.4. :
)
X;
)
X;
) | X ,
;
) | X ,
;
) X , .
1.5. :
) [0;
[0; 1]);
n 1] \ Q (
o
) 1; 12 ; 13 ; 14 ; 51 ; 61 ; . . . ;
) (0; 1] (2; 3];
) (1; +);
) h(;3]h [2;+)h;

1
) 1; 32 2; 37 3; 13
4 . . . n; n + n + 1 . . . =

1.7. 2, 3, 8, 11 .
1.8. 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25
.
1.9. , A1 , A2 , . . . , An , . . . |

S
,
Ak .
k=1

1.10. , (a; +)
.
1.11. ,
( 1, 2, 3, . . . ) .
1.12. [a; b] (a; b).
1.13. | .
, , 2 = ( ).
1.14. | . ,
,
3 = ( ).

h
S
1
=
k; k + k +
1 ;

k=1
) 1; 12 12 ; 31 13 ; 41 . . . =


S
1
=
k1 ; k +
1 .
k=1

, ?

S
Ak A1 A2 A3 . . . An . . .

k=1

1.6.
A = {1 , 2 , 3 , . . . , n , . . .}; B =
= {1 , 2 , 3 , . . . , n , . . .} | -

. , = sup A = inf B .

37

II.

1.

X , Y | . f X Y X
Y , x X
y Y . X ( X = D(f )); y Y , x X , ( E(f )). x X
f .
2.1.

)
X = D(f

x1

y1
E(f )
y2

x2
x3
. 2.1

, E(f ) Y , Y . , x y , x | y (. . 2.1).
2.1. X | ,
; Y = N. y = f (x)
x. , E(f ) Y , Y .
x y , x |
y .
39

38

2.2. N , R: y = f (n), n N.
: xn , yn , zn , an ..
2.3. E(f ) R. f ( ,
) X , ( , ).
E(f )
f X ( sup f (x), inf f (x)).
X

xn ( , ),
( , ).

xn ( sup xn , inf xn ).
n ,
2.2. xn = n +
1
n 0 < xn < 1. 1 ; x
>
x
,
, xn = 1 n +
n+1
n n = 1, 2, . . .
1
(
). , x1 = 12 ; 1.2 inf xn =
= 12 (). , sup xn = 1 ( ).
, n xn < 1. , < 1 n ,
1

xn > . 1 n +
1 >
n > 1 1 1 ( , 1 > 0). n . ,
sup xn = 1.
2.1. f X
C , x
X |f (x)| 6 C .

|f (x)| 6 C C 6 f (x) 6 C .
x X ,
, f .
40

x X
m 6 f (x) 6 M , , |f (x)| 6 C , C |
|m| |M |.

. xn C , n |xn | 6 C .

,
( ,
), . , ,
:


| , | . 2.1,
, : f X , , C ,
x X |f (x)| 6 C .
2.

:
> 0 n0 :

> 0 :

n0 n > n0 :

y
3
2

2.4. - a -

(a ; a + ), > 0.
: U (a) = (a ; a + ) = {x : |x a| < };
, a
, , .

n0 (). y = [x] (
x). , x. . 2.2.

, | .
, n0 > 1
h i

n0 = 1 + 1; n > n0 ()
.
2.6. , , . , , .
2.2.
.

lim xn = a lim xn = b; , a < b.


n

> 0 ,
U (a) U (b) =

:
n1 :

n2 :

ba
2

( r )
a

2.5 ( ). a xn ,

41

|xn a| > .

, n0 = n0 (); n = n(n0 ).
1.
2.3. lim xn = 0, xn = n

a xn (: a = lim xn ).
n
, U (a)
xn | , U (a) ,
. .
2.5 . a xn ,
n0 , n > n0
|xn a| < .

n > n0 |xn a| < .

,
, : > 0 n0 , , n0 = n0 ().
( a
xn ):

2
3
. 2.2

.
, > 0 n0 : n > n0 |xn 0| < . n1 < n > 1 .
n0 > 1 ,
n > n0 .
42

1
( ) n > 4, xn = n +
3
n > 2.
,
( ,
, | ). , xn
n > n0 , n0 | .
2.3. xn

n > n0 , n0 N

(.. m, M : n > n0 m 6 xn 6 M ),
n N, .
[m, M ] xn ( x1 , x2 , . . . , xn0 1 ). m1 = min(x1 ,
x2 , . . . , xn0 1 , m); M1 = max(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn0 1 , M ).
n m1 6 xn 6 M1 ,
.. xn .

2.4. .

( r )

lim xn = a. ( = 1): n0 :

n > n0 |xn a| < 1, .. a 1 < xn < a + 1. 2.3

xn .

. 2.3

n > n1 xn U (a);
n > n2 xn U (b).

n3 = max(n1 , n2 ) | n1
n2 , n > n3 xn U (a) U (b) |
.



( . 2.3).
, , .
N, ,
1
n0 . , xn = n
3
43

.
.
2.4. xn = (1)n
(xn = 1 n, xn = 1 n).
n = 1, 2, . . . 1 6 xn 6 1,
xn . , xn .
xn lim xn = a.
n
( = 1):
n0 :

n > n0 |xn a| < 1.

n = n0 + 1 n = n0 :
|xn0 +1 a| < 1;

|xn0 a| < 1.

xn0 xn0 +1 1, 1. |1 a| < 1 |1 a| < 1, .. 0 < a < 2


2 < a < 0. .

44

sign x ( ,
).

( 1,
x > 0;
x = 0;
sign x = 0,
1, x < 0.
y = sign x . 2.4.

2.7. lim xn = a xn = a + n , n | -

y
1

xn a = n .
lim xn = a > 0 n0 : n > n0 |xn a| <

> 0 n0 :

2.5. lim xn = a 6= 0, n0
n

|a|

n > n0 |xn | > 2 ,


sign xn = sign a. :
a > 0, n0 , n > n0
a
xn > ;
2
a < 0, n0 , n > n0
a
xn < .
2
a > 0. = a2 .
n0 : n > n0 |xn a| < a2 , , xn >
> a2 (. . 2.5). a < 0

( = |a|
2 , . . 2.6).
0

(r

)r

1a
2

(r

3
2a

)r

3a
2

1
2a

. 2.5

n0

a > 0,

n
> n0

xn

n ,

45

1. n | | .

, .

C > 0 :

, , .

(1)n
1 |
= 0, xn = (1)n n
2.5. lim
n
n
(1)n n1 .
2.1 ( ). lim xn = a, lim yn = b.
n

1) lim (xn + yn ) = a + b;
n
2) lim (xn yn ) = ab;
n
3) b =
6 0, lim xynn = ab .
n
xn = a + n , yn = b + n , n n |
.
1) xn +yn = (a+n )+(b+n ) = (a+b)+n , n = n +n
| , lim (xn + yn ) = a + b.
n
2) xn yn = (a + n )(b + n ) = ab + n , n = an + bn +
+ n n | , 2.9, lim (xn yn ) = ab. , 2.8
n
.
3) b 6= 0, 2.6 n0 , n > n0 yn 6= 0,
xynn n > n0 . n < n0 , ,
, n > n0 , n0
47

n |n | 6 C.

n | ,

.
C
n > n0 |n n | < C C = ,

.. n n | .
> 0 n0 :

n > n0 |n | <

46

| . , yn 6= 0;
b 6= 0.
a
xn a
a + n a
1
n n .
=
=
yn
b
b + n
b
yn
b

2. -

xn = Cn


+ = ,
2 2

2.9. -

.. n + n | .

a
n0
, n > n0 xn > 0;
a < 0, n0 , n > n0
xn < 0.
2.7. n
, lim n = 0.

C R,

n n | .

> 0 n1 : n > n1 |n | < ;


2

> 0 n2 : n > n2 |n | < .


2
n > n0 , n0 = max(n1 , n2 ), |n + n | 6 |n | + |n | <

2.6 ( ). lim xn = a 6= 0,

2.8. .

, xn = C n = 1, 2, . . . (
), lim xn = C ; ,
n
n = xn C = 0 | , .

. 2.6

. ,

lim n = 0.
n

n > n0 |n | <

. 2.4

n = n ab n |
2.8 1 2.9. lim yn = b 6= 0,
n

2.5 n1 : n > n1 |yn | > |b|


2 , ,


1
2 . 1 n > n .
yn < |b|
1
yn

2.3 (
n , yn =
= 0, ). 2.9
xynn ab = y1n n | ,

lim xn = ab .
n yn
. 2.1
1) lim (Cxn ) = Ca;
n
2) lim (xn yn ) = a b;
n
3) lim xkn = ak ( k N; a 6= 0, k Z);
n

4) lim 1k = 0 k N (.. 1k = n1
n
n n

1
, lim n = 0).
n
2.2 ( ).

lim xn = a, lim yn = b, n0 ,
n
n > n0 xn 6 yn , a 6 b.

yn
b

) (

xn
a

. 2.7

n1 :

n2 :

a > b. > 0 , U (a) U (b) = (,


b
= a
2 ). :
n > n1 xn U (a);
n > n2 yn U (b).

n > n3 = max(n0 , n1 , n2 ) xn >


> yn , (. . 2.7).

48

. n0 ,

n > n0

xn [a; b],

lim xn = ,

. lim xn = a, lim yn = b,
n
n
n > n0 xn < yn , a 6 b
(, a = b). : xn = n1 < yn = n1 ; lim xn =
n
= lim yn = 0.
n

2.3. lim xn = lim zn = a n


n
n0 , n > n0
xn 6 yn 6 zn , lim yn = a.

> 0 n1 :

> 0 n2 :

, . (, > 0)

[a; b].

0 < qn =

lim n1 = 0, lim zn = 0, , 2.3, lim q n =


n
n
n
= 0.
3) 1 < q < 0. p = q ; 0 < p <
< 1. , lim pn = 0, q n =
n
= (1)n pn | ,
(1)n pn .

.
2.6

n > n1 xn U (a);
n > n2 zn U (a).

n > n3 = max(n0 , n1 , n2 ) a < xn 6 yn 6 zn < a + , .. n > n3 yn

U (a). , lim yn = a.

lim

1 + 1
3 n
3n2 n + 1
n2
=
= lim
2n2 + 5n + 3 n 2 + 5 + 32
n
n

2.3 .

. ,
xn zn yn
, yn xn zn ,
yn . (
..),
- .
2.10. |q| < 1, lim

qn

2) 0 < q < 1. q = 1 +1 , > 0.


(1 + )n > 1 +
+ n, > 1, n N; ,
49

xn n , 0.
,
lim xn = 0. 2.8 ,
n
, .
n ( ).
xn ; , | , | .
n
n2
n2
n
=n 2
6 xn 6 n 2
= 2
.
n2 + n
n +n
n +1
n +1

xn
, n
xn+1 > xn ; ,
n xn+1 < xn ; , n xn+1 > xn ; , n
xn+1 6 xn . .
: xn ( ), xn ( ).
, . , xn ,
n0 , n > n0 xn+1 < xn , ..
2.8.

2.4 ().

( , ) ,

xn ,

1 + 3 lim 1
2 + 5 lim n
2
n
n n

30+0
3
=
2+50+30
2

( , n
).
2.7

7
1 + 25
25n + (7)n

=
lim
n =
n 52n+1 + 32n
n
5+ 9
lim

25

( 2.10).

7
25
1+0
1
n =
=
9
5+0
5
5 + lim 25
n

1 + lim

2.8

xn =

n
n
n
+
+ ... + 2
.
n 2 + 1 n2 + 2
n +n

50

xn

(-

, ) ,

xn ,

; . 1.5 xn
sup xn = .
( n xn 6 ) ( < n0 :
xn0

xn0 > ).

xn

= , > 0.
, n > n0
xn > xn0 , xn 6 .
:
=

> 0 n0 :

. 2.8

2.6, lim n2n+ 1 = lim n2n+ n = 1. n


n
2.3 lim xn = 1 ( !).

xn

1 + lim 1
3 lim n
2

= 0.

1) q = 0 .

3.

1
1
1 1
6
< = zn .
(1 + )n
1 + n
n

51

n > n0 < xn 6 ,

, xn U () (. . 2.8). ,

lim xn = .
n
| .
.
2.9.
n

xn = 1 +

X 1
1
1
1
+
+ ... + 2 =
22 32
n
k2
k=1

n
P

k=1

ak a1 + a2 + . . . + an ). ,

, xn+1 = xn +
1
> xn . , k > 2
(n + 1)2

1
1
1
1
=
,
<
k2
k(k 1)
k1 k

1 1
1
1
1
1
xn < 1 + 1
+
+ ...+
= 2 < 2.

2
2 3
k1 k
k
52

xn , . lim xn sup xn ,
n
, . ,
2
lim xn = 6 , .
n

n 2.10. xn =
1 . , = 1+ n
n xn < 3. , lim xn . n
e. e , e =
= 2, 718281828459045 . . .
.
:
(a+b)n = Cn0 an +Cn1 an1 b+Cn2 an2 b2 + . . .+Cnk ank bk + . . .+

+Cnn1 abn1 + Cnn bn ,


n!
n(n 1) . . .(n k + 1)
=
,
Cnk =
k!(n k)!
k!
k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n,

| .
, n! (n ) | 1 n: n! = 1 2 3 . . . n; , 0! = 1. , Cnk = Cnnk
k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n; Cn0 = Cnn = 1; Cn1 = Cnn1 = n; Cn2 = Cnn2 =
2)
n(n 1)
; Cn3 = Cnn3 = n(n 1)(n
, ..
=
2
6

xn =

xn+1

1
n

1
1
+ Cn2 1n2 2 + . . .+
n
n
1
1
1
+Cnk 1nk k + . . . + Cnn1 n1 + Cnn n =
n
n
n
2
k
C
Cn
C
= 2 + 2n + . . . + kn + . . . + nn ;
n
n
n
n+1
2
k
n
Cn+1
Cn+1
Cn+1
Cn+1
= 2+
+
.
.
.+
+
.
.
.+
+
.
(n + 1)2
(n + 1)k
(n + 1)n (n + 1)n+1
1+

= 1 + n 1n1

53

, xn
; lim xn = .
n
, xn

xn+1

a
=
xn .
n+1

(2.1)

xn+1 | ,
xn ( x1 ); lim xn+1 = .
(2.1),
= 0 ,

= 0.

, 2 6 k 6 n
n(n 1) . . .(n k + 1)
Cnk
=
=
k
nk
k!n

1
2
k1
1
= 1
1
... 1

<
n
n
n
k!

k
Cn+1
2
k1 1
1
1
... 1
=
.
< 1
n+1
n+1
n + 1 k!
(n + 1)k

n > 1 xn+1 2
n
k
n + . . .+ Cn + . . .+ Cn = x . ,
, xn+1 > 2+ C
n
nn
n2
nk
xn . ,

Cnk
1
k > 2, k! = 2 3 . . . k > |2 2 {z. . . 2} = 2k1 ;
6
nk
k!
k1

k
1 , n
Ckn 6 k1

1 1
2
1 1
1
1
1
2k
xn 6 2 + + 2 + 3 + . . . + k1 = 2 +
= 3 k1 < 3.
2 2
2
2
2
1 12

, ,
, .
n
2.11. , xn = an! , a > 0,
lim xn = 0.

1 6 1 , 2.3
0 < a 6 1, 0 < xn 6 n!
n
lim xn = 0.
n

n+1

a > 1. zn = xxn+1
= (na + 1)! an!n =
n

a ; lim z = 0. =
= n+
1 n n
= 1: n0 : n > n0 |zn | < 1; xn
0 < xxn+1
< 1. , n
xn n > n0 ; xn > 0.
54

2.11. n n |

, n
n 6 6 n .

0 6 n 6 n n = 101n < n1 .
, n1 < n 6 , 2.3 lim n = . n
.

,
.
2.5 ( ).

[a1 ; b1 ] [a2 ; b2 ] . . . [an ; bn ] . . .

( -

),

4.

(..

,
, : 1.4
, 1.5
2.4
| ().

. , lim xn = a, lim yn =
n
n
= b, xn , yn , a, b Q, b 6= 0, lim xynn = ab .
n

, ( ).

- . (
), ;
,
, 2.2.
55

lim n = lim n = .

an 6 6 bn ).

lim (bn an ) = 0),

= lim an = sup an = lim bn = inf bn .


n

n
a1 6 a2 6 . . . 6 an 6 . . . 6 bn 6 . . . 6 b2 6 b1 ,

n m
an 6 bm . A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an . . .}
B = {b1 , b2 , . . . , bn . . .}. m =
= 1, 2, . . . A bm ; ,
1 = sup A = sup an ; 1.3
m 1 6 bm . B 2 = inf B = inf bn ,
n 2 > an . 1.3 , 1 6 2 . ,
n an 6 1 6 2 6 bn . ,
1 2 ( [1 , 2 ], 1 < 2 ) [an ; bn ]. .
, .
56

, lim xn = , > 0 n0 : n > n0

lim (bn an ) = 0.

> 0 n0 :

n > n0 bn an <

( , bn an > 0). an 6 1 6 2 6 bn ,
1.5 , 1 = 2 .
. = sup an = inf bn .
an
= lim an . = lim bn .
n
n
, n
an 6 6 bn , 1.5 = .
h.

i
1 ; 1 ; | 2.12. [an ; bn ] = n
n
, bn an = n2 lim (bn
n
an ) = 0.

i 0.
h
1 ; 1 + 1 ; | 2.13. [an ; bn ] = n
n

, bn an = 1 + n2
lim (bn an ) 6= 0.
n
[0; 1].
2.14.

. (an ; bn ) = 0; n1 . ,
lim (bn an ) = 0.
n

5.

-
- +, , .
2.9. > 0:
U (+) = (; +);

U () = (; );

xn U () (.. |xn | > ).

.
>
> 0 ( xn U (a) , ).
;

E .
, lim xn = + lim xn = ,
n
n
xn | . ;
xn lim xn = +
n
lim xn = .
n
2.15. xn = n; lim xn = +.
n
> 0 n0 : n > n0 xn > E . n > E
n > n0 , n0 (E) = [E] + 1; ,
, , (n0 = n0 (E)).

2.16. xn = n; lim xn =

().
2.17. xn =
|xn | = n, lim xn =
n
= , xn ; ,
lim xn = +, , lim xn = .
n
n
, lim xn = + ,
n
xn n0 : n > n0 xn > 0; lim xn =
n
= , xn
n0 : n > n0 xn < 0.
n
(1)n n.

2.12. -

U () = (; ) (; +).
2.10.

xn U () (.. xn < ).
, lim xn = , > 0 n0 : n > n0

, lim xn = +,
n

xn :

> 0 n0 : n > n0 xn U (+) (.. xn > ).

E > 0 n :
57

xn :

2.13.

E > 0 n0 :

, .

.
.
2.18.

2n, n ;
0,
n .

, .
.
E > 0 n | : |xn | = 2n > E . ,
h i
E + 1 ).
E > 0 n > E
2 (, n(E) = 2
4

:
E > 0 :

n0 n > n0 :

|xn | 6 E.

. , , E = 1. n0
n > n0 , , n =

= 2n0 + 1; |xn | = 0 < 1.


, . 2.9, , , .., .

xn = (1)

, ,
. > 0
E = 1 > 0. n0 : n > n0 |xn | > E , , |yn | =


1 = , .. y | .
= x1n < E
n

2) .

1 = 0; 1 =
2.13 :
0
= . , 0 = 1.
| , ,
..
. 0 , xn yn xn yn . xn yn : ) ; ) ; )
; ) | .
2.19. lim xn = 0, lim yn = :
) xn

) xn
B

xn = n(1 + (1)n )

59

| -

2) xn
n0 , n > n0
xn =
6 0, yn = x1n | .
1) E > 0 n0 : n > n0 |xn | > E . n > n0
xn 6= 0; yn = x1n

) xn = n12 ; yn = n; xn yn = n1 ; lim xn yn = 0;

BMB

yn = x1n

. 2.9

1) xn

n > n0 |xn | > E.

xn = n(1 + (1)n ) =

|xn | > E.

58

1; y =
=n
n
1; y =
=n
n
(1)n
=
n ;

n2 ;

xn yn = n; lim xn yn = ;

n; xn yn = 1;

yn = n; xn yn = (1)n | ,
) xn
.
7 , , 00 , 0 , 1 , : 0 , 00 ,
60

{.
n

1 lim 1 + n1 = e.
n

.
- ,
.
2.14. lim xn = +, lim yn = a R,
n

lim (xn + yn ) = +

( :

(+) + a = +).

, yn
( m: n yn > m). lim xn = +,
n

E > 0 n0 : n > n0 xn > E m ( ,


E m > 0, E m 6 0,
). ,
E > 0 n0 :

n > n0 xn + yn > E m + m = E,

, lim (xn + yn ) = +.

n
, . ( 2.14). :
(+) a = +,

a > 0;

(+) (+) = +;

(+) a = ,

a < 0;

() () = +;

() a = ,

a > 0;

(+) () = ;

() a = +,

a < 0;

(+)k = +,

() + () = ;
k

= 0,

0k = ,
2.15.

yn > xn ,

1)

k = +,

k Z,

k Z,

k < 0;

k N;

k N, ;

n0 : n > n0

61

inf xn = . lim xn = sup xn , n


lim xn = inf xn .
n

6.

a + 0 a 0 (a a ),
a R, - .
2.11. > 0:
U (a + 0) = [a; a + );
2.12.

> 0 n0 :

U (a 0) = (a ; a].

, lim xn = a + 0,

n > n0 xn U (a 0)

(.. a < xn 6 a).


, lim xn = a.
n
xn a,
a + 0 a 0.
1 = +0 ( 0 + 0
2.21. lim n
n

1 = 0 ( 0 0 0).
n

(1)
lim
n = 0, +0, 0,
.
, lim xn = a + 0 ,
n
lim xn = a n0 : n > n0 xn > a; lim xn = a 0
n
n
, lim xn = a n0 : n > n0 xn 6 a.
n
6
()
n

a;

a + 0;

a 0;

+;

1 = 0, 2.13, lim n = + (
lim n
n
n
, n > 0). , nk > n,
2.15.

2.6 ( ).

xn

( , ) -

lim xn = +.

xn

( , ) ,

lim xn = .

, . xn ,
E n0 :

xn0 > E

E > 0 n0 :

n > n0 xn > E.

, lim xn = +.
n
2.4
,
.
, sup xn = +, 62

7.

.
{

xn | , nk , k = 1, 2, . . . | . yk =
= xnk ( k ) xn .
2.14. a R
( ) xn , nk , lim xnk = a.
2.13.

2.22.
xn =
= (1)n . , x2k = 1 x2k1 = 1. ,
1 1.
nk

+0); lim

xn > E . n2 = max(n0 , n1 ). n > n2 yn > E ,


, lim yn = +.
n
2) .

2.3 .
2.20. k N lim nk = +.

n > n0 xn U (a + 0)

(.. a 6 xn < a + ).
, lim xn = a 0,
> 0 n0 :

n0 : n > n0 yn 6 xn , lim yn =
n
n
= .
1) lim xn = +, E > 0 n1 : n > n1

(, , E > 0, E 6 0 ). n > n0 xn > xn0 ,

k < 0.

lim xn = +
lim yn = +;

2) lim xn =

2.13 ( )
, lim nk = +. , n1 > 1;
k
n2 > n1 n2 > 2; n3 > n2 n3 > 3, .. , nk > k k = 1, 2, . . . lim k =
k
= + ( 2.20); 2.15, lim nk = +.
k
,
nk , n
(, nk = 1, k = 1, 2, . . . xnk xn ).
2.16. lim xn = , | 6 ,
n

63

xnk

lim xnk = .

, , U (), > 0,
xn . nk ,
U ()

xnk ; , lim xnk = .


64

. lim xn = a R, a |

xn .

+ . , 6 , : a, +, .
lim xn = +, 2.16 n
+.
lim xn = , n
.
2.7 ( ).

xn

a, +, .


( > 0)

xn .

| xn , xnk , lim xnk = (n1 < n2 < . . . <


k

< nk < . . .). > 0 U ()


xnk , U () | xnk ,
k0 , ,
xn .

= a R. =
= 1; xn1 | xn U1 (a). = 12 .
U1/2 (a) xn ,
xn2 U1/2 (a) , n2 > n1 , ..
xn1 , xn2 , . . . , xnk , n1 < n2 < . . . < nk ; xnk U1/k (a).
U1/(k+1) (a) xn , xnk+1
U1/(k+1) (a) , nk+1 > nk . ,
xnk , n1 < n2 < . . . <
< nk < . . ., xnk U1/k (a). .. a k1 < xnk < a + k1 .
2.3 lim xnk = a, .. a | xn .
k
= + = .
, = + = 1, 2, 3, . . . , k, . . . ;
xnk , xnk Uk (+), .. xnk > k .

2.15 lim xnk = +.


k

65

2.8 ({). (.. ).

n = 1, 2, . . .
[a; b] 2
i
ha 6 xn i 6 hb.
b a + b ; b ; ,
a; a +
1
2
2
xn ( ,
xn ,
). , xn , 1 | . 1 2 ,
xn (), 2 | 3 ,
xn .. k- k k+1 , xn . . n . . .,
1 2 . .
n
n- b 2n a = (b a) 21 |

2.10.
c

(
)
c
c+
n
c, . 2.10
n . > 0.
n0 : n > n0 n < , n > n0 n
U (c) (. . 2.10), , U (c)
xn . 2.7 c |
xn .

2.9 ( { ).

xn ,
xn .

+.

: . E > 0. xn
, n1 : xn1 > E . E
xn1 . n2 : xn2 >
> xn1 . , n3 : xn3 > xn2 .. xn ,
67

, U ()
xn , , U ()
xn ( U ()
xn ).
.
, | .
, | .
2.22 , 1 1,
xn = (1)n . ,
R, 6= 1, = , ,
xn .
2.23. xn = n(1 + (1)n ) (. 2.18).
lim x2k = +, lim x2k1 = 0,
k
k
0 +. (
, xn ).
2.24. xn = n (1)n , .. x2k = 2k , x2k1 = (2k
1), k = 1, 2, . . . . lim x2k = +, lim x2k1 = ,
k
k
+
; .
2.25. xn | , -
( Q).
( Q,
rn = + n1 ;
6 Q, rn = n ;
lim rn = , U () rn n > n0 ,
n
.. xn ), |
xn . , = + rn = n, =
rn = n. , xn
, + .
,
, ( 2.22). ,
66

xn1 < xn2 < xn3 < . . . < xnk < . . . UE (+).
2.7 + | xn .
, :
| , | +
.
, {

(). | 2.9 | .
2.10 ( ).

xn

a.

xn

a.

n
m 6 xn 6 M .
xnk lim xnk = a, m 6 xnk 6 M k , k

2.2 m 6 a 6 M . , lim xn = a.
n
, U (a), xn .
xn U (a), .. [a + ; M ] (.
. 2.11).
[m; a ]
(
)
m a
a
a + M xn ,
. 2.11
.
, a < m. {,
[a + ; M ] xn , a,
. , lim xn = a.

2.15. xn ( + , ).
2.16. xn ( lim xn )
n

68

, ( lim xn )
n

| . + (), lim xn =
n
= + ( lim xn = ).
n

+ (),
lim xn = lim xn = + ( lim xn = lim xn =
n

= ).

lim xn = a ( +, ),

2.26.

lim xn = lim xn = a ( +, ).

xn =

n
(1)n ,

lim xn = 1, lim xn = 1. xn = n (1 +

+ (1)n ), lim xn = +, lim xn = 0. xn = n (1)n ,


n

lim xn = +, lim xn = .
n

2.17. xn

inf xn 6 lim xn 6 lim xn 6 sup xn .


n

< +,

< a <

< +.
lim xn 6 lim xn 2.16.
n

xn , sup xn =
= +, lim xn 6 sup xn . xn
n
M = sup xn , xnk k = 1, 2, . . .
xnk 6 M . 2.2 a
a 6 M , 1.3 lim xn 6 M .
n

lim xn > inf xn .


n

2.18.

1) xn

lim xn < +
n

(..

2) xn
>

);

(..

lim xn >

69

xn ,
,
( ). lim xn = 1.
n

inf xn = lim xn < lim xn < sup xn .


n

2.12. ( , () ( ) ).

xn

2.18 , xn -

.
= lim xn = lim xn (
n

{ , , ),
xn .
2.10 lim xn = .

n
2.27.
xn =
1 . x
1, x
1 ,
=
1
+
=
1
+
= (1)n + n
2k
2k1
2k
2k 1
lim x2k = 1, lim x2k1 = 1,
k
k
1 1. , n xn > 1. , > 1 n = 2k 1 ,
x2k1 < (

1
1
1
1+
;
< k >
2k 1
2
1+
i
h
k = 12 1 + 1 +1 + 1, n = 2k 1). ,
inf xn = 1 ( ). lim xn > inf xn ,
1 +

lim xn = 1.

k = 1, 2, . . .
x2k 6 x2 = 23 . n xn 6 0, 32 . , sup xn =

70

8.

xn
, > 0 n0 : n, m > n0 |xn
xm | < (
n0 , n > n0 m > n0 |xn xm | < ).
2.17.

2.13 ( ).

xn xn .

lim xn = a.
n

lim xn = R, = sup X , X | n

.
( p X p 6 ) ( < p X :

2.11. lim xn lim xn -

= 32 . , 1, -

+).

