Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 211

. .

1996

514.7
. . :
/ . , 1996. 211 . ISBN 5-7477-0129-0

, .
.

.
AMS-TEX
.
Lh, CyrTUG TEX.
:

;
. .-. ., . . .
( ).

.
:

: . 5, 450003, .
.:
7-(917)-75-55-786.
E-mail:
R Sharipov@ic.bashedu.ru,
r-sharipov@mail.ru,
ra sharipov@lycos.com.
URL:
http://www.geocities.com/r-sharipov.
ISBN 5-7477-0129-0

c .., 1996

. ................................................................. 3.
. .............................................................. 5.
I.
. ................................ 7.
1. . .
. ................................................ 7.
2.
. ................................................................. 14.
3. . .
. ....................... 17.
4. .
. ................................................. 20.
5.
. ................................................................ 23.
II.
. ................................... 26.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. ...........
. .............................
. ..........................................
. ........................
. ......................

26.
30.
36.
40.
44.

6. . ..............
7. . ...........................................
8. . ..........................................
9. . .................................
10. , .
. .................................
11. . ............

49.
54.
55.
58.
60.
66.

III. . ......... 71.


1.
. ................................................................. 71.
2.
. ................................................................. 76.
3. . ............................. 82.
4.
. .............................................................. 87.
5. . .............................................. 90.
6.
. ....................................... 98.
7. .
. .................... 100.
8. .
. ............................... 103.
9. , . ....................... 111.
IV. . .............. 118.
1. . . .................... 118.
2. . ...................................................................... 124.
3. . ................... 128.

4. .
. ............................................
5.
. .....................................................................
6.
. .............................
7.
. ......................................................
8. . .....................................................
9. -. ..................

131.
135.
140.
150.
155.
164.

V. . ................ 169.
1.
. .......................................................
2. . .........
3. . .........
4.
. ......................................................
5. .
. .....................................................................
6. -. ..............................................

169.
171.
176.
182.
191.
198.

. ............................................. 210.


, .
;
;
.
.
E. E ,
E.
, , , .
,
.
: , . n = 2 n = 3
,
.
. ., . ., C. ., . . (http://borisovdi.narod.ru) . . .
, 1996 .

. . .

1. .
. .
E .

[1]. ,
. , E
(, ).
C E
.
.
E , E.

- :
1
x (t)
2

r = r(t) =
x3 (t) .
x (t)

(1.1)


t,
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

I. . . .

, , [0, 1] . - r = r(t), x1 (t),


x2 (t) x3 (t) t.
(1.1)
x1 (t), x2 (t) x3 (t). , , , ,

. (. [2])
: ,
. ,
xi (t) ( C 1 ) , ,
.
.
E
x1 , x2 x3 . , ,
F (x1 , x2 , x3) = 0,

(1.2)

F
.
:
,
(1.2). (1.2)
.
. ,

F (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 0,
(1.3)
G(x1, x2 , x3 ) = 0

1. . . . .

E.
,
. (1.3)
A x1 + B x2 + C x3 + D = 0.
(1.3).
x1 , x2 x3 .
x1 = t. , (1.3)


F (t, x2 , x3) = 0,
G(t, x2, x3 ) = 0

x2 x3 ,
x2 (t) x3 (t). , ,
(1.3), :


t
2

r = r(t) =
x3 (t) .
x (t)

, , (1.1). x1 (t),
x2 (t) x3 (t) (1.1), :


x1 x1 (t) = 0,
x2 x2 (t) = 0,

x1 x1 (t) = 0,
x3 x3 (t) = 0.

(1.4)

t (1.4)
: x1 x2 ,
x1 c x3 :

F (x1 , x2 ) = 0,
G(x1 , x3) = 0.

10

I. . . .

(1.3). , - (1.3).

. , .
. ,

- .
C 1 . , x1 (t), x2 (t)
x3 (t) . : t
t = t + 4t, 4t
. A B .
. a

AB. :

AB
r(t + 4t) r(t)
=
.
a=
4t
4t

(1.5)

4t . B
A, AB
A.
(1.5) A:
(t) = lim a =
4t

dr(t)

= r(t).
dt

(1.6)

1. . . . .

11

(1.6) - r(t) t.
r (t)
t. , r (t) , . ,
.
:
2
4
t
t



r(t) = 3 ,
r(t) =
(1.7)
t3 .
t
t = 0 (1.7)

. ,
.

,
.
(t) = r (t) = 0

(1.8)

,
r(t)

12

I. . . .

.
(t) = r (t) 6= 0

(1.9)

r(t).
, (1.9),
().
, (1.3). A = (a1 , a2 , a3) (1.3). F (x1 , x2 , x3) G(x1 , x2 , x3) . ,
F G A:


F
F
F


1

x2 x3
x
J =
(1.10)
,
G G G


x1 x2 x3
(1.3).


F
F

2

x3
x
M1 = det
6= 0
G G


x2 x3

, (1.3)
x2 x3 A.
x1 = t, x2 = x2 (t) x3 = x3 (t), , A.
(. [2]). , -

1. . . . .

13



1
2

=
x 3 6= 0
x

, . M1 6= 0 (1.3)
A. (1.10) :




F
F
F
F


3

1

x1
x2
x
x
M2 = det
M3 = det
,
,
G G
G G




x3 x1
x1 x2
. .

1.1. , (1.3), , (1.10) 2.


, x3 = 0,
F (x1 , x2) = 0.
x3 = 0. G(x1 , x2, x3 ) = x3 .
(1.3) :


F
F

1
0
2
.

x
x
J =
(1.11)

0
0
1
rank J = 2 , , ,
(1.11)
. F :


F F
grad F =
,
.
x1 x2

14

I. . . .

1.2. ,
F (x1 , x2 ) = 0, , grad F 6= 0.

1.2 1.1 (1.11). , 1.1 1.2


. , .
2.
.

r = r(t) C 1 ,
t [a, b].
(t)
[
a, b], (
a) = a (b) = b.

(t ) [a, b]
. t = (t) r(t)
- r(t) = r((t)),
, - r(t).
r(t) r(t) .

, :
(t) = 0 (t) ((t)).

(2.1)

0 (t) (t)
t.
(2.1) .

(t). (
a) = b (b) = a,
. .
(2.1) , (t) c .., 1996.
CopyRight

2. . . .

15

((t)) 0 (t).
, , . ,
, , (t) , 0 (t) > 0 0 (t) < 0.
(2.1) ,
,
. , ,
. :
?
.
C 1
t, [a, b].
a = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn = b.

(2.2)

n . r(t0 ), . . . , r(tn )

n- .
4tk = tk tk1 :
=

max 4tk .

k=1, ... , n

(2.2). k-
AB Lk = |r(tk )r(tk1 )|. - r(t),

r(t) tk1 Lk =

16

I. . . .

| (tk1 )| 4tk + o(). (2.2) ,


(t) :
L = lim

n
X

Lk =

k=1

Zb

| (t)| dt.

(2.3)

L (2.3) AB.
,
(2.1) . L .
, , .
(2.3) .
s(t) (t) = | (t)|:
s(t) =

Zt

| (t)| dt.

(2.4)

t0

2.1. s,
(2.4), .
, r(t0 ) () s . s
s .
(2.4) t. :
ds
= | (t)|.
(2.5)
dt
-

3. . . . .

17

, (2.5):
dr
dr dt

=
.
ds
dt ds
| |

(2.6)

(2.6) , . .
3. . .
.
r(s) . - r(s)
C . s.
(s) r(s):
(s) =

dr
.
ds

(3.1)

(s)
s .
3.1.
, .
-. :
| (s)|2 = ( (s) | (s)) = ( 1 )2 + ( 2 )2 + ( 3 )2 = const .
s,
:


d
d
| (s)|2 =
( 1 )2 + ( 2 )2 + ( 3 )2 =
ds
ds
= 2 1 ( 1 )0 + 2 2 ( 2 )0 + 2 3 ( 3 )0 = 0.

18

I. . . .

( (s) | 0(s)) = 0.
. 
0 (s) (s). 0 (s)
,
0 (s) = k(s) n(s).

(3.2)

k(s) = | 0 (s)| (3.2) ,


n(s)
r(s).
(s) n(s) .
b(s), , , n
b :
b(s) = [ (s), n(s)].

(3.3)

b(s) (3.3) . (s), n(s) b(s) ,


r(s).
, , . .
( ) . ,
.
.
, ,
, .
, : (, ) .
(s), n(s), b(s). . -

3. . . . .

19

,
.
n0 (s). , r(s),
. 3.1 n0 (s) n(s).
n0 (s) = (s) + b(s).

(3.4)

(3.4) .
, :
(s) = ( (s) | n0(s)) = ( (s) | n(s))0

( 0 (s) | n(s)) = (k(s) n(s) | n(s)) = k(s).

(3.5)

= (s) .
, r(s). n0 (s)
n0 (s) = k(s) (s) + (s) b(s).

(3.6)

b0 (s),
b(s).
: b0 (s) = n(s) + (s).
, (3.5):
(s) = (n(s) | b0(s)) = (n(s) | b(s))0 (n0 (s) | b(s)) =
= (k(s) (s) + (s) b(s) | b(s)) = (s).

(s) = ( (s) | b0(s)) = ( (s) | b(s))0 ( 0 (s) | b(s)) =


= (k(s) n(s) | b(s)) = 0.

b0 (s)

20

I. . . .

:
b0 (s) = (s) n(s).

(3.7)

(3.2), (3.6) (3.7) :

(s) = k(s) n(s),


n0 (s) = k(s) (s) + (s) b(s),

0
b (s) = (s) n(s).

(3.8)

(3.8) (s), n(s) b(s)


s. , ,
. (3.8) (3.1),
r(s) (
).
4.
. .
(s) n(s)
, .
(3.3)
. b0 (s) .
(3.7)
(s) 0. (3.8)



0 (s) = k(s) n(s),


n0 (s) = k(s) (s).

(4.1)

R , x3 = 0.

4. . . .




