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ECEN 441-504: Electronic Motor

Drive
Lab 1: Operating Characteristics of the
Shunt-Connected DC Motor

Submitted by:
Kevin Bradshaw - UIN: 122003416
Kenneth McDole - UIN: 92100448
Jonathan Moore - UIN: xxxxxxxxx
Fernando Romo - UIN: 623001710
TA:
Performed: October 15th, 2015

Due: October 22nd, 2015


Procedure
Part 1: Direction of Rotation of a Shunt
The first part of this lab consisted of building the DC motor depicted in Figure
1. This wiring diagram is known as a shunt configuration and when enough
terminal voltage is applied, the rotation of the motor (as seen by the drive
end) begins to rotate clockwise. By reversing the shunt field connections, the
motor rotates counterclockwise. When reversing the armature connections
instead of reversing the shunt field, the motor also rotates counterclockwise.
If only the polarity of the DC power supply is reversed, the motor rotates
clockwise. These are very important observations because this shows that if
the currents are in the same direction, they will rotate clockwise and if
theyre reversed with respect to each other, they rotate counterclockwise.
Figure 1: Wiring Diagram of a DC Shunt Configuration

Part 2: Operation of a Shunt


The second part of this lab consisted of connecting the DC motor with a
shunt configuration to an electrical load. In order to analyze the speed versus
the torque of this motor, it was initially adjusted to 1000 rpm and then tested
under the respective resistive loads in Table 1. The angular velocity and the
terminal current were recorded for each load. Lastly, the machine was
turned off in order to find the total field resistance (235.1 ) and the
armature resistance (4.4 ).

Discussion
1. In terms of the armature and field winding polarities, what is the
single condition that has to be met for the DC motor to rotate
counterclockwise, and why? (Refer to Part I).
In order for the DC motor to rotate counterclockwise, the armature current
and the field current must be going in opposite directions. This is because
the direction of flux through the armature and the flux in the shunt field is
changed by reversing either one. If both are reversed though, the flux
corresponds with the same direction of rotation.
2. In terms of the armature and field winding polarities, what is the
single condition that has to be met for the DC motor to rotate
clockwise, and why? (Refer to Part I) 3.
In order for the DC motor to rotate clockwise, the armature current and the
field current must be going in the same direction. This is because the
direction of rotation depends on the same direction of the armature and the
flux through the field. This can be tested using the right hand rule method.
3. For each of the speeds obtained in Part II (Table 1), calculate the
values of the armature current, back EMF, torque and efficiency.
Present your results in a table. Also, calculate the machines
constant K.
Table 1: DC Motor Loaded Operational Characteristics
R ()
n (rpm)
It (A)
No Load
1004
0.86
600
991
1.1
300
979
1.31
200
972
1.52
150
963
1.7
120
961
1.84
100
956
1.94
85.7
956
2.01

n (rpm)
1004
991
979
972
963
961
956
956

Table 2: Calculation Results


Ia
Ea
T
Efficiency
0.647
47.152
0.290
70.98%
0.887
46.096
0.394
74.37%
1.097
45.172
0.483
75.68%
1.307
44.248
0.568
76.11%
1.487
43.456
0.641
76.04%
1.627
42.840
0.693
75.78%
1.727
42.400
0.732
75.50%
1.797
42.092
0.756
75.28%

K
0.448
0.444
0.441
0.435
0.431
0.426
0.424
0.420

Applicable Equations
VT = EA + IARA
EA = K
IA = IT - IF
T = KIA
PO = T
= ( Pout / Pin ) * 100%
4. Plot speed (rpm) vs. torque (Nm). What happens to the speed as
the torque increases? Why?
The graph below shows that as the speed decreases, the torque increases.
This inverse relationship creates a tradeoff between how fast a motor runs
and how much torque it delivers. They have an inverse relationship that can
be seen by the power relationship:
Power = Torque * Angular Velocity
Since there is no such thing as infinite power, the torque and angular velocity
must balance each other to acquire maximum power output.
Figure 2: Speed Vs. Torque Graph

5. Plot the electrical losses (W) vs. torque (Nm). What happens to
the electrical losses as the torque increases? Why?
The graph below shows that as the power loss increases, the torque
increases with it. In order to increase torque, the current through the
armature is being increased and since the drop between the DC supply must
equal the armature voltage plus the gap voltage, theres power loss in the
system. Hence, the higher the current, the higher the torque and power loss.
Figure 3: Power Loss Vs. Torque Graph