, . xn , sup xn < +, 2.17. xn


, 2.9 +;
, lim xn = +.

p > ).

>
p
p+
> 0 = . (
)
p X =
p

, p > . p =
. 2.12
= , | , . p < , > 0 , U (p) ( ; ) (. . 2.12). U (p)
xn , p | .
( ; ) xn , ,
U () | xn . > 0 | ,
| .
lim xn = +, 2.18
n
xn . 2.9
xn +.
, lim xn = , 2.16 ,
n

, .. ( ) xn .
.
71

> 0 n0 :



n > n0 |xn a| <
m > n0 |xm a| <
.
2
2
n > n0 m > n0

|xn xm | = |(xn a) + (a xm )| 6 |xn a| + |a xm | < + = ,
2 2

, .

xn | .
, . = 1
n0 :

n, m > n0 |xn xm | < 1.

m = n0 . n > n0
|xn | = |(xn xn0 ) + xn0 | 6 |xn xn0 | + |xn0 | < 1 + |xn0 |.

, xn n > n0 .
2.3 .
{
xn . 2.10
,
.
,
a b ( , a < b). = b 3 a (,
72

U (a) U (b) ,
):
n0 :

n, m > n0 |xn xm | < .

U (a) xn ( 2.7). , n1 > n0 : xn1 U (a).


m1 > n0 : xm1 U (b).
(. . 2.13) |xn1
xn1 - xm1
r
r
xm1 | > . b b
a a+
. 2.13
.
.
2.28. , xn =
= (1)n .
:
> 0 :

n0 n, m > n0 :

|xn xm | > .

n > n0 ,

n+p
n+p
n
n+p
X
X 1
X
1
1
X 1

<
=
|xn+p xn | =
=

k2
k2
k2
k(k 1)
k=1

n0 n > n0 ,

k=n+1

1
1
1

< .
n n+p
n
h i
n > 1 , .. n > n0 () = 1 +
+ 1.
h i
, > 0 n0 = 1 + 1: n > n0 , p N |xn+p

xn | < . .
, n0
p.
n
1 + . . . + 1 = P 1 .
2.30. xn = 1 + 2
n
k
1
1

k1 k

,
.

n+p
|xn+p xn | =

X 1
p
>
k
n+p

k=n+1

1 ).
( p , n +
p
n = n0 , p = n0 . |xn+p xn | = 12 .

p N |xn+p xn | < .

p N :

> p 1.

|xn+p xn | =

|xn+p xn | > .
n

2.9
73

2.31. p |
, lim xn = a, lim xn+p = a lim (xn+p xn ) = 0.
n
n
n
, lim (xn+1 xn ) = 0. , n
p N lim (xn+p xn ) = 0
n
xn ?
: ( 2.30).

()
,

()
. ()
. , . , , .
,
, III
.
. | .
II

2.1.
, :
n1 ;
) xn = 3n
) xn = n + n1 ;
+1
n ;
) xn = (1)n n +
) xn = (1)n n2 ;
1
n
) xn = (1)
n! ;

, = 21 : n0 n = n0 , p = n0 : |xn+p xn | = 12 .
.

, .

P 1
2.29. xn = 1 + 12 + . . . + 12 =
2
n
k2
k=1

1;
) xn = n!

k=n+1

k=n+1

xn
> 0 :

k=1
n+p
X

k=1

, = 2. n0 n = n0 , m = n0 + 1 (n, m > n0 ). xn
xm 1, 1, |xn xm | = 2. , , .

. , m > n (xm xn
, m = n |xm xn | = 0 <
< > 0). m = n + p, p N.
xn
> 0 n0 :

;
).

2
2;
) xn = nn2 +
2
n
P
1
) xn =
.
k(k + 1)

k=1

75

n+p
P

k=n+1

p
1
k 6 n+1 <

n >


xn , n0 , n > n0
|xn+p xn | < ,
, p.
74

2.2. , ,
2
n 2 = 1;
3n + 2 = 2 ;
) lim 2n
) lim 3n
2
+1
3
3
n
n 3n + n 1
2n3 + (1)n + 1
) lim n3 n2 + 2 = 2.
n
2.3. , :
n
3
n
) xn = n(1) .
) xn = (1)n + n1 + 1 ;
) xn = n n+2 1 ;
2.4. , ,
,
, .
2.5.
,
3
3n2 + (1)n n + 2
3n2 + 1 ;
) xn = 2n
;
) xn = 2n
2
4n3 + n + 2
n + 3 (1)n
n

+67
; ) xn = n 12n ;
) xn = 7n 256
3n+1
+ (3)n+2

n+1
1
.
) xn = 1 + n
2.6. 2.3,
2
2
2
) xn = n3n+ 1 + n3n+ 2 + . . . + n3n+ n ;
) xn = nn!n .
2.7. . , :
k
) xn = q n , 0 < q < 1;
) xn = nan , k N, a > 1;

) xn = nn!n .
2.8. ,
n+1
n
P
(2n)!!
1;
) xn =
) xn = 1 + n1 ; ) xn = (2n
,
+ 1)!!
k3
k=1

(2n + 1)!! = 1 3 5 . . . (2n + 1); (2n)!! = 2 4 6 . . . 2n.


2.9. , lim xn = a, lim |xn | = |a|.
n
n
, |xn | , xn ?
76

2.10. , xn , yn . xn + yn xn yn ?
2.11. , xn .
xxn+1
?
n
2.12. ,
2
3
n = ;
) lim nn ++11 = +;
) lim 13+2n
2
n

n 2
n +1
) lim (1)
= .
2n 1
n
n
2.13. , xn = n(1) , .
2.14. , ,
2.15.
2.15. ,
) ;
) ;
) ;
) , .
2.16.

sup xn ,

inf xn ,

lim xn ,

lim xn :

) xn = 3 + 2(1)n+1 ;
) xn = (1)
n ;
n ;
) xn = (1)n n +
) xn = 2(1)n + n32 ;
1
) xn = n2 (1 + (1)n );
) xn = n(2 + (1)n );
) xn = n + (1)n .
) xn = n(1 + 2(1)n );
2.17.
? , :
) [0; 1];
)
(0;o1);
n
) 1; 12 ; 31 ; . . .; n1 ; . . . ;
77

III.

1.

6 U () (),
U
U (), a, a+0, a0
U () a.

a+0

a0

(; )
(; +) (; )
(; +)
(; )
(a; a+) (a; a)
(; +) (; )
(; +)

U () (a; a+) [a; a+) (a; a]


() (a; a)
U
(a; a+)

lim f (x) = ,
x
| 6 , .. 36 .
, f .
xn , lim xn = xn 6= , f (xn )
n
n > n0 , n0 | .
xn 6= = a, a + 0, a 0 xn 6= a,
xn 6= .

k=1

79

k=1

k=1

2.20. , ,

:
n

n
P
1 + k ; ) x = 2(1)n .
) xn = (1)n 1 + n1 ; ) xn =
n
1 + k2
k=1

2.21.
, q , 1.
Sn | n
. , lim Sn = 1 x1 q ,
n
x1 | , q | (
).
2.22. , ,
, ( ). , .
2.23.
, lim xn = a R,
n

lim x1 + .n. . + xn = a ( -

).
( xn = (1)n ).
2.24. , ,
+.
2.25. xn
: p N, > 0 n0 : n > n0 |xn+p xn | <
< ?
78

II. lim f (x) = +, > 0 , f (x)


xa0
a < x < a, xn , lim xn < a xn < a, n
lim f (xn ) = +.
n
III. lim f (x) = b + 0, > 0 ,
x
f |x| > , xn , lim xn = ,
n
lim f (xn ) = b + 0.
n
33 .
f x f .
= a, a + 0, a 0, a f
; a D(f ), f (a) .
3.1.

0, x 6= 0,
( . 3.1);
1, x = 0
) f (x) 0 ( . 3.2);
) f (x) = 0, x 6= 0, 0
6 D(f ) ( . 3.3).

) f (x) =

3.1 (
). f

. , lim f (x) = ,
x
xn , lim xn = xn 6= ,
n
lim f (xn ) = .
n
:
I. lim f (x) = b, > 0 , f xa
0 < |x a| < , xn , lim xn = a xn 6= a,
n
lim f (xn ) = b.

) 0; 1; 12 ; 31 ; . . .; n1 ; . . . .
2.18. xn , yn . , +
xn + yn ?
2.19. , ,
:
n
n
n
P
P
P
1;
1 + k + k2 ;
1
) xn =
) xn =
) xn =
k! .
k3
k3 + k4

0
. 3.1

0
. 3.2

. 3.3

lim f (x) = 0, f
x0
0 xn , lim xn = 0 xn 6= 0,
n
f (xn ) = 0. C x 0
, 0. : 80

,
.
f (x) = C
( ), lim f (x) = C .
x
3.2. f (x) = x a R
lim f (x) = a.

xa

xn , lim xn = a
n
xn 6= a,
lim f (xn ) = lim xn = a.

, lim f (x) = a.
xa
,
lim x = ,

lim x = +,

x+

lim x = .

1, x Q,
f (x) =
0, x
6 Q.
|
. 2.1 , |
. , a R
lim f (x).
xa
lim f (x) = b, xa
xn , lim xn = a xn 6= a,
n
lim f (xn ) = b. , n
xn xn , lim xn = a,
n
6 Q
lim x = a, xn 6= a, xn 6= a, xn Q, xn
n n
n = 1, 2, . . . . a | ,
1 , x = a+ , | xn = a+ n
n
n
. a | ,

xn = a + n1 , xn = an |
3.3.

81

32 . ,
= ().
,
.
3.1. | 6 .
lim f (x) = 3.1 lim f (x) =
x
x
= 3.2.

lim f (x) = .
x

> 0 > 0 :

() f (x) U ().
x U

xn ,
lim xn = , xn 6= . , , -

().
n0 , n > n0 xn U
f (xn ) U (). ,
> 0 n: n > n0 f (xn ) U ().

, lim f (xn ) = . xn | ,
n
lim f (x) = .
x
lim f (x) = . ,
x
lim f (x) = . ,
x

> 0 :

() :
> 0 x U

f (x)
6 U ().

, |
(a, a + 0 a 0, a R). = n1 , n = 1, 2, . . . () n, ..
x U
xn , n = 1, 2, . . . :
1/n () :
n N xn U

f (xn )
6 U ().

(3.1)

, xn 6= lim xn = 2.3 ( = a,
n

1 < x < a + 1 , = a + 0, a < x < a + 1 ,


a n
n
n
n
n
1 < x < a). lim f (x ) = , ..
= a 0, a n
n
n
n

n0 : n > n0 f (xn ) U (),

83

a ( 2.11). n = 1, 2,
. . . f (xn ) = 1, f (xn ) = 0, .. b = 1 b = 0. ,
lim f (x) ( , ).
xa
. xn > a, xn > a, , lim f (x).
xa+0
, lim f (x).
xa0
, 3.3,
. , lim f (x)
x
, xn
xn , lim xn = , lim xn = , xn 6= , xn 6= ,
n
n
lim f (xn ) lim f (xn ) . n
n
lim f (x) = , lim f (xn ) =
x
n

= lim f (xn ) = , . , lim f (x)


n
x
.
3.2 (
). | 6 . ,

lim f (x) = , > 0 > 0 ,

() f (x) x U
U ().
36 . :
I. lim f (x) = b, a, b R,
xa

> 0 > 0 :

x 6= a, |x a| < |f (x) b| < .

II. lim f (x) = +,


xa0

E > 0 > 0 :

x (a ; a) f (x) > E.

III. lim f (x) = b + 0,


x

> 0 > 0 :

IV. lim f (x) = ,

x, |x| > b 6 f (x) < b + .

x+

E > 0 > 0 :

x > f (x) < E.

82

(3.1). ,
lim f (x) = .
x
= , + , ,
= n, n = 1, 2, . . . = , |xn | > n,
= +, xn > n, = , xn < n. ,

lim xn = , .
n
, 3.1 .
3.1, 3.2, .
3.4. g(x) = xf (x), f (x)
| 3.3, ..

x, x Q,
g(x) =
0, x
6 Q.
, lim g(x) = 0.
x0

( ).
x |g(x)| 6 |x|, |x| <
|g(x)| < . ,
> 0 = :

x, 0 < |x 0| < |g(x) 0| < .

3.2 lim g(x) = 0.


x0
( ).
xn , lim xn = 0, xn 6= 0,
n
lim g(xn ) = 0, g(xn ) =
n
= xn f (xn ) |
f (xn ) (0 6 f (xn ) 6 1) xn ( 2.9).
, lim g(x) = 0.

x0
3.3. f x , lim f (x) = 0. f
x
x , lim f (x) = .
x
3.5. f (x) = x |
x 0, x , x +, x .
84

,
x a, a R, a 6= 0.
2.

3) lim (f (x))k = bk ( k N; b 6= 0, k Z);


x
4) lim xk = ak , a R ( k N; a 6= 0,
xa

3.1 ( ). lim f (x) = b,


x
| 6 , b R, b 6= 0, > 0 ,
() sign f (x) = sign b.
x U
() f (x) > 0,
, b > 0, > 0: x U
() f (x) < 0.
b < 0, > 0: x U
b = lim f (x) > 0. 3.2
x
() f (x) Ub (b), .. 0 <
= b : > 0: x U
()
< f (x) < 2b. , , x U
f (x) > 0. b < 0
( = b).

3.2 ( ). lim f (x) = b, lim g(x) = c,

b, c R, | 6 .
1) lim (f (x) + g(x)) = b + c;

3.3 ( ).

lim f (x) = b, lim g(x) = c,


x
x
()
> 0, x U
f (x) 6 g(x), b 6 c.
xn ,
(),
lim xn = , xn 6= . n0 : n > n0 xn U

, f (xn ) 6 g(xn ). lim f (xn ) = b, lim g(xn ) = c,


n
n
2.2 b 6 c.

() f (x) < g(x),


. x U
b 6 c (, b = c). , x (0; )
x < 2x, lim x = lim 2x = 0.
x+0

> 0 :

f (x)
c =
6 0, lim g(x) = cb .
x

3- . c 6= 0, 3.1
(), f (x)
> 0 , g(x) 6= 0 U
g(x)

(). xn ,
U
lim xn = xn 6= , lim f (xn ) = b,
n

f (x )
lim g(xn ) = c 6= 0, , lim g(x n) = cb . ,
n
n

f (x)

lim g(x) = cb .

1- 2- ( c 6= 0).

. 3.2:
1) lim (Cf (x)) = Cb;
x
2) lim (f (x) g(x)) = b c;
x

85

(), , g(xn ) > f (xn ). lim f (xn ) = +, U


n
2.15 lim g(xn ) = +. xn | ,
n
lim g(x) = +.
x
2) .

3.3. f

x .
x .
xn ,
().
lim xn = , xn 6= . n0 : n > n0 xn U

fg

, f (xn ) n > n0 , ..
2.3 . , lim g(xn ) = 0.
n
lim f (xn )g(xn ) = 0 ( n
).

xn | , lim f (x)g(x) = 0.
x

3.4. lim f (x) = b R, > 0


x

().
, f U
= 1:
> 0 :

() |f (x) b| < 1,
x U

, b 1 < f (x) < b + 1, .. f


().

U
3.5. lim f (x) = , a R
xa

lim f (x) =

xa+0

xa0

f (x) U () x
(), f (x) U () x U
(a + 0)
U
(a 0).
xU

lim f (x) = lim f (x) = .


> 0 1 > 0 :
> 0 2 > 0 :

() f (x) 6 h(x) 6 g(x),


x U

lim h(x) = b.

, f (xn ) 6 h(xn ) 6 g(xn ). lim f (xn ) = lim g(xn ) = b,


n
n
2.3 lim h(xn ) = b. xn | ,
n
lim h(x) = b.

1)

3.2.

2)

lim f (x) = +,

() g(x) > f (x),


> 0: x U

() g(x) 6 f (x),
> 0: x U

lim g(x) = +;

lim f (x) = ,

lim g(x) = .

1) xn ,
lim xn = , xn 6= . n0 : n > n0 xn
n

86

3.6. lim f (x) =


x

lim f (x) = lim f (x) =

x+

= .
, = max(1 , 2 ).
3.7. 1) f
1 | x
x , g(x) = f (x)
.
2) f x > 0:
() f (x) 6= 0, g(x) = 1 |
x U
f (x)

x .
.
xn , lim xn = xn 6=
n
(),
6= . lim f (xn ) = 0. n0 : n > n0 xn U
n

, f (xn ) =
6 0. 2.13
1 | . g(xn ) = f (x
n)
xn | , lim g(x) = .
x
.
, lim f (x) = , , x
= 1,
> 0 :

() |f (x)| > 1,
x U

().
.. f (x) 6= 0 U

3.5 ( ().
). lim f (x) = f (x) 6= U
x

= lim f (x) = .

xa+0

xn ,
(),
lim xn = , xn 6= . n0 : n > n0 xn U

(), > 0,
U

x+0

3.4 (
). lim f (x) = lim g(x) = b R,
x

2) lim (f (x)g(x)) = bc;


3)

k Z).

xa0

lim g(u) = .

lim g(f (x)) = .

xn ,
lim xn = , xn 6= . lim f (xn ) = . -

un = f (xn ); lim un = . n0
n

(), , un = f (xn ) 6= .
, n > n0 xn U
lim g(un ) = , .. lim g(f (xn )) = . n
n

xn | , lim g(f (x)) = .


x
1. , ,
| 6 . 216 .

87

88

x (a; a + 1 ) f (x) U ();

x (a 2 ; a) f (x) U ().

(a) f (x) U ().


= min(1 , 2 ), x U

()
2. f (x) 6= U
3.5 . .
f (x) 0. lim f (x) = 0, f (x) 6= 0
x0

(0) . g(u) = 0, u 6= 0;
U
1, u = 0.
, lim g(u) = 0 ( 3.1). g(f (x)) 1,
u0
lim g(f (x)) = 1 6= lim g(u). 3.5 ,
x0
u0
. h i
1 = +.
3.6. , lim x

6 |f (x ) b| + |b f (x )| <

() |f (x )
> 0 > 0: x , x U
f (x )| < . xn , lim xn = , xn 6= . ()
n

n0 :

x+0

3.5. f (x) = x1 ,
= +0, = lim f (x) = + ( 3.2,
x+0

3.5 3.7, , f (x) > 0 x > 0).


f (x) 6= + .
[u] > u 1 u, 3.2 3.2 ,
lim g(u) = +, g(u) = [u], =
u+
= +. , lim g(f (x)) = +.

x+0

3.6 ( ). f

, | 6 .
lim f (x) > 0 > 0:
x

U () |f (x ) f (x )| < ( , -

x , x

> 0 n0 :

xn xn :
lim f (xn )
n

() :
> 0 x , x U

f a R. f a, lim f (x) = f (a).


xa

( 3.2)

f a ,
> 0 > 0 :

x, |x a| < |f (x) f (a)| < .

x 6= a ( 0 < |x a| < )
, x = a |f (x) f (a)| =
= 0 < , .
( 3.1)
f a , xn , lim xn = a, lim f (xn ) = f (a).
n
n
xn 6= a - . ,
xn , a, f (xn ) , f (a). , . , f (xn )
, f (a). lim f (xn ) = f (a),
n
,
f (a). lim f (xn ) =
n
= f (a) ,
.
3.5. a R f
a + 0 ( a 0). f
( ) a,
lim f (x) = f (a) ( lim f (x) =
xa+0
xa0
= f (a)).
91

|f (x ) f (x )| > .

90

:
lim f (x) f (a + 0),

xa0

lim f (x) f (+),

xa+0

x+

a 6= b.

{f (x1 ), f (x1 ), f (x2 ), f (x2 ), . . . , f (xn ), f (xn ), . . .}

()
= 1, U
x , x .
f (x ) = 1, f (x ) = 0, , |f (x ) f (x )| = 1.

3.

lim f (xn ) = b,

, a b. , lim f (x).

x
3.7. ,
a R lim f (x), f |
xa
(. 3.3).
:
> 0 :

3.4.

= a,

{x1 , x1 , x2 , x2 , . . . , xn , xn ,
. . .}, xn
()
xn . , ( U
xn xn , ,
).

|f (x ) f (x )| = |(f (x ) b) + (b f (x ))| 6
89

n, m > n0 |f (xn ) f (xm )| < .

() x U
()
x U

()) ( m > n0 xm U
())).
(( n > n0 xn U

f (xn ) ,
.
, xn ,
lim xn = , xn 6= , lim f (xn ) .

).

lim f (x) = b R.
x

() |f (x ) b| <
> 0 > 0 :
x U
2

() |f (x ) b| < .
x U
2


+ = .
2 2

lim f (x) f (a 0),

lim f (x) f ().

, f a
, f (a + 0) = f (a 0) = f (a) ( 3.5).
: f a
,
, .
3.6. f
a R,
a .
a f .
3.7. a f f (a+0) f (a0),
. d = f (a + 0) f (a 0)
a.
f (a+0) = f (a0), . ,
, .
1. a .
, f (x) = |x| 1 x x > 0,
, , 1, ,
, .
2.
f (a + 0) = f (a 0), .
f (a + 0) = f (a + 0) 6= f (a) (, , a = 0 3.1), f a (, ,
a = 0 3.1). f (a)
f (a+0) = f (a0), ,
a ( , ). 3.1 a = 0 3.1
3.1.
92

3.8. f (x) = sign x (


. 2.4). , f (+0) = 1 (f (x) = 1
(+0), x > 0, U
x +0). ,
f (0) = 1. a = 0 | ,
2.
3.9. f (x) = [x] (
. 2.2). a Z, f (a + 0) = a = f (a),
f (a0) = a1. a
. 1. ,
f ,
.
3.10. (. 3.3
) a
,
.
, .
1 (
3.11. f (x) = x
. 3.4). 3.7 3.2 ,
lim f (x) = ( f (x), lim f (x) = +,
x0
x+0
lim f (x) = ).
x0

a = 0
( | ).

3.7. f g a,

f g

( 3.1 3.2). 3.7 , , (


) ,
.
2
3.12. f (x) = x2 5x + 6 :
x 6x + 8
) x 0;
) x 2;
) x 4;
) x .
) f 0,
, x =
= 0. lim f (x) = f (0) = 34 .
x0
) , x =
= 2. , x 6= 2 f
3
g(x) = x
x 4 . g 2, lim g(x) =
x2

= g(2) = 12 . f = g
2, x 2 ,
lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 12 .
x2

1 = x 6x + 8 .
) h(x) = f (x)
x2 5x + 6
4, lim h(x) = h(4) = 0.
x4
3.7 lim f (x) = ( , h(x) 6= 0

(4)).
U

x4

) lim f (x) = lim


x

93

3.8 ( ). lim f (x) = b R,


x

b.

lim g(f (x)) = g(b).

(
).
xn ,
lim xn = xn 6= . lim f (xn ) = b.
n
n
un = f (xn ); lim un = b. n
lim g(un ) = g(b), ..
n
lim g(f (xn )) = g(b). xn | ,
n
lim g(f (x)) = g(b).

x
. 3.5,
,
().
f (x) 6= b U
( ).

b = f (c),

c R,

g(f )

c.
3.8, lim g(f (x)) = g(b) = g(f (c)).
xc

4.

5+
1 x
6+
1 x

1 + 6 lim 1
6
1 5 lim x
x
x x2
x2
8 = 1 6 lim 1 + 8 lim 1 =
x x2
x x
x2

f (
) X R, x1 , x2 X , x1 < x2 ,
f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) ( f (x1 ) 6 f (x2 )). f ( ) X
R, x1 , x2 X , x1 < x2 , f (x1 ) > f (x2 ) ( f (x1 ) > f (x2 )).
X .
3.8.

95

94

1 3.13. f (x) = x
(; 0) (0; +),
D(f ) = (; 0) (0; +).

1)

lim g(f (x)) = g lim f (x)

5 0 + 6 0 = 1 ( 3.2 3.7).
= 11
60+80

. 3.4

x2

f +g

a;
a.
, f (x) = C f (x) = x

g(a) 6= 0,

3.9 ( ).

f ( , )
(a; b), a | a = , b | b =
= +. lim f (x) = sup f (x); f xb0

+.

(a; b),

(a;b)

, |

(a; b),

lim f (x) = inf f (x);

xa+0

(a;b)

, |

.
2) f ( , )
(a; b), a | a = , b | b =
= +. lim f (x) = sup f (x) lim f (x) =
xa+0

= inf f (x)
(a;b)

(a;b)

xb0

( ).

. b = +, b 0
+. a = , a + 0 .
, x b 0 ( -

).
xn ,
lim xn = b 0 (xn < b, b R). ,
n
lim f (xn ) = M = sup f (x).
n
(a;b)
1) M R, .. f
r
r
r
(a; b). x (a; b)

x
x
n
b
(f (x) 6 M ) ( > 0 x (a; b):
. 3.5
f (x ) > M ).
M < M M , > 0. lim xn =
n
= b 0, n0 : n > n0 xn (x ; b) (. . 3.5).
f (xn ) > f (x ) > M , n f (xn ) 6 M .
> 0 n0 :
96

n > n0 f (xn ) (M ; M ],

, f (xn ) U (M ). lim f (xn ) = M .


n
2) M = +, .. f (a; b).
E > 0 x (a; b): f (x ) > E . lim xn =
n
= b 0, n0 : n > n0 xn (x ; b) (. . 3.5).
f (xn ) > f (x ) > E .
E > 0 n0 :

n > n0 f (xn ) > E.

, lim f (xn ) = +.

n
2.4
2.6 .
3.8. f (a; b)
( ), -

, .
( 1.2

). . f Q,
.

h i
1 (0; 1)
3.14. f (x) = x
, x1 (0; 1) ( x = n1 , n = 2,
3, . . . ). (0; 1),
. 3.6.

(a; b) .
f (a; b) (
, ); x0 (a; b). f (a; x0 )
( f (x) 6 f (x0 ) x (a; x0 )).
3.9 lim f (x).

lim f (x). x0 |
xx0 +0
, | .

xx0 0

3.9. f , (a; b),

(a; b).

f (a; b) (
, ); x0 (a; b). x (a; x0 )
f (x) 6 f (x0 ).
( 3.3), f (x0 0) 6 f (x0 ) ( f (x0 0)
3.8). f (x0 ) 6 f (x0 + 0). f (x0 0) = f (x0 + 0), f (x0 )

, f x0 .
3.10. f ,

(a; b)

.
3.10. X R

X (a; b), [a; b], (a; b], [a; b),


(a; +), [a; +), (; b), (; b], (; +), a, b R, a <
< b.

.

a = inf X , b = sup X ( X
, a < b). X ,
a X , b X , X [a; b]. a, b X , [a; b] X .
, X = [a; b].
X , a
6 X, b
6 X , X
(a; b). ,
x0 (a; b) x1 (a; x0 ), x2 (x0 ; b) :

x1 , x2 X.

[x1 ; x2 ] X x0 X . x0 | (a; b),


(a; b) X . , X = (a; b).
. ,
X ,
a = inf X X , X [a; +). C ,
x0 [a; +) x1 > x0 :

x1 X.

[a; x1 ] X x0 X . x0 | [a; +),


[a; +) X . , X = [a; +).

3.10. f , , ,
, , , f .
, , [a; b],
[a; b], (a; b), a
b.
3.11 ( ).

[a; b],

[a; b].

.
. , ( 3.3 3.10) .

( ) |

97

1
2
. 3.6

5.

| , . (f (x0 0); f (x0 +0)) . f , -

1
3

X R, 3.9.

98

f [a; b].
E > 0 x [a; b] :

|f (x)| > E.

E = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n, . . .
x xn [a; b] ,
n = 1, 2, . . . |f (xn )| > n.
{ xnk : lim xnk = x0 . xnk [a; b],
k
x0 [a; b] ( 2.2). f
x0 , , lim f (xnk ) = f (x0 ). x0 |
k
, , x0 = a, lim xnk = a + 0, f
k
a. lim f (xnk ) = f (x0 )
k
.
|f (xnk )| > nk > k ( 1 6 n1 < n2 < . . . < nk <
< . . .), lim f (xnk ) = .
k
, f (x) [a; b].

3.15. , , .
f (x) = x1 (0; 1). ,
E > 0 x(E) =

1
:
2E

f (x) > E.

,
[a; b],
.
1 , x [1; 0) [0; 1];
f (x) = x

0, x = 0.
x = 0 [1; 1] ( 3.15). . 3.7.
3.15 3.16 , 3.11
:
| .
3.16.

3.12 ( ).

x1

x2

[a; b]

[a; b],
f (x1 ) = sup f (x), f (x2 ) =

[a;b]
99

100

x0 | , ,
3.11. , lim f (xnk ) =
k
= M . , M = f (x0 ); x0 ,
f (x).

3.17. , , , , .
f (x) = x (0; 1). : sup f (x) = 1, inf f (x) = 0,

1
1

. 3.7

= inf f (x) (
[a;b]

.
3.18. ,
[a; b], ,
,
.
x, x (1; 1);
x =
f (x) =
0, x = 1.
= 1 ( [1; 1] ); sup f (x) = 1; inf f (x) = 1;
(1;1)

x(1;1)

).