R cos(s/R)

,
r(s) =
R sin(s/R)

21

(4.2)

s . (4.2) (3.1)
(3.2),
(s) n(s):


sin(s/R)

,
(s) =
cos(s/R)



cos(s/R)

.
n(s) =
sin(s/R)

(4.3)

, (4.3) (4.1), k(s) = 1/R = const. k ,


1/k .
r(s) 1/k
n(s). ,
. .
r(s) -
(s) = r(s) +

n(s)
.
k(s)

(4.4)

, , k(s) 6= 0.
: R(s) = 1/k(s) ,
- (4.4)
r(s).
. s
, , . (4.4)
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

22

I. . . .

- . ,
s
.
r(t). s) r(t), r(
s), (
r(t).
(4.4).
.
.
- r(s)
r(
s) . s s
s = (s). = 1
s = (
s). (4.4)
r((
s)) = r(
s) +

(
n
s)
.
s)
k(

(4.5)

(4.5) s
(3.1) (4.1):


d
1
0
(
(
s) ((
s)) =
n
s).
s)
d
s k(
(
((
s)) n
s) ,
. :


d
1
(
n
s) = ((
s)),
0 (
s) =
.
(4.6)
s)
d
s k(
(4.6) :
1
= ((
s) C).
s)
k(

(4.7)

5. . . .

23

C . (4.7) (4.6) (4.5):

r(
s) = r((
s)) + (C (
s)) ((
s)).
s = (s) (s) =
r((s)),
(s) = r(s) + (C s) (s).

(4.8)

(4.8)
r(s).
(4.8) , .
.
, , , (4.8)
.
5.
.

. ,
.
r , r(t). r(t)
.
,
t, s. .

24

I. . . .

, t, :


v 1 (t)
2
dr

v(t) =
= r (t) =
(5.1)
v 3 (t) .
dt
v (t)
:
1
a (t)
2
dv

a(t) =
= v(t)
=
(5.2)
a (t) .
dt
a3 (t)

:
m a = F(r, v).

(5.3)

m . , , . F .
( )
.
,
.
(5.3) , ,
.
s = s(t) , . (2.5) :
s(t)
= |v(t)| = v(t).

(5.4)

5. . . .

25

v(t) (5.4)
.
r(s). (5.1)
(5.2) :
v(t) = s(t)
(s(t)),

2
a(t) = s(t) (s(t)) + (s(t))

0 (s(t)).

(5.4) , :
v(t) = v(t) (s(t)),


a(t) = v(t)
(s(t)) + k(s(t)) v(t)2 n(s(t)).

(5.5)

(5.5) .
,
.
.
. ,
( ).

II


.
1. .

E . , E ,
E , . () E. x1 , x2 x3 ,
e1 , e2 e3 , . F


1
F (x)

2

(1.1)
F=
F 3 (x) ,
F (x)

x = (x1 , x2, x3 ) -
E. f (x) f (x1 , x2, x3 ) .
F . (1.1)

1 , e
2 , e
3 O, e1 , e2 , e3 O0 , e
.

1. . . .

27

F
:
F i (x) =

3
X

Sji F j (
x),

j=1

x =

3
X

Sji

(1.2)
j

x
+a .

j=1

Sji e1 , e2 , e3
1 , e
2 , e
3 , a1 , a2 , a3
e
0
OO e1 , e2 , e3 .
(1.2)
(. [1]).
[1] F i F i . ,
,
.
E
. ,
,
. E
, .
, . , , ( )
, ( ) .
O, e1 , e2 , e3
e1 , e2 , e3 , :
, ,
. F

28

II. .

F1 (x), F2 (x), F3 (x),


:
Fi (x) =

3
X

Tij Fj (
x),

j=1

3
X

xi =

(1.3)

Sji x
j + a i .

j=1

F :
Fji (x)

3 X
3
X

Spi Tjq Fqp (


x),

p=1 q=1
i

x =

3
X

Spi x
p

(1.4)
i

+a .

p=1

( ) F

:
Fij (x) =

3 X
3
X

Tip Tjq Fpq (


x),

p=1 q=1
i

x =

3
X

Spi

(1.5)
i

x
+a .

p=1

(1.2), (1.3), (1.4) (1.5)


. ,
= (
x = (x1 , x2 , x3) x
x1 , x
2 , x
3).
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

1. . . .

29


. .
(1.2), (1.3), (1.4) (1.5)
.
.
F.
F,
S,
T .
F
. ,

:
...ir
=
Fji11...j
s

p1 ...pr
q1 ...qs

...pr
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Fqp11...q
s

(1.6)

(1.6) (r + s)- ,
p1 , . . . , pr q1 , . . . , qs
1 3.
1.1. (r, s) F,
(r + s)
(1.6).
, . ,

(r, s).
(r, s). ,

30

II. .

,
, . (1, 0),
(0, 1), (1, 1) , , ( ) (0, 2).
, , . , ,
.
(1.6).
(1.2), (1.3), (1.4) (1.5) :
X
... ir
... pr
Fji11...
(x)
=
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Fqp11...
x),
qs (
js
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

x =

3
X

Sji

(1.7)

x
+a .

j=1

(1.7)
(r, s) .

(0, 0), . ,
E.
2. .

a b.
ai (x) bj (x). ,
.
:
cij (x) = ai (x) bj (x).

(2.1)

2. .

31

(1.3), (2.1)
a b :
!
! 3
3 X
3
3
X
X q
X
p

cij (x) =
T a
p
T bq =
T p T q (
ap bq ).
i

p=1

q=1

p=1 q=1

cpq (
x)
a
i (
x) bj (
x) ,
cij (x) cpq (
x) (1.5). ,

.
a b. c c = a b.

. A (r, s), B (m, n).
i ... i i

... i

... i

i1 ... ir
r+1
r+m
r+1
r+m
Cj11... jsrjs+1
... js+n (x) = Aj1 ... js (x) Bjs+1 ... js+n (x).

(2.2)

2.1. C (r + m, s + n),
(2.2), C = A B A B.
. ,

C (1.7).
(1.7) A B:
X
ir
... pr
Aij11...
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Apq11...
qs ,
... js =
p..q

ir+1 ... ir+m


Bjs+1
... js+n

X
p..q

qs+1
qs+n pr+1 ... pr+m
Spir+1
. . . Spir+m
Tjs+1
. . . Tjs+n
Bqs+1 ... qs+n .
r+1
r+m

32

II. .


,

.
(1.7) C.
2.1. ,
(A B) C) = A (B C).
-. A (r, s), B
(m, n) C (p, q).
:


... i

ir
r+1
r+m
Aij11...
... js Bjs+1 ... js+n

ir
= Aij11...
... js

... i

r+m+1
r+m+p
Cjs+n+1
... js+n+q =


ir+m+1 ... ir+m+p
ir+1 ... ir+m
C
.
Bjs+1
js+n+1 ... js+n+q
... js+n

(2.3)

(2.3),
. 
. , .
a b a = (1, 0, 0) b = (0, 1, 0). c = a b d = b a.
c12 d12 (2.2) : c12 = 1 d12 = 0.
, a b 6= b a.
F. Fji (x)
F(x) e1 , e2 , e3.
, Fji (x) F(x) (. [1]).
f (x) = tr F(x) =

3
X
i=1

Fii (x)

(2.4)

2. .

33

f (x) E. ,
(2.4),
F, , ,
:
i ... i

Hj11... jr1
(x) =
s1

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m1
m
r1
Fj11... jn1
k jn ... js1 (x).

(2.5)

k=1

(2.5) k m- n- .
F :

2.2. H, (2.5) F,
F m- n- .
2.1
. , H (1.7).
(1.7) F
(2.5):
X
i ... im1 k im ... ir1
Fj11... jn1
Spi11 . . . Spim1
Sk Spim
. . . Spir1

k jn ... js1 =
m1
m
r1
p1 ...pr1
q1 ...qs1

qn1 qn
qs1 p1 ... pm1 pm ... pr1
Tjq11 . . . Tjn1
Tk Tjn . . . Tjs1
Fq1 ... qn1 qn ... qs1 .

(1.7)
k m- n- ,

34

II. .

.
.
,
.

k. , (T = S 1 ):
3
X

Sk Tk = .

(2.6)

k=1

(2.6), k,
. ,
3
X

... pm1 pm ... pr1


p1 ... pr1 .
Fqp11...
=H
qn1 qn ... qs1
q1 ... qs1

=1


X
i ... i
qs1 p1 ... pr1
Hj11... jr1
=
Spi11 . . . Spir1
Tjq11 . . . Tjs1
Hq1 ... qs1 ,
r1
s1
p1 ...pr1
q1 ...qs1

(1.7),
H. 2.2 .
, 2.2,
, . ,
.
C, (2.5) :
H = Cm,n (F) = C(F).

2. .

35

m n ,
.
(1, 1)
. F (2, 2)
. ,
, (1, 1).
(1, 1)
.
F, . (2, 2)
.
F (n, n) n!, ,
.
. ,
E v w. ,
.

, f = hw | vi.
:
f=

3
X

wi v i .

(2.7)

k=1

(2.7) , f = C(w v). f = hw | vi


w v. ,
F v, F v
u = F v,
ui =

3
X

Fji v j .

j=1

: u = C(F v); ,
. v
F.
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

36

II. .

3. .

v w .
E v(x) w(x),
.
u = v + w.
. A B
(r, s).
:
i1 ... ir
... ir
i1 ... ir
Cji11...
js = Aj1 ... js + Bj1 ... js .

(3.1)

3.1. C (r, s), (3.1),


A B (r, s).
(1.7) C . (1.7)
A B . 3.1 .
.

:

ir
Aij11...
... js

ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
Aij11...
... js + Bj1 ... js = Bj1 ... js + Aj1 ... js ,


ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
+ Bji11 ...
... js + Cj1 ... js = Aj1 ... js + Bj1 ... js + Cj1 ... js .

T(r,s)
(r, s). , 2.1,
:
T(r,s) T(m,n) T(r+m,s+n) .

(3.2)

3. .

37

(3.2) :
(A + B) C = A C + B C,

(3.3)

C (A + B) = C A + C B.