, M = sup f (x) ( [a;b]

).
,
3.11,
( x [a; b] f (x) 6 M )

( M < M x [a; b] :

f (x) > M ).

M = M n1 , n = 1, 2, . . . x(M ) xn [a; b]
, n = 1, 2, . . .
M > f (xn ) > M

1
.
n

2.3 lim f (xn ) = M .


n
{ xnk : lim xnk = x0 [a; b].
k
f x0 , , lim f (xnk ) = f (x0 ). ,
k

101


c, n .
, c [a; b]. , f (c) = 0.
, , , f (c) > 0 ( c | ,
). 3.1
> 0 :

x U (c) f (x) > 0

( c ,
f (c) > 0; c | , | ).
n0 , n > n0 n ,
, n > n0 n U (c) (.
. 2.10). , x n f (x) > 0. , n
. , f (c) =
= 0. , c (a; b), f (a) 6= 0, f (b) 6= 0.
3.19. [a; b]
.
f (x) =

3.13 ({). f -

[a; b] a b
f (a)f (b) < 0), c (a; b)


(..

, f (c) = 0.
b
x1 = a +
2 | .
f (x1 ) = 0, . ,
1 | [a; b], f . x2
| 1 . f (x2 ) = 0,
. , 2 | 1 ,
f , ..
- n- f (xn ) = 0, -

. 1 2 . . . n . . . ,
n
n
. n- b 2n a = (b a) 12
| 2.10.
102

3.11 3.12 m M | ,
x1 x2 [a; b] , f (x1 ) = m; f (x2 ) =
= M . f [x1 ; x2 ] ( [x2 ; x1 ],

). 3.14

y0 [m; M ] x0 [x1 ; x2 ] :

f (x0 ) = y0 .

, y0 E(f ), E(f ) [m; M ], E(f ) = [m; M ].


, .
3.16.

P (x) = a0 x2n+1 +a1 x2n + . . .+a2n x+


+ a2n+1 , a0 6= 0 ( , a0 > 0).

(x)
a
= a0 + ax1 + . . . + 2n+1
, .. P (x) =
f (x) = xP2n+1
x2n+1

= x2n+1 f (x). , lim f (x) = a0 > 0. ,


lim x2n+1 = +,

x+

1,
0 6 x 6 1;
1, 1 6 x < 0.

lim x2n+1 = ,

lim P (x) =

x+

= +, lim P (x) = ( (+) a0 =


x

[1; 1] , (1; 1) .
3.14 ( ). f

[a; b], y0 , f (a)


f (b), x0 [a; b] , f (x0 ) = y0 .
y0 = f (a) y0 = f (b), x0 = a x0 = b . g(x) =
= f (x) y0 . g(a) g(b) ;
{ x0 (a; b) ,

g(x0 ) = 0, .. f (x0 ) = y0 .
3.15. f
[a; b]. [a; b]
[m; M ], m = inf f (x), M = sup f (x).
[a;b]

(0;1)

(0;1)

[a;b]
103

= +, () a0 = ; -

2.14 , ).
, E = 1:
1 > 0 :

2 > 0 :

x > 1 P (x) > 1,

x < 2 P (x) < 1.

x1 > 1 , x2 < 2 .
P (x1 ) > 0, P (x2 ) < 0. {
c [x2 ; x1 ] , P (c) = 0.

3.11. f
I , E(f ) = f (I) |

( ).
104

y1 , y2 f (I). x1 , x2 I ,
f (x1 ) = y1 , f (x2 ) = y2 . f [x1 , x2 ],
3.14
f (x0 ) = y0 ,

x,
x Q,
x, x
6 Q.

0 x1

1,
x Q;
1, x
6 Q.

g , lim f (x) = 0 = f (0) (x0


g x). , f x = 0.
, a R xn xn , lim xn = a, lim xn = a, xn 6= a,
n
n
xn 6= a, xn Q, xn
6 Q (. 3.3).
lim f (xn ) = lim xn = a, lim f (xn ) = lim xn = a,
n
n
n
n
a 6= 0 lim f (x) , , f xa
x 6= 0.

, f
[1; 1] | [1; 1].
3.11 .
3.12. f

I . f
f (I) | .

I

3.11.

105

, .. y Y x X , y = f (x). f X .
Y X , f . f 1 .
X = D(f ) = E(f 1 )

Y = E(f ) = D(f 1 )

x1
x2
x3

y1
y2
y3

x0

x2

6.

f | X = D(f ) Y = E(f ),
X Y , f , 106

, f 1 .
D(f ) = E(f 1 ) = I , E(f ) = D(f 1 ) = J . ,
1
J . y1 , y2 J , y1 < y2 . f
, f 1 (y1 ) < f 1 (y2 ). , .. x1 =
= f 1 (y1 ) > x2 = f 1 (y2 ). ,
f , f (x1 ) > f (x2 ), .. y1 > y2 | -

.
E(f 1 ) = I | f 1 J ,

3.12 f 1 J .
3.22. f (x) = xn n. , D(f ) = (; +),
(; +),
lim f (x) = +,

I.

lim f (x) = .

, f , . E(f ) | , ,
, .. E(f ) = (; +). 3.17 (; +)
, f 1 , n- (

n
).
y

y=

J = f (I) ,
f 1 .
f I .
3.11, J | . , f
I J .
, .. x1 , x2 I , x1 6= x2 f (x1 ) =
= f (x2 ). x1 < x2 , f (x1 ) < f (x2 )

| .

. 3.11
107

3.17 ( ).

x2

3.11.

x+

2.1 () D(f ) E(f ), E(f ) Y (. . 3.10, . 2.1).


3.21. X | , , y = f (x) | x. Y N, E(f ),
, ,
(. 2.1).

a
. 3.9

x1 , x2 I , x1 < x0 < x2 .
(. . 3.8) y1 = f (x1 ) 6 f (x0 0) < f (x0 + 0) 6 f (x2 ) =
= y2 . , y1 , y2 f (I), [y1 ; y2 ]
f (I) ( (f (x0 0); f (x0 +
+ 0)) f (I) f (x0 ),
f (x0 0) f (x0 + 0)). , f (I)
.
I , . , a I f a. x2 I
, x2 > a. (. . 3.9) y2 = f (x2 ) > f (a +
+ 0) > f (a). f (a) y2 f (I),
[f (a); y2 ] f (I). , f (I) .

f 1
. 3.10

. 3.8

108

xn

g(x) =

f (a + 0)
f (a)

y1

, x = 0, .
, ,
f (x) = xg(x),

y
y2

y=

f (x) =

y
y2
f (x0 + 0)
f (x0 )
f (x0 0)

y = xn

y0 [y1 ; y2 ] x0 [x1 ; x2 ] :

, y0 f (I). , f (I) | .
, .
3.20.

, f I .
f x0 I .
( 3.8 3.9),
f (x0 + 0) > f (x0 0).

n x

. 3.12

y = xn , x = n y .

x, y = n x. x y I III ,
y = f (x) y = f 1 (x) (. . 3.11).
3.23. f (x) = xn n. ,
D(f ) E(f ) (xn =
= (x)n ). D(f ) = [0; +); f (x)
[0; +). , lim f (x) = +,
x+
f (x) > 0, f (0) = 0. E(f ) | , 0, , .. E(f ) = [0; +). 3.17 [0; +)
, f 1 , n- (

n
).

y = xn y = n x
. 3.12.
, n- ,
, . n- , ,
(
).
m
x n = n xm ,
,
.

,
n- .
109

3.26.

a > 0
lim

a = 1.

a > 1. n a > 1,

n
a = 1 + n , n > 0. , -

a = (1 + n )n > 1 + nn > nn ,

0 < n < na .

2.3 lim n = 0, .. lim n a = 1.


n

0 < a < 1, b = a1 > 1.

1 = 1.
, lim n a =
n
lim

a = 1 .

,
r > 0 lim x1r = +0.
x+
, m
3.27.

lim

x+

1
= +0.
x

(3.3)

, m1 x < x > m .
> 0 = m : x > 0 < m1 x < .
(3.3) .
r | ,
3.25 m ,
1 . x > 0
r > m
0<

1
1
1
.
6 1/m = m
xr
x
x

(3.3) 3.4 , lim x1r = +0.


x+
7.

n- , (
111

3.24. , :

1) lim xn = a > 0, lim xn = a;


n
n
2) lim xn = 0, n0 : n > n0 xn > 0,
n

lim xn = 0.
n
, :

1)
y = x a > 0;
2) x 0.
.
1) lim xn = a > 0, 2.6 n0 : n > n0
n

xn > 0 xn . > 0 n1 : n > n1

|xn a| < a, n > n2 = max(n0 ; n1 ) | xn a| =

|x a|
a
= n < = . , lim xn = a.
x + a
a
n

2) > 0 n1 : n > n1 |xn | < 2 , n2 =

= max(n0 ; n1 ), n > n2 | xn | < , , lim xn = 0.


n

3.25.

r > 0 lim n1r = 0.


n
, m
1
lim = 0.
n m n

(3.2)

, m1n < n > m .

> 0 n0 = [m ] + 1: n > n0 m1n < .

(3.2) .
r | ,
1 , ( r = p ,
m , r > m
m
1 ). n = 1, 2, . . .
p, m N, r > m

0<

1
1
1
.
6 1/m = m
nr
n
n

(3.2) 2.3 , lim n1r = 0.


n

110

, , ).
| , .
x R, P0 | , (1; 0), Px |

, OP0

x OPx .
sin x cos x |
sin x , ctg x = cos x . Px (. . 3.13), tg x = cos
x
sin x
, | sin x| 6 1, | cos x| 6 1
x R, :
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ..
y
, Px
x
. ,
x |
0
P0 x
, x.
. 3.13
.
VI. ,
, , . , ,
(, , ). , ,
, .
, , , , .
3.13. x
112

| sin x| 6 |x|;

x 6= 0,

| sin x| < |x|.

a R


x 6= 0.
x sin x ,
| sin x| < x x > 0.
x > 2 , | sin x| 6 1 <
< 2 6x,
0 < x < 2 . (.

Px
0

> 0 () = :

x
Hx P0 x

. 3.14

. 3.14):

0 < sin x = Px Hx < Px P0 < Px P0 = x.


3.14.

x1 + x2
x2 x1
cos
>0
2
2

sin(x2 x1 )
>0
cos x2 cos x1
( 0 < x2 x1 < sin(x2 x1 ) > 0; cos x1 > 0; cos x2 >
> 0).
2) 4) .

3.18. y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y =


= ctg x .
3.13

x a
xa
x + a
1 = |x a|.
| sin x sin a| = 2 sin
cos
6 2
2
2
2
tg x2 tg x1 =

113

.
y
y=

arc
co
sx
0

x
1
sin x
<
, .. cos x <
< 1.
sin x
cos x
x
cos x sinx x
(0), = .
|x| < , x 6= 0, .. U
1<

= cos 0 = 1, 3.4 lim sinx x = 1.

=
1

co

sx

. 3.16


h
i
f (x)= sin x

2 ; 2 , f 2 = 1, f 2 = 1,
| sin x| 6 1, sin x, , [1; 1]. [1; 1] ,

(f 1 (x)
h
i
arcsin x); D(f 1 ) = [1; 1]; E(f 1 ) = 2 ; 2 .
f (x) = cos x [0; ], f (0) = 1, f () = 1, | cos x| 6 1,
E(f ) = [1; 1].
[1; 1] ,
(f 1 (x) arccos x), D(f 1 ) = [1; 1], E(f 1 ) = [0; ].
y = arccos x (. . 3.16).
3.15. x [1; 1]

a = arcsin x, b = 2 arccos x. , a 2 ; 2 ;
h
i

arccos x [0; ], b 2 ; 2 . sin a = x,

sin b = sin 2 arccos x = cos(arccos x) = x = sin a.

115

x0

x0

114

i
h
a b 2 ; 2 , sin b = sin a
b = a.


y = tg x

sin
x

2 ; 2 , lim
f (x) = lim
cos x = + (

x 2

y = cos x x = 0, lim cos x =

lim sin x = 1,

arcsin x + arccos x = 2 .

,
P0 x ). OPx ,

: P0 Tx > P0 Px ,
. 3.15
.. tg x > x.
, 0 < x < 2 sin x < x <
< tg x.
sin x:
0

x1 6 sin x2 x1 > 0; < x1 + x2 <


( 0 < x2
2
2
2
2
2
2
x2 > 0).
cos x1 +
2

3) 2 < x1 < x2 < 2 .

3.19 ( ).

sin x
lim
= 1.
x0 x
sinx x x 6= 0. 0 < x < 2 ,
sin x < x ( 3.13), , x < tg x (. . 3.15).
, tg x = P0 Tx (y P
2x
P0 Tx | Tx
). , P0 Tx + Tx P2x >

> P0 P2x ( , Px

1) y = sin x 2 ; 2 ;
2) y = cos x [0;];

3) y = tg x 2 ; 2 ;
4) y = ctg x (0; ).
1) 2 6 x1 < x2 6 2 .
sin x2 sin x1 = 2 sin

x, |x a| < | sin x sin a| < ;

y = sin x a. y = cos x .
sin x ,
y = tg x = cos
x
cos x 6= 0, .. x 6= 2 + k , k Z ( ). ,
y = ctg x x 6= k, k Z.

x 2 0

lim cos x = +0),

x 2 0

x 2 0

lim

x 2 +0

f (x) = (-

), E(f ) | , ,
. , E(f ) = (; +).
(; +) , 1

(f (x) arctg x);
D(f 1 ) = (; +); E(f 1 ) = 2 ; 2 .
y = ctg x
(0; ), lim f (x) = +, lim f (x) = , E(f ) =
x+0
x0
= (; +). (, +)
,
(f 1 (x) arcctg x), D(f 1 ) = (; +), E(f 1 ) = (0; ).
3.15
3.16. x R

arctg x + arcctg x =

.
2

, x
:
arcsin(x) = arcsin x,
arctg(x) = arctg x,

arccos(x) = arccos x;

arcctg(x) = arcctg x.

, arcsin x arctg x | ( ,
, 0); arccos x
arcctg x ,
( , cos x ctg x,
, 0).
116

1
.
2n
2

lim

x0

y = sin

x0

lim

x0

. 3.17

1 cos x
(1 cos x)(1 + cos x)
sin2 x
= lim
= lim 2
=
x0
x0 x (1 + cos x)
x2
x2 (1 + cos x)
2

lim sinx x
2
1
1
=
= .
= x0
lim (1 + cos x)
1 + cos 0
2
x0

3.32.

y = x sin x1

x 0 x .
lim x sin x1 = 0 ( x
x0

sin x1
x 0). , 3.5

lim x sin

1
sin u
= lim
=1
x u0 u

( u = f (x) = x1 , lim f (x) = 0, f (x) 6= 0;


x
). y = x sin x1 . 3.18.

117

8.

ax a > 0, x R,
.
3.12. a > 1, x R. ax
lim arn , rn | n
, lim rn = x.
n
,
.
1
I) . , lim a n = 1
1

( 3.26). lim a n =
n

1
1 = 1.
lim a n

(3.4)
( k0 ,
k > k0 , k).
rn | . , yn = arn .
|yn ym | = |arn arm | = arm |arn rm 1|.
(3.5)
rn ,
: C N: m rm 6 C , , arm 6 aC .
rn , k,
(3.4),
> 0 k N :

n0 :

< a k 1 < a k 1 <

n, m > n0 |rn rm | <

1
,
k

..

1
1
< rn rm < .
k
k

lim

x0

arctg x
= 1,
x

lim

x0

arcsin x
= 1.
x

lim

x0

arctg x
u
1
=1
= lim
=
u0 tg u
x
lim tguu
u0

( u = f (x) = arctg x, lim f (x) = 0,


x0
f (x) 6= 0 x 6= 0; 3.30).

u = f (x) = arcsin x; .

118

II) . , rn , lim rn = x,
n
lim arn . n
rn Q rn Q , lim rn = lim rn = x,
n

lim arn = y 6= z = lim arn .


n
n
sn , rn
rn :

{r1 , r1 , r2 , r2 , . . . , rn , rn , . . .}.

, lim sn = x ( U (x)
n
rn rn , , sn ). asn y z , , .
, lim arn n
rn , lim rn = x.
n
III) . , x
Q, ax 3.12
ax . ,
rn , rn = x n = 1, 2, . . . . , lim rn =
n
= x. , ,
rn Q , lim rn = x,
n

lim arn = lim arn = ax . , ax 3.12


n

ax , x Q.
, x R a > 1 ax .
x
a = 1 a = 1 x R;
0 < a < 1 ax = 1x 3.12.
1

a k 1 < arn rm 1 < a k 1,

, a1 > 1. , a > 0
f (x) = ax , x R.

(3.4) < arn rm 1 < .


(3.5)
> 0 n0 :

x0

3.31.

1
x

1
3.29.

sin x
lim sinx x
tg x
1
x
= lim
= x0
=
=1
x0 cos x
x
lim cos x
cos 0

( cos x x = 0).

3.30.

x0

( , lim sin x1 ).
y = sin x1 . 3.17.

. 3.18

xn > 0 (n = 1, 2, . . . ). sin x1 = 1, sin x1 = 1.


n
n
, lim sin x1 , , lim sin x1
x+0

y = x sin x1

, lim xn = 0, lim xn = 0, , xn > 0,


n

1
, xn =
2n +
2

xn =

x0


, .
1 .
3.28. , lim sin x

n, m > n0 |yn ym | < aC .

aC | ,
yn , , .
119

3.17. x R
ax > 0. a > 1, ax
(; +). 0 < a < 1, ax
(; +).
120

, a > 1 ax (; +). x1 < x2 .


r r , x1 < r < r < x2 . n =
1 .
= 1, 2, . . . rn x1 ; x1 + n
2.3 lim rn = x1 , , lim arn = ax1 . n

, x1 < r , n0 : n > n0 rn < r ,

, arn < ar (

). 2.2 ax1 6 ar . , ax2 > ar .

r
r
a < a , ax1 < ax2 . , ax
(; +).
x R k N: x > k, ax > ak > 0.
a > 1. 0 < a < 1,
1
x
1
a > 1. , a = 1 x > 0 x R
a
(; +).

3.20. ax (; +)

a > 0.

ax = 1x ax 1
a

a > 1.
xn | , lim xn = x0 , xn > x0 . n
x0 rn ,
n = 1, 2, . . . , x0 < xn < rn
(

n = 1, 2, . . .

1 | (. . 3.19)).
rn xn ; xn + n

, 0 6 rn x0 < xn x0 + n1 ;
x0
x n rn x + 1
n
n
lim (xn x0 ) = lim n1 = 0,
. 3.19
n
n
2.3 lim rn = x0 .
n
3.17 ax0 < axn < arn . lim arn = ax0 n
3.12. , 2.3 lim axn = ax0 .
n
xn | , lim ax = ax0 . xx0 +0
, lim ax = ax0 . , ax
xx0 0
x0 R.

121

3.18.

1) lim ax = +, lim ax = +0, a > 1;


x+
x
2) lim ax = +0, lim ax = +, 0 < a < 1.
x+

ax = 1x 1
a

.
a > 1 ax
(; +), lim ax ( +). x+
,
xn , lim xn = +, lim axn =
n
n
= + (
+).

n
= 0 ( 2.10), lim an = +.
xn = n. lim a1
n
n
, lim ax = +. , xn = n x+

, a > 1 f (x) = ax
(; +). | , ,
, 0; , E(f ) = (0; +).
(0; +) , (f 1 (x) loga x), D(f 1 ) = (0; +); E(f 1 ) =
= (; +).
0 < a < 1, f (x) = ax
(; +). , E(f ) = (0; +). f 1 (x) = loga x ,
D(f 1 ) = (0; +), E(f 1 ) = (; +).
y = ax y = loga x . 3.20.
, ( ).
3.19. a, b > 0 x, y R:
122

y
=

lim axn = ax ,

0<a<1
1

y=a

y=

1
0

log a
x

lo
g

. 3.20

1) (ab)x = ax bx ;
x

2)

a
b

x
= abx ;

3) ax+y = ax ay ;

4) axy = aay ;
5) (ax )y = axy .
3. xn , yn | , lim xn = x, lim yn = y .
n
n
axn +yn = axn ayn lim (xn + yn ) = x + y .
n
a > 1 0 < a < 1,
ax .
:
ax+y = lim axn +yn = lim axn lim ayn = ax ay .
n

(3.6)

xn , lim xn = x. lim xn r = xr.


n

(axn )r .

123

( , yn =
= axn ax ). , (ax )r = axr .
y R. rn , lim rn = y .
n
(3.6) (ax )rn = axrn . x
f (y) = (ax )y y , lim (ax )rn = (ax )y .
n
, lim xrn = xy , lim axrn = axy n
n
ax .
lim (ax )rn = lim axrn ,

(ax )y = axy .

,
( ) .
e.
; loge x ln x.
-

1, 2, 4 .
5.
y = r Q. , x R

(ax )r = axr .

lim axn r = axr .

=
, xr
ax > 0, :
axn r

lim axn r = lim (axn )r = (ax )r

= +0,

ax :

a>1

lim xn = lim axn = lim a1


n
n
n
lim ax = +0.

f (x) = (u(x))v(x) ,

u(x) > 0,
f (x) = ev(x) ln u(x) .


, 3.8
u(x) v(x) | , u(x) > 0,
(u(x))v(x) .
124


:
ex

ex

( );
2
ex + ex
ch x =
( );
2
sh x
( );
th x =
ch x
ch x
cth x =
( ).
sh x
sh x =

ch2 x + sh2 x = ch 2x,

x
sh
y=

y
1

x
ch

1+

lim

; lim ch x = +, lim sh x = +, lim sh x = ,


x
x+
x
th x | : x
| th x| < 1. y = sh x, y = ch x, y = th x
. 3.21.
y

, (1+x)1/x x 0
e, .. x xn , lim xn = 0 xn 6= 0, xn = n1 .
n
nk | ( ) ,
lim nk = +; | .
k
U (e) xn .
n0 () | . lim nk = +,
k
nk n0 ().
, U (e) ank .

2 ch x sh x = sh 2x ..

lim (1 + x)1/x = e.
x0
n

1 . e = lim an , an = 1 + n
n


VII
ez , , , .. , - ,
. ,
ch2 x sh2 x = 1,

3.21 ( )

hx
=t
x

1
. 3.21

nk

1
nk

(3.7)

= e.

xk |
, lim xk = 0, xk > 0. k
h i

nk = x1k . ,
k nk 6 x1k < nk + 1. ,
, lim nk = +, (3.7).
k

1
1
nk > xk > nk + 1 ,

1+

1
nk + 1

nk

< (1 + xk ) xk <

1+

1
nk

nk +1

(3.8)

1 + n1k

(3.8)
nk

1 + n1k , (3.7)
k e 1 = e. (3.8)

nk +1
1 + n 1+ 1
k
.
1
1+ n +1

125

1e = e ( (3.7) nk nk + 1;
, +).
1
2.3 (3.8) , lim (1 + xk ) xk = e. xk
k
| ,
, lim (1 + x)1/x = e.
x+0

3.5. y = x. x 0,
y +0 y 6= 0 x 6= 0.

126

3.34.

lim

x0

ln(1 + u)
= 1 3.5
u
u0
u = ex 1. x 0, u 0, u 6= 0 x 6= 0.

lim

x0

y+0

y
z = 1
y . y +0, z +0
z .
z 6= 0 y 6= 0, y = 1 +
z
1+z
(1+ 1 )

z
z
z
1
lim 1 1 +
=
lim
= lim (1 +
z
z+0
z+0 1 + z
z+0
1/z
+ z) lim (1 + z) = e 1 = e (,
z+0

e). ,

lim (1 + x)1/x
x0

= e, ,

lim (1 + x)1/x
x0

= e.

3.21.
3.33. ,
lim

x0

, lim (1 +
x0

ln(1 + ex 1)
= 1,
ex 1

..

lim

x0

x
= 1,
ex 1

lim e x 1 = 1.
x0
3.35. , a > 0

lim

x0

ax 1
= ln a.
x

a = 1 . a > 0, a 6= 1,
u
lim e u 1 = 1 3.5 u = x ln a:

u0

x 0, u 0, u 6= 0 x 6= 0.

ln(1 + x)
= 1.
x
x)1/x

ex 1
= 1.
x

lim

lim (1 + x)1/x = lim (1 y)1/y .

x0

lim

x0

ex ln a 1
= 1,
x ln a

..

lim

x0

ax 1
= ln a.
x

= e.

g(u) = ln u e, 3.8

1
1
ln(1 + x)
= lim ln (1 + x) x = ln lim (1 + x) x = ln e = 1.
lim
x0
x0
x0
x

a (a > 0,
loga (1 + x)
ln(1 + x)
lim
= ln1a .
x
ln a , x0
, e
.

a 6= 1), loga (1 + x) =

127

9.

f g
, | 6 .
, :
1) f (x) = o(g(x)) x , f (x) = (x)g(x),
lim (x) = 0 (: f g );
3.13.

2) f (x) = O(g(x)) x , f (x) = (x)g(x),


(x)
(: f g );
128

3) f (x) = O (g(x)) x , f (x) = O(g(x)) g(x) =


= O(f (x)) x (: f
g );
4) f (x) g(x) x , f (x) = (x)g(x),
lim (x) = 1 (: f g ).
x

g(x) 6= 0 ,
3.13 (x ):

(x)
= 0;
1) f (x) = o(g(x)), lim fg(x)
x

(x)
();
2) f (x) = O(g(x)), C > 0: fg(x)
6 C U

(x)

3) f (x) = O (g(x)), C1 , C2 > 0: C1 6 fg(x)


6 C2

();
U
(x)
= 1.
4) f (x) g(x), lim fg(x)
x
f (x) g(x) | 0, , ..
(n ).
3.14. xn yn | , n > n0 , n0 N. ,
1) xn = o(yn ), xn = n yn , lim n = 0;
n
2) xn = O(yn ), xn = n yn , n | ;
3) xn = O (yn ), xn = O(yn ) yn = O(xn ) ;
4) xn yn , xn = n yn , lim n = 1.
n

,
.
3.15. f (x) = o(g(x)) x
x , ,
f | , g , g |
, f , x .
f (x) = o(g(x)) x
x , , g |
129

3) O(O(h)) = O(h).
4) o(f ) + o(f ) = o(f ).
1 (x)f (x),
2 (x)f (x), lim 1 (x) = lim 2 (x) = 0.
x

, f , f |
, g , x .
3.36. 1) x 0 x2 = x x; x 0,
, x2 = o(x);
x2 | , x.
2) x : x = x1 x2 ; x1 0, , x = o(x2 );
x2 | , x.
3) ,
xm = o(xn ) x 0 m > n,
xm = o(xn ) x m < n
( m, n Z; x +0 x
+, m, n R).
, f = O (g) g = O (f ) . , f g |
x .
. f = o(g)
. , x2 = o(x) x3 = o(x)
x 0, x2 6= x3 . f = o(g) . f o(g), ..
o(g). x2 o(x), x3 = o(x),
, x2 = x3 .
(
x ).
1) f = o(g), g = O(h) f = o(h).
f (x) = 1 (x)g(x), g(x) = 2 (x)h(x), 1 (x) |
x , 2 (x) | . f (x) = (x)h(x), (x) = 1 (x)2 (x) | x . , f = o(h).

: o(O(h)) =
= o(h);
: o(O(h)) o(h).
, o(Ch) = o(h), C | ;
o(o(h)) = o(h) (, o(h) = O(h); f =
= o(h) f = O(h)).
2) O(o(h)) = o(h).
130

, g1 (x) 6= 0 .
f (x)
1 (x) f1 (x)
=

,
g(x)
2 (x) g1 (x)

(x)f (x), (x) = 1 (x) + 2 (x), lim (x) = 0, ..


x

f .

5) O(f ) + O(f ) = O(f ).


6) o(f ) O(f ) = o(f ).
7) O(f ) O(f ) = O(f ).
8) f g f = g + o(g).
f g , f (x) =
= (x)g(x), lim (x) = 1. (x) 1 + (x),
x

lim (x) = 0. f g ,
x

f (x) = g(x) + (x)g(x),

.. f = g + o(g).

3.37. 1) sin x x x 0 sin x = x + o(x);


ln(1 + x) x x 0 ln(1 + x) = x + o(x);
ex 1 x x 0 ex = 1 + x + o(x);
ax 1 x ln a x 0 ax = 1 + x ln a + o(x);
ax 1 = O (x) x 0 (a > 0, a 6= 1);
x = 1 cos x = 1 x2 + o(x2 );
lim 1 cos
2
x2 2
x0
sin x
7) e x = O x1 x , 1e 6 esin x 6 e.

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

3.22 (

f (x)
). f f1 g g1 x . lim

x g(x)
f1 (x)
lim g (x) ( x 1

lim

1 (x)
= 1.
2 (x)

3.38.

lim

x0

(2x 1)2
(x ln 2)2
= 2 ln2 2
= lim
x2
x0
1 cos x
2

( , 2x x ln 2, 1 cos x x2
x 0).
.
.
( 3.38
, f g , f 2 g 2 ).
. , cos x 1 x 0. ,
x cos x 1,
lim 1 xcos
2
x0

0, 12 . 1 +
+ x 1 x 0, , lim (1 + x)1/x
x0
1 + x 1, 1,
e.
, o , , ,
IV V.

), .

f (x) = 1 (x)f1 (x), g(x) = 2 (x)g1 (x), lim 1 (x) =

III

= lim 2 (x) = 1, 2 (x) 6= 0 x

. g(x) 6= 0
131

3.1. ( 3.2),
:
132

3.11. :
2
x 1 , n N;
) lim
) lim x + 7 4 ;
n
x1
x
+12
x3
x1
2+1
21
x
x

) lim
.
2
2

) lim f (x) = b 0;
) lim f (x) = b;
x
xa+0
) lim f (x) = ;
) lim f (x) = +;
x
xa
) lim f (x) = b + 0.
) lim f (x) = ;
x+
xa0
.
3.2. 3.2, ,
) lim x2 = 9;
) lim x12 = +.
) lim x13 = 0;
x
x3
x0
3.3.
f (x) =

x+

3.4. , (x2 1)f (x), f (x) | (. 3.3) x = 1

3.5. , x = n Z .
3.6. f (a; b)
. ? :
) f (a; b);
) f (a; b).
3.7. f [a; +), lim f (x). , f x+
[a; +).
3.8. f [a; b], x [a; b]
f (x) > 0. ,
x [a; b] f (x) > C.

3.9. f (; +)

T , ..

T > 0 :

x R f (x + T ) = f (x).

, x: f x + T2 = f (x).

3.10. f (x) = xxn11 , n N:


) x 0;
) x 1;
) x ;
) x 1.
133

) lim lnnn = 0;
n

) lim

4x 1

x 3

|x|(|x| + 2)
.
x(x2 4)

x = 1, .

C > 0 :

4x + 1

3.12. :
tg(x2 )
mx , m, n N;
) lim 1
) lim sin
cos 2x ;
x sin nx
x0
x 1.
) lim 2 cos
sin 3x
3.13. :
x
+ x)
;
) lim log2tg(13x
) lim 3sin2x1 ;
x0
x0
arcsin
4x .
) lim arctg 5x
x0

3.14. , lim sin x:


x+
) 3.1;
)
.
3.15. , lim x2 cos x.
x+

3.16. , f (x) = sh x
. ( ) | .
3.17. , f (x) = ch x
, D(f ) = [0; +),
( ).
.
3.18. :
) sh(x + y) = sh x ch y + ch x sh y ;
) ch(x + y) = ch x ch y sh x sh y ?
3.19.
:
) o(f 2 ) = (o(f ))2 ;
) (o(f ))2 = o(f 2 );
) O (f ) + O (f ) = O (f )?
3.20. , :
134

n = 1;

IV.

) lim n n! = +.
n
3.21. , (n = 2, 4, . . . )

, (; +).
3.22. , xex = 1
.
3.23.
f g a
( X ). , M (x) =
= max(f (x), g(x)) .
3.24.
A B f (x) =
(x + 2)3
=
Ax B x ?
(x 1)2
3.25.
, f
(; +) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) x, y R, f (x) =
= kx, k | .

1.

, f
x0 R. x, x x0 , x, x = x0 + x.
, , t h.
x0 , f (x) f (x0 ) = f (x0 +
+ x) f (x0 ), f (x0 ).
4.1. f x0
f (x0 )
,
lim f (x)x
x0
xx0
+ . f (x0 ).
:
f (x0 )
=
x
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
= lim
= lim
t0
x0
x
t
( 3.5 , t =
= x x0 , t 0 x x0 , t 6= 0 x 6= x0 ).
f (x0 ) = lim

xx0

f (x0 )
. (x) = f (x)x

x0
x = x0 ,
x0 .
4.1. 1) f (x) C ( ),
x0

f (x0 ) = lim

t0

C C
= 0.
t

2) f (x) = x, x0
f (x0 ) = lim

t0

4.2.

x0 + t x0
= 1.
t

()

f x0
f (x) f (x0 )
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
= lim
lim
xx0 +0
t+0
x x0
t
135

136

f (x0 )
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
),
( lim f (x)x
= lim
x0
t
xx0 0
t0
+ . f+ (x0 ) ( f (x0 )).
3.5 , f (x0 ) = A ,
f+ (x0 ) = f (x0 ) = A.
, f g
x0 , f (x0 ) g (x0 )
. ( ). , f g () (x ) ( f (x )
x0 , f+ (x0 ) g+
0
0
(x )) ,
g
0
.

x = 0, lim f (x) = 0 =
x0

= f (0) (. 3.29, -

). ,
f+ (0) = lim

t+0

(. 3.28).
f (0). ,
.
4.2. f g x0 . f + g , f g , fg

4.1. f ( , )

x0 ,

( ,
) .

(
).
f (x) f (x0 )
f (x0 )
= A R,
= A + (x),
lim f (x)x
x0
x x0
xx0
lim (x) = 0. f (x) = f (x0 ) + (A + (x))(x x0 ).
xx0
, lim f (x) = f (x0 ), .. f x0 .
xx0
.
4.2. f (x) = |x|. x0 >
> 0, x0 f (x) = x, , f (x0 ) = 1. , x0 < 0,
f (x0 ) = 1. (|x|) = sign x x 6= 0. x0 =
= 0, 0
f (x) = x, , f+ (0) = 1. , f (0) =
= 1. f (0) . f (x) = |x|
0, f (+0) = f (0) = 0 = f (0).
4.3.

1
f (x) = x sin x , x 6= 0,
0,
x = 0.
137

, lim g(x0 + t) = g(x0 ),


t0
4.1 g x0 .

3)
= lim

t0

f (x)
g(x)

= lim

x=x0

t0

f (x0 + t) f (x0 )

g(x0 + t)
g(x0 )
=
t

f (x0 + t)g(x0 ) f (x0 )g(x0 ) f (x0 )g(x0 + t) +f (x0 )g(x0 )


=
tg(x0 )g(x0 + t)
h
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
1
g(x0 ) lim

=
(g(x ))2
t
0

t0

g(x0 + t) g(x0 ) i g(x0 )f (x0 ) f (x0 )g (x0 )


=
.
t0
t
(g(x0 ))2

f (x0 ) lim

, lim g(x0 + t) = g(x0 ) 6= 0.


t0
. 1) (Cf (x)) = C f (x) + Cf (x) = Cf (x),

=0

g(x0 ) 6= 0),

2) (f (x) g(x)) = f (x) g (x).


. 4.2
, .

x=x0

f (x0 + t) + g(x0 + t) f (x0 ) g(x0 )


=
t0
t
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
g(x0 + t) g(x0 )
+ lim
= f (x0 ) + g (x0 ).
= lim
t0
t0
t
t

f (x0 + t)g(x0 + t) f (x0 )g(x0 )

=
= lim
2) (f (x)g(x))
t
x=x0

138

(0), > 0,
(t) U
(0) = 0, (4.1) . , (t) U (0)
0. ,
(s) U (0), > 0 0,
(0) = 0.
s(t) = At + t(t);
0, (4.2) U (0),
U1 (0) , t U1 (0) s(t) s (4.2).
h(x0 + t) = g(f (x0 + t)) = g(f (x0 ) + At + t(t)) = g(u0 + s(t)) =
= g(u0 ) + Bs(t) + s(t) (s(t)) =

= h(x0 ) + ABt + Bt(t) + (s(t))(At + t(t)),

h(x0 + t) h(x0 )
= AB + B(t) + (s(t)) (A + (t)).
t

lim (s(t)) = 0 3.8,


t0

h (x0 ) = lim

x0 ,
u0 = f (x0 ).

h(x) = g(f (x))


x0 , h (x0 ) = g (u0 )f (x0 ) ( , (g(f (x))) =
= g (f (x)) f (x)).
f (x0 ) = A, g (u0 ) = B . , h (x0 ) AB .


f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
lim
= A,
t0
t

g(u0 + s) g(u0 )
lim
= B.
s0
s

f (x0 + t) = f (x0 ) + At + t(t),

g(u0 + s) = g(u0 ) + Bs + s(s),

lim (t) = 0,

(4.1)

lim (s) = 0.

(4.2)

t0

s0

t0

2.

139

h(x0 + t) h(x0 )
= AB.
t

4.4.

1)
2)
3)

t0

f (x0 + t)g(x0 + t) f (x0 )g(x0 + t)


+

t0
t
f (x0 )g(x0 + t) f (x0 )g(x0 )
=
+
t
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
= lim
lim g(x0 + t)+
t0
t0
t
g(x0 + t) g(x0 )
= f (x0 )g(x0 ) + f (x0 )g (x0 ).
+f (x0 ) lim
t0
t

= lim

= lim

4.3 ( ).

x0

(f (x)g(x)) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x),

f (x) g(x)f (x) f (x)g (x)


=
.
g(x)
(g(x))2

1) (f (x) + g(x))
=

( ,

x0

(f (x) + g(x)) = f (x) + g (x),

);

1
f (0 + t) f (0)
= lim sin .
t+0
t
t

a > 0
= ax ln a;

x>0
= x1 ;
R x > 0

(ax ) =

(ln x)

(x ) = x1 .

x0 +t

ax0 = ax0 lim at 1 = ax0 ln a (.


1) (ax )
= lim a
t
t
t0
t0
x=x0
3.35); a = e (ex ) = ex .

140

2) x0 > 0

(ln x)

x=x0

ln 1 + xt0
ln(x0 + t) ln x0
= lim
=
= lim
t0
t0
t
t
1
ln(1 + y)
= lim
=
y0
yx0
x0

3.5,
(
3.33). ,
a > 0, a 6= 1, x > 0
y = xt0

(loga x) =

3) 4.3

ln x
ln a

1
.
x ln a

(x ) = (e ln x ) = e ln x ( ln x) = x

1
xn

1
= x1 .
x

xn 0 1 nxn1
= nxn1 = x1 .
x2n

(cos x) = sin x.

f (x0 ) = 0 f U (x0 ), g (y0 ) = +,


f (x0 ) = 0 f U (x0 ), g (y0 ) = ,
f (x0 ) = + , g (y0 ) = 0).
I = U (x0 ). ,
J = f (I) ,
g(y) = f 1 (y).
> 0 , U (y0 ) J . ,
y0 J . x1 = x0 2 , x2 = x0 + 2 , x1 , x2 I ;
y1 = f (x1 ) J , y2 = f (x2 ) J . ,
f , y1 < y0 < y2 , J |
, [y1 ; y2 ] J , .. > 0 ,
U (y0 ) J (. . 4.1).
(

g (y0 ) = lim

s0

g(y0 + s) g(y0 )
s

y2
s(t) = f (x0 + t) y
0
f (x0 ) ( 3.5); y
1
f
x0
x1 x0 x2
x
0
lim s(t) = 0, t0
. 4.1
s(t) 6= 0 t 6=
6= 0. , g(y0 ) = x0 ; g(y0 + s) = g(f (x0 ) + f (x0 + t) f (x0 )) =
= g(f (x0 + t)) = x0 + t; g(y0 + s) g(y0 ) = t.
g (y0 ) = lim

t0

. , cos x 6= 0,
(tg x) = 12 . , sin x 6= 0,
cos x
1 .
(ctg x) =
sin2 x

sin x = cos x cos x sin x ( sin x) = 1 .


(tg x) = cos
x
cos2 x
cos2 x


, :
(sh x) = ch x, (ch x) = sh x,
1
1
, (cth x) = 2
ch2 x
sh x
( x 6= 0). ,

x
e ex
ex + ex
(sh x) =
= ch x,
=
2
2

1
sh x
ch x ch x sh x sh x

= 2 , ..
(th x) =
=
ch x
ch2 x
ch x
(th x) =

4.6 ( ).

f - x0 , > 0, f (x0 )
+ ). g(y)
1 . y0 = f (x0 ), g (y0 ) =
f (x )

,
141

( cos x0
cos x , t = 2u 3.5 lim sinu u ,
u0
1).
.

(,

4.5.

(sin x) = cos x,

sin(x0 + t) sin x0
=
= lim
t0
t
x=x0

2 cos x0 + 2t sin 2t
sin 2t
t
= cos x0
= lim
lim
= lim cos x0 +
t0
t0
t
2 t0 t

. N, 3 4.4
x R; Z, 3
x 6= 0.
, (xn ) = nxn1 x,
n = 1, 2, . . . n = 1 ( 4.1,
2). k N (xk ) =
= kxk1 . (xk+1 ) = (xk x) = kxk1 x + xk 1 = (k +
+ 1)xk . n = k + 1. N
.
= 0, (x0 ) = 1 = 0,
x 6= 0. , = n, n N, x 6= 0

(x ) =

(sin x)

t
1
=
.
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
f (x0 )

f (x0 ) = 0 f , sign(f (x0 + t)


f (x0 )) = sign t, , g (y0 ) = +.
f . , f (x0 ) = + ,
, g (y0 ) = 0.

. 4.5 , f () x0 ,
f+ (x0 ) ( f (x0 )). 143

f (x0 ) = 0, +

142

, .
4.4. f (x) = xn , n |
.

(; +). g(y) = f 1 (y) = n y .



g (y0 ) =

1
1
1
=
.
=

f (x0 )
n( n y0 )n1
nxn1
0

( n x) =
.
(4.3)
n
n1
n( x)

x = 0, .. n


n
x

x=0

= +,

, x > 0 (4.3) :
1
1
1
x n = x n 1 ,
n

(4.4)


(x ) = x1 ,
x > 0.
. (4.3)
x R, (4.4) | x > 0.

(4.4) (4.3) x R. .

xn

m m 1
xn
n

x R, m n |
, n . , (x2/3 ) =
= 23 x1/3 , ..
4.5. f (x) = xn , n
| .

[0; +), g(y) = f 1 (y) = n y .


144

4.4, y0 > 0
1
, ..
g (y0 ) =
n( n y )n1
0

(4.3), (4.4).
(4.3)

x = 0, .. n:

( n x)+ x=0 = +.
4.7.

1)

x (1; 1)
(arccos x) = 1 2 . -

(arcsin x) = 1

1 x2

1x

1,

..

(arcsin x) |x=1 = +,

(arccos x) |x=1 = ,

(arcsin x)+ |x=1 = +,

(arccos x)+ |x=1 = .

2)
(arctg x) =

1
,
1 + x2

(arcctg x) =

1
.
1 + x2

1)

f (x) = sin x.
h
i
2 ; 2 ; g(y) = f 1 (y) =
= arcsin y . y0 (1; 1)
g (y0 ) =

1
1
1
=p
=
f (x0 )
cos x0
1 y02

( , cos x0 > 0). , (arcsin x) =


= 1 2 x (1; 1), 1x
1 1. arccos x arccos x =
= 2 arcsin x.
2)

f (x) = tg x.

2 ; 2 ; g(y) = f 1 (y) =
= arctg y . y0
g (y0 ) =

U (t0 ), > 0,

3.

x y | t, t I (I | ).
= {(x; y): x = x(t), y = y(t), t I} ( ) .
x y | I ,
.
4.6. x = x0 + t, y = y0 + t, t (; +),
2 + 2 > 0 | . t [t1 ; t2 ],
.
y
4.7. x = a cos t, y =
Pt
= a sin t, t (; +) | t
a (. . 4.2). 0
P0 x t
| -
Pt . 4.2
P0 = (1; 0).
4.8. x = t, y = f (t), t I |
y = f (x), x I .
, 4.6 4.8 I , , , 4.7
| ( t, 2 ,
).
4.3.

4.8 ( ). x y -

1
1
.
= cos2 x0 =
f (x0 )
1 + y02
145

, (arctg x) = 1 +1 x2 x R.
arcctg x arcctg x = 2
arctg x.

,
(
| ).

x
= {(x; y) :

x = x(t), y = y(t), t U (t0 )} y = f (x).


x (t0 ) 6= 0, x0 = x(t0 ) -

146

x y .

4.8.

x (t0 ) y (t0 ),

y (t )

f (x0 ) = x (t0 )
0

yx = xt ).
t

( ,

x t I = U (t0 ),
J = x(I)
t = t(x). (x; y) y = y(t(x)),
x J , .. y = f (x)
J . y = f (x) y(t) t(x).
x0 = x(t0 )
1 ,
t (x0 ) = x (t
)
0

0)
f (x0 ) = y (t0 ) t (x0 ) = xy (t
.

(t0 )
y
4.9. x = cos t, y = sin t :
)( )( )
(
xt = sin t, yt = cos t. xt 6=
6= 0, .. t 6= k , k Z, x
0
t y =

y
= f (x), yx = xt = ctg t
t
(. . 4.3). . 4.3
,
t = k , .
t
y = f (x). (, y > 0, ..
0 < t < ) yx
y = 1 x2 (1 < x < 1):

U (t0 ), > 0,

y x t y
= {(x; y): x = x(t), y =

= y(t), t U (t0 )}
x = g(y). y (t0 ) x (t0 ),
y (t0 ) 6= 0, y0 = y(t0 ) g (y0 ) =

x (t )

= y (t0)
0

( ,

4.

xy = y t ).
t

f ,
x0 ,
x0 ,

4.4.

f (x0 ) f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = A x + (x) x,

lim (x) = 0, ..

f (x0 ) = A x + o(x),

x 0.

A x f x0 df (x0 ).
4.9. f x0

A = f (x ).

f (x0 ),

0

f (x0 + x) f (x0 ) = A x + (x) x,

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
= A + (x), ..
x
f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
f (x0 ) = lim
= A,
x0
x
lim (x) = 0.
x0

)( )( )

2x
x
yx =
= = ctg t.
y
2 1 x2


f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
= A.
lim
x
x0

147

A R,

x0

148

v | , v 6= 0,

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
= A + (x),
x

lim (x) = 0. f (x0 ) = A x + o(x)


x0
x 0.

. x x, .. dx = x.
df (x0 ) = A x : df (x0 ) = f (x0 )dx,
df
.
.. f = dx
dy
y = dx
( ); f (x0 ) | df dx.
u v |
(u + v) = u + v , (uv) = u v + uv ,
x
0 .
u = vu uv ( ,
2
v
v
v(x0 ) 6= 0). dx,

d(u + v) = du + dv,

d(uv) = v du + u dv,

u
v

d uv
u
v du u dv
=
.
d arctg
2 =
v
u2 + v 2
1 + u2
v

y = f (x)
x0 . M0 (x0 ; y0 ) Mx (x; y), x = x0 +x, y0 = f (x0 ), y = f (x).
M0 Mx (x 6= x0 )
( ) (. . 4.4). y0
k = xy
x0 .
( ) y = f (x).
y

v du u dv
.
v2

y0

u(x) x0 ,

f (u) u0 = u(x0 ).

= f (u0 ) u (x0 ). dx,


(f (u(x)))

df (u) = f (u) du,

149

f (x0 ) = 0, k = 0 ( ,
y = y0 ). f (x0 ) = + , k = +
( , x = x0 ).
y =
= y0 + f (x0 )(x x0 ).
, (.. ) f
x0 .
4.11.

x > 0;
1 + 3 x,

y = sign x + 3 x = 0,
x = 0;

1 + 3 x, x < 0

151

x = x0 + x x

. 4.4

4.5. k(x) |
y = f (x),
M0 (x0 ; y0 ) Mx (x; y). k = lim k(x) (xx0
, + ), k,
M0 , M0 .
f (x0 )
lim k(x) = lim f (x)x
= f (x0 ), x0
xx0
xx0

f (x0 ), k = f (x0 ).
150

p
(0) = +;
4) y = |x| (0; 0) : y+
(0) = ; ,
y
4.5; y (0) -

(. . 4.8).
y
0

. 4.6

0 , +, ( . 4.5).
y
f
()
x0 ,
1
Mx x > x0 (
x < x0 )
x
0
x x0 + 0 ( x x0 0).
1

M0 , . 4.5
f+ (x0 )

f (x0 ).
4.12. 1) y = sin x (0; 0)
: y = cos x; cos 0 = 1; y = x.

2) y = 3 x (0; 0) y (0) =
= +, x = 0 ( , . 4.6).

(0) = +;
3) y = x (0; 0) : y+
x = 0 ( , . 4.7).

df (x0 )

x0

df (u(x)) = f (u0 ) u (x0 ) dx = f (u0 ) du.

u | . , df (x) = f (x) dx, x


| , x u.
.
.
4.10. x | ,
d(arctg x) = dx 2 . x uv , u
1+x

f (x0 )
M0

x=x0

Mx

y
x

. 4.7

. 4.8

k = f (x0 ) R, df (x0 ) = kx | ,
x0 , x (. . 4.4).
5.

n- f x0 (n = 0, 1,
2, . . . )

f (n) = (f (n1) ) , f (0) = f,


, f (n1)
x0 . , f (1) = f ,
f (2) = f , f (3) = f . , f (4) , f (5)
.. , n, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(f (n) )(m) = f (n+m) .

n- .
1) (ax )(n) = ax (ln a)n , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , , (ex )(n) = ex ,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ;
2) (x )(n) = ( 1) . . .( n + 1)xn , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
x > 0.
152

Z, x 6= 0,
= 0, 1, 2, . . . , x R,
(x )(n) = 0 n > ( n = + 1
n + 1, 0).

Cn =

( 1) . . .( n + 1)
, R, n = 1, 2, . . . , C0 = 1.
n!

= 0, 1, 2, . . . , Cn = 0 n > ,
Cn
.
(x )(n) = n!Cn xn ,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

,
(f (x) + g(x))(n) = f (n) (x) + g (n) (x);

(f (kx + b))(n) = k n f (n) (kx + b),

(2)(3) . . .(n 1)
= (1)n (n + 1),
n!
(1)n (n + 1)!
1
,
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
=
x2
xn+2
3) (ln x) = x1 ,

(ln x)(n)

(n)

(n1)
1
(1)n1 (n 1)!
=
=
,
x
xn

1
x

(1)n n!
;
xn+1

n+1
X

Cnm1 u(nm+1) v (m) =

m=1

n+1
X

x0
u(x)v(x)

u(n) (x0 ) v (n) (x0 ).


x0

n
X

Cnk u(nk) v (k)

Cn0 u(n) v + Cn1 u(n1) v + Cn2 u(n2) v + . . . + Cnn uv (n)

(
).
n = 1 (uv) = u v + uv ;
, n = 0 . n,
n + 1. :
(uv)(n+1) = ((uv)(n) ) =

n
X

Cnk u(nk) v (k)

k=0

n
X

Cnk (u(nk) v (k) ) =

k=0

n
X

Cnk u(nk+1) v (k) +

k=0

n
X

Cnk u(nk) v (k+1) .

k=0

154

n-
,
.
4.14.

n
X
= Cn0 u(n+1) v +
(Cnk + Cnk1 )u(n+1k) v (k) + Cnn uv (n+1) .
k=1

k
( , Cnk + Cnk1 = Cn+1
Cnk ). Cn0 =
0 , C n = C n+1 ,
= Cn+1
n
n+1
n+1
X

( ).

Cnk1 u(nk+1) v (k)

k=1

(uv)(n+1) =

k=0

( m k, | ).
(uv)(n+1)

n = 1, 2, . . .

, .. k

m 1.

4.10 ( ).

(uv)(n) =

153

(n)

3 (1) n!
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
, 3x 1 5
=
(3x 5)n+1
n-

n,

x > 0. , (loga x)(n) =


(1)n1 (n 1)!
, n = 1, 2, . . . , x > 0 (a >
=
xn ln a
> 0, a 6= 1).
4) (sin x) = cos x, (sin x) = sin x, (sin x) =
= cos x, (sin x)(4) = sin x, sin x .
(sin x)(n) = sin x + 2 n ,
n = 0, 1, 2, .. . , x. , (cos x)(n) =
= cos x + 2 n , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , x.
n- . , f (n) (x) g (n) (x)

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

= 1 =
(1)(2) . . .(n)
n
n
=
=
= (1)n ; C2
= 2. C1
n!
=
(n)

(Cf (x))(n) = Cf (n) (x),

C | .
n-
. , , , n-
:

k
Cn+1
u(n+1k) v (k) ,

k=0

.. .

,
u v | . , v |
m, n > m n + 1 ,
m + 1, v (k) = 0 k > m + 1.
4.13.

(x3 e2x )(n) = Cn0 x3 (e2x )(n) + Cn1 (x3 ) (e2x )n1 +
+Cn2 (x3 ) (e2x )(n2) + Cn3 (x3 ) (e2x )(n3) + 0.

u = e2x , v = x3 .
(e2x )(k) = 2k e2x k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
(x3 e2x )(n) = x3 2n e2x + n 3x2 2n1 e2x +
n(n 1)
n(n 1)(n 2)
6x 2n2 e2x +
6 2n3 e2x .
+
2
6
n 3 > 0, .. n =
= 3, 4, 5, . . . , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . (

((x2 + 1) ln(3x + 1))(n) =


= (x2 + 1)(ln(3x + 1))(n) + n(x2 + 1) (ln(3x + 1))(n1) +
n(n 1) 2
(x + 1) (ln(3x + 1))(n2) =
+
2
n (1)n1 (n 1)!
3
3n1 (1)n2 (n 2)!
+ n 2x
+
= (x2 + 1)
(3x + 1)n
(3x + 1)n1
n(n 1)
3n2 (1)n3 (n 3)!
.
+
2
2
(3x + 1)n2

n 2 > 1, .. n = 3, 4, 5, . . .
n = 0, 1, 2, n-
( ).
. ,
df (x) = f (x) dx | x dx. dx , x ,
x:
d(df (x)) = d(f (x)dx) = dx d(f (x)) = dx f (x) dx = f (x) dx2 .


f x ( d2 f (x)). , f ,
.. f (x). dx2
(dx)2 , .. . ,
d2 f (x) = f (x) dx2

d2 f
.
dx2

4.6. n-
f x . n = 1:

).

155

f =

d1 f = df = f (x) dx
156

| x dx. dn1 f | x dx,


, dx , x | , dn f |
dn1 f x.
, x
f (n) , dn f (x) = f (n) (x) dxn , dxn (dx)n .
n = 1 df (x).
dn1 f (x) = f (n1) (x) dxn1 . dxn1 , dn f (x) = d(f (n1) (x) dxn1 ) = dxn1 d(f (n1) (x)) =
= dxn1 f (n) (x) dx = f (n) (x) dxn .

n
, f (n) = ddxfn .
( , n-
n > 2)
. , x | ,
d2 f (x) = f (x) dx2 .
(4.5)
u = u(x) | x,
. du
,
d2 f (u) = d(df (u)) = d(f (u) du) =

= du d(f (u)) + f (u) d(du) = du f (u) du + f (u) d u =

= f (u) du2 + f (u)d2 u.

d(f (u)).
d2 f (u) = f (u) du2 + f (u) d2 u

(4.6)

. (4.5), f (u) d2 u, , u |
. ,
.
4.15. f (x) = x4+ ln x,
x | . df (x) = 4x3 + x1 dx; d2 f (x) =
157

= 12x2 12 dx2 , x > 0. : df (1) =


x

= 5 dx; d2 f (1) = 11 dx2 .

u (
) .

, df (u) =

= 4u3 + u1 du. (4.6)


d2 f (u) =

12u2

1
u2

.
:
dx2 = (dx)2 ,

1
du2 + 4u3 +
d2 u.
u

3
d(x2 ) = 2x dx,

d2 x = 0

( x | ).
6.

x0 ( ) f ,
x0
(x0 ) f (x) < f (x0 ) (
> 0: x U
f (x) 6 f (x0 )). x0 (
) f ,
x0 > 0: x
(x0 ) f (x) > f (x0 ) ( f (x) > f (x0 )).
U
f .
4.7.

4.11 ().

x0

( , )

+ ), 0.
x0 | (

( ).
158

f (x) f (x0 )
> 0,
xx0 +0
x x0
f (x) > f (x0 ) x (x0 ; x0 + ).
f+ (x0 ) =

[0; 1]. f (x) = 3 x p


[1; 1]. f (x) = |x|

[1; 1].

lim

, f (x0 ) =

lim

xx0 0

f (x) f (x0 )
6 0,
x x0

f (x) > f (x0 ) x (x0 ; x0 ). f (x0 ) = f+ (x0 ) > 0


f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) 6 0, f (x0 ) +
, f (x0 ) = 0.

1.
,
. ( f (x) = x3 x0 = 0
f (x0 ) = 3x20 = 0, f (; +) ).
2.
, , . , f (x) = |x| x0 = 0 ,
f (0) ( 4.2). p
f (x) = |x| x0 = 0 (.
. 4.8), f+ (0) = +, f (0) = , f (0)
( 4.12, 4).

, .
4.8. f I ,
I , (
) | . f
I ,
I , I f (x0 ) (,
+ ), ( ) | (, + ).
4.16. f (x) = x2 f (x) = x3
[1; 1]. f (x) = x
159

4.12 (). f

[a; b] (a; b), f (a) = f (b), (a; b)


f () = 0.
3.11 3.12 f [a; b],
m = inf f (x) M = sup f (x) .

[a;b]

[a;b]

, M = m (
f (a) = f (b)), [a; b], , f (x) =
= 0 (a; b). , , M , (a; b). |
f ( , ), f () (,
+ ). f () = 0.

y
,
f 4.12
(a; b), a
0
b x (.
. 4.9).
. 4.9
.
.
(a; b), , f
p [a; b] f (a) = f (b) (, f (x) = |x| f (x) = |x| [1; 1]).
4.13 (). f g

(a; b); g

[a; b]; f

(a; b), g (x) 6= 0


(a; b) ,

f ()

f (b) f (a)
=
.
g(b) g(a)
g ()
160

(a; b).