(3.3)
.
:
 ir+1 ... ir+m
ir
i1 ... ir
Aij11...
... js + Bj1 ... js Cjs+1 ... js+n =
i

... i

... i

... i

... i

ir
i1 ... ir
r+1
r+m
r+1
r+m
= Aij11...
... js Cjs+1 ... js+n + Bj1 ... js Cjs+1 ... js+n ,


ir+1 ... ir+m
ir+1 ... ir+m
... ir
Cji11...
A
+
B
=
js
js+1 ... js+n
js+1 ... js+n
i1 ... ir
... ir
r+1
r+m
r+1
r+m
= Cji11...
js Ajs+1 ... js+n + Cj1 ... js Bjs+1 ... js+n .

(3.2) K = T(0,0) (
)
,
. K (. [3]) , 1
,
E.
m = n = 0 (3.2).
T(r,s)
K. A
K : A = A.
: A = A.

38

II. .

T(r,s) :
(1) A + B = B + A;
(2) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C);
(3) 0 T(r,s) , , A + 0 = A
A T(r,s) ;
(4) A T(r,s) A0 , , A + A0 = 0;
(5) (A + B) = A + B
K A, B T(r,s) ;
(6) ( + ) A = A + A
A T(r,s) , K;
(7) ( ) A = ( A) A T(r,s)
, K;
(8) 1 A = A A T(r,s) .
(3) , . A0 (4)
, A .
(1)-(8) (. [1]).
, K
, . ,
(1)-(8) K, K K-. ,
T(r,s)
K = T(0,0) .
K = T(0,0) ,
R.
T(r,s) E R.
r 1 s 1, T(r,s) .

3. .

39

, :
C(A + B) = C(A) + C(B),

(3.4)

C( A) = C(A).

(3.4) . C = A + B (2.5) :
i ... i

r1
Hj11... js1
=

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m1
m
r1
Cj11... jn1
k jn ... js1 =

k=1

3
X

i ... i
k im ... ir1
Aj11 ... jm1
n1 k jn ... js1

k=1

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Bj11 ... jm1
,
n1 k jn ... js1

k=1

(3.4).
C = A. (3.4)
:
i ... i

r1
Hj11... js1
=

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m1
m
r1
Cj11... jn1
k jn ... js1 =

k=1

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Aj11 ... jm1
=
n1 k jn ... js1

k=1

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Aj11 ... jm1
.
n1 k jn ... js1

k=1

T(r,s)
T(r,s) r = s = 0 (.
(3.2)). K- T(r,s) . ,
:
T =

T(r,s) .

(3.5)

r=0 s=0

(3.5)

40

II. .

A(1) +. . .+A(k) , -
K- T(r,s) . K- T :
(A

(1)

+...+ A

(k)

) (A

(1)

+...+ A

(q)

)=

q
k X
X
i=1 j=1

A(i) A(j) .


T :
(9) (A + B) C = A C + B C;
(10) ( A) C = (A C);
(11) C (A + B) = C A + C B;
(12) C ( B) = (C B).
T (3.3). , K-, K K-.
T .
T K-
T(r,s) (3.5).
,
(3.2). ,
.
4. .

A (r, s) r 2.
A . -
.
im ... in ... ir
in ... im ... ir
.
Bji11 ...
= Aji11...
... js
... js

(4.1)

4. .

41

ir
Bji11 ...
... js (4.1)
A im in .
ir
4.1. Bji11 ...
... js , A
, B ,
A.

-. (1.7)
(4.1):
X
ir
... pr
Bji11 ...
Spi11 . . . Spinm . . . Spim
. . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Apq11...
qs .
... js =
n
p1 ...pr
q1 ...qs

pm pn
: pm pn , pn , , pm .
S , pm pn
A. :
X
... ir
... pn ... pm ... pr
.
Bji11 ...
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Apq11...
qs
js =
p1 ...pr
q1 ...qs

p1 ... pr = Ap1 ... pn ... pm ... pr B


q1 ... qs
q1 ... qs
(1.7) B. . 
. A (r, s)
s 2.
... ir
i1 ... ir
Bji11 ...
jm ... jn ... js = Aj1 ... jn ... jm ... js .

(4.2)

42

II. .

ir
4.2. Bji11 ...
... js , A
, B ,
A.

4.2 4.1. . ,
.

(1.7).
(4.1)
(4.2) Sr Ss .
(. [3]). , 4.1
4.2 Sr Ss K- T(r,s) , (r, s).
,
(A + B) = (A) + (B),
( A) = ( (A)),

(4.3)

Sr Ss .
B = (A) :
i

... i

(1)
(r)
ir
Bji11 ...
... js = Aj (1) ... j (s) ,

(4.4)

(1), . . . , (r) (1), . . . , (s) 1, . . . , r 1, . . . , s.


4.1. , A
(r, s) m- n-
( ) ,
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

4. .

43

(A) = A, ,
(4.1) (4.2).
4.2. , A
(r, s) m- n ( ) , (A) = A, ,
(4.1) (4.2).

( ). =
(4.3).
: Sr Ss (. [3]).

4.3. , A
(r, s) Sr Ss , :
(A) = A (A) = (1) A.

A 1
2 , 1
1
1 2 .

G Sr Ss . .
G Sr Ss A T(r,s) . A B
B=

1 X
(A)
|G|

(4.5)

A G. -

44

II. .

, A B
B=

1 X
(1) (A)
|G|

(4.6)

A G. , (4.3).
B, G,
. G = Sr Ss (4.5) , (4.6)
.
5. .

A E .
5.1. A m-
C m ,
m- .
C 1 , C . ,
(1.7) A 5.1.
C m
C m .
5.1.
(r, s)

5. .

45

:
... ir
Bji11 ...
js js+1

ir
Aij11...
... js
=
.
xjs+1

(5.1)

(5.1)
.
(r, s + 1). .
5.1. A (r, s),
(5.1), B (r, s + 1).
-. ir
(1.7) Bji11 ...

... js js+1 (5.1).


0
O, e1 , e2, e3 O ,
e1 ,
e2 , e3 . S T
. (1.7) A
xjs+1 :
ir
p1 ... pr x)
X
Aji11...
... js (x)
q1
qs Aq1 ... qs (
i1
ir
=
S
.
.
.
S
T
.
.
.
T
p
p
j1
js
1
r
xjs+1
xjs+1
p1 ...pr
q1 ...qs


:
3
... pr
... pr
X
Apq11...
x)
x)
x
qs+1 Apq11...
qs (
qs (
=
.
j
j
q
s+1
s+1
s+1
x
x
x

q
=1

(5.2)

s+1

= (
x = (x1 , x2, x3 ) x
x1 , x
2 , x
3 )
:
xi =

3
X
j=1

Sji x
j + a i ,

x
i =

3
X
j=1

Tji xj + a
i ,

46

II. .

(1.7),
. S T
,
x
qs+1
qs+1
= Tjs+1
.
xjs+1

(5.3)

(5.3) (5.2), ir
js+1
Aji11...
.
... js /x
:
ir
Bji11 ...
... js js+1 =

p1 ...pr
q1 ...qs+1

qs+1 p1 ... pr
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjs+1
Bq1 ... js+1 ,

(1.7)
B (5.1). . 
A B (5.1)
js+1 . , B
A. : B = A.
, . B
:
ir
i1 ... ir
Bji11 ...
... js k = k Aj1 ... js .

(5.4)

(5.1) k (5.4)
: k = /xk . , k ,
. ( III) ,
,
.

5. .

47

A
(r, s) X
. A X.
(r + 1, s + 1). ,
X . X A = C(A X)
A X .
B = X A (r, s), A.

B = X A :
ir
Bji11 ...
... js =

3
X
q=1

ir
X q q Aij11...
... js .

(5.5)

B = X A (5.5)
A X.
5.2. :
(1) X (A + B) = X A + X B;
(2) X+Y A = X A + Y A;
(3) X A = X A;
(4) X (A B) = X A B + A X B;
(5) X (A) = (XA);
A B , X Y
.
-. .
C = A + B. (1)
3
X
q=1

Xq

3
3
... ir
ir
ir
X
X
Aij11...
Bji11 ...
Cji11...
js
... js
... js
q
q
=
X
+
X
.
xq
xq
xq
q=1
q=1

48

II. .

Z = X + Y (2)
3
X
q=1

ir
Z q q Aij11...
... js =

3
X
q=1

ir
X q q Aij11...
... js +

3
X
q=1

ir
Y q q Aij11...
... js .

(3) Z = X.
3
X
q=1

ir
Z q q Aij11...
... js =

3
X
q=1

ir
X q q Aij11...
... js .


(3) .

:
3
X

3
X

!
i1 ... ir
A
ir+1 ... ir+m
j1 ... js
ir
Xq
=
X q /xq Aij11...

... js Bjs+1 ... js+n


q
x
q=1
q=1
ir+1 ... ir+m !
3
X
B
j
ir+1 ... ir+m
s+1 ... js+n
i1 ... ir
Bjs+1
Xq
.
... js+n + Aj1 ... js
xq
q=1


, ,
3
X

3
X

Xq
xq
q=1

i ... i
k im ... ir1
Aj11 ... jm1
n1 k jn ... js1

k=1

3 X
3
X
k=1 q=1

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Aj11 ... jm1
n1 k jn ... js1

xq

, . 

6. . 49

6. .

O, e1, e2 , e3 E. E
. e1 , e2, e3
:
gij = (ei | ej ).

(6.1)

g :
det g > 0.

(6.2)

(6.2) (. [1]).
(6.1)
(0, 2).
g,
, :
gij (x) = gij = const .
g .
, . E.
g
= g1 . g ij ,
g
i j .
3
X

g ij gjk = ji .

j=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

(6.3)

50

II. .


6.1. g
(2, 0).
-. (1.7) g:
gij =

3 X
3
X

Tip Tjq gpq .

p=1 q=1

:
T.
g = T tr g

(6.4)


g, g
T , :
T )1 = S g
1 S tr .
g1 = (T tr g

(6.5)


,
g ij =

3
3 X
X

Spi Sqj gpq .

(6.6)

p=1 q=1

(6.6)
(1.7) (2, 0). ,
. 
= g1 g ij g

.
E,
.