(x) = f (x) + g(x), R. , (a) = (b): f (a) + g(a) = f (b) + g(b),

(b) f (a)
. ,
= fg(b)
g(a)
, g(b) 6= g(a), g(b) = g(a),
x (a; b), g (x) =
= 0, . R
[a; b] (a; b),
g (a; b) ,
f +
.
.
(a; b) , () = 0, .. f () + g () = 0.

()
.
, = fg ()
, .

4.14 ().

f [a; b]
(a; b). (a; b) ,
f (b) f (a) = f ()(b a).
g(x) = x (g (x) = 1 6= 0):

f ()
f (b) f (a)
=
,
ba
1

(a; b).


,
f 4.14 (a; b), , x
| 0
. 4.10
(a; f (a)) (b; f (b)) (.
. 4.10).
|
161

f+ (x0 ), u = (x), u x0 + 0
x x0 + 0, u 6= x0 x > x0 .
f (x) f (x0 )
=
f+ (x0 ) = lim
xx0 +0
x x0
= lim f ((x)) =
xx0 +0

lim f (u) = A.

ux0 +0

.
f (x0 ) ( f (x0 )). , f U (x0 )
(x0 ), lim f (x) = A, f (x0 ) = A,
U
xx0
A | + .
, f (x0 ) , lim f (x) | .
4.17.

xx0

f (x) =

x2 sin x1 ,

0,

f (x) =

4.15.

f I f (x) = 0,
I.
x1 < x2 ; x1 , x2 I . [x1 ; x2 ] , (x1 ; x2 ) .
f [x1 , x2 ] :

f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = f ()(x2 x1 ),

(x1 ; x2 ), f () = 0.
, x1 , x2 I
f (x1 ) = f (x2 ), .. f I .

. f g

g (x),

f (x) = g (x)

f (x) = g(x) + C ,

I,

f (x)

| -

(x) = f (x) g(x), x I .


I , I

(x) = 0, (x) = C I , .. f (x) = g(x) + C .

, VIII.

4.16. f [x0 ; x0 +),


> 0, (x0 ; x0 + ),
lim f (x) = A (, + ).
xx0 +0

f+ (x0 ) = A.
x (x0 ; x0 + )
f (x) f (x0 ) = f ()(x x0 ), = (x) (x0 ; x).
x0 < (x) < x, 3.4 lim (x) = x0 + 0.
xx0 +0

f (x0 )
= f ((x)). 3.5 ,
f (x)x
x0
162

Pn (f, x0 ) =

n
P
f (k) (x0 )

k=0

k!

(x x0 )k = f (x0 ) +

f (x0 )
f (n) (x0 )
2
(x x0 )n
2! (x x0 ) + . . . +
n!

n f x0 ,
rn (f, x) = f (x) Pn (f, x) , f (x) = Pn (f, x) + rn (f, x)
| f x0 .
n = 1 (.. f x0 )
: P1 (f, x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ). f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )x + o(x)
x 0, x = x x0 , f (x) = P1 (f, x) + o(x x0 )
x x0 , .. r1 (f, x) = o(x x0 ). .
+ f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

f (n) (x0 ).

rn (f, x) = o((x x0 )n )

x x0 .

2x sin x1 cos x1 , x 6= 0;
0,
x = 0.

4.1. x n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

lim x sin x1 = 0, lim cos x1 ( x0


x0
3.28), lim f (x) ( x0

, lim x sin x1 x0
f (0)

lim cos x1 ). ,
, lim f (x)
x0
x0
. , , , f (x) x = 0, .
7.

4.17 (
). n = 1, 2, 3, . . . -

x 6= 0;
x = 0.

, f (0) = lim f (0 + t)t f (0) = lim t sin 1t = 0 (t0


t0
3.29). f
,

,
. , , , . .

Pn (f, x) = Pn1 (f , x); rn (f, x) = rn1 (f , x).

f (x0 )
(x x0 )2 + . . .+
2!
f (n) (x0 )
+
(x x0 )n1 = Pn1 (f , x).
(n 1)!
rn (f, x) = (f (x) Pn (f, x)) = f (x) Pn (f, x) =
Pn (f, x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

= f (x) Pn1 (f , x) = rn1 (f , x).

4.2. k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n

4.9. f (x) ,
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . f (n) (x0 ).
163

Pn(k) (f, x0 ) = f (k) (x0 );


164

rn(k) (f, x0 ) = 0.

Pn (f, x) =

. . . , n:
Pn(k) (f, x) =

n
X
j=k

n
P
f (j) (x0 )

(x x0 )j , k = 0, 1, 2,

j!

j=0

f (j) (x0 ) j(j 1) . . . (j k + 1)(x x0 )jk


;
j!
Pn(k) (f, x0 )

=f

(k)

(x0 )

( j = k, j > k ).
, rn(k) (f, x0 ) = 0.

4.17.
. n = 1 . ,
n = 1, 2, . . . n + 1.
f (n + 1)- x0 ,
f n- x0 , rn (f , x) = o((x x0 )n ) x x0 .
f (n+1) (x0 ),
> 0 x U (x0 ) f (n) (x), ,
, f U (x0 ). rn+1 (f, x) U (x0 ). (x0 ) r(x) =
x U
= rn+1 (f, x) [x0 ; x] ( [x; x0 ],
):
x0 < < x ( x < < x0 ).

r(x)r(x0 ) = r ()(xx0 ),

= (x), lim (x) = x0 , (x) 6= x0 .


xx0

r (x)

lim (x x )n = 0; 3.5
0

xx0

lim

xx0


lim

xx0

r ((x))
r (u)
= lim
= 0,
((x) x0 )n ux0 (u x0 )n

r ((x))
r ((x))
= lim

(x x0 )n xx0 ((x) x0 )n

(x) x0
x x0

=0

f (n) (0)). .
1) f (x) = ex ; f (k) (x) = ex , f (k) (0) = 1 k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
n
X
xk
k=0

k!

+o(xn ) = 1+x+

xn
x2 x3
+ + . . .+ +o(xn ),
2
6
n!

x 0.
x

n = 1 : ex = 1 + x + o(x), .. lim e x 1 = 1
x0
( 3.34). , 3.34. ,

ex ( 4.4).
2) x x, ( 3.5)
ex =

n
X
(1)k xk
k=0

k!

+ o(xn ),

r(x) = r ((x))(x x0 ) = o((x x0 )n ) (x x0 ) = o((x x0 )n+1 ).

n + 1.

, o((x x0 )n ).
4.3. n = 1, 2, 3, . . . -

f (n) (x0 ). f (x) = Q(x) + o((x x0 )n )


x x0 , Q(x) | n,
Q(x) = Pn (f, x).
n. 4.17
f (x) = P (x) + o((x x0 )n ), , T (x) = o((x x0 )n )
x x0 , T (x) = P (x) Q(x). , T (x)

| .
= 0, 3.5
lim (x T(x)
x )n
xx0

T (x0 + t)
=0
tn
(x = x0 + t; x x0 t 0, x 6= x0 t 6= 0).
T (x0 + t) = a0 + a1 t + . . . + an tn (
n). ,
0. lim T (x0 + t) = 0, a0 = 0.
lim

t0

t0

a1 t + . . . + an tn = o(tn ). t
a1 + a2 t + . . . + an tn1 = o(tn1 ). t 0
a1 = 0 ..
0.

. , n x x0 ( o((x
x0 )n )). n = 1 | ,
.
x0 = 0 n
P
f (k) (0) k
n
: f (x) =
k! x + o(x ) x 0 (

o((x)n ) = o(xn ).

166

P2n1 (f, x) = P2n (f,

x).
3) f (x) = cos x; f (k) (x) = cos x + 2 k , f (0) (0) = 1, f (1) (0) = 0,
(2)
(3)
f (0) = 1, f (0) = 0, 4.
,
cos x = 1

sh x =

ex + ex X 1 + (1)k k
=
x + o(xn );
2
2k!

ex

ex

k=0
n
X
k=0

(1)k

1
2k!

k=0

sin x = x

xk + o(xn ),

ln(1 + x) =

n
X
(1)k1 xk

k=1
x2 x3

x4
4

x) ,

+ o(xn ) =

+ ... +

(1)n1 n
x + o(xn ),
n

R;
=
6) f (x) = (1 +
= Ck k!, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

k=0

k=0

(1 + x)

= (1)k1 (k 1)! k = 1, 2, . . . ; f (0) = 0.

=x

n
X
x2k
+ o(x2n+1 ),
(2k)!
n1
X

x5
x7
(1)n1 x2n1
x3
+

+ ... +
+ o(x2n ) =
6
120
7!
(2n 1)!
n1
X (1)k x2k+1
+ o(x2n ), x 0.
=
(2k + 1)!
k=0

P2n (f, x) = P2n+1 (f, x);


sh x =

cos x sin x ch x
sh x .
k1
1)!
, f (k) (0) =
5) f (x) = ln(1 + x); f (k) (x) = (1) (k
k

o(xn ) + o(xn ) = o(xn ).


4.3 ch x sh x . ch x , sh x |
,
ch x =

x2 x4 x6
(1)n x2n
+

+ ... +
+ o(x2n+1 ) =
2
24
6!
(2n)!
n
k
2k
X (1) x
+ o(x2n+1 ), x 0.
=
(2k)!

4) f (x) = sin x; f (k) (x) = sin x + 2 k , f (0) (0) = 0, f (1) (0) = 1,


f (2) (0) = 0, f (3) (0) = 1, 4.
,

ch x =

k=0

165

ex =

;
1. , r(x0 ) = 0,

x2k+1
+ o(x2n ),
(2k + 1)!

(1 + x) =

f (k) (x)

n
X
k=0

167

168

Ck k!(1

Ck xk + o(xn ),

x)k ,

x 0.

x 0.

f (k) (0)

= 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
o(xn ). = 1
n

X
1
(1)k xk + o(xn ),
=
1+x
k=0

x 0.

(1)n1 x2n1
x3 x5 x7
+

+ ...+
+ o(x2n ), x 0.
3
5
7
2n 1

2
1/2
.
8) f (x) = arcsin x. : f (x) = (1 x )
= x

(1 + u)1/2 =

x x

k
C1/2
uk + o(un ),

k=0

X
1
xk + o(xn ),
=
1x
k=0

x 0.

k
C1/2
=

7) f (x) = arctg x
. :

f (k) (x)

f (x) =

n
X

X
1
=
(1)k x2k + o(x2n )
1 + x2

21

32

k!

. . . 21 k

n1
X

f (x) =

k=0

n1
X

n1
X


(f, x). 4.15
= P2n
P2n (f, x) = C +

n1
X

k
C1/2

k=0

(1)k x2k+1
;
2k + 1

n1
X

k
C1/2

k=0

(1)k x2k+1
+ o(x2n ),
2k + 1

(f, x) ( 4.1). P (f, x) =


= P2n
2n

n1
P

k=0
n1
P

4.15 P2n (f, x) = C +

(1)k x2k ,

k=0

(1)k x2k+1
2k + 1 .

C P2n (f, 0) = f (0) = 0 ( 4.2).

arctg x =

n1
X
k=0

(1)k x2k+1
+ o(x2n ) =
2k + 1
169

4.4. 1) f (a; a),


a > 0, x (a; a) f (x) =
= f (x) ( ). f
x0 (a; a), (x0 ),
f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) ( -

0
C1/2
= 1,

(a; a), a > 0,


x (a; a) f (x) = f (x) ( ). f x0
(a; a), (x0 ),
f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) ( ).
,

f (x0 ) = lim

t0

f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
=
t
f (x0 s) f (x0 )
=
= lim
s0
s
f (x0 + s) f (x0 )
= f (x0 ).
= lim
s0
s

4.18. n = 1, 2,

. . . -

f (n) (0). f
(a; a), a > 0, -

, |

f . 4.4 f (k) k. , f (k) (0) = 0 k , .


f .


n
2n
( o(x ) o(x )
).
171

1
,
2

2
C1/2
=

12 23

3 5
x3
+
x + o(x6 ),
6
40

3
,
8

x 0.

,
, | .
.
170

4.18. f (x) = tg x o(x6 ) x 0.


, x6 0,
o(x5 ).
3

tg x =

.
: f (x0 ) = lim f (x0 + t)t f (x0 ) . t0
f (x0 ) s = t, 3.5

1
C1/2
=

arcsin x = x +

).

2)

x 0.

n = 3

k=0

o(x2n1 ) P2n1 (f , x)

C = f (0) = 0.


arcsin x =

(1)k x2k + o(x2n1 ).

0
, k = 1, 2, . . . ; C1/2
=

k
C1/2
(1)k x2k + o(x2n1 ).
k=0
o(x2n1 ) P2n1 (f , x) =

(1)k x2k + (1)n x2n + o(x2n ) =

k=0

u 0,

= 1. arctg x, u = x2 :
n
X
k
C1/2
(x2 )k + o(x2n ) =
f (x) =

k=0

( x x2 1 +1 x
3.5;
3.5). 4.3
f (x)
o(x2n ). :

x + o(x5 )
x x6 + 120
sin x
=
.
2
4
cos x
5
1 x2 + x
24 + o(x )

(1 + u)1
4
2
o(u2 ), u = x2 + x24 , u = O (x2 ) x 0, u2 =
= O (x4 ), u3 = O (x6 ) = o(x5 ), u3 .
(1 + u)1 = 1 u + u2 + o(u2 ),

1
2
2
x2 x4
x2 x4
x
x4
1
= 1+ +
+o(x5 ) =
+
+ o(x5 )
+
2
24
2 24
2
24
2
4
4
2
x
x
x
x
5 4
=1+

+
+ o(x5 ) = 1 +
+
x + o(x5 )
2
24
4
2
24

( o(x4 ) o(x5 ), ,
x5 ;
, ).

x2
x5
5 4
x3
1+
+
+ o(x5 )
+
x + o(x5 ) =
6
120
2
24
x3
x3
x5
x3 x5
5 5
2 5
= x +
+ +
x + o(x5 ) = x + +
x + o(x6 )
6 120 2 12 24
3 15

tg x =

( o(x5 ) o(x6 ), ,
x6 ).

3
2 x5 + o(x6 ), x 0.
, tg x = x + x3 + 15
3

2 x5 + o(x6 ), x 0.
, th x = x x3 + 15

4.19 (
). f (n + 1)- 172

x U (x0 )

rn (f, x) =
(

U (x0 ), n = 0,

1, 2, . . . ,

> 0.

(n + 1)!

n+1

(x x0 )

(x, x0 ), ).

f (n+1) ()

s(n+1) (x) = (n + 1)!, r(x) = (n + 1)! (x x0 )n+1 .

(x0 , x)

f (x) =

n
X
f (k) (x0 )

k!

k=0

(x x0 )k +

f (n+1) ()
(x x0 )n+1 .
(n + 1)!

x = x0 f (x0 ) = f (x0 )
. x > x0 , .. x (x0 ; x0 + ) ( x < x0 -

).
r(x) = rn (f, x). (n + 1)-
U (x0 ), r(x0 ) = r (x0 ) = . . . =
= r(n) (x0 ) = 0 ( 4.2).
s(x) = (x x0 )n+1 . ,
s(x0 ) = s (x0 ) = . . . = s(n) (x0 ) = 0; s(n+1) (x) = (n + 1)!
x. , x 6= x0
s (x) 6= 0, s (x) 6= 0, . . . , s(n) (x) 6= 0.
4.13:
r(x)
r(x) r(x0 )
r (1 )
=
=
,
s(x)
s(x) s(x0 )
s (1 )

r (x)

r(x)
s(x)
=

r (3 ) r (x0 )
=
=
s (3 ) s (x0 )
r(n) (n ) r(n) (x0 )
r(n+1) ()
= (n+1)
s(n) (n ) s(n) (x0 )
s
()

,
f (x) = f (x0 ) +

k!

dn+1 f ()
+
, x U (x0 ), (x0 ; x).
(n + 1)!

k!

+ o(dxn ),

dx 0.

174

4.10. , , ..
, f (x) I ,
I x1 , x2 I :

(x1 < < x2 ) (f (x2 ) f (x1 ) = f ()(x2 x1 ))?

IV

x2 , x Q;
0,
x
6 Q

x = 0,
g(x) =

|x|5
.
120

4.11. ,

4.1. f (x) =
= |x(x 1)2 (x 2)3 |?
4.2. ,
f (x) =

n
X
dk f (x0 )
k=1

k=1

x R.

4.14.
. , xx0 = x = dx; f (x0 )(xx0 ) = df (x0 );
. . . ; f (n) (x0 )(xx0 )n = dn f (x0 ); f (n+1) ()(xx0 )n+1 = dn+1 f ().
:

173

f (x) = f (x0 ) +

0 < < x,

x0 < < n < . . . < 1 < x, .. (x0 ; x).

n
X
dk f (x0 )

x3 cos 5
+
x ,
6
120

n = 0 4.19 : f (x) f (x0 ) =


= f ()(x x0 ), f (x) U (x0 ) |

2 (x0 ; 1 ).

r (2 ) r (x0 )
r (3 )
=
=
s (2 ) s (x0 )
s (3 )
r(n) (n )
r(4) (4 )
= . . . = (n)
=
s(4) (4 )
s (n )

sin x = x

|r4 (f, x)| 6

s (x):

. 4.19 f , 4.17. 4.17 x x0 ,



. 4.19
x U (x0 ) .
4.19. f (x) = sin x
n = 4.
3
: sin x = x x6 +o(x4 ). r4 (f, x)
. . (sin x)(5) =
5
= cos x, r4 (f, x) = cos
120 x .

1 (x0 ; x).


r (1 ) r (x0 )
r (2 )
r(x)
=
=
,
s(x)
s (1 ) s (x0 )
s (2 )

Pn(n+1) = 0, , r(n+1) () = f (n+1) ().

f (n+1) ()

x, x Q;
0, x
6 Q

, , x = 0.
4.3. f (x) = xx g(x) =
= (sin x)cos x .
4.4. f (x) =
= ln x , ex .
4.5. , f (x) =
= ch x, x > 0, g(x) = sh x.
4.6. , x =
= t sin t, y = 1 cos t, t R,
y = f (x), x R. f (x) t
, .
4.7. d(uv ) d2 (uv ), u = u(x) v = v(x) |
( ) x, u(x) > 0.
4.8. d3 f (u), (4.6).
4.9.
p
f (x) = 3 x g(x) = |x| [1; 1]?
175

f (x) =

x3 sin x1 , x 6= 0;
0,
x = 0

(; +),
x = 0.
4.12. :
) f (x) = th x o(x6 );
) f (x) = sinx x o(x5 );
) f (x) = esin x o(x4 );
) f (x) = ecos x o(x4 );
) f (x) = sin(x + 3) o(x3 );
) f (x) = arctg(1 + x) o(x3 ).
4.13. f (x)
o(x x0 )n , x x0 :
) f (x) = x1 , x0 = 2;
) f (x) = x2 x6x + 8 , x0 = 1;

) f (x) = ln(x + 1 + x2 ), x0 = 0;
2
) f (x) = ex +6x+10 , x0 = 3.
4.14.
f (x) = ex2 r4 (f, x); x0 = 1.
4.15. x0 = 0

3
) f (x) = |x
|;
x sin x, x > 0;
) f (x) =
sh x x, x < 0;
5/2
) f (x) = x , x > 0;
x 6 0;
0,
1
4
) f (x) = x sin x , x 6= 0;
0,
x = 0;
176

) f (x) =
) f (x) =

x100 , x Q;
x
6 Q;
sin x , x 6= 0;
x
1,
x = 0?

V.

0,

4.16. o(xn ), x
0, n | ,
4.15.
4.17. f (n) (x) :
2
+ 3x 5 ;
) f (x) = xx2
3x + 2

1.

;
f (x) = ln 2 1
x 5x + 6
f (x) = x2 cos2 x5 ;

)
)
) f (x) = (3x2 4x + 1) 33x 5x ;
3
) f (x) = x
;
1 + 3x
) f (x) = ex sin x.
4.18. , f n
(a; b)
n + 1 , (a; b) , f (n) () = 0.
4.19. , f
(a; b), f
(a; b).
4.20. , f
[1; 2], (1; 2) , f (2)
2
f (1) = 2 f ().
4.21. , f
(a; +) lim f (x) = 0, f (x) = o(x) x +.
x+
?
4.22.
, e 107 .

?

p, q Z, x
x0 x x0 0.
0
0


1
.
lim

x0

x + o(x3 )
1
tg x arcsin x
6
= .
= lim
esin x 1 + ln(1 x) x0 x3 + o(x3 )
2

3
3
3
tg x = x + x3 + o(x3 ); arcsin x = x + x6 + o(x3 );
3
x
3
= 6 + o(x );

2
3
3
x3
3
eu = 1 + u + u2 + u6 + o(u3 ); esin x = ex 6 +o(x ) = 1 + x x6 +

3
3 2
3 3
2
3
+ 61 x x6
+ o(x3 ) = 1 + x x6 + x2 + x6 +
+ 21 x x6
2
+ o(x3 ) = 1 + x + x2 + o(x3 );
2
3
3
ln(1 x) = x x2 x3 + o(x3 ); = x3 + o(x3 ).

esin x
,
.
o(x3 ), sin x
1 x, eu
o(u3 ). ,
, .
, tg x arcsin x
3- ,
o(x3 ). , . , ,
.
.
5.3.

lim

x0

1
2x
(1 + x)1/x +
e
4 + 5x

ctg2 x

=
179

C 6= 0.

C(x x0 )p f x x0 + 0, p |
f x x0 + 0. p Z, f
x x0 x x0 0.
5.1. 1) sin x x, ln(1 + x) x, ex 1 x
x 0, sin x, ln(1 + x), ex 1 1
x 0.
2
2) 1 cos x x2 x 0, 1 cos x
2 x 0.
1
x
3) ctg x = cos
sin x x x 0, ctg x
1 rx 0.
4) lim

x+0

sin x =

lim sinx x = 1 (

x+0

x 0). sin x
21 x +0.
x x0 + 0
f (x) C1 (x x0 )p ,

g(x) C2 (x x0 )q ,

p, q R, C1 6= 0, C2 6= 0, 3.22
lim

f (x)
C1 (x x0 )p
= lim
=
g(x) xx0 +0 C2 (x x0 )q
=

177

p R,

f (x) C(x x0 )p ,

xx0 +0

5.2.

x0 R x x0 + 0

5.1.

C1
C2

lim (x x0 )pq =

xx0 +0

178

lim

1/x + 2x
ln 1
e (1+x)
4+5x
tg2 x

= ex0

0,

C1 ,

C2
,

lim

= ex0

p > q ;
p = q ;
p < q .

2
x6 +o(x2 )
x2 +o(x2 )

= e 6

(

(u(x))v(x) = ev(x) ln u(x) 3.8 ).
tg2 x x2 ; = x2 + o(x2 );
1

5
2x
2x
4 + 5x = 4 1 + 4 x

= x2 1 45 x + o(x) = x2 58 x2 +o(x2 );

(1 + x)1/x = e x ln(1+x) = e x (x

3
x2
+ x3 +o(x3 )
2

) = e1 x2 + x3 +o(x2 ) =
1
=ee
; eu = 1 + u + u2 + o(u2 );
2!

2
2
2
x x
x x
1
+ o(x2 ) =
+
+
(1 + x)1/x = e 1 +
2
3
2
2
3

x x2 x2
x 11 2
=e 1 +
+
+ o(x2 ) = e 1 +
x + o(x2 ) ;
2
3
8
2 24

x 5
x 11
= ln 1 + x2 + x2 + o(x2 ) =
2 24
2 8

x2
x2
+ o(x2 ) =
+ o(x2 ).
= ln 1
6
6
1

2
x2 + x3 +o(x2 )

ln(1 + x)
x, 1
e x ln(1+x) o(x2 ) ln(1 + x)
1, .. o(x3 ).
5.2. x +
f (x) Cxp , p R, C 6= 0. Cxp
f x +,
p | f x +. p Z,

f
x x .

5.4. 1) x4 + 1 x2 x ,
x4 + 1 2 x .
180

2) x2 + 1 x
x +, x2 + 1 x x .
x2 + 1 1 x +
x .

1 x +. 3) x + 1 x = 1 2
x
x+1+

x + 1 x 12 x
+.
x

x1 .
x +
f (x) C1 xp ,

p, q R,

g(x) C2 xq ,

C1 6= 0, C2 6= 0,

3.22

f (x) f (a)
f ()
f (x)
=
=
,
g(x)
g(x) g(a)
g ()

0, p < q ;
f (x)
C1 xp
C1
1 , p = q ;
= lim
=
lim xpq = C
x+ g(x)
x+ C2 xq
C2
C2 x+
, p > q .

p, q Z, x
x .

xa+0

(x)
f (u)
3.5 lim fg(x)
= lim g (u) = . ,
xa+0
ua+0
f (x)
lim g(x) = , = a R .
xa0

= a + 0 = a 0 .

(x)
= . lim fg (x)
= , x

lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0.


x

f (x)
f (x)
lim
= , | 6 , lim g(x) = .
x g (x)
x
f (x)
, g (x) -

, , g (x) 6= 0 .
= a, a R. f (a) = g(a) = 0. f

181

[a; x].
. .
5.1. lim f (x) = , lim g(x) = ,
x

| 6 .

x
(x) , lim (x) =

lim



f 1t
f 1t
f (x)
= lim = lim =
t0
g(x) t0 g 1
g 1
t


f 1t 12
f 1t
t
= lim =
= lim
t0 1
t0 1
g t 12
g t

= , f ((x)) = o(f (x)), g((x)) = o(g(x)), x .


= a, a R. lim f (x) = ,
xa

lim g(a) = , 1 (0; 1) , |f (x)| > 1


xa
(a). f (a 1 ) 6= 0, g(a 1 ) 6= 0.
|g(x)| > 1 x U
1

(a)
, 2 > 0, 2 < min 1 ; 12 , x U
2

g(x)
f (x)

f (a 1 ) > 1, g(a 1 ) > 1 ( ).

(a)
, 3 > 0, 3 < min 2 ; 31 , x U
3

f (x)
g(x)

f (a 2 ) > 2, g(a 2 ) > 2.


n , n = 1, 2, . . .

, n+1 < min n , n +


1 x Un+1 (a)

g(x)

g(a n ) > n.

(5.1)

, n , lim n =
n

1 n). x U
(a)
= 0 ( 0 < n < n
2
n = n(x) ,
n+2 6 |x a| < n+1 (. . 5.1). (x) = a n(x)
( +, x > a; , x < a). ,
n(x) , (a; a + 2 )
(a 2 ; a).
r

( 5.1
t a, a = 0). = + =
.

5.2 (
). f g
6 ,

x
r

r a + n =
r (x)

a n a n+1 a n+2 a a + n+2 a + n+1


, ,
182

n(x) (a; a + 2 ) (a
2 ; a), lim n(x) = + lim n(x) = + ( 3.9
xa+0

xa0

(a)
). x U
n+1
(5.1) ,

f ((x))
1

f (x) < n(x) ,

g((x))
1

g(x) < n(x) ,

lim f ((x))
= 0, .. f ((x)) = o(f (x)) x a.
xa f (x)
, g((x)) = o(g(x)) x a. ,
1
0 < n(x) < n(x) , lim n(x) = 0, , lim (x) = a.
xa
xa
= a R. = a + 0 = a 0
.
= , , 1 > 1,
2 > max(1 , 2), 3 > max(2 , 3) .., n+1 > max(n , n + 1)
n = 1, 2, . . . n
lim n = + ( n > n n). (5.1)
n

f (x)

f (n ) > n,

g(x)

g(n ) > n |x| > n+1 .

n(x) : n+1 < |x| 6 n+2 , (x) =


= n(x) ( +, x > 0; , x < 0) (. . 5.2).
r

n+2

n+1

n = (x)

n+1

x
r

n+2

. 5.2

= + = .

5.2.
(x), 5.1. f ((x)) = o(f (x))
x , f (x) f ((x)) f (x); g(x)
g((x)) g(x). 3.22
lim

. 5.1

x
183

lim f (x) = lim g(x) = .

f (x)
f (x)
lim
= , | 6 , lim g(x) = .
x g (x)
x

f (x)

f (a n ) > n,

x = 1t

5.1 ( 0 ). f g 0
6 ,

f
3.5 x = 1t : lim 1t = .

= (x).

a < (x) < x, 3.4 lim (x) = a + 0.

t0

lim

2.

(a) U (a). g U
x > a , g (x) 6= 0 (a; x), 4.13

184

f (x)
f (x) f ((x))
= lim
.
g(x) x g(x) g((x))

(x)
fg (x)
, , g (x) 6= 0 . f g 4.13
[(x); x] ( [x; (x)], ):

f (x) f ((x))
f ()
=
,
g(x) g((x))
g ()

lim

= (x),

(x) < (x) < x.

f (x)
f ((x))
f (u)
= lim
= lim
= .
g(x) x g ((x)) u g (u)

5.5.

lim

x+

lim (x) = , 3.4 (


x
3.2 ) lim (x) = .
x
3.5
x

5.6.