6. . 51

. gij
g g
i j (6.1)
. , ,
,
g ij i j.

g g
.

g = 0,

g = 0,

(6.7)

(5.1) .
(., , [4]) ijk ,
-. (ijk):

0 i = j, i = k j = k,
ijk
ijk = =
1 sign(ijk) = 1,
(6.8)

1 sign(ijk) = 1.
, - (6.8)

e1 , e2, e3 :
!
3 X
3
3
X
X
[X, Y] =
ei
ijk X j Y k ,
i=1

(X, Y, Z) =

j=1 k=1

3 X
3 X
3
X

(6.9)

ijk X Y Z .

i=1 j=1 k=1


- (6.8) (6.9) , . ,

52

II. .

- ,
.
, :
3 X
3 X
3
X

pql Mip Mjq Mkl = det M ijk

(6.10)

p=1 q=1 l=1

( . [4]). M 3 3. M
(2, 0), (1, 1)
(0, 2), . (6.10)
.
-
g
:
ijk =

det g ijk .

(6.11)

ijk O, e1, e2 , e3 O0 ,
e1 ,
e2 , e3.
(6.10), :
3 X
3 X
3
X
p=1 q=1 l=1

Tip Tjq Tkl


pql =

det T ijk .
det g

(6.12)

(6.12) (6.4),
. :
det g = (det T )2 det g
3 X
3 X
3
X
p=1 q=1 l=1

Tip Tjq Tkl


pql = sign(det T )

det g ijk .

(6.13)

6. . 53

, (6.13)
ijk (6.11) : sign(det T ) = sign(det S) = 1.
(6.13) :
ijk = sign(det S)

3 X
3 X
3
X

Tip Tjq Tkl


pql .

(6.14)

p=1 q=1 l=1

(6.14)
(1.6) (0, 3),
sign(det S). (6.14)
(1.6):
... ir
Fji11...
js =

... pr
(1)S Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Fqp11...
qs ,

(6.15)

p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

(1)S = sign(det S) = 1.
.
6.1. (r, s)
F, (r + s)
(6.15).
(r, s)
E (r, s). 6.1 (6.14)
ijk (6.11) (0, 3).
. , g g
E,
.
E.

54

II. .

7. .

.

.

.
.
A B (r, s).
(3.1) C = A + B,
(r, s).
, A
B (3.1)
. A + B
(3.5).
(2.2)
. A
(r, s) B (m, n).
, .
:
(1) ;
(2)
;
(3)
.
P(r,s)
(r, s). (1)-(3) (3.3),
, P(r,s) K = T(0,0) . (1)-(3)

8. .

55

:
T(r,s) T(m,n) T(r+m,s+n) ,
P(r,s) P(m,n) T(r+m,s+n) ,

T(r,s) P(m,n) P(r+m,s+n) ,


P(r,s) T(m,n) P(r+m,s+n) ,

(7.1)

(3.2) 3.
(2.5) F (r, s),
r 1 s 1. (2.5)
, .
(1) ,
(2)
.

(3.4).

(5.1).
A A
, A . X X, X
, .
5.2
X .
8. .

.
E,
,

56

II. .

. . (P ), P E.
P ,
, ,
S . :
(P ) (P ). . = c = const,
= c = const. c
. = 1
, = 1.
. E.
E,
(. [1]) . ,
E ( ) .
. :
,

, . 50 50.
,
.
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

8. .

57

, E E ,
:

1 ,
E =
1 .

E A E A = E A.
E E A A. E, E
, .
:
p
ijk = E det g ijk .
(8.1)
X Y .
Z :
Zq =

3 X
3
3 X
X

g ki ijk X j Y k .

(8.2)

i=1 j=1 k=1

(8.2) , Z
ab. g
(8.2)
Z = [X, Y]
(. [4] (6.9) ). , ijk (6.11),
.
X, Y Z u :
u=

3 X
3 X
3
X
i=1 j=1 k=1

ijk X i Y j Z k .

(8.3)

58

II. .

(8.3) ,
, (8.3)
(X, Y Z) (. [4] (6.9) ).
, (6.11),
.
9. .

A (r, s)
E r 1. A g A g
B (r 1, s + 1) C(A g):
i ... i
Bj11 ... jr1
s+1

3
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Aj11 ... jm1
gkjn .
n1 jn+1 ... js+1

(9.1)

k=1

A B (9.1)
m- n- .

(9.1). B (r, s) s 1.
) (r + 1, s 1) :
A = C(B g
i ... i

Aj11 ... jr+1


=
s1

3
X

i ... i

... i

m+1
r+1
Bj11 ... jm1
g qim .
n1 q jn ... js1

(9.2)

q=1

B A (9.2)
n- m- .
. :
ir
ij11...
... js =

3 X
3
X
q=1 k=1

i ... i

ki

m+1
Aj11 ... jm1
n1 jn ... js

... ir

gkq g qim =

9. .

3
X

i ... i

ki

m+1
Aj11 ... jm1
n1 jn ... js

... ir

59

ir
kim = Aji11...
... js .

k=1

,

A B C C = A.

, :
ir
ij11...
... js

3 X
3
X

i ... i

i ... i

m
r
Aj11 ... jm1
g qk gkjn =
n1 q jn+1 ... js

k=1 q=1

3
X

i ... i

i ... i

ir
m
r
iqn = Aij11...
Aj11 ... jm1
... js .
n1 q jn+1 ... js

q=1


E, , ,
. ( g g
) (r, s)

(0, r + s) .
.
A (0, 4).
Ai1 i2 i3 i4 . A
(1, 3).
:
A i1 i2 i3 i4 ,

A i1 i2 i3 i4 ,

A i1 i2 i3 i4 ,

A i1 i2 i3 i4 .

(9.3)

(9.3) ,

60

II. .

.
.
,
:
Aijkq , Aij kq , Aij kq , Aijkq .

(9.4)

(9.3)
(9.4), . ,
. , (1.6), (2.2), (2.5)
.
,

.
10. , .
.
f , , f . , 5,
f . f ( (0, 1)).
(9.2) f ,
F
i

F =

3
X
k=1

g ik

f
.
xk

(10.1)

10.1. F E,
(10.1), f . F = grad f .

10. , .

61

X E.
X grad f .
(10.1)
X
f :
3
X
f
(X | grad f ) =
Xk
= hf | Xi.
(10.2)
xk
k=1

(10.2) .
, X
f . (10.2)

X, (5.5):
(X | grad f ) = X f.

(10.3)

(10.3),
F F.
F . F ( (1, 1)).
F:
= C(F) =

3
X
F k
k=1

xk

(10.4)

10.2. E,
(10.4), F. = div F.
div F, F .
m =

3 X
3 X
3 X
3
X
i=1 j=1 k=1 q=1

g mi ijk g jq q F k ,

(10.5)

62

II. .

ijk ,
(8.1).
10.3. E,
(10.5), F. = rot F.
(10.5) F g
F
g
F).
: rot F = C(
gg

. ijk (10.5)
(6.11),
.
O, e1 , e2, e3 E.
e1 , e2, e3 .
,

1 i = j,
ij
i
gij = g = j =
0 i 6= j.
E ,
: E 1.
(10.1) (10.5) grad f
rot F:
f
,
xi
3 X
3
X

(grad f )i =
(rot F)i =

(10.6)
ijk

j=1 k=1

F k
.
xj

(10.7)

(10.4) :
div F =

3
X
F k
k=1

xk

(10.8)

10. , .

63

(10.7)
3 3:

e1


rot F = 1
x
1
F

e2

x2
F2

e3

x3
F3

(10.9)

(8.2) (6.9),
:


e1 e2 e3




[X, Y] = X 1 X 2 X 3 .
(10.10)


Y1 Y2 Y3

(10.9) (10.10)
= (/x1 , /x2, /x3),
:
div F = ( | F),

rot F = [, F].

10.1.
C 2 rot grad = 0.
-. (10.6)
(10.7). F = rot grad . :
Fi =

3 X
3
X
j=1 k=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

ijk

2
.
xj xk

(10.11)

64

II. .

(10.11) .
j k, k, , j.

(10.11).
Fi =

3 X
3
X

ikj

j=1 k=1

XX
2
2
=

= F i .
ijk
xk xj
xj xk
j=1 k=1

j k
:
2
2
=
.
xj xk
xk xj

(10.12)

C 2 . F i = F i
F i = 0. . 
10.2. F
C 2 div rot F = 0.
-. , 10.1, , (10.7) (10.8).
= div rot F :
=

3 X
3 X
3
X
i=1 j=1 k=1

ijk

2F k
.
xj xi

(10.13)

(10.12)
F
2F k
2F k
=
xj xi
xi xj

10. , .

65

ijk i j,
(10.13) = . = 0. 

C 2 .
div grad .
: 4 = div grad . 4 ,
div grad . .


2 
2 
2

4=
+
+
.
(10.14)
x1
x2
x3
(10.6) (10.8) :
4=

3 X
3
X

g ij

i=1 j=1

2
.
xi xj

(10.15)

i = /xi,
(10.15) :
4=

3 X
3
X
i=1 j=1

g ij i j .

(10.16)

(10.16) (10.15)
. , 4 = div grad , .
(10.16)
F
(r, s). 4F
F :
g
4F = C(
g F). 4F

66

II. .

(r, s), F.
(10.16) -.
11. .
11.1. F
E , rot F = 0.
11.2. F
E , div F = 0.
10.1 , 10.2 .
grad , rot F
. 10.1 10.2
.
11.1. F
E
, F = grad .
-.
O, e1 , e2 , e3
e1 , e2 , e3 . rot F = 0 F
:
F 2 (x1 , x2 , x3)
F 1 (x1 , x2, x3 )
=
,
x2
x1

(11.1)

F 2 (x1 , x2, x3 )
F 3 (x1 , x2 , x3)
=
,
x3
x2

(11.2)

F 3 (x1 , x2, x3 )
F 1 (x1 , x2 , x3)
=
.
x1
x3

(11.3)

11. .

67

(11.1), (11.2) (11.3)


(10.7) (10.9). (x1 , x2 , x3)
F:
Zx1
1
2
3
(x , x , x ) = c +
F 1 (x1 , 0, 0) dx1+
0

Zx2

F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) dx2 +

Zx3

(11.4)

F 3 (x1 , x2, x3 ) dx3.

c . , (11.4) ,
F = grad .
x3 . c
(11.4) x3 .
Zx3

=
F 3 (x1 , x2 , x3) dx3 = F 3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ).
(11.5)
x3
x3
0

(11.5)
(. [2]).
x2 . c
(11.4) x2 . :
Zx3

2 1
2
= F (x , x , 0) +
F 3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dx3.
x2
x2
0

x2 x3
(. [2]).
Zx3 3 1 2 3

F (x , x , x ) 3
(11.6)
= F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) +
dx .
2
x
x2
0

68

II. .

(11.6) (11.2). :

= F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) +
x2

Zx3

F 2 (x1 , x2 , x3) 3
dx =
x3

(11.7)

= F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) + F 2 (x1 , x2, x)

x=x3

= F 2 (x1 , x2, x3 ).

x=0

/x1 ,
/x3 /x2:

=
x1
x1

Zx1

x1

Zx3

Zx2

F (x , 0, 0) dx +
x1
1

Zx2
F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) dx2+
0

F 3 (x1 , x2, x3 ) dx3 = F 1 (x1 , 0, 0)+

F 2 (x1 , x2 , 0) 2
dx +
x1

Zx3

F 3 (x1 , x2, x3 ) 3
dx .
x1

(11.1) (11.3). :

= F 1 (x1 , 0, 0) + F 1 (x1 , x, 0)
x1
1

+ F (x , x , x)

x=x3

x=x2

x=0
1

(11.8)
3

= F (x , x , x ).

x=0

(11.5), (11.7) (11.8)


grad = F
(x1 , x2 , x3 ), (11.4).
. 

11. .

69

11.2. F E
A, F = rot A.
-.
e1 , e2 , e3. , F
,
:
F 1 (x) F 2 (x) F 3 (x)
+
+
= 0.
x1
x2
x3

(11.9)

A, :
1

A =

Zx3

F (x , x , x ) dx

A2 =

Zx3

Zx2

F 3 (x1 , x2 , 0) dx2,

F 1 (x1 , x2 , x3) dx3 ,

(11.10)

A3 = 0.
, A (11.10) ,
rot A = F.
.
:
A2

A3

=
x2
x3
x3

Zx3

F 1 (x1 , x2 , x3) dx3 = F 1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ).

70

II. .

.
, (11.10) A1 x3 :
A1 A3

=
x3
x1
x3

Zx3
F 2 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dx3 = F 2 (x1 , x2, x3 ).
0

, , A :
Zx3

A1
A2

=
x1
x2

F 1 (x1 , x2 , x3) F 2 (x1 , x2 , x3 )


+
x1
x2

+
x2

Zx2

F (x , x , 0) dx =

Zx3

dx3 +

F 3 (x1 , x2 , x3) 3
dx +
x3

+ F 3 (x1 , x2, 0) = F 3 (x1 , x2, x)

x=x3

+ F 3 (x1 , x2 , 0) =

x=0
3

= F (x , x , x ).
(11.9)
F 1 /x1 + F 2 /x2
F 3 /x3. ,
, , rot A = F. ,
A (11.10). 

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

III

1.
.

: E
(x1 , x2 , x3). .
.
. ,
O OX, . A 6= O


: - = |OA|

72

III. .

OX - A. , (
). (, )
A.
1.2.
O,
OX,
90.
A
 1
x = cos(),
(1.1)
x2 = sin().

p

= (x1 )2 + (x2 )2 ,
= arctg(x2 /x1 ).

(1.2)

(, ) R2 . R2 . (, )
,
.
.
0
.
2 = 360.
,

1. . . .

73

. , (, ) (x1 , x2 ),
(1.1), .
U ,
1.3 ( U ).
V U (1.1).
, V (x1 , x2 )
OX. (1.1) U ,
m : U V .
, (1.2) m1 : V U .
, tg() (x1 , x2 )
(x1 , x2 ) . m
:
!
x2
p
= 2 arctg
.
x1 + (x1 )2 + (x2 )2
,
(1.2) .
R2
, . (1.1)

74

III. .

(x1 , x2). 1.4,


1.5 .
.
. : u2 = const,
u1 = const.
, .
(x1 , x2 ) ,
O. . O
.

h.

, (. 1.6).
1

x = cos(),
x2 = sin(),
(1.3)

3
x = h.

p
1 2
2 2

= (x ) + (x ) ,
(1.4)
= arctg(x2 /x1 ),

3
h=x .

1. . . .

75

. ,
Ox3 ,
Ox3
, Ox3 . Ox3 .
( )
.

. h

, A (. 1.7).

x = sin() cos(),
x2 = sin() sin(),
(1.5)

3
x = cos().
A

: , , .
A :
p

(x1 )2 + (x2 )2 + (x3 )2 ,



p
(1.6)
= arccos x3 / (x1 )2 + (x2 )2 + (x3 )2 ,

= arctg(x2 /x1 ).


. , O;
O,

76

III. .

,
Ox3 ; , ,
Ox3 . Ox3 .

.
= const E .
,
, .
2.
.
D E. . D , A D
D
O(A) . ,
D ,
D. .
[2]. u1 (x), u2 (x) u3 (x)
D. , ,
D. u1 , u2, u3 ,
R3 .
u1 , u2, u3 u : D R3 .
2.1.
u1 , u2 , u3 A E,
grad u1 , grad u2 grad u3 A.

2. . . .

77

E,
u1 , u2, u3
: ui = ui (x1 , x2, x3 ).
u1 , u2 , u3 ,
u1 , u2 , u3 x1 , x2 , x3:
i

grad u =

ui ui ui
,
,
x1 x2 x3

(2.1)

(2.1)
1
u

x1

2
u
J =
x1

u3

1
x

u1
x2
u2
x2
u3
x2

u1
x3
u2
x3
u3
x3

(2.2)

J (2.2) u : D R3 ,
u1 , u2 , u3 D. ,
u1 , u2 , u3
: det J 6= 0.
2.1. u1 , u2 , u3 D
A,
O(A) A O(u(A)) u(A)
R3 , , :
(1) u : O(A) O(u(A)) ;
(2) u1 : O(u(A)) O(A)
.
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

78

III. .

2.1
(. [2]).
.
2.2. , u1 , u2 , u3
D E
D, D
u
D U R3 .

u1 = (x), u2 = (x) u3 = h(x) (1.4),


(1.6). , (1.4) (1.6) 2.2
.
D (1.4) (1.6) u1 (1.3) (1.5).
D E
u1 , u2 , u3 .
E. u1 , u2 , u3 ,
u D U R3 :
1
1 1
2
3

u = u (x , x , x ),
u2 = u2 (x1 , x2 , x3),
(2.3)

3
3 1
2
3
u = u (x , x , x ).

D , U R3 , u1 : U D
. :
1
1 1
2
3

x = x (u , u , u ),
x2 = x2 (u1 , u2 , u3),
(2.4)

3
3 1
2
3
x = x (u , u , u ).

2. . . .

79

r - r x1 , x2 x3 .
(2.4) , :
1

r(u , u , u ) =

3
X
q=1

xq (u1 , u2 , u3 ) eq .

(2.5)

u1 , u2 , u3
.
U R3 :

1
1
1
1
1
u
=
t,
u
=
c
,

u =c ,
u2 = c 2 ,
u2 = t,
u2 = c 2 ,
(2.6)

3
3
3
3
3
u =c ,
u =c ,
u = t,

c1 , c2 c3 . (2.6)
U .

(2.6). (2.6) (2.5)
U
D E.
.
D .
u : D U D
. :
t = u1 , t = u2 , ,
t = u3 .
D
. E1 , E2
E3 . E1 , E2 , E3

80

III. .

- r(u1, u2 , u3 ) u1 , u2 u3 .
:
Ej (u1 , u2, u3 ) =

r(u1 , u2, u3 )
.
uj

(2.7)

(2.7) - (2.5) e1 , e2 , e3 .
e1 , e2 , e3 u1 , u2, u3 , :
Ej (u1 , u2 , u3) =

3
X
xq (u1 , u2 , u3 )
q=1

uj

eq .

(2.8)

(2.8) E1 , E2 , E3
e1 , e2, e3 . - E1 ,
E2 E3 :
1

x
x1 x1


u1 u2 u3



2
x
x2 x2
(2.9)
I=
.
u1 u2 u3


x3 x3 x3



1
u
u2 u3
(2.9) (2.2) , (2.9)
u1 : U D, (2.4). (2.4) (2.3):

ui (x1 (u1 , u2 , u3), x2 (u1 , u2, u3 ), x3(u1 , u2, u3 )) = ui .

(2.10)

, (2.3) (2.4) u u1 . -

2. . . .

81

(2.10) uj :
3
X
ui (x1 , x2, x3 ) xq (u1 , u2 , u3 )
= ji .
q
j
x
u
q=1

(2.11)


. ,
(2.2) (2.9) . ,
:
I(u1 , u2 , u3 ) = J(x1 , x2, x3 )1 ,

(2.12)

x1 , x2, x3 u1 , u2, u3 (2.4),


, , u1 , u2 , u3 x1 , x2, x3 (2.3). , (2.12)

I J. ,

(2.3) (2.4).
(2.3), D, (2.2). (2.12)
(2.9) . E1 , E2 , E3 (2.8) D.
E1 , E2 , E3 , .
(2.8)

, E1 , E2 , E3 :
Ej =

3
X
q=1

Sjq (u1 , u2 , u3) eq .

(2.13)

82

III. .

S
(2.9), u1 , u2 , u3 .
, S.
E1 , E2 , E3
T = S 1 .
(2.12)
(2.2).
T x1 , x2 x3 :
eq =

3
X
i=1

Tqi (x1 , x2 , x3) Ei .

(2.14)

E1 , E2 , E3
D E. u1 , u2 u3 ,
Ei (u1 , u2 , u3).
3. .

D1
u , u2 , u3, D2 u
1 , u
2, u
3 .
2
, D = D1 D
.
1

D U1
U U

3. .

83

2) U
=u
2 ).
(D1 D
U2 , : U = u(D1 D
D
U
. u1 u
1
U
:
1
1 1
2
3

x = x (u , u , u ),
x2 = x2 (u1 , u2 , u3 ),

3
x = x3 (u1 , u2 , u3 ),

1
1 1
u ,u
2 , u
3 ),

x = x (
x2 = x2 (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ),

3
x = x3 (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ).