, lim lnxx = 0, > 0.


x+

. 5.2
|
1
x

ln x
1
= lim
= lim
= 0.
x+ x1
x+ x
x

, 00
.
5.7. , lim x ln x = 0, > 0.
x+0
| 0 .
xlnx ,
. 5.2
1

lim

, lim xa p = +, a > 1,
x+

x+0

p R.
p 6 0, ( p < 0 | -

).
p > 0
.
p = k N, p = k N
, p > 0 x > 1

ln x
1
x
= lim
= lim x = 0.
x x+0 x1
x+0

x+0

| 00 .
ex ln x , 5.7.
3.8
lim x ln x

lim xx = ex+0

x+0

5.9.

x
3.2 lim xa p = +.

x+

p = k k . 5.2
ax
ax ln a
ax (ln a)k
= +
= lim
= . . . = lim
x+ xk
x+ kxk1
x+
k!
lim

lim

x+

e2/ .

.
5.10. x = lim cos x = 1. ,
, lim 1sin
x0 + x
x0 1
0. ,
;
00
, .
5.11.
, lim x +xsin x =
x

1 + sinx x

= 1. | -

lim x +xsin x = lim 1 + 1cos x |



, 5.2 x
x
. , (x)
lim fg(x)
,
x

(x)
. lim fg (x)
, ,
x
(x)
, lim fg(x)

x
.

x
2
arctg x .

lim

x+

ln 2 arctg x
x1

0
0.

5.1

= lim

2 arctg x
ln
x1

1
1
arctg x 1 + x2

x+

185

= e0 = 1.

| 1 . 3.8
lim x ln( 2 arctg x)
ex+
. |
0;

,
( 1-, 2-, . . . , k 1
. k-
, ).

5.7 5.6 x = 1t .
5.8. , lim xx = 1.

ax
ax
> [p]+1 ,
xp
x

= lim

=
x2 2
2
x2
= .
lim
=
x+ 1 + x2

186

h
3
f (x) = tg x g(x) = x + x3 0; 2 .
, f (0) = g(0). , f (x) > g (x), ..
1 > 1 + x2 , tg2 x > x2 . 0 < x <
2
2
cos x

tg x > x > 0. ,

f (x) > g (x).


5.3 f (x) > g(x) x 0; 2 .

5.13. , x 6= 0
ex > 1 + x.
f (x) = ex g(x) = 1 + x x > 0.
, f (0) = g(0). f (x) > g (x), .. ex > 1,
x > 0. 5.3 ex > 1 + x
x > 0.
a 5.3 .
x < 0 t = x. , t > 0
et > 1 t.
f (t) = et g(t) = 1 t. , f (0) = g(0).
f (t) > g (t), .. et > 1, et < 1; t > 0. 5.3 et > 1t t > 0,
x < 0.

. 1 + x < ex , -

3.

5.3. f g [a; b),


b | +, (a; b),

g(a), f (x)

g (x)

>
x (a; b). f (x) >
f (a) =
> g(x) x (a; b).
(x) = f (x) g(x);
[a; b) (a; b), (a) = 0, (x) > 0
x (a; b). x (a; b)
(x) = (x) (a) = ()(x a) > 0, (a; x)
() > 0, x > a. , x (a; b)
f (x) > g(x).

5.12. , x 0;
2
3

tg x > x + x3 .

187

x 6= 0,

ln(1 + x) < x,

x > 1,

x 6= 0

4.

ln(1 + x)).

5.4 ( ).

f (a; b), f (x) (a; b),


f (x) > 0 (a; b); f (x) (a; b), f (x) 6 0
(a; b) (, , ).
f (a; b) (

).
188

x0 (a; b)

f (x0 +t) > f (x0 ) t > 0. , f (x0 ) = f+ (x0 ) > 0.

.
(), () (a; b). ,
f (x) = x3 (; +), f (x) =
= 3x2 = 0 x = 0.
5.5 ( ).

> 0 (f (x) < 0)

I.

f (x) >
f
I .

I,

( )

f (x) > 0 (f (x) 6 0) I ,


f ( ) I .
x1 < x2 ; x1 , x2 I .
f (x2 )f (x1 ) = f ()(x2 x1 ), (x1 ; x2 ). f (x) > 0
I , f (x2 ) > f (x1 ). x1 ,
x2 | , x1 < x2 ,
I . .

1) 5.5 f (x0
; x0 ] [x0 ; x0 + ). f (x) < f (x0 )
(x0 ), .. x0 | .
xU

2) .
3) 1), f (x) > 0 f
(x0 ; x0 ] [x0 ; x0 + ). , f (x) <
< f (x0 ) x < x0 f (x) > f (x0 ) x > x0 , .. x0
.

f (x) < 0.
,
, f (x) = 0
, f (x)
.
5.14.
4
3
2
5
f (x) = x5 x4 x3 + x2 .
: f (x) = x4 x3 x2 + x = (x2 1)(x2 x) = x(x
1)2 (x + 1). x = 0,
1, 1. f
(. . 5.3).


4.11 (
, 0). ,
, ,
.

y
+

max
1

5.6 ( ). > 0 , f

U (x0 )

1) x0 | 2) x0 | 3) x0

f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
> 0,
t+0
t

f+ (x0 ) = lim

(x0 ),
U

1) f (x) > 0 x (x0 ; x0 ) f (x) < 0 x (x0 ; x0 + );


2) f (x) < 0 x (x0 ; x0 ) f (x) > 0 x (x0 ; x0 + );
(x0 ) f (x) < 0 U
(x0 ).
3) f (x) > 0 U
189

(. . 5.4).
, x = 1 ( ).

min
0

1
0

1
. 5.3

. 5.4

(f (0) = 0,
7 , f (1) = 23 ), f (1) = 60
60
y = f (x)
190

f (x) =

x2 , x 6= 0;
1,
x = 0

x = 0,
f (

. 5.7).
y

min
0

1
0

1
. 5.5

. 5.6


f (x) = 2|x| |x 1|.
( x + 1,
x > 1;
3x 1, 0 6 x 6 1; f (x) =
f (x) =
x 1, x 6 0,
( 1,
x > 1;
0 < x < 1;
= 3,
1, x < 0.
x = 0 x = 1,
. f (. . 5.5).
(f (0) = 1,
f (1) = 2), y = f (x)

(. . 5.6). , f (x) = 2|x| |x
1| .
1. 5.6 x0 . , -

2. ,
( 5.4
4.11) 1
, ( 5.5 5.6) |
x .
0
. 5.7

.

5.15.

191

5.7. f (x0 ) = 0, f (x0 ) R, f (x0 ) 6= 0.

1)
2)

f (x0 ) > 0,

x0

| -

x0

| -

f (x0 ) < 0,


( f (x0 ),
o((x x0 )2 )).

f (x0 )
(x x0 )2 +
2
+ o((x x0 )2 ), x x0 .


0)
f (x0 ) = 0, f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )2 f (x
+ (x) ,
2

f (x0 )
0)
lim (x) = 0. lim f (x
+ (x) =
2
2 ,
f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

xx

xx0

> 0 :
192

(x0 ) sign(f (x) f (x0 )) = sign f (x0 ).


x U

(x0 ) f (x) >


, f (x0 ) > 0, x U
> f (x0 ), .. x0 | ,
f (x0 ) < 0 | .

f (x0 ) = 0, f (x0 ) = 0 5.7


x = x0 .
5.16. 5.14
5.7.
: f (x) = x4 x3 x2 + x ( x = 0,
x = 1), f (x) = 4x3 3x2 2x + 1. f (0) = 1 > 0,
f (1) = 4 < 0, x = 0 | ,
x = 1 | . f (1) = 0,
x = 1
.
5.8 ( 5.7). n = 2, 3, 4, . . . : f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) = . . . = f (n1) (x0 ) = 0,
f (n) (x0 ) R, f (n) (x0 ) 6= 0.
1) n , f (n) (x0 ) > 0 x0 , f (n) (x0 ) < 0
x0 ;
2) n , x0


( o((x x0 )n )):
f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) + . . . +
+

f (x0 ) = . . . = f (n1) (x0 ) = 0,

!
f (n) (x0 )
+ (x) ,
n!

lim (x) = 0.
xx0

193

x1 +x2
2

x2

. 5.8

f (n) (x0 )
+ (x)
n!

n
> 0 :

f (n) (x0 )
n! ,

(x0 ) sign(f (x) f (x0 )) = sign f (n) (x0 ),


x U

5.7.
n . f (n) (x0 ) >
> 0.
> 0 :

, ,

(x0 )
x U

f (n) (x0 )
+ (x) > 0,
n!

sign(f (x) f (x0 )) = sign(x x0 ).

x0 .

5.17. x =
= 1 5.14 5.16 5.8.
f (1) = f (1) = 0,
. : f (x) = 12x2 6x 2, f (1) =
= 4 6= 0. , x = 1
.
5.

f I , x1 ,x2 I ,
x2 > f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) .
x1 6= x2 , f x1 +
2
2
f
I ,
x1 , x2 I , x1 6= x2 , x2 < f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) .
f x1 +
2
2
, .
, . 5.8,
, . 5.9 | .
194

. (5.2)
, ,
x0 . ,
x0 = 0 0.

x1

xx0

5.3.

f (n) (x0 )
f (n1) (x0 )
(x x0 )n1 +
(x x0 )n +
(n 1)!
n!
+o((x x0 )n ), x x0 .

f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )n

lim

x1

x1 +x2
2

x2

5.9 ( ).

( , )

()

. 5.9

I , ,
f (x),
x I f (x) 6 0 (

f (x) > 0).


f I .
x0 I t , x0 + t I x0 t I ,

x0
f , f (x0 ) (, + )
> 0 (x0 ; x0 ) ,
(x0 ; x0 + ) (, , (x0 ; x0 )
, (x0 ; x0 + ) ).
.
, 5.3.
5.4.

5.2. x0 f (x0 ),

f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t) 2f (x0 )


.
f (x0 ) = lim
t0
t2

f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

f (x0 )
(x x0 )2 +
2
+ o((x x0 )2 ),

x x0 .

3.5 ( x = x0 + t, t 0,
x = x0 t, t 0)
f (x0 ) 2
t + o(t2 ),
2
f (x0 ) 2

f (x0 t) = f (x0 ) f (x0 )t +


t + o(t2 ),
2
f (x0 + t) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )t +

f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t) 2f (x0 ) = f (x0 )t2 + o(t2 ),

f (x0 ) = f

x0 + t + x0 t
2

>

f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t)
,
2

, f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t) 2f (x0 ) 6 0.


5.2

(5.2)

f (x0 ) = lim

t0

f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t) 2f (x0 )


6 0.
t2

, .

. f
() I , I
f . , f (x) = x4 (; +), f (x) =
= 12x2 f (0) = 0.
5.10 ( ).

t 0.

f I
I f (x).
f (x) > 0 (f (x) < 0) I ,
f ( )
I . f (x) > 0 (f (x) 6 0) I ,

t 0.
t 0,
195

196

f (
) I .
x1 x2 | I , x2 , t = x2 x1 > 0.
x1 < x2 . x0 = x1 +
2
2
x2 = x0 + t, x1 = x0 t.

f (x0 + t) + f (x0 t) 2f (x0 )


x1 + x2
f (x1 ) + f (x2 )
=
f
=
2
2
2
(f (x0 + t) f (x0 )) (f (x0 ) f (x0 t))
=
=
2
f (2 ) t f (1 ) t
f (3 ) (2 1 )t
=
=
,
2
2
x0 < 2 < x0 + t, x0 t < 1 < x0 , 1 < 3 < 2 (
; , f I ,
f ).

f (x) > 0
I , f (3 ) > 0.

x2 < f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) f (x)


2 1 > 0, f x1 +
2
2
I . .

5.11 ( ). f x0 (,

> 0.

1)

),

f (x)

(x0 ),
U

f (x) > 0 (x0 ; x0 ) f (x) < 0 (x0 ; x0 +) (,


, f (x) < 0 (x0 ; x0 ) f (x) > 0 (x0 ; x0 +)),
x0 | f ;
(x0 ) ( f (x) < 0 U
(x0 )), x0
2) f (x) > 0 U
f .
5.4 5.10.

5.18. 5.14, 5.16


5.17 .

f (x) = 4x3 3x2 2x + 1 = (x 1)(4x2 + x 1).


197

x = 0 ( , ), . 5.11 -

5.12. I ( -

f (x), f (x) > 0


I (f (x) < 0, f (x) > 0, f (x) 6 0).

l(x)

| , -

x0 I , x I \ {x0 } f (x) > l(x) ( f (x) < l(x),


f (x) > l(x), f (x) 6 l(x)), ..

( , , )

x0 .

f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

f ()
(x x0 )2 ,
2

(x0 ; x) (x; x0 ) (, ).
f ()
l(x) = f (x0 )+f (x0 )(xx0 ), f (x)l(x) = 2 (xx0 )2 .
f (x) I ,

f (x) l(x) x I \ {x0 }.


. 4.19
( )
, U (x0 ) I . 4.19 x0 ,
x I .
6.


, ,
,
.
,
199

+
x2

x1

+
1

. 5.10

x=

x = 1
= x1,2 = 1 8 17 ; x1 = 1 8 17 (1; 0), x2 = 1 +8 17

(0; 1). f

(. . 5.10)
. . 5.4. f , | x = 1 (
).
.
1. 5.4 f x0 (
f (x0 ) , ,
f (x0 ) = + , ,
,

;
4.11, . 4.5).
y
2.

x0


x f x ;
0
0
. 5.11
f (x0 ), .
, . 5.11,
x = 0, (0; +)
(; 0);
198

, . ,
. |
.
.
1) , ,
, . ,
|
( , ).
2) .
3) (
) . | , ,
.
4) y y . , y y
.
5) y y ,
.
, .

| .
6) , . , , . ,
.
y y .
7) .
200

2)
.
5.5. x = x0 y = f (x), lim f (x) =
xx0
= ( lim f (x) = , lim f (x) = ).
xx0 +0

5.13. y = kx + b

k = lim

x +

y = f (x)

x ).

lim (x) = 0.

f (x)
lim (f (x) kx) (
x b = x


lim (f (x) kx b) = 0,
x

k = lim

xx0 0

5.6. y = kx + b y = f (x), lim (f (x)


x
kx b) = 0 ( lim (f (x) kx b) = 0, lim (f (x)
x+
x
kx b) = 0). k = 0 y = b
.

, lim f (x) = 0, lim f (x) = . x = 0


x+0
x0
. lim f (x) =
x
= , .

f (x) = kx + b + (x),

(x)
f (x)
b
x =k+x+ x ,

lim f (x)
= k.
x x

(5.3)
x
.

(5.3) , lim (f (x) kx b) = 0.
x
.
f (x)
lim x . ,
b = lim (f (x) kx)

b = lim (f (x) x) = lim ((x 2)e1/x x) =


x
x

1
1
(1 2t)et 1
= lim
= lim
2 et
t0
t0
t
t
t

( x = 1t 3.5).

:
(1 2t)et 1 = (1 2t)(1 t + o(t)) 1 =

= 1 2t t 1 + o(t) = 3t + o(t).

, b = 3. y = x 3 x .
.
, x < 0 , x (0; 2) | .
.
x +0.
y y :

f (x) = sin x k = lim sinx x = 0; b = lim sin x


x
x
| .
.
5.19.

y =

(x + 2)(x 1) 1/x
e
,
x2

y =

5x 2 1/x
e
x4

( ). x = 1,
x = 2, x = 25 , x = 0. y
y ,
(. . 5.12):

y = (x 2)e1/x .

x 6= 0,
x = 2.

:
f (x) > 0 x > 2,

2
f (x)
e1/x = 1;
= lim 1
x
x
x

f (x) < 0 x < 2,

+
max
2

+
min
1

x 6= 0.

y :

2
5

. 5.12
201

y :

x = 1 | y = 1e ; x = 2 |
(y = 4 e), x = 25 | (y = 58 e5/2 ).

202

. 5.13.
.
x = 0 .

y
V

5.1. :
x
ln(1 sin x) 1
3x 2 ;
) lim e +
) lim ch 3x + xcos
;
3
4
4
x0

2
0

x0

x + x sh x ;
) lim 2 ln cos
x2
x2

x0

) lim

x0

sin 2 sh 2

5.2. :
0

2
5

) lim

x0

) lim

x0

1
1 + x x x;

1
sin2 x

1+x 1x
sh x

x0

x +0
lim y .

x+0

x = 1t 2

:

(x + 2)(x 1) 1/x
e
=
x2

1
1
+2
1 et =
= lim t2
t+
t
t
1 + t 2t2
1 4t
4
= lim
= lim
= lim
= 0.
t+
t+
t+ et
et
et
, y(0) = 0. , 4.16,
(0) = 0. y+
x = 0. -

)
)

; )

203

1
x2

) lim (arcsin x)tg x ;

x+0

100
lim x 2 ;
x ex

ln x
2
lim
.
tg x
x +0

) lim x ( 2 arctg x);


x+

f (x) =

x+0

. -

2
sh(x + sin x) ctg x
.
lim
x0 sin x + arcsin x

5.4. ,

lim y = lim

x+0

) lim 2 arccos x

. 5.13

sin x
) lim arctg
x
x0

5.3. :
1
x

8 x 2
e1+tg x e 1+2x .
2
sin x7 x
3 ln(1 x)

e1/x , x 6= 0;
0,
x = 0,
2

x = 0 , 0.
5.5. :
3
3
x5 , x > 0;
) x x6 < sin x < x x6 + 120
x < ln(1 + x), x > 0;
) 1 +
x
2

) ex > 1 + x + x2 + x6 , x 6= 0;
3

) arctg x > x x3 , x > 0.

204

5.6. ,

1
2
f (x) = x 2 + cos x , x 6= 0;
0,
x = 0,
x = 0, (0; a), a > 0,
(a; 0),
a > 0.

5.7. :
) f (x) = xx ;
) f (x) =
|x2 1| e|x| ;
x,
x 6 0;
) f (x) =
x ln x, x > 0.
5.8. :
) f (x) = earctg x ; ) f (x) = x2 ln x; ) f (x) = x + sin x.
5.9. :
10
2

) xn = n4 n+ 81 .
) xn = n2n ;
) xn = n n;
5.10. , n > 3
.
5.11. , n > 2
.
5.12. f I , x0 I f . x0
f ?
5.13. y = f (x), :

5.15. xa2 + yb2 = 1 , ,


, ?
5.16.
.
?
5.17. r.

?
5.18. a, , , b.
, (
).

et
et
, y=
, t > 1.
t1
t1
5.14. f +. , : 1)
lim f (x), ( x=

x+

) x +; 2)
( ) x
+, lim f (x)?
x+

205

VI.

1.

- ( R2 )
f , D(f ) R, E(f ) R3 ( E(f )
R2 ).
- t,
- ~r = ~r(t).
, , , .
R3 e = (~e1 ,~e2 ,~e3 ), -
; ~r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t))T , x(t), y(t),
z(t) | () . ,
. ,
(T ). e = eS , S | e e, -
(
x(t), y(t), z(t))T ,
6.1.

R3

(
x(t), y(t), z(t))T = S 1 (x(t), y(t), z(t))T .
6.2.

(6.1)

, lim ~r(t) = ~r0 , |


t

206

6.4. n = 1, 2, . . . ~r
(x(t), y(t), z(t))T , xn (t0 ), y (n) (t0 ),
z (n) (t0 ), ,
(x(n) (t0 ), y (n) (t0 ), z (n) (t0 ))T , n- - ~r t0 ;
~r(n) (t0 ). - ~r n
t0 ( n = 1,
n = 2, ..).
. 6.2 6.4
. , 6.4
~r(n) (t0 ), e = eS .
x(t), y(t), z(t) n-
t0 , (6.1) ,
x(t), y(t), z(t),

(
x(n) (t0 ), y(n) (t0 ), z(n) (t0 ))T =
= S 1 (x(n) (t0 ), y (n) (t0 ), z (n) (t0 ))T . (6.2)

, ~r(n) (t0 )
6.4 e ( 6.2)
6.4
e ( (6.2)) e e, 6.4 .
6.2.
6.1. f1 f2 ~r 1 ~r 2 t0 , ( ):

6 , ~r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t))T ,

1) 1~r1 + 2~r2 ;

~r0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 )T ,

lim x(t) = x0 ,

lim y(t) = y0 ,

lim z(t) = z0 .

- ~r t0 R, lim ~r(t) = ~r(t0 ).


6.3.

tt0

207

2) (~r1 ,~r2 );

3) |~r1 |;

4) [~r1 ,~r2 ].

, , 4).
6.2 ,
[~r1 ,~r2 ] 208

~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 .

~e1 ~e2 ~e3

[~r1 ,~r2 ] = x1 y1 z1 ,
x2 y2 z2

y1 z2 z1 y2 , z1 x2 x1 z2 , x1 y2
y1 x2 t0 , ,
- [~r1 ,~r2 ].

I f , ( ) f . f
. , [a; b]
t+0

6.2. f1 f2 -

(f ) |x=b

~r 1 ~r 2 t0 , :

1)
2)
3)
4)

+ f1~r1 + f2~r2
(f1~r1 + f2~r2 =
(~r1 ,~r2 ) = (~r1 ,~r2 ) + (~r1 ,~r2 );

[~r1 ,~r2 ] = [~r1 ,~r2 ] + [~r1 ,~r2 ];


(~r ,~r )
|~r1 | = 1 1 , ~r1 (t0 ) 6= ~0.
)

f1~r1

f2~r2 ;

|~r1 |

2) ~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 :

(~r1 ,~r2 ) = (x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 ) =


= x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 + x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = (~r1 ,~r2 ) + (~r1 ,~r2 ).

1) 3) .

p
(~r ,~r )
1 ) + (~r 1 ,~r 1 )
4) |~r1 | = ( (~r1 ,~r1 )) = (~r1 ,~rp
= |~1r |1 .
1
2 (~r1 ,~r1 )

6.3. - ~r(t)

t0 ,

~r (t0 ) = lim

tt0

~r(t) ~r(t0 )
.
t t0

, , -.

6.5. f I , I , f ,
I ( I ),
(. 4.8 3.10).
6.6.
f
I ,
209

(~r(b) ~r(a),~r(b) ~r(a)) = (~r(b) ~r(a),~r ())(b a).

~x ~y
|(~x,~y)| 6 |~x| |~y|,

|~r(b) ~r(a)|2 6 |~r(b) ~r(a)| |~r ()| (b a).

~r(b) = ~r(a), .
~r(b) 6= ~r(a), : |~r(b)
~r(a)| 6 |~r ()| (b a).


, ,
. -
.
2.

4.3 ,
.
6.8. x, y , z | t, t I (I | ).
= {(x, y, z): x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t),
t I} (
, ). (, ,
..),
- ~r (x(t), y(t), z(t))T
I .
, ,
I x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t).
, , .
.
- ~r,
211

f (a + t) f+ (a)
;
t
f (b + t) f (b)
= lim
.
t0
t

(f )+ |x=a = lim

.. I .
6.7. - ~r (, ,
..) I , .
6.2 6.4, 6.7 .
, - , , . , R2 -
~r(t) = (cos t; sin t)T . ~r (t) = ( sin t; cos t)T , |~r (t)| = 1,
~r(2) ~r(0) = ~0. ~r(2) ~r(0) = ~r () (2
0) ,
2 .
6.4 (
-). - ~r

[a; b]
(a; b)

(a; b),

|~r(b) ~r(a)| 6 |~r ()| (b a).

(t) = (~r(b)~r(a),~r(t)).
6.1 6.2 [a; b]
(a; b).
(a; b) , (b) (a) = () (b a), ..
210

( ~r). |
(t | , x, y , z | t).
6.9. , I , ~r,
.
:
= {~r : ~r = ~r(t), t I}.

t0 | I , M0 | , t0 , M | , t. ,
t 6= t0 M M0 . M
M0 ( ).

M0 M = ~r(t) ~r(t0 ).
6.10. ~a(t) | : {~r = ~r(t), t I}, M0 (t0 ) M (t),
t ( M0 M , t > t0 , M M0 ,
t < t0 ); t0 | I . ~a = lim ~a(t), ~a,
tt0
M0 ,
M0 (. . 6.1)
M (t),

t>t0

M0 (t0 )

~a(t)
t>t0

~a(t)

~r(t)

t<t0

M (t),

~r(t0 )
O

t<t0
. 6.1
212

t t0 .
, ~a(t), 6.10,

~a(t) =

~r(t) ~r(t0 )
sign(t t0 ).
|~r(t) ~r(t0 )|

(6.3)

6.1. : {~r = ~r(t), t I}

~r

(t0 ) 6= ~0 t0

I,

,
t0 . ~r

(t0 )

, t.

(6.3)
~r(t) ~r(t0 )
tt

0
.
~a(t) =
~r(t) ~r(t0 )
t t0

~r(t0 )
6.3 ~r (t0 ) = lim ~r(t)t
t0 , 6.1

tt0

~r(t) ~r(t )
lim t t 0 = |~r (t0 )|, ~r (t0 ) 6= ~0, ~a =
0

tt0

~r (t )
= lim ~a(t) = 0 . ~a(t)
|~r (t0 )|
tt0
t, ~a. ~a ~r (t0 ) .

y
6.1.
x = cos t, y = sin t, t
(a; b), b a < 2 . |
t
, ~r (t) =
x
0
= ( sin t; cos t)T
( t); |~r (t)| = 1, ~a =
= ( sin t, cos t)T (. . 6.2).
. 6.2
: ~r =
= ~r(t), t0
213

, , | .
6.2. x = t, y = t2 . | y = x2 . -

~r (t) = (1; 2t)T , ~r (0) = (1; 0)T 6= ~0. ,


t = 0 (1; 0)T .
(. . 6.3). , ~a(t),
t, (1; 0)T .
x = t3 , y = t6 ,
- lim ~a(t) = (1; 0)T , ;
t0

, ~r (0) = (0; 0)T .


y

0
. 6.3

x
. 6.4

x = t2 , y = t3 .
, ~r (t) = (2t; 3t2 )T ~r (0) = (0; 0)T .
t = 0 , lim ~a(t) =
6.3.

t+0

= (1; 0)T , lim ~a(t) = (1; 0)T (. . 6.4).


t0

() , .
6.12. : x = x1 (t), y = y1 (t), z = z1 (t) (..
~r = ~r1 (t)), t I1 , x = x2 (u), y = y2 (u), z = z2 (u) (.. ~r =
= ~r2 (u)), u I2 , u = u(t) I1 I2 . u(t)
215

M0 (t0 ) t.
, y = f (x), : x = t, y = f (t).
(1; f (t0 ))T 6= ~0.
4.5 ( y = f (x))
k = f (x0 ), .. .
6.11. : {~r = ~r(t), t I} , I
~r (t) 6= ~0 t I ( I , ,
| ).
. t0 | I , , 6.1 ~r+ (t0 )
~r (t0 ).
, ~r = ~r(t0 ) + ~r (t0 )(t t0 ), t R. ,
, 6.11. , y = x2 , , : x = t3 , y = t6 , t = 0
~r = (3t2 ; 6t5 )T | .
6.10 ~a(t), , ,
.
. (
) 214

I1 u (t) 6= 0 t I1 ,
u(t) ().
6.5. , ,
.

u(t) |
I1 , 3.11 , I2 |
. x1 (t) = x2 (u(t)) t I1 ,
x1 (t) = x2 (u) u (t). , y1 (t) = y2 (u) u (t), z1 (t) =
= z2 (u) u (t), .. ~r1 (t) = u (t) ~r2 (u). ,
, , u (t) 6= 0, .
u (t) I1 . , u (t) > 0 t I1 , u (t) < 0 ( u ,
{ 3.13 , u (t) = 0).
5.5 u I1 , ,
I1 I2 .
I1 ,
I2 . .
, ~r1 (t0 ) = ~r2 (u0 ), u0 = u(t0 ). ~r1 (t0 ) =
= u (t0 ) ~r2 (u0 ), u (t0 ) 6= 0, . , .

6.4. x2 + y 2 = 1.
:
1) x1 = cos t, y1
= sin t, 0 6 t 6 ;
2) x2 = u, y2 = 1 u2 , 1 6 u 6 1.
u = cos t, u (t) = sin t, u (t) = 0 t = 0 t = ,
. 0 < t < ( 1 < u < 1), . ,
216

~r1 (t) = ( sin t; cos t)T ; ~r1 (t) 6= ~0


t, t.
(1) = , y (1) = +, y
+
[1; 1],
(1; 1). 0 < t0 < (, , 1 <
< u0 < 1)
~r1 (t0 ) = ( sin t0 ; cos t0 )T = (y0 ; x0 )T ;
!T

u0
x0 T
= 1;
~r2 (u0 ) = 1; p
y0
1 u20

| , .
, t u
( t , .. x, u |
x).
6.13. : {~r = ~r(t), t [a; b]} , t [a; b)
~r(a) = ~r(b).
, x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 6 t 6 2 |
.
3.

t0 = a, tn = b, t0 < t1 < t2 < . . . < tn .