1
1 1
2
3

u = u (x , x , x ),
u2 = u2 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

3
u = u3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

1 = u
1 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

u
u
2 = u
2 (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

3
u
=u
3 (x1 , x2 , x3 ).

(3.1)

, ,
u u
:

(3.2)

(3.1) (3.2). (3.1)


(3.2).
1 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3
(x (u , u , u ), x (u , u , u ), x (u , u , u )),

u
u
2 (x1 (u1 , u2 , u3 ), x2(u1 , u2 , u3 ), x3(u1 , u2 , u3)),
(3.3)

3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3
u
(x (u , u , u ), x (u , u , u ), x (u , u , u )),
1 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
)),

u (x (
2 1 1
2
3
2 1
2
3
3 1
2
u (x (
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
3)),

3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3
u (x (
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
), x (
u ,u
,u
)),

(3.4)

u1
u

84

III. .

1 . :
uu
1
1
1 1
=u
1 (u1 , u2 , u3),
u ,u
2 , u
3),

u
u = u (
u
2 = u
2 (u1 , u2 , u3),
u2 = u2 (
u1 , u
2 , u
3),
(3.5)

3
3
3 1
2
3
3 1
2
3
u
=u
(u , u , u ),
u = u (
u ,u
,u
).

(3.5) D

.

.

D = D1 D2 . S T
, :
j =
E

3
X
i=1

Sji Ei ,

Ei =

3
X
k=1

k.
Tik E

(3.6)

3.1. S T
(3.6) (3.5):
Sji (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ) =

ui
,
u
j

Tik (u1 , u2 , u3 ) =

u
k
.
ui

(3.7)

-. (3.7). .
(2.8)
:
j (
E
u1 , u
2 , u
3) =

3
X
xq (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 )
q=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

u
j

eq .

(3.8)

3. .

85

e1 , e2, e3 E1 , E2 , E3 ,
(2.14). , T (2.14)
J(x1 , x2 , x3 ) (2.2).
eq =

3
X
ui (x1 , x2 , x3 )
i=1

xq

Ei .

(3.9)

(3.9) (3.8).
:
!
3
3
i 1
2
3
q 1
2
3
X
X
u
(x
,
x
,
x
)
x
(
u
,
u

,
u

)
j =
E
Ei .
(3.10)
q
j
x

q=1
i=1

(3.10) (3.6)
S :
Sji =

3
X
ui (x1 , x2, x3 ) xq (
u1 , u
2 , u
3)
.
xq
u
j
q=1

(3.11)

x1 , x2, x3
u
1 , u
2, u
3 (3.1).
(3.11)
ui ((x1 (
u1 , u
2 , u
3), x2 (
u1 , u
2, u
3 ), x3(
u1 , u
2, u
3 )) (3.4):
Sji =

ui
.
u
j

, (3.4), (3.5),
u
1 , u
2, u
3
1
2
3
u , u , u ,
(3.7). . 

86

III. .

. 2.2 (2.3).
2.1 (2.4), , . S (2.13),
(2.9),
U .
S: det S(u1, u2 , u3 )
U , .
U ,
, ,
det S > 0, det S < 0. ,
. E
,
.
. 2.2
. , (2.3)
C m .
C m . (2.2)
C m1 . (2.12) (2.9)
C m1 , (2.4), ,
C m .

C m ,
(3.5) C m , S T , (3.7),
C m1 .

4. .

87

4.
.
u1 , u2 , u3 D E F , D. u1 , u2 , u3 F(u1 , u2 , u3 ) E1 (u1 , u2, u3 ),
E2 (u1 , u2 , u3) E3 (u1 , u2, u3 ). :
F(u1 , u2 , u3 ) =

3
X
i=1

F i (u1 , u2 , u3) Ei (u1 , u2, u3 ).

(4.1)

F i (u1 , u2, u3 ) F . D u
1 , u
2, u
3 ,
(4.1):
F(u1 , u2 , u3 ) =

3
X
i=1

i (u1 , u2, u3 ).
F i (u1 , u2 , u3) E

(4.2)

(3.6),
F (4.1) (4.2):
F i (u) =

3
X

Sji (
u) F j (
u),

j=1

(4.3)

ui = ui (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ).
(4.3) (1.2) .

88

III. .

, .
ui = ui (
u1 , u
2, u
3 )
, S, 3.1, .
F , . F
,
. u1 , u2 , u3, , . F,
, F
.
(1.3), (1.4) (1.5)
.
F :
Fi (u) =

3
X

Tij (u) Fj (
u),

j=1

(4.4)

ui = ui (
u1 , u
2, u
3 ).
F
:
Fji (x) =

3 X
3
X

Spi (
u) Tjq (u) Fqp (
x),

p=1 q=1

(4.5)

ui = ui (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ).
()

4. .

89

(1.5) :
Fij (u) =

3 X
3
X

Tip (u) Tjq (u) Fpq (


u),

p=1 q=1

(4.6)

ui = ui (
u1 , u
2 , u
3).
F (r, s). ,
. ,
.
, 1.1
, .
F(u1 , u2, u3 ) F u1 , u2 , u3 . ,
E1 (u1 , u2 , u3), E2 (u1 , u2 , u3) E3 (u1 , u2 , u3 ) F .
(1.6) .
(r, s) :
X
... ir
Fji11...
Spi11 (
u) . . . Spirr (
u)
js (u) =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

... pr
Tjq11 (u) . . . Tjqss (u) Fqp11...
u),
qs (

(4.7)

ui = ui (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 ).
(4.7)
(1.7) .
:
(1) ui (
u1 , u
2 , u
3 )
;

90

III. .

(2) S(
u) T (u) .
,
. , , ,
,

, . (1)
(2)
.
g. ,
:
gij = (Ei (u) | Ej (u)).

(4.8)


g
g.
gij g ij .
, g .
(6.11)
. E
. (8.1)
.
5.
.
A (r, s).
5
. A A

5. . . .

91

(r, s + 1). A
A
x1 , x2 x3 .
. , A
A .
u1 , u2 , u3 D E.
.
A. , Ai (u1 , u2, u3 ).
B = A x
1 , x
2, x
3 .
: A
,
B = A (5.1) ,
A .
x
1 , x
2 , x
3
1
2
3
u , u , u :
1
1
1 1
=x
1 (u1 , u2, u3 ),
x ,x
2 , x
3 ),

x
u = u (
x
2 = x
2 (u1 , u2, u3 ),
u2 = u2 (
x1 , x
2 , x
3 ),
(5.1)

x
=x
3 (u1 , u2, u3 ),
u3 = u3 (
x1 , x
2 , x
3 ),
(3.7). (5.1) :
Sji (
x) =

ui
,
x
j

Tik (u) =

x
k
.
ui

(5.2)

Ak (
x1 , x
2 , x
3)
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

92

III. .

A .
3
X

Ak =

Tpk (u) Ap(u).

p=1

B = A
(5.1) :
k
X

k = A =
B
Tpk (u) Ap(u) .
q
q
q
x

p=1
3

(5.3)

B
:
j Ai = Bji (u) =

3 X
3
X

k.
Ski (
x) Tjq (u) B
q

(5.4)

k=1 q=1

(5.3) .
(5.3). (5.4) :
!
3 X
3
3
X
X
Ap (u)
i
i
k
j A =
Sk (
x) Tp (u) Tjq (u)
+
q

q=1 p=1
k=1
!
3
3
3
X XX
Tpk (u)
q
i
Ap (u).
+
Sk (
x) Tj (u)
q

p=1 q=1 p=1


, S T
. k p . , Tjq (u) x
q /uj
(5.2), :
3
X
q=1

Tjq (u)

X x

=
=
.
q
j
q
x

u x

uj
q=1

5. . . .

93


j Ai :
!
3
3
Tpk (u)
Ai (u) X X i
i
+
Sk (
x)
Ap (u).
j A (u) =
j
uj
u
p=1
k=1

. ijp :
ijp (u) =

3
X

Tpk (u)
.
uj

Ski (
x)

k=1

(5.5)

(5.5) :
3

Ai X i p
j A =
+
jp A .
uj
i

(5.6)

p=1

ijp , (5.5),
. ,
.
5.1. ijp u1 , u2 , u3, (5.5),
x
1 , x
2, x
3 .
-. (5.5)
Ei i:
3
X
i=1

ijp (u) Ei(u) =

3 X
3
X
Tpk (u)
i=1 k=1

uj

Ski (
x) Ei (u).

(5.7)

94

III. .

i
:

ek =

3
X

Ski

Ei ,

Ep =

i=1

3
X

Tpk
ek ,

(5.8)

k=1

E1 , E2 , E3 1 , e2,
e
e3 .
(5.7) :
3
X
i=1

ijp Ei =

3
X
Tpk (u)
k=1

uj

k =
e

3
X


T
(u)
e
.
k
p
uj
k=1

k u , u2 , u3,
e
uj . k
(5.8). (5.7)
1

Ep X i
=
jp Ei .
uj

(5.9)

i=1

(5.9) ijp .
,
x
1 , x
2, x
3 . Ep (u1 , u2 , u3)
u1 , u2, u3
D.
uj E1 , E2 , E3 .

ijp . , ,
. 
A (r, s)

5. . . .

95

.
, (5.5).
(5.5) :
ijp (u) =

3
3
X
 X

Ski (
x)
i
k
k
S
(
x
)
T
(u)

T
(u)
.
k
p
p
uj
uj
k=1

k=1

S T .
k
. :
ijp (u) =

3
X
k=1

Tpk (u)

Ski (
x)
.
j
u

(5.10)

ir
Aij11...
... js A (r, s) . B = A
, .
A :
... pr
Apq11...
qs =

vr
Tvp11 . . . Tvprr Sqw11 . . . Sqwss Avw11...
... ws .

v1 ... vr
w1 ... ws

B :
p1 ... pr =
B
q1 ... qs+1


vr
X Tvp1 . . . Tvpr Sqw1 . . . Sqws Avw1 ...
s
1 ... ws
1
1
r
.
x
qs+1
v1 ... vr

w1 ... ws

96

III. .

:
ir
Bji11 ...
... js+1 =

qs+1 p1 ... pr
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjs+1
Bq1 ... qs+1 =

p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs+1

p1 ... pr
v1 ... vr
q1 ... qs+1 w1 ... ws

s+1
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjs+1

(5.11)


vr
Tvp11 . . . Tvprr Sqw11 . . . Sqwss Avw11...
... ws
.

x
qs+1
(5.11) . T , S , ,
vr
Avw11...
... ws .
pm
Tvm Sqwnn ,
, :
3
X

3
X

Tvpmm = vim
,
Spim
m
m

Tjqnn Sqwnn = jwnn .

qn =1

pm =1


(5.11). :
3
X

qs+1 =1

qs+1
Tjs+1

X x

qs+1

=
=
.
js+1 x
qs+1
js+1
x
qs+1
u

u
q
=1
s+1

5. . . .

97

(5.11) :
ir
js+1 Aij11...
... js

s
X

r
3
X
X

m=1 vm =1
3
X

n=1 wn =1

3
X

Spim
m

pm =1

Tjqnn

qn =1

3
X

Sqwnn
ujs+1

Tvpmm
ujs+1

vm ... ir
Aij11...
+
... js

ir
Aij11...
... wn ... js +

ir
Aij11...
... js
.
ujs+1

(5.5) (5.10) . (5.11)


:
ir
Aij11...
... js
+
ujs+1
r
3
X
X
vm ... ir
+
ijm
Aij11...

... js
s+1 vm

ir
js+1 Aij11...
... js =

m=1 vm =1

s
3
X
X

(5.12)

i1 ... ir
n
w
js+1 jn Aj1 ... wn ... js .

n=1 wn =1

(5.12)
(r, s) .
: js+1
ujs+1 r + s A. ,
, ,
, , . im
jn , vm
wn . js+1 , ,

98

III. .

. vm wn
A, , .
(5.12), ,

.
6.
.
,

. kij
,
. , (1, 2). kij
(
(5.12) (5.1) ). ,
, . kij ,
.
6.1. u1 , u2, u3 u
1 , u
2, u
3 D E.
:
kij =

3 X
3 X
3
X

k
m
Sm
Tip Tjq
pq +

m=1 p=1 q=1

3
X

m=1

k
Sm

Tim
,
uj

(6.1)

S T (3.7).

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

6. . . .

99

. T (6.1) (3.7),
T (3.5), ,
C 2 . (5.5) ijp .
-. 6.1 (5.9). E1 , E2 , E3 ,
1, E
2 E
3:
(3.6) Ej E
3
X

kij

k=1

3
X
j

E

m
Ek =
=
T
E
.
m
j
ui
ui
m=1

(6.2)


(6.2) :
3
X
k=1

kij

3
3
X
X

Tjm
q Eq

Ek =
E
+
T
.
m
j
ui
ui
m=1
q=1

(6.3)

m (6.3) E
E1 , E2 E3 ,
ui
u
1 , u
2 , u
3 :
3
X
k=1

kij

Ek =

3 X
3
X

k=1 m=1

k
Sm

3 X
3
X
q
Tjm
p E
q u
E
+
T
.
k
j
ui
ui u
p
q=1 p=1

u
p /ui Tip (3.7)
(5.9) :
3
X
q
E
m E

pq m .
u
p
m=1

100

III. .

:
3
X
k=1

kij Ek =

3 X
3
X

k=1 m=1

k
Sm

3 X
3 X
3
X
Tjm
m

E
+
Tip Tjq
k
pq Em .
ui
q=1 p=1 m=1

m
E
E1 , E2 , E3 :
!
3
3 X
3 X
3
3
m
X
X
X
T
j
k
k
m
kij
Sm
Tip Tjq
Sm
Ek = 0.
pq
ui
m=1 q=1 p=1
m=1
k=1

E1 , E2 , E3 . (6.1), . 
7. .
.

g. g g (. (6.7)
). ,
x1 , x2 , x3 E gij
x1 , x2 , x3 .
gij (u1 , u2 , u3 ) . g
:
k gij = 0.

(7.1)

(7.1) . (5.12)
:
3

X
X
gij
r

rkj gir = 0.
rj
ki
uk r=1
r=1

(7.2)

7. .

101

(7.2) kij
gij . kij

(5.5).
7.1. , (5.5), , kij = kji .
-. (5.2) (5.5).
kij :
kij (u)

3
X

Sqk

q=1

3
2 q
Tjq (u) X

k x
=
S
.
q
i
j
u
u ui
q=1

(7.3)

C 2 :
2x
q
2x
q
=
.
uj ui
ui uj
, (7.3). . 
, (7.2),
kij gij , :
ijk =

3
X

rij gkr .

(7.4)

r=1

ijk (7.4) kij , .


, kij ijk :
kij

3
X
r=1

g kr ijr .

(7.5)

102

III. .

kij ijk
(7.4) i j, ijk = jik . (7.4)
(7.2) :
gij
kij kji = 0.
uk

(7.6)

(7.6) ,
(7.6) i j k i .
gij
kij kji = 0.
uk
gjk
ijk ikj = 0.
ui

(7.7)

gki
jki jik = 0.
uj
(7.7)
(7.7). ijk
gjk
gki gij
+

2 ijk = 0.
i
u
uj
uk
ijk
(7.5), :
3

kij =

1 X kr
g
2 r=1

grj
gir
gij
+

ui
uj
ur

(7.8)

(7.8) kij , . -

8. .

103

(7.8) (5.5) ,
. (5.9)
- Ei (u1 , u2 , u3).
(7.8)
, .
8. .
.
a ,
A E. ,
B.
, a.
: a
A a
B .

A B
. , a
a = a1 (A) E1 (A) + a2 (A) E2 (A) + a3 (A) E3 (A),

a = a1 (B) E1 (B) + a2 (B) E2 (B) + a3 (B) E3 (B)

(8.1)

. A B ,
E1 (A), E2 (A), E3 (A) E1 (B), E2(B), E3(B)

104

III. .

. a (8.1)
. ,
: B A,
,
a (8.1). , A B
: r = r(t), t ,
[0, 1] .
u1 (t), u2 (t) u3 (t),
t [0, 1] u1 , u2, u3 .
8.1. , u1 (t), u2 (t) u3 (t)
, (t)

u 1 (t), u 2 (t) u 3 (t).
-. u1 , u2 , u3 -
r = r(u1 , u2 , u3), r -
(.
(2.4) (2.5)). -
:
r = r(u1 (t), u2 (t), u3(t)).

(8.2)

r(t) (8.2) :
3

(t) =

dr X r
=
u j (t).
dt
uj
j=1

(8.3)

8. .

105

(2.7) (8.3) .
(8.3)
(t) =

3
X
j=1

u j (t) Ej (u1 (t), u2 (t), u3(t)).

(8.4)


. (t) (8.4) u 1 (t), u 2 (t) u 3 (t). . 
a
, A B (. 8.1).

a=

3
X
i=1

ai (t) Ei (u1 (t), u2 (t), u3(t)),

(8.5)

(8.4). (8.5) , a = const:


3

X X Ei
da X i
0=
=
a Ei +
ai
u j .
dt
uj
i=1

i=1 j=1

(5.9) .
:
3
X
i=1

a +

3 X
3
X
j=1 k=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

ijk

u a

Ei = 0.

106

III. .

E1 , E2 , E3 :
a i +

3 X
3
X

ijk u j ak = 0.

(8.6)

j=1 k=1

(8.6)
. a
. ,
a A B
,
(8.6),
a A t = 0.

, E
. , n b, (.
). , (r, s),
.
E,
, . , (r, s) ,
(r, s) .
A E1 , E2 , E3
,
.
i1 ... ir
ir
Aij11...
... js = Aj1 ... js (t).

(8.7)

8. .

107

(8.7)
X
ir
Aij11...
Spi11 (t) . . . Spirr (t)
... js (t) =
p1 ... pr
(8.8)
q1 ... qs
q1
qs
p1 ... pr

Tj1 (t) . . . Tjs (t) Aq1 ... qs (t),


S(t) T (t) :
S(t) = S(
u1 (t), u
2(t), u
3 (t)),
T (t) = T (u1 (t), u2(t), u3 (t)).

(8.9)

A
(5.12), , (8.7),
t. (5.12) :
ir
dAij11...
... js
=
+
dt
r X
3 X
3
X
vm ... ir
+
iqmvm u q Aij11...

... js

ir
t Aij11...
... js

m=1 q=1 vm =1

s X
3 X
3
X

(8.10)

ir
n
w
q Aij11...
q jn u
... wn ... js .

n=1 q=1 wn =1

(8.10) A t u1 , u2 , u3.
t
(5.12). ,
.
8.2. ir
i1 ... ir
u1 , u2 , u3 u
1 , u
2 , u
3 Bji11 ...
... js = t Aj1 ... js , (8.10), (8.8)

108

III. .

B = t A (r, s), A t .
-. .
ir
(8.10). Aij11...
... js A (8.8).
ir
dAij11...
... js /dt t (8.8):
ir
... pr
X
dAij11...
dApq11...
... js
qs
=
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
+
dt
dt
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

r
X

... pr
Spi11 . . . S pim
. . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Apq11...
qs +
m

m=1 p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs
s
X
X

(8.11)

... pr
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqnn . . . Tjqss Apq11...
qs .

n=1 p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

S pim
Tjqnn (8.11)
m
, S T :
S pim
m

3 X
3
X

S kim

k=1 vm =1

Tjqnn =

3 X
3
X

vm =1 k=1
3 X
3
X

k=1 wn =1

Skim


3 X
3
X
d Skim Tvkm
m
Spvm

=
dt
vm =1 k=1
!
3
3
k
k
X
X
dTvm vm
im dTvm
m
Spm =
Sk
Spvm
,
dt
dt
v =1

Tvkm

m
Spvm

k=1

Tjkn Skwn Twqnn =

3
X

wn =1

3
X
dTjk

k=1

dt

Skwn

Twqnn .

8. .