: {~r = ~r(t), t [a; b]} Mi (ti ), i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n
M0 M1 , M1 M2 , . . . , Mn1 Mn
, . .
, Mi
Mi+1 . 0.
6.14. : {~r = ~r(t), t
[a; b]},
, . ,
.
217

,
.
t = c ( . 6.5), l = l1 + l2 6 l1 + l2 .
t = c, k = 0,
1, . . . , n 1 , t0 = a < t1 < . . . < tk < c < tk+1 <
< . . . < tn = b (
t0 , t1 , . . . , tn ). 1 ,
t [a; c], , k
k , | , , t = tk t = c (.
. 6.6). 2 ,
t [c; b], , | ,
, t = c t = tk+1 ,
. l 6 l1 + l2 6 l1 + l2 . ,
, , l 6 l1 +
+ l2 . , : l 6 l1 + l2 .
, , l = l1 + l2 .

.
(.. l 6 +), .
. t [a; c] t
[c; b], t [a; b].
6.8. =
= {~r: ~r = ~r(t), t [a; b]} , l 6 M (b a),

M = max |~r (t)|.


[a;b]

6.1 |~r (t)| | [a; b].

3.11 3.12
. M = max |~r (t)|,
[a;b]
M R.
, ,
l =

n
X
k=1

|~r(tk ) ~r(tk1 )| 6

n
X
k=1

n
P

k=1

6.6. [c; d] [a; b], l [c; d] 6 l [a; b]. -

t [a; b], t [c; d].


l = l [a; b] 6 + (.. , ). , t
[c; d], , t
[a; b]. , , l. l [c; d] 6 l (
, . 1.3). l = +, .

6.7. t [a; b],


c (a; b)
,

l [a; c] + l [c; b] = l [a; b].


t [a; c] t [c; b]
6.6. l1 = l [a; c], l2 = l [c; b], l = l [a; b].
1 ,
t [a; c], 2 , t
[c; b] (. . 6.5). | ,
[a; b]. l1 + l2 = l , l1 + l2 6 l.
2 . 1 , 1.3 : l1 + l2 6 l.
2 , : l1 +
+ l2 6 l.

2
t=c

(tk tk1 ) = M (b a).

, : l 6 M (b a).

219

t=c

t=b

t = tk+1

t = tk

1
t=a

t=b

t=a
. 6.5

. 6.6

218

6.2. = {~r : ~r = ~r(t), t [a; b]}

t.

s(t) | a
s(t) [a; b],
s (t) = |~r (t)| t [a; b] ( t = a t =

=b

).

6.6, 6.7, 6.8 , ,


s(t) t [a; b] [a; b]
( , ), t > 0, l [t0 ; t0 +
+t] = s(t0 +t)s(t0 ), t < 0, l [t0 +t; t0 ] = s(t0 )
s(t0 + t). t [t0 ; t0 + t]
|s(t0 + t) s(t0 )|. ,

, ,

|s(t0 + t) s(t0 )| > |~r(t0 + t) ~r(t0 )|.

6.8

|s(t0 + t) s(t0 )| 6

max

t[t0 ;t0 +t]

|~r (t)| |t| = |~r ()| |t|,

= (t) [t0 ; t0 + t],



.
|t|

~r(t0 + t) ~r(t0 ) s(t0 + t) s(t0 )

6
6 |~r ((t))|

t
t

(6.4)

( , s(t) , , , t s(t0 +t)s(t0 )


). ,

~r(t0 + t) ~r(t0 )
= |~r (t0 )|
lim

|~r (k )|(tk tk1 )

( 6.4, k (tk1 ; tk ), k = 1, . . . , n).

l 6 M

: {~r = ~r(t), t [a; b]}


l [a; b].

t0

( 6.3 6.1). lim (t) = t0 ,


t0
3.8, ~r ((t)), : lim |~r ((t))| = |~r (t0 )|.
t0

220

3.4 (6.4) , s (t0 ) =


s(t0 + t) s(t0 )
= |~r (t0 )|.

t
t0
. 6.2 .
s(t) ds, 6.2 , ds =
= |~r (t)| dt.
, | - ~r, ..

t = 2

= lim

(dx(t), dy(t), dz(t))T = (x (t), y (t), z (t))T dt,


d~r(t) = ~r (t) dt.

|d~r| = |~r (t)| |dt| = s (t)|dt|, .. ds = |d~r| sign dt.


,
, s (t) = |~r (t)| > 0, ..
s(t) [a; b]. s = s(t) .
, ( ). . s(a) = 0.
s(t0 ) = 0 t0 ,
t0 > a, s(t) ( t < t0 s(t) < 0).
6.5.
2 + 2 + 2 > 0.
x = x0 + t, y = y0 + t, z = z0 + t, p

2
2
2
~r (t) = (, , )T , s(t) =
p|~r (t)| = + + .
2
2
2
4.15 s(t)
p = + + t+C .
s(0) = 0, s(t) = 2 + 2 + 2 t.

s
y = y0 + p
,
2 + 2 + 2
s
,
z = z0 + p
2 + 2 + 2

t=0
. 6.7

221

( ).
k = |~r|.
6.9. : {~r = ~r(t), t I} | -

~r (t) = (a sin t, a cos t, b)T ,

2
2
= |~r (t)| = a + b ; 4.15:

s(t) = a2 + b2 t + C . s(0) = 0, s(t) =


= a2 + b2 t.

s
s
, y = a sin
,
a2 + b2
a2 + b2
p
bs
2
2
z=
, 0 6 s 6 2 a + b .
a2 + b2

x = a cos

~r

4.

~r (t)
~r = , ~r =
s (t)

s (t)~r (t)

I,

s (t)~r (t)

(s (t))3

: {~r = ~r(t), t I} |
.
- ~r(t0 ), t0 |
I ,
- ~r s
s = s(t0 ).
222

|~r (t)|

=
= 1.
6.9 , |~r|
s (t)
~r) = 0 ,
6.10 (~r,

~r] = |~r|
|~r| = k .
I , , , [~r,

6.9,




~r s~r s~r s [~r ,~r ] |[~r ,~r ]|
k = [~r,
~r] = ,
= s4 = |~r |3 .
s
s3

~r (t)
s (t)

s (t)

s (t)~r (t) s (t)~r (t)


(s (t))3

( ).
, s (t) = |~r (t)| 6= 0, s (t)
6.2.

6.10. ~r(t) |

I |~r(t)|
(~r(t),~r (t)) = 0 t I .

t I,

|~r(t)|

(~r(t),~r (t))
,
=
|~r(t)|

6.2 , ~r(t) 6= ~0. ~r(t) 0,


.

6.3.

k
: {~r = ~r(t), t I}

k=

6.8. (.
6.6).

(~e1 , ~e2 , ~e3 | ):

. ,

~r = (a sin t, a cos t, b)T , ~r = (a cos t, a sin t, 0)T ,

~r = (x(t), y(t), z(t))T . x (t) = x s (t), y (t) =


= y s (t), z (t) = z s (t). , ~r (t) = ~r s (t),

= (~r)t =
~r = (~r)
s (t)

6.15.

, -

6.7.
y = f (x), a 6 x 6 b,

p : x = t, y = f (t). ~r (t) = (1, f (t)) , s(t) =


= 1 + (f (t))2 > 0.
, ,
p
1 + (f (t))2 .

6.6.
x = a cos t, y = a sin t, z =
= bt, a, b > 0 (t [0; 2]) (.
. 6.7).

s (t)

- ~r:

s
x = x0 + p
,
2 + 2 + 2

t=

|[~r (t),~r (t)]|


.
|~r (t)|3

~e1

[~r ,~r ] = a sin t


a cos t

~e2
~e3
a cos t
b = (ab sin t, ab cos t, a2 )T ,
a sin t 0
p
p
|[~r ,~r ]| = a2 b2 + a4 , |~r | = a2 + b2 .

a , .. k = a2 +
b2
. , a
b = 0. k = a1 | , .
6.9. x = x(t), y = y(t).


y|
.
[~r ,~r ] = (0, 0, x y x y )T , k = |x2y 2x 3/2
(x + y )
6.10. y = f (x).
: x = t, y = f (t).
, 6.9 x = 1, x = 0,

|y |
.
(1 + y 2 )3/2
, y = ex k(x) =
ex
=
, , lim k(x) =
2x 3/2 .
k=

(1 + e )

= lim k(x) = 0.
x

223

224

x+

. ,
, ( 6.1
6.9)

6.8 ,
.

~r (t)

= ~r.
~ =
|~r (t)|


t = t0 s0 ,
~ (s) ~ (s0 )
~r(s0 ) = ~ (s0 ) = lim
ss0
s s0
|

, k = ~r(s0 ) |
. (s) | s0 s (. . 6.8).

~ (s)
(s)
~ (s0 )

~ (s) ~ (s0 )

. 6.8

~ (s) | -,

2 sin (s)
~ (s) ~ (s0 )

2
= lim
k = lim
;
ss0
s s0 s0
s

s 0,

(s)
(s)
sin (s)
2 , k = lim s , ..
2
s0
| .
6.16. ,
( k > 0,
R = k1 > 0; k = 0, R = +).
225

4,
, , ~ . ,
s = s0 , k = |~r(s0 )| =
= |~ (s0 )|.

, .. ,
~ 6= ~0. ~ | ,
~ . ,
~ = k~.
(6.5)
.
6.17. : {~r = ~r(t), t I} |
,
, I , (.. ~r 6= ~0). , ~r,
, ,
, . , , . ,
, . , , . ( )
(. . 6.9).
. |~ | = 1, 6.10 , (~ ,~ ) = 0, .. ~ ~ (
6.3). , | 226

). ~r = ~0, 6.9 ~r ~r. , ~r 6= 0,


~r ~r .
:

5.

(~r ~r(t0 ),~r (t0 ),~r (t0 )) = 0.

~ [~r ,~r ], ~ = [~,~ ] [[~r ,~r ],~r ]. :

~r = ~r(t0 ) + [[~r (t0 ),~r (t0 )],~r (t0 )](t t0 ).

~r = ~r(t0 ) + [~r (t0 ),~r (t0 )](t t0 ).

:
(~r ~r(t0 ),~r (t0 ), [~r (t0 ),~r (t0 )]) = 0.

. 6.9

, |,
(
). ~ = [~ ,~]
.
t.
,
, t0 :
~r = ~r(t0 ) +~r (t0 )(t t0 ).

:
(~r ~r(t0 ),~r (t0 )) = 0.

, ~r 6= ~0, ~r ~r
( 6.9 ~r | ~r ~r , ~r

~r , ~r, ~r
~r | ,
227

(6.5)
:

~ = k~ + ~,

~ = ~

( ).
=

(~r ,~r ,~r )


|[~r ,~r ]|2

( ).
.
( 6.8),
b .
= a2 +
b2
6.

: {~r = ~r(t), t
I} M0 - ~r(t0 ), t0 |
I , .
M0 ,
6.18.

228

- ~ = ~r(t0 ) + R~ (.. , ~r,


M0 , ).
6.19. , ,
, |
, ,
.
, , .
1) , , ( s s0
, .. ,

s, o((s)2 )).
k = 0, ,
.. | , R = +. o(s),
,
.
2) , t0 , t0 + h t0 h, ,
h +0
- ~r(t0 ), |
. ,
.
k(t0 ) = 0, +, .
6.20.
229

, ,
, .
.
6.11. x = a cos t,
y = a sin t, z = bt (a, b > 0).
(. 6.6):
~r =

~r =

a cos

a
a2 + b2

s
bs
s
, a sin
,
a2 + b2
a2 + b2
a2 + b2

cos

s
s
, sin
a2 + b2
a2 + b2

~r =

s3

=
=

R2~r =

s~r

T
,0
=
=

1
(x, y, 0)T .
a2 + b2

2
a
b2
, k = a2 +
( 6.8), R = a +
a .
b2

~ = k1 ~r = R~r = a1 (x, y, 0)T . -

a2 + b2
(x, y, 0)T =
~ = ~r + R~ = (x, y, z)T
a2
T

T 2
b2
b2
b2
b
= 2 x, 2 y, z
= cos t, sin t, bt
=
a
a
a
a
T
2
b2
b
cos(t + ), sin(t + ), bt
.
=
a
a

| ,
z , b, 2
| Oxy ( ba
a). ,
.

6.12. , x = x(t),
y = y(t).
|x y x y |
k = 2
2 3/2 ( 6.9).
(x + y )

~ = ~r + R~ = ~r + R2~r. 6.9 (
p t; , s = x2 + y 2 ,

230



s = x x s+ y y ):

s~r

t=



s~r x x s+ y y ~r

s3

s2~r (x x + y y )~r
=
s4

1
((x2 + y 2 )(x , y )T (x x + y y )(x , y )T ) =
s4
x y x y
=
(y , x )T .
s4

x y x y
s6

(y, x )T = 2
(x y x y )2
s4
s
(y , x )T .
=
x y x y

(
, t, ):
(x (t))2 + (y (t))2
;
x (t)y (t) x (t)y (t)
(t))2 + (y (t))2
(x
.
(t) = y(t) + x (t)
x (t)y (t) x (t)y (t)
(t) = x(t) y (t)

6.13.

1 + y 2
y,
y

=y+

1 + y 2
.
y

t=

3
2

t=

t=0

t=

3
2

t=

t=0

. 6.10

| (. . 6.10).

VI

6.1.
, ~r1 , ~r2 , ~r3

y = f (x),
: x = t, y = f (t). x = 1, x = 0,
=x

t=

x = a cos t, y =

= b sin t (a > b > 0).


6.12

a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t
a2 b2
=
cos3 t;
ab
a
a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t
b2 a2
(t) = b sin t a sin t
=
sin3 t.
ab
b

(t) = a cos t b cos t

231

(~r1 ,~r2 ,~r3 ) = (~r1 ,~r2 ,~r3 ) + (~r1 ,~r2 ,~r3 ) + (~r1 ,~r2 ,~r3 ).

6.2. ,
.
6.3. , y = sin x1 , x (0; 1],
( ,
).
6.4. : x =
= a(t sin t), y = a(1 cos t), 0 6 t 6 2 .
6.5.
y = ch x, 0 6 x 6 1.
6.6. y = ln x.
232

6.7. x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t 0 <


< t < 2 .
6.8. , ( 6.4)
, .
6.9. y = x2 x = 0
2) ,
6.19.
6.10.
( 6.6).
6.11. , = e ,
.
6.12. , , , , .
6.13. ,
, .
6.14. , ,
?
6.15. , (t) (t) |
x =
= x(t), y = y(t), a 6 t 6 b, ,

VII.

1.

C (a, b), a, b R,
. z1 = (a1 , b1 ) C, z2 = (a2 , b2 ) C,
z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2 , b1 + b2 ), z1 z2 = (a1 a2 b1 b2 , a1 b2 + b1 a2 ). C .
z1 = (a1 , b1 ) z2 = (a2 , b2 ) , a1 = a2 b1 = b2 .
C (
, , ).
7.1.

7.1. z1 , z2 , z3

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

z1 + z2 = z2 + z1 ;
(z1 + z2 ) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3 );
z1 z2 = z2 z1 ;
(z1 z2 )z3 = z1 (z2 z3 );
(z1 + z2 )z3 = z1 z3 + z2 z3 .

, , 4 ( 5
, 1, 2, 3 ).
z1 = (a1 , b1 ), z2 = (a2 , b2 ), z3 = (a3 , b3 ).

2 + 2
x2 + y 2
=
.
x y x y

z1 z2 = (a1 a2 b1 b2 , a1 b2 + b1 a2 ),

(z1 z2 )z3 =

z2 z3 = (a2 a3 b2 b3 , a2 b3 + b2 a3 ),

= ((a1 a2 b1 b2 )a3 (a1 b2 +b1 a2 )b3 , (a1 a2 b1 b2 )b3 +(a1 b2 +b1 a2 )a3 ),

z1 (z2 z3 ) =

= (a1 (a2 a3 b2 b3 )b1 (a2 b3 +b2 a3 ), a1 (a2 b3 +b2 a3 )+b1 (a2 a3 b2 b3 )).
233

. ,
(a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 a3 a1 b2 b3 b1 a2 b3 ,

a1 a2 b3 b1 b2 b3 + a1 b2 a3 + b1 a2 a3 ).

7.2. (a, 0), a R,


a.
, (a, 0)
,
:

(a, 0) + (b, 0) = (a + b, 0),

234

z1 = a1 + b1 i, z2 = a2 + b2 i, z = u + vi.
: (a1 + b1 i) = (a2 + b2 i) + (u + vi), a1 = a2 + u,
b1 = b2 + v . u = a1 a2 , v = b1 b2 .
z = z1 z2 : z1
z2 = (a1 a2 )+(b1 b2 )i, ..
.
: (a1 + b1 i) = (a2 + b2 i)(u + vi),
a2 u b2 v = a1 , b2 u + a2 v = b1 . z2 6= 0,
= a22 + b22 > 0;
+ b1 b2 , v = b1 a2 a1 b2 .
, : u = a1aa22 +
b2
a2 + b2
2
2
2
2
z = zz12 :

(a1 a2 + b1 b2 ) + (a2 b1 a1 b2 )i
z1
=
.
z2
a22 + b22

(a, 0) (b, 0) = (ab, 0).

.
7.3. (0, 1)
i.
, i2 = i i = (0, 1) (0, 1) = (1, 0), ..
i2 = 1.
, (a, 0) + (b, 0) (0, 1) = (a, 0) + (0, b) = (a, b),
(a, b) a + bi.
: z = a + bi,
a, b R. :
(a1 + b1 i) + (a2 + b2 i) = (a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 )i;
(a1 + b1 i) (a2 + b2 i) = (a1 a2 b1 b2 ) + (a1 b2 + b1 a2 )i.

, , ( 7.1), , i2 = 1.
7.4. z1
z2 z , z1 = z2 + z
( z = z1 z2 ).
z1 z2 (z2 6= 0) z ,
z1 = z2 z ( z = zz21 ).
, .
235

:
(a1 + b1 i)(a2 b2 i)
a1 + b1 i
=
=
a2 + b2 i
(a2 + b2 i)(a2 b2 i)
(a1 a2 + b1 b2 ) + (b1 a2 a1 b2 )i
=
.
a22 + b22

z = a bi
z . , z z = a2 + b2 .
a + b c, a, b, c Q,

c > 0, a b c, (

).
7.5. z = a + bi C, a, b R.
a b
z (a = Re z , b = Im z ).
z = a bi ,
z .
|z| = a2 + b2
z .
7.2. z , z1 , z2
:
236

1)
3)
5)
7)
9)

z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 ;
2)
z1 z2 = z1 z2 ;
4)
z + z = 2 Re z ;
6)
z z = |z|2 ;
8)
z1 |z1 |
z2 = |z | ( z2 6= 0); 10)
2

a = r cos , b = r sin , z = a + bi
:

z1 z2 = z1 z2 ;
z1 = z1 ( z 6= 0);
2
z2
z2
z z = 2i Im z ;
|z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |;

z = r(cos + i sin ).

|z1 + z2 | 6 |z1 | + |z2 |.

.
C ( C). 0, ~e1 , ~e2 ( ~e1 ~e2 ),
z = a + bi M (z) (a; b). . M (
z)
M (z) ,
, . M (z)
|z| (. . 7.1).
y
b

M (z)

|z |

M (
z)

, ,
.
7.2. , cos 3 sin 3.
: (cos + i sin )3 = cos 3 + i sin 3.
, : cos3 +3 cos2 i sin +3 cos ( sin2 )isin3
( , i2 = 1, i3 = i). ,

cos 3 = cos3 3 cos sin2 = cos3 3 cos (1 cos2 ) =


= 4 cos3 3 cos ,

sin 3 = 3 cos2 sin sin3 = 3(1 sin2 ) sin sin3 =

= 3 sin 4 sin3 .

7.6. n | , n > 2.
n- z

w , wn = z (: w = n z ).

z
z = r(cos + i sin ), r > 0,

n > 2.
n ,

n
r n
+ 2k
,
k
=
0
,
1
,
2
,
.
.
.
,
n
1.
n
, 0n = 0, w 6=
6= 0, wn 6= 0. z = r(cos +i sin ), w = (cos +
+i sin ), wn = n (cos n +i sin n) = r(cos +i sin ).
n
z

,
, .
, . , .

r1 > 0, r2 > 0.

z1 z2 = r1 r2 ((cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 ) + i(cos 1 sin 2 +


+ sin 1 cos 2 )) = r1 r2 (cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )).
zz21 = (cos + i sin ), z1 = z2 zz12 , r1 = r2 , 1 =

= 2 + , , = rr12 , = 1 2 .

237

= 3
4 .

z1 z2 = r1 r2 (cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 ));


z1
r1
=
(cos(1 2 ) + i sin(1 2 )).
z2
r2

. 7.1

1 + 1 = 2, cos = 1 , sin = 1 ,
2
2


3
z = 2 cos 4 + i sin 3

4 .

2) z = 1 + i, |z| =

+ i sin 2 ),

z OM ( ). +2k,
k Z, = arg z . .
: r = |z|, = arg z .

= 2 cos 3 + i sin 3 .

7.3. z1 = r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 ), z2 = r2 (cos 2 +

r=

7.4. z = 0,


1 + i 3 1 + i.

1) z = 1 + i 3, |z| = 1 + 3 = 2, cos = 21 , sin = 23 .



( ) . = 3 . z =

7.1.

, .
( ).

+ i sin ), r > 0,

z = r(cos +

z = r (cos n + i sin n).


238

k k + n ,

2 , n z
n (k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1,
).

. n n z
n ,
n-, n r
.

3
7.3. 8, 4 5, 3 1 + i.

1) 8 = 8(cos 0+i sin 0), 3 8 = 2 cos 2k


+ i sin 2k
,
3
3
k = 0, 1, 2. 3 : 2, 1 + i 3, 1 i 3 (.
. 7.2).
|
8.
k=1

k=1

k=0

k=0
0

k=0

k=1

k=2

k=2

k=3

k=2

, ,
, ,
2k, k Z (
,
, |
).
, n = r,

n = + 2k , k Z, = n r (
n- ), = +n2k , k Z.
239

. 7.2

. 7.3

. 7.4

2) 5 = 5(cos + i sin ),

5 =

+ 2k
+ 2k
4
5 cos
,
+ i sin
4
4

k = 0, 1, 2, 3.

4 :

1+i
4
5 ,
2

1 + i

1 i

1i
5
2

(. . 7.3). 4 5 |
4- 5.
240

3
3) 1 + i = 2 cos 3
4 + i sin 4 ,

1 + i =

2 cos

3 + 2k
4

+ i sin

3 :

3 + 2k
4

k = 0, 1, 2.

7.6. z = 0, Ln z . z =
= r(cos + i sin ), r > 0, Ln z
a = ln r

11
1+i
11
6
,
+ i sin
2 ,
2 cos
12
12
2

19
19
6
+ i sin
2 cos
12
12

( )

(. . 7.4).

7.7. z = a + bi, a, b R. ez
ea (cos b + i sin b).
z = a R, b = 0, ez = ea ( z R
ez ). , ez 6= 0
z .
7.5. z1 , z2 C
z1
ez1 +z2 = ez1 ez2 , ez1 z2 = eez2 .
z1 = a1 + b1 i, z2 = a2 + b2 i.
ez1 +z2 = ea1 (cos b1 + i sin b1 ) ea2 (cos b2 + i sin b2 ) =

= ea1 +a2 (cos(b1 + b2 ) + i sin(b1 + b2 )) = ez1 +z2 .

, z1 = (z1 z2 ) + z2 , ez1 = ez1 z2 ez2 ,


.

7.4. e2i , ei , e 2 i , e2+3i .


: e2i = e0 (cos 2 + i sin 2) = 1;

e 2 i = e0 cos + i sin
= i;
2
2
= e2 (cos 3 + i sin 3).

ei = e0 (cos + i sin ) = 1,

z ez+2i =
= ez e2i = ez , ez
241

sin z , ctg z = cos z ). , z


tg z = cos
z
sin z

eiz

eiz

eiz

eiz

+
+
=
2i
2

1
1 2iz
=
e + e2iz 2eiz eiz +
e2iz + e2iz + 2eiz eiz .
4
4
2
eiz eiz = e0 = 1, sin z + cos2 z = 1.
, cos z = ch iz , sin z = shiiz .
sin2 z + cos2 z =


; .
i ( , 1).

, .
2.

f , D(f ) R, E(f ) C.
x D(f ) f1 (x) = Re f (x)
f2 (x) = Im f (x):
f (x) = f1 (x) + if2 (x),

, 0.
7.5. Ln 2, Ln(2), Ln(2i),
Ln(1 + i).
Ln 2 = ln 2 + 2ki, k Z; Ln(2)
= ln 2 + ( + 2k)i, k

Z; Ln(2i) = ln 2 + 2 + 2k i, k Z; Ln(1 + i) = ln 2 +

7.9.

+i(cos b1 sin b2 + sin b1 cos b2 )) =

b = + 2k , k Z.
, ew 6= 0
w. z = r(cos + i sin ), w = a + bi, ew = ea (cos b +
+ i sin b) = z . ea = r ( a = ln r), b = + 2k , k Z.

, ez , z C,

+ 4 + 2k i, k Z.

= ea1 ea2 ((cos b1 cos b2 sin b1 sin b2 )+

e2+3i

2i. ex .
7.8. z w , ew = z (:
w = Ln z ).

f1 (x), f2 (x) R.

cos z , sin z :

z C ch z , sh z ,

ez ez
ez + ez
, sh z =
,
2
2
iz
+e
eiz eiz
cos z =
, sin z =
.
2
2i
z = a R, ch z = ch a, sh z = sh a, eiz = eai = cos a +
+ i sin a, eiz = eai = cos a i sin a.
1
cos z = (cos a + i sin a + cos a i sin a) = cos a.
2
, sin z = sin a.
ch z =

eiz

, (

242

f (x) = f1 (x) +
+ if2 (x).

, .
7.7.

f + g, f g

f
f

x0 ,

g ,

(f + g) = f + g ,

(f g) = f g + f g ,


f
gf f g
=
g
g2

x0 ( , g(x0 ) 6=
6 0).
=
.

,
| , ,
, .
f = f1 + if2 , g = g1 + ig2 ; f1 , f2 , g1 , g2
x0 .
(f g) = ((f1 g1 f2 g2 ) + i(f1 g2 + g1 f2 )) =

= (f1 g1 f2 g2 ) + i(f1 g2 + g1 f2 ) =

= (f1 g1 + g1 f1 f2 g2 g2 f2 ) + i(f1 g2 + g2 f1 + g1 f2 + f2 g1 ).

f g x0 ,
. ,
f g + f g = (f1 + if2 )(g1 + ig2 ) + (f1 + if2 )(g1 + ig2 ) =

C R2 , -, .
7.10. f (, , ..) , f1 = Re f f2 = Im f .
243

= (f1 g1 f2 g2 + f1 g1 f2 g2 ) + i(f2 g1 + f1 g2 + f2 g1 + f1 g2 ).

, (f g) .

7.6. , C

(ex ) = ex

x R,

..
.
= a + bi, a, b R.
244

ex = eax cos bx + ieax sin bx,


= (aeax cos bx beax sin bx) + i(beax cos bx + aeax sin bx).

(ex ) = (aeax cos bx beax sin bx) + i(aeax sin bx + beax cos bx),

ex .
,
.


. (, ,
),
III ( | ).

3.

(7.1)

Q(z) | n 1; r | (r C).
245

(7.2),

z n C , .. C = a0 .
7.11. k (k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n) P (z)
n, P (z) = (z )k Q(z), Q(z) | ,
Q() 6= 0. k = 1 , k > 2
| .
. k = 0,
P (z).
, ,
P (z) n > 1 :

7.8. P (z) = a0 z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an1 z +

+ an , P (z) = a
0 z n + a
1 z n1 + . . . + a
n1 z + a
n (,
P ). C
k ,

k .
P
= ,

. P (z) = (z )k Q(z), Q() 6=
1 zn1 + . . . + a
n1 z + a
n =
6= 0. P (
z) = a
0 zn + a
= a0 z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an1 z + an = P (z) = (z )k Q(z) =
z ).
= (
z
)k Q(
z | , z z .

) = Q() 6= 0.
P (z) = (z
)k Q(z),
Q(

, | P k.
. P (z) |

,
.
( |
).

, (.. |
).
247

a0 6= 0,

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

P (z) = a0 (z 1 )(z 2 ) . . .(z n ),


i C,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n

i ,

).

P (z) = (z 1 )P1 (z), P1


| n 1.
P1 (z), : P (z) = (z 1 )(z 2 )P2 (z), P2 (z) |
n 2 ..

0.

P (z) = (z 1 )(z 2 ) . . .(z n ) C,

(7.2)

Pn (z) C ( ). 1 , 2 , . . . ,
n | , .
246

7.8, P (z) P (z) |


.

7.4. n > 1

+ an ,

an 6= 0,

P (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an1 x +

P (x) =
= a0 (x 1 )s1 . . .(x k )sk (x2 + p1 x + q1 )t1 . . .(x2 + pm x + qm )tm ,
s1 ,

1 ,

...,

sk , t1 , . . . , tm | ;
k , p1 , . . . , pm , q1 , . . . , qm R, p2i 4qi < 0, i = 1,
m; s1 + . . . + sk + 2(t1 + . . . + tm ) = n.
...,

...,

P (z) = a0 (z 1 )k1 (z 2 )k2 . . .(z m )km ,

1 , 2 , . . . , m ,
i ki > 1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , m),
n, .. k1 + k2 + . . . + km = n.

P (z) = a0 z n +a1 z n1 + . . .+an1 z+an ,

ai C, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n; a0 6= 0; n N, n z . 0 |
a0 , a0 6= 0.
( ,
). ai R, (z C z R
). ai C,
(z C).
P (z) | n, C,
P (z) z :

n>1

P (z) = a0 z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an1 z + an ,

7.2 ( ).

7.3. -

P (z) = Q(z)(z ) + r,

7.1 (). P (z)


z P ().
(7.1) z = : P () = Q()( ) + r = r.
. P (z) z
, P (z), .. P () = 0.
.

, P (z)
, P (z) = (z )Q(z),
Q P .

ex = (a + bi)(eax cos bx + ieax sin bx) =

7.3 7.8

P (z) = a0 (z 1 )s1 . . .(z k )sk (z 1 )t1 (z 1 )t1 . . .

. . .(z m )tm (z m )tm ,

1 , . . . , k | P s1 , . . . , sk , 1 , 1 , . . . , m , m |
(i i ti , i =
= 1, . . . , m). , s1 +
+ . . . + sk + 2(t1 + . . . + tm ), .. n.
= c + d i, d 6= 0. = c d i,

+ = z 2 2cz + c2 + d2 .
(z ) z = z 2 ( + )z

z 2 +pz +q , p = 2c, q = c2 +d2 , D = p2 4q = 4d2 . z x, , z ,


.

7.4 , ( ), a .
.
248

, ,
:
a, b, c Z,

az 2 + bz + c = a(z 1 )(z 2 ),

a 6= 0.

1 , 2 | , .
D = b2 4ac , 1 2
(.. 1 2).
D 6= 0,
, D = 0 | 2. , az 2 +bz +c = 0
, ,
:

b 2 b2 4ac
b2
b 2
= 0, ..
z+
+c
=
.
a z+
2a
4a
2a
4a2
2

b
D = 0, z + 2a
= 0,

2
b 2 (az 2 +bz+c = a z + b
1 = 2a
2a ).

b = D ( , D
D 6= 0, z + 2a
2a

C, D

u, v R, t = u2 > 0, .. u2 = 1, u= 1, v = 4. : 15 8i = (1 4i).

3 2i 1 + 4i
= 1 + i.
2

3
7.8. 8,
z 3 8 = 0.
:

1 =

1,2 =

b + D
,
2a

D = b2 4ac.

7.7. z 2 (3 2i)z + 5 i = 0.
2
8i.

D = (3 2i) 4(5 i) = 15
15 8i. w = u + iv , w2 = 15 8i. u2 v 2 =
= 15; 2uv = 8. , : v = u4 , u2

162 = 15. u4 + 15u2


u

(z 2)(z 2 + 2z + 4) = 0.

z1,2 = 1 +

Q(x)

A R; Q1 (x) = x | ,
s 1, P1 (x) |

4.

| Q s, Q(x) = (x )s G(x),
G(x) | , G() 6= 0.
P ()
P (x) A G(x)
A = G() P1 (x) =
( ,
x
P () A G() = 0,
x ).
G Q P
Q, P1
Q; , P1 Q1 , .. Q
1
| . , P (x) = A G(x) + P1 (x)(x ),
G(x) (x )P1 (x)
A
P1 (x)
P (x)
=A
+
=
.
+
Q(x)
Q(x)
Q(x)
(x )s Q1 (x)

. , ,
, .
7.10. x2 + px + q (p, q R) | -

Q(x)

P (x)

Q(x)

t > 1.

A, B R; Q1 (x) =

x2 + px + q

3.

-P (x)
, P Q | R(x) = Q(x)
m n, m, n Z, m > 0, n > 1.
, m < n, ,
m > n.
7.9.

P (x)
| | Q(x)

Q s = 1,
P1 (x)
A
P (x)
+
=
,
Q(x)
(x )s Q1 (x)

250

A + B =

P ()
.
G()

(7.3)

A B ,
P ()
= 1 + 1 i, 1 6= 0, G()
= 2 + 2 i, (7.3)
:
A(1 + 1 i) + B = 2 + 2 i,

A, B A1 + B = 2 , A1 = 2 ,
, . (7.3)

, A + B = P () , P G |
G()

.
+ B)G(x)
P1 (x) = P (x) x2 (Ax
( |
+ px + q
(A +
, P () (A + B)G() = 0, P ()
= 0; , x
+ B)G()
x , , x2 + px + q ). Q
n. G n 2,
(Ax + B)G(x) n 1, ..
Q. P Q, Q.
, P1 , n 2, ..
P1 | . ,
Q1 , Q
1

Q(x)
| ,
x2 + px + q

P (x) = (Ax + B)G(x) + (x2 + px + q)P1 (x),

P (x)
Ax + B
P1 (x)
= 2
,
+
Q(x)
(x + px + q)t Q1 (x)

1 4 = 1 +

P1 (x)
.

Q1 (x)

i 3,
3 8 3 : 2, 1+i 3,
1 i 3 ( 7.3 ).

16 = 0 u2 = t.
t2 + 15t 16 = 0 t0 = 1, t2 = 16.
249

2 =

2. x2+
+ 2x + 4 (D < 0), 3 8
2. - . z 2 + 2z + 4 = 0 :

).
:

3 2i + 1 4i
= 2 3i,
2

t 1,

P1 (x)

P1 (x)
.
Q1 (x)

t G(x),
Q(x) = (x2 +px+q)t G(x) = (x)t (x )
| -

x2 +px+q , G | , G() 6=
6= 0. A B ,
6= 0, G()
251

(Ax + B)G(x) (x2 + px + q)P1 (x)


P (x)
=
+
=
Q(x)
Q(x)
Q(x)
P1 (x)
Ax + B
+
= 2
.
(x + px + q)t Q1 (x)

Q(x) ,
,
252

P (x)
7.9 7.10, Q(x)

P (x)

+ . . .+
=
+
Q(x)
(x 1 )s1
(x 1 )s1 1

+
+ . . .+
+
+ ... +
x 1 (x 2 )s2
x 2

+
+
.
.
.+
+
(x k )sk
(x k )sk 1

x +
x +
+
+ . . .+
+
+ 2
(x k ) (x2 + p1 x + q1 )t1
(x + p1 x + q1 )t1 1
x +
x +
+ 2
+
+ ... + 2
t
x + p1 x + q 1
(x + pm x + qm ) m
x +
x +
+ 2
+ ... + 2
(x + pm x + qm )tm 1
x + pm x + qm

( Q(x) = a0 (x 1 )s1 . . .(x k )sk (x2 + p1 x + q1 )t1 . . .(x2 +


+ pm x + qm )tm | 7.4).

. , , ( , ). s1 + s2 + . . . + sk + 2(t1 + . . . + tm ) = n .
, .
7.9 7.10 ,
x x2 + px + q .
. ,
7.5.

.

7.9. :
2
1 ;
1 , a 6= 0; )
) x4 x+ x+2 1+ 1 .
) x2
a2
x3 8

1
B
1
) x2
= (x + a)(x
= xA
+ a + x a .
a)
a2
, : 1 = A(x a) + B(x + a). x =
253

7.7. , C
(cos x) = sin x x R.
7.8. x4 + 1 x5 1.
7.9. :
) z 3 + 27 = 0;
) z 6 1 = 0;
) z 2 (3 + 3i)z + (6 + 7i) = 0.
7.10. :
2
1 ;
x+1 ;
) x2 2x
) x32x
5x + 6
x2 x + 1

1 ; x = a A = 1 .
= a B = 2a
2a

1
1
1
1
: x2
= 2a
xa x+a .
a2
Bx
+
C
1
1
A
) x3 8 = (x 2)(x2 + 2x + 4) = x 2 + x2 + 2x + 4 .

, : 1 = A(x2 + 2x + 4) + (x
1 .
2)(Bx + C). x = 2 A = 12
1.
x2 , A + B = 0, .. B = 12
, 4A 2C = 1, C = 31 .

1
1
=
x3 8
12

x2 + 1
1
=
x4 + x2 + 1
2

1
x+4

x 2 x2 + 2x + 4
2

x +1
x +1
) x4 x+ x+2 1+ 1 = (x2 +
=
=
1)2 x2
(x2 + x + 1)(x2 x + 1)
+ D . ,
= 2Ax + B + Cx
2
x +x+1
x x+1
: x2 + 1 = (Ax + B)(x2 x + 1) + (Cx + D)(x2 + x + 1).
x3 , x2 , x, 1, : A +
+ C = 0, B A + C + D = 1, A B + C + D = 0, B + D = 1,
A = C = 0, B = D = 21 .

1
1
+
x2 + x + 1 x2 x + 1

VII

7.1. 5 7.1.
7.2. 1{10 7.2.
7.3. , cos 5
cos sin 5 sin .

6
7.4. 3 27, 4 1,
64, 5 4 4i.
7.5. Ln e, Ln(1 + i 3), Ln(3 3i).
7.6. , z C :
cos(z1 + z2 ) = cos z1 cos z2 sin z1 sin z2 ;
sin(z1 + z2 ) = sin z1 cos z2 + cos z1 sin z2 .

254

VIII.

(sin x) = cos x,

) x6 1 1 .
7.11.
:
1 + cos

7.12.

6
6
+ i sin
5
5

+ i cos
1 sin 13
13

1i

|z|
arg z [; ], |z 2 + i| 6 2.
7.13. z v = ev Ln z , z, v C, z 6= 0.
Ln z , z v ,
, .
1) , v = n Z z n ( z 6= 0).
1
2) , v = n1 , n N, z n

n , n z ( z 6= 0).
3) ii .
7.14. , (ez )n = enz z C, n Z.
7.15. 8z 5 + 13z 4 + 5z 3 + 5z 2 3z 8
z 2 + 1?

255

1.

F
f I , x I
F (x) = f (x) ( ,
8.1.

, ).
. f F ,
, x. , f F , .
4.15, F1 F2
I
F1 (x) = F2 (x), F1 (x) = F2 (x) + C I , C
| . , C
( Re(F1 F2 ) Im(F1 F2 ), ,
F1 F2 ). ,

.
8.2. f I
f .
Z
f (x) dx.
dx , ,
. ,
.
, .
, ( ) , , .
.
256

4x dx = {x + C , C R}). ,
Z
1
1
dx = ln x + C (0; +)
dx =
x
x
= ln(x) + C
(; 0). Z
dx
= ln |x|+C .

x

dx
=
x

x > 0;
ln x + C1 ,
ln(x) + C2 , x < 0

( ,
).
Z

1
dx
= + C ( x2
x
Z
dx
=
(; 0) (0; +));
cos2 x
=
tg
x
+
C
(

2 + n; 2 + n , n Z), ..

,
:
Z
dx
x+1
+ C, 6= 1;
= ln |x| + C;
x dx =
+1
x
Z
Z
x
a
x
x
a dx =
+ C, a > 0 a 6= 1;
e dx = ex + C;
ln a
Z
Z
sin x dx = cos x + C;
cos x dx = sin x + C;
Z
Z
dx
dx
= ctg x + C;
=
tg
x
+
C;
2
cos2 x
Z
Z sin x
sh x dx = ch x + C;
ch x dx = sh x + C;
Z
Z
dx
dx
=
th
x
+
C;
= cth x + C;
ch2 x
sh2 x
Z

257

). , a > 0
x
x
dx

= arcsin + C = arccos + + C.
a
a
2
a2 x2
2 + C C ( -

),

x
dx

= arccos + C
a
a2 x2

( , arccos xa = 21

a x2

, 21 ln 2 + C C ,

2.

1
+ C.
2

I,

e(a+bi)x dx =
=

eax

eax cos bx dx

eax sin bx dx,

eax (cos bx + i sin bx)(a bi)


e(a+bi)x
+C =
+C =
a + bi
(a + bi)(a bi)

a2 + b2

((a cos bx + b sin bx) + i(a sin bx b cos bx)) + C,

C C.
Z

eax cos bx dx = Re

eax sin bx dx = Im

eax (a cos bx + b sin bx)


+ C,
a2 + b2
eax (a sin bx b cos bx)
e(a+bi)x dx =
+C
a2 + b2

e(a+bi)x dx =

( , , C1
C2 | C , C ,
).


,

; 2C , C , C + 1 .. C ( C
258

R 1 + cos 2x
dx = x2 + sin42x + C ;
2
R 1 cos
2x dx = x sin 2x + C ;
2) sin x dx =
2
2
4

R 1
R
3) tg2 x dx =
1 dx = tg x x + C .
2

1)

cos2 x dx =
2

cos x
8.2 ( ).

u v I .
Z
Z
u(x)v (x) dx = u(x)v(x) v(x)u (x) dx

(f (x) + g(x))dx = F (x) + G(x) + C,

, C.
F (x) = f (x), G (x) =
= g(x), (F (x) + G(x)) = f (x) + g(x).

259

(8.1)

(8.1), -


).

, x I
R

u(x)v (x) = (u(x)v(x)) v(x)u (x).

(8.2)

(u(x)v(x)) dx = u(x)v(x) + C , (8.2)


.

8.2 :
Z

8.1
(
R
R
). f (x) dx = F (x) + C g(x) dx = G(x) + C

8.1.

a, b R, a2 + b2 > 0.
7.6 ,

). -

dx
1
x
= arcctg + C.
x2 + a2
a
a
Z
dx
8.2.
.
2x + 1
, (ln |2x + 1|) = 2x 2+ 1 ,

Z
dx
1
1
1
ln |2x + 1| =

= ln |2x + 1| + C.
2
2x + 1
2x + 1
2

, 12 ln |2x+1| = 21 ln 2+ 21 ln x + 12 ,

dx
1
= ln x +
2x + 1
2

( , a = 1;
).
.


.
Z
Z

1
dx
x
= arctg + C, a 6= 0;
x2 + a2
a
a
x
dx

= arcsin + C, a > 0
a
a2 x2

8.3.

4x3 dx = x4 + C (

u dv = uv

v du.

dx , dv = v (x) dx, duZ= u (x) dx.


8.4.

ln x dx.

u = ln x, dv = dx. du = dx
x ,
v=x
Z
Z
dx
ln x dx = x ln x x
= x ln x x + C.

x
8.5.
260

x cos bx dx, b 6= 0.

u = x, dv = cos bx dx. du = dx,


x = sinbbx
Z
Z
sin bx 1

sin bx dx =
x cos bx dx = x
b
b
1
1
= x sin bx + 2 cos bx + C.
b
b

, v ,
v (x) ;
(
).
8.3 ( , -

R ).
f (x) dx = F (x) + C I , (t) J , (J) I .
R
f ((t)) (t) dt = F ((t)) + C J (
).

F I ,
F (x) = f (x) x I ,
J .

( ,
):
(F ((t))) = F ((t)) (t) = f ((t)) (t)

t J,

1
,
8.6. (arctg x) =
1 + x2
R dx
= arctg x + C . 8.3, 1 + x2

dx , a 6= 0.
x2 + a2

x = at.
Z
Z
Z
dt
dx
a dt
1
=
=
=
x2 + a2
a2 t2 + a2
a
t2 + 1
1
1
x
= arctg t + C = arctg + C.
a
a
a
261

2
2
A = t2 + A .
dx = 21 1 + A2 dt = 12 t +2 A dt; x2 + A = t t 2t
2t
t
t

dx

=
x2 + A

p
dt
= ln |t| + C = ln |x + x2 + A| + C.
t

ln |x + x2 + A|.

Z
8.9.

p
x2 + A dx, A 6= 0.

, 8.8,

Z
Z p
Z 2
2A A2
(t + A)2
1
t+
+ 3 dt =
x2 + A dx =
dt =
4t3
4
t
t

1
A
A
A
A2
t2 A
t+
t
+ ln |t| + C.
+ ln |t| 2 + C =
=
8
2
8t
8
t
t
2

t At = 2x, t + At = 2 x2 + A,
Z p
p
xp 2
A
x2 + A dx =
x + A + ln |x + x2 + A| + C.
2
2

8.7{8.9 .
3.

dx
, a 6= 0.
x2 a2

1
1
1
1
7.9 , 2
= 2a
xa x+a .
x a2
R dx
R dx
x a x + a t =
R
= x a t = x + a dt
t =
= ln |t| + C ,

Z
x a
1
dx
1
+ C.
=
(ln |x a| ln |x + a| + C) =
ln
x2 a2
2a
2a x + a
8.10.

.
.

263

, arcsin x,
x = at, a > 0,
Z

x
dx
= arcsin + C.
a
a2 x2

dx (t) dt,
.
dx Z .
8.7.

p
a2 x2 dx, a > 0.

h x i [a; a], x = a sin t,


t 2 ; 2 , .. t = arcsin xa .
Z p
Z p
a2 x2 dx =
a2 a2 sin2 t a cos t dt =

Z
sin 2t
t
= a2 cos2 t dt = a2
+C
+
2
4
p
2
( , cos t > 0, 1 sin t =
= cos t, 8.3). -

(
r| x, t). sin 2t = 2 sin t cos t = 2 xa

= 22 x a2 x2 ,
a
Z p

2
1 x2 =

x
xp 2
a2
arcsin + C.

a x2 +
2
2
a
Z
dx

8.8.
, A 6= 0.
x2 + A

t = x+ x2 + A ( ).
8.3 x
t. t > x, tx = x2 + A
(t

2
A = 1 t A ;
x)2 = x2 + A, x = t 2t
t
2
a2 x2 dx =

262

1
8.10 x2
a2
, . ( 7.5),
. , . 4
.
A . x = t
1) R(x) = x

A
dx = A ln |t| + C = A ln |x | + C.
x

2) R(x) = (x A)n , n = 2, 3, 4, . . . x = t

tn+1
A
(x )n+1
dx = A
+C =A
+ C.
(x )n
n + 1
n + 1

+ B , p2 4q < 0.
3) R(x) = x2Ax
+ px + q

: x2 + px + q =
2

2
= x + p2 + a2 , a2 = q p4 > 0.
p
x + 2 = t:

Ax + B
dx =
x2 + px + q

Z A t p +B
2

dt =
t2 + a2
Z
Z
dt
t dt
=A
+ B1
,
t2 + a2
t2 + a2

(8.3)

B1 = B Ap
2 . u =
= t2 + a2 , du = 2t dt,
Z
264

t dt
1
=
t2 + a2
2

du
1
1
= ln |u| + C = ln(t2 + a2 ) + C
u
2
2

( , t2 +a2 > 0). (8.3)


| . ,

A
2x + p
B1
Ax + B
dx = ln(x2 + px + q) +
arctg
+ C.
x2 + px + q
2
a
2a

+B
4) R(x) = (x2 Ax
, p2 4q < 0, n = 2, 3, 4, . . .
+ px + q)n
3-
x + p2 = t.

dt
Ax + B
t dt
dx = A
+ B1
, (8.4)
(x2 + px + q)n
(t2 + a2 )n
(t2 + a2 )n
2

a2 = q p4 > 0, B1 = B Ap
2 .
u = t2 + a2 , ,
3- ,
Z

du
1 un+1
+C =
=
un
2 n + 1
1 (x2 + px + q)n+1
+ C.
=
2
n + 1

(8.4) t = a tg u,

u 2 ; 2 , .. u = arctg at .

1
t dt
=
(t2 + a2 )n
2

dt
=
(t2 + a2 )n

a du
cos2 u

=
(a2 + a2 tg2 u)n
Z
Z
a
du
n = a12n cos2n2 u du.

= 2n
1
a
2
cos u
2
cos u

(2m = 2, 4, 6,
. . . ) cos2m x 1,
cos 2x, cos 4x, . . . , cos 2mx, .
2x .
. m = 1 : cos2 x = 1 + cos
2
m, ..
cos

2m

x = 0 + 1 cos 2x + . . . + m cos 2mx.


265

x
x(a2 x2 )
3
x
+
arctg + 4 2
+ C.
8a5
a 2a (a + x2 ) 8a4 (a2 + x2 )2
Z
dx
.
8.12.
x3 8
=

7.9.
Z

dx
1
=
x3 8
12

dx
1

x 2 12

x+4
dx.
x2 + 2x + 4

(8.5)

ln |x 2| + C .
x + 1 = t.
Z

Z
Z
Z
x+4
t+3
t dt
dt
dx =
dt =
+3
=
x2 + 2x + 4
t2 + 3
t2 + 3
t2 + 3
t
3
1
2
= ln(t + 3) + arctg + C =
2
3
3

1
x+1
= ln(x2 + 2x + 4) + 3 arctg + C.
2
3

dx
=
x3 8

1
x+1
1
3
ln |x 2|
ln(x2 + 2x + 4)
arctg + C.
=
12
24
12
3
Z
x5 dx
.
8.13.
6
x +1
t = x6 + 1, dt = 6x5 dx
Z
Z
x5 dx
dt
1
1
1

=
= ln |t| + C = ln(x6 + 1) + C.
x6 + 1
6
t
6
6

, ,
,
. 8.13 .
267

cos2m+2 x = (0 + 1 cos 2x + . . . + m cos 2mx)

1 + cos 2x
.
2

1 + cos 4x
,
cos2 2x =
2
1
cos 2kxcos 2x = (cos(2k+2)x+cos(2k2)x),
2

k = 2, 3, . . . , m,

m + 1. , ,
;
.
Z
dx
, a > 0.
8.11.
(x2 + a2 )3
x = a tg t
Z
Z
dx
1
= 5 cos4 t dt
(x2 + a2 )3
a

( , n =
= 3).

1 + cos 2t 2 1 + 2 cos 2t + cos2 2t


cos4 t =
=
=
2
4
1 1 + cos 4t
3 1
1
1 1
= + cos 2t + cos 4t,
= + cos 2t +
4 2
8 2
8
Z4 2
dx
1 3
1
1
= 5
t + sin 2t +
sin 4t + C.
(x2 + a2 )3
a
8
4
32

2
t 2 ; 2 tg t = xa , 12 = 1 + x2 ; cos t =

= 2a

a + x2

; sin t = 2x

cos t

;
; sin 2t = 2 sin t cos t = a22ax
+ x2

a + x2
2
4ax(a2 x2 )
cos 2t = 2 cos2 t 1 = x2 ; sin 4t =
.
a +x
(a2 + x2 )2
a2
2

dx
=
(x2 + a2 )3

266

4.

( XII) , . .
, ,
R .R
x
sinx x dx, ex dx .. 3 ,
,
. , ,
(-
).
R(u1 , u2 , . . . , un ) , u1 , u2 , . . . , un | , (
u1 , u2 , .. . ,
un ).

ax + b rk
ax + b r1
dx, r1 , . . . , rk Q,
, ...,
I. R x,
cx + d
cx + d
a, b, c, d R, ad bc 6= 0.
r1 = mn1 , . . . , rk = mnk , m1 , . . . , mk Z, n N,
.. r1 , . . . , rk . 1/n

n
+b
b
t = ax
, .. x = adt
ctn = R0 (t).
cx +R d
R(R0 (t), tm1 , . . . , tmk ) R0 (t)dt.


,
; , .
R 1+ x
dx.
8.14.
1+ 3x

21 = 36 , 13 = 62 ,
t = x1/6 , .. x = t6 .

268

R 1 + t3
R t8 + t5
5
dt. 2 6t dt = 6
2
1+t

t +1

. :

t+1
t8 + t 5
= t6 t4 + t3 + t2 t 1 + 2
;
t2 + 1
t +1

1+ x
dx =
1+ 3x
6
3
6
= t7 t5 + t4 + 2t3 3t2 6t + 3 ln(t2 + 1) + 6 arctg t + C,
7
5
2

t = 6 x (
).

Z
II.
xp (axq + b)r dx, p, q, r Q; a, b R, a, b 6= 0, q 6= 0
Z

( ).
xq = t. x = t1/q .

tp/q (at + b)r

1 1q 1
1
dt =
t
q
q

1
s = p+
q 1 Q.

ts (at + b)r dt,

.. XIX .),
,
.
R
) s Z, R0 (t, (at + b)r ) dt |
,

.
I.
R
) r Z, R0 (t, ts ) dt | , . I.
) s + r Z,

r
R
R s+r at + b r
dt = R0 t, at t+ b
dt | t
t
, . I. Z
dx

8.15.
.
3
3

1+x
R
x3 = t 13 t2/3 (1 +

+ t)1/3 dt (.. ); s = 32 , r = 13 , s + r = 1
R 1q t
3
t
1 + t dt, -

Z). 13

269

( ).
8.8 8.9.
IV.

R(sin x, cos x)dx.

(, , ) t = tg x2 .
2t , cos x = 1 t2 , dx = 2 dt
1 + t2
1 + t2
1 + t2

(
x = 2 arctg t,
, x, : dt = 12 dx2 x =

sin x =

2
= 21 1 + tg2 x2 dx = 1 +2 t dx, dx = 2 dt 2 ).
1+t

cos 2


Z .

dx
8.16.
.
2 sin x 3 cos x + 5

Z
Z
1
dt
4t + 1
1
dt
=
= arctg + C,
2

4t2 + 2t + 1
4
3
3
3
t + 41 + 16

t = tg x2 .

.
, R( sin x, cos x) = R(sin x, cos x), t = tg x; R( sin x, cos x) = R(sin x, cos x),
t = cos x; R(sin x, cos x) =
= R(sin x, cos x), t = sin x.
V.

R(ex )dx, R, 6= 0.

ex = t, .. x = 1 ln t,
R
1 R(t) dt
t , .. .
8.17.

1 + ex/2
dx.
(1 + ex/4 )2

271

3y
t = y , .. t = y , dt =
3 1 +
dy .
t
1 y3
(1 y 3 )2

dy
.
1 y3

( 8.12).

Z

dx
1
1
1
2y + 1
= ln |1 y| + ln(1 + y + y 2 ) + arctg + C,
3
6
3
3
1 + x3
x

y = 3
3

1+x

III.

R(x,

ax2 + bx + c)dx, a, b, c R, a 6= 0.

) 4ac = 0, ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1 )2 , a > 0 ( ax2 + bx + c


x1 ,
;
, ,
). (; x1 ) (x1 ; +).
) b2 4ac > 0, ax2 + bx + c = a(x q
x1 )(x x2 ),

x2
a > 0, ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1 ) xx
x1 (
+ ,

q).
R
x2
R1 x, x
x x1 dx,
b2

q
x x2 . a < 0,
q x x1

x
+ bx + c = a(x x1 ) x2xx1

q
t = xx2xx1 .

t =

ax2

) b2 4ac < 0,
a > 0 ( ax2 + bx + c < 0 x R).
ax2 + bx + c = ax t
270

ex/4 = t
Z
1 + t2
4
dt.
t(1 + t)2


C
1 + t2 = A + B +
: t(1
t
1 + t (1 + t)2 . + t)2
,
1 + t2 = A(1 + t)2 + Bt(1 + t) + Ct.

t = 0, A = 1. t = 1, C = 2. t2 ,
A + B = 1, B = 0.
Z

4
8

t
(1 + t)2

dt = 4 ln |t| +

8
8
+C =x+
+ C.
1+t
1 + ex/4

VIII

8.1. ? , :
) f (x) = |x| (; +);
) f (x) =
sign x (1; 1);
1
1
) f (x) = 2x sin x cos x , x 6= 0, (1; 1);
x = 0
0,
1
1
2
) f (x) = 3x sin x x cos x , x 6= 0, (1; 1);
0,
x = 0
) f (x) = max(1, x2 ) (; +).
8.2. , :
) f F (a; a), a > 0, F | .
) f F (a; a), a > 0, F (x) + C , .
8.3. , f
F (; +), k
272

R , F (x) + kx |
, f .

8.4.
R : R 2
) R x3 ln x dx;
) R (x + 1)e3x dx;
) x 2 dx;
) xe3x cos 2x dx;

2.

R 1+x
) tg x dx;
R dx

R
) x2 sin ln x dx;
R
) ctg x dx;
R dx

3.

) cos x ;
R
) sin x ;
;
) (x2 dx
+ 1)2
R
R
dx
)
;
)
arctg x dx.
(x2 + 1)3/2
8.5. :
R 2 2x + 3
R
+1
) xx2
dx;
) x3 2x
dx;
+ 6x + 8
3x + 2
R

4.
5.
6.

x4
dx.
x3 + 27

)
)
8.6.
:
R
dx
;
) p
5
3
2
dx
;
x4 + x2 + 1

(x 2) (x + 3)
R q
1
) x xx
+ 1 dx;
R
dx

)
)

2
2
x + b2 cos2 x
R a sin
xex
dx.

1.

, a, b 6= 0;

7.
8.

. . 1. { .:
, 1981. { 688 .
.. . . 1. { 4-
. { .: , 1990. { 528 .
- .., ..
. { .: , 1988. { 816 .
.. . . 1. {
.: , 2001. { 400 .
.. . . 1. { .:
, 2004. { 328 .
.. . . 1. {
.: , 2004. { 359 .
.. . { 7- . { .: , 1969. { 608 .
..

..,

(1 + ex )2

273

..
..

24.02.2012. 60 84 1/16. . . . 17,25.


.-. . 17,0. 600 . 45.


- ( )
141700, ., . , ., 9
E-mail: rio@mail.mipt.ru
-
141700, ., . , ., 9

..,

..,

.. . ,
, / . .. . { 2- . { .: , 2003. { 496 .
9. .. . { 10- . { .: , 1990. { 624 .

274