109

S pim
Tjqnn (8.9):
m
S pim
m

Tjqnn =

3
X

3 X
3
X

vm =1

3
X

wn =1

k=1 q=1
3 X
3
X
k=1 q=1

!
Tvkm q
m
u
Spvm
,
uq
!
Tjkn q
u
Twqnn .
uq

Skim

Skwn

(8.12)
(8.13)

(8.12) (8.13) (8.11). (8.8) p1 , . . . , pr


q1 , . . . , qs (8.11),
(8.11) :
ir
... pr
X
dAij11...
dApq11...
... js
qs
=
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss

dt
dt
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

r
X

3
X

3
X

m=1 q=1 vm =1
s X
3 X
3
X

n=1 q=1 wn =1

3
X

!
k
T
v
vm ... ir
m
u q Aij11...
+
Skim
... js
uq
k=1
!
3
X
Tjkn
wn
ir
Sk
u q Aij11...
... wn ... js .
q
u

(8.14)

k=1

(8.10) (8.14)
. (8.14) (8.10). :

iqmvm

3
X

k=1

Skim

Tvkm
,
uq

n
w
q jn

3
X
k=1

Skwn

Tjkn
.
uq

110

III. .

(6.1):
iqmvm
n
w
q jn

3
X

Skim

Skwn

k=1

r=1 p=1 k=1

k=1

3
X

XXX
Tvkm
r T p T k ,
=
Srim
pk q vm
uq

Tjkn
uq

3 X
3 X
3
X

(8.15)

r T p T k .
Srwn
pk q jn

r=1 p=1 k=1

(8.15) (8.14) (8.10).


(8.10) :
ir
t Aji11...
... js =

Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss

p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

r X
3 X
3
3 X
3 X
3
X
X

m=1 q=1 vm =1 pm =1 p=1 k=1

s X
3 X
3
3 X
3 X
3
X
X

... pr
dApq11...
qs
+
dt

pm Tqp Tvk u q Ai1 ... vm ... ir


Spim

j1 ... js
pk
m
m

k T p T qn u q Ai1 ... ir
Skwn
p q n q jn
j1 ... wn ... js .

n=1 q=1 wn =1 qn =1 p=1 k=1

vm ... ir
ir
Aij11...
Aij11...
... js
... wn ... js A
(8.8). , , Tqp u q q
u
p . :
X
ir
t Aij11...
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
... js =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

r X
3 X
3
... pr
X
dApq11...
qs
... vm ... pr
ppmv u
+

p Aqp11...

qs
m
dt
m=1 p=1 vm =1
!
s X
3 X
3
X
wn p p1 ... pr

p q u
Aq ... w ... q .
n

n=1 p=1 wn =1

(8.16)

9. . . .

111

, (8.16), ... pr
t Apq11...
qs . t A ,
(8.10), (8.8). 8.2 . 
(8.6).
(8.10)
t a. : t a = 0.
A:
t A = 0.

(8.17)

(8.17)
,
, 8.1.
, u1 (t), u2 (t) u3 (t)
. t = s . (t)
.
u i
. ai = u i (8.6),
u
i +

3 X
3
X

ijk u j u k = 0.

(8.18)

j=1 k=1

(8.18)
( ).
9. ,
.
, (1.1). (1.1),

112

III. .

:


cos()

,
E1 =
sin()



sin()

.
E2 =
cos()

(9.1)

- (9.1) E1
E2 .

:
g g


1 0

,
gij =
0 2

ij



1 0

.
=
0 2

(9.2)


g g
. (7.8):
111 = 0,

112 = 121 = 0,

122 = ,

211 = 0,

212 = 221 = 1 ,

222 = 0.

(9.3)

(9.3) 4 .
: = (, ). :
!
2
2 X
2
2
X
X

4 =
g ij

kij k .
(9.4)
ui uj
u
i=1 j=1

k=1

(9.4) (10.16)
, .
(9.3) (9.4) :
4 =

2 1
1 2
+
+
.
2

2 2

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

(9.5)

9. . . .

113


. :

1 0


gij = 0 2

0 0


0


0 ,

1

g ij


1 0


= 0 2

0 0


0


0 .

1

(9.6)

(9.6) (7.8)
. :
111 = 0,

112 = 0,

121 = 0,

113 = 0,

131 = 0,

123 = 0,

132 = 0,

122 = ,

133 = 0,

211 = 0,

212 = 1 ,

221 = 1 ,

213 = 0,

231 = 0,

222 = 0,

223 = 0,

232 = 0,

233 = 0,

311 = 0,

312 = 0,

321 = 0,

313 = 0,

331 = 0,

322 = 0,

323 = 0,

332 = 0,

333 = 0.

(9.7)

(9.8)

(9.9)

3 (9.4)
, :
!
3 X
3
3
2
X
X

4 =
g ij

kij k .
(9.10)
ui uj
u
i=1 j=1

k=1

114

III. .

(9.7), (9.8) (9.9) (9.10) :


4 =

2 1
1 2 2
+
+
+
.
2

2 2
h2

(9.11)

. A A1 , A2 A3 . F = rot A
(10.5) . , (8.1)
. E .
,
. x1 , x2 , x3,
(1.3). , E = 1
F = rot A :
F

det g

3 X
3 X
3 X
3
X
i=1 j=1 k=1 q=1

g mi ijk g jq q F k .

(9.12)

(9.7), (9.8), (9.9) (9.6)


(9.12) :
F1 =

1 A3
A2

,

h

F2 =

1 A1
1 A3

,
h

F3 =

A2
1 A1

+ 2 A2 .

(9.13)

9. . . .

115

(9.13) :

E1


1
rot A =


A1

E2


E3



,
h

A3

2 A2

(9.14)

E1 , E2 , E3 .

g:

1


gij =
0


0

2 sin2 ()

(9.15)

111 = 0,

112 = 0,

121 = 0,

113 = 0,

131 = 0,

123 = 0,

132 = 0,

122 = ,

211 = 0,

212 = 1 ,

213 = 0,

231 = 0,

222 = 0,

223 = 0,

232 = 0,

233 =

311 = 0,

312 = 0,

321 = 0,

313 = 1 ,

331 = 1 ,

322 = 0,

323 = ctg(),

332 = ctg(),

333 = 0.

(9.16)

133 = sin2 (),


221 = 1 ,

(9.17)
sin(2)
,
2
(9.18)

116

III. .

(9.16), (9.17) (9.18) (9.10) :


4 =

2 2
1 2
+
+
+
2

2 2
2
ctg()
1
+
+
.
2 2 sin2 () 2

(9.19)

A A1 , A2 A3
.
F = rot A. F :
F 1 = sin()

A3
1 A2

+ 2 cos() A3,

sin()

F2 =

1
A1
A3
2 sin() 3

sin()

A ,
2 sin()

F3 =

1 A2
1
A1
2
2
+
A2 .
sin()
sin()
sin()

(9.20)

, (9.13), (9.20)
:

E1


2


rot A =
sin()

A1

E2

2 A2

E3



2 sin2 ()A3

(9.21)

(9.5), (9.11) (9.19) (9.14) (9.21)


.
.

9. . . .

117

g
.
, Hi = gii
. ,
. ,
(7.8) (5.9).

IV

.
1. .
.

.
() . E
: . ,
, :
F (x1 , x2 , x3) = 0.

(1.1)

.
( ).
(. (1.2) )
.
.
,
. u1 u2 :
1 1 2
x (u , u )
2 1 2
1
2

r = r(u , u ) =
(1.2)
x3 (u1 , u2 ) .
x (u , u )

1. .

119

(1.2) -

u1 , u2 .
. , (u1 , u2 ) R2 , ,
(u1 , u2 ) U R2 . D U (1.2).
D , U ,
(1.2) U D.
D
x1 (u1 , u2 ), x2 (u1 , u2) x3 (u1 , u2 ) (1.2). ,
, , .
:

1
x
x1


u1 u2


2

2
x
x
(1.3)
I =
.
u1 u2


x3 x3


1

u
u2

1.1. (1.2) (u1 , u2 ),


(1.3), , 2.

1.2. D
, u : D U D
U R2 :
(1) u : D U ;
(2) u1 : U D, (1.2),
U .
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

120

IV. .

(1.3) 2.
2 2:
1
x

u1

2
x
1
u

x1
u2
x2
u2

2
x

u1

3
x
1
u

x2
u2
x3
u2

3
x

u1

1
x
1
u

x3
u2
x1
u2

(1.4)

(1.2), ,
(1.4) . x1 , x2 , x3
, :
1

1
x
x


u1 u2

6= 0
(1.5)
2

x2
x

1
u
u2

x1 (u2 , u2 )
x2 (u2 , u2 ) (1.2) , :
 1
x = x1 (u1 , u2 ),
(1.6)
x2 = x2 (u1 , u2 ).
(1.5) (1.6) . (1.6)
:
 1
u = u1 (x1 , x2 ),
(1.7)
u2 = u2 (x1 , x2 ),
(1.6).
,

1. .

121

(. [2], . 2.1
). u1 u2 (1.7)
x3 (u1 , u2 ), (1.2).
F (x1 , x2 ) = x3 (u1 (x2 , x2 ), u2(x2 , x2 )),

( )
:
x3 = F (x1 , x2 ).

(1.8)

. 1.2
.
, :
1
1
1 3
1 3

x = (u ) ,
x = (u ) ,
x2 = (u2 )3 ,
x2 = (u2 )3 ,
(1.9)

1 2
2 2
3
1 4
2 4
x = (u ) + (u ) ,
x = (u ) + (u ) .

u1 = u2 = 0.
(1.9) ,
.
D u1 : U D
. u1 = const u2 = const

u1 , u2 . U . (1.2)
D ( 1.1 1.2 ). D:
Ei (u1 , u2 ) =

r(u1, u2 )
.
ui

(1.10)

122

IV. .

(1.10) E1

E2 , D.
- r(u1 , u2), (1.2),
1

r(u , u ) =

3
X
q=1

xq (u1 , u2 ) eq .

(1.11)

(1.11) (1.10)
E1 E2 e1 , e2 , e3 :
Ei (u1 , u2) =

3
X
xq (u1 , u2 )
q=1

ui

eq .

(1.12)

-, E1 E2 :
1

1

x /u1
x /u2








E1 = x2 /u1 ,
E2 = x2 /u2 .
(1.13)




x3 /u1
x3 /u2

1. .

123

, - (1.13)
(1.3). (. 1.1)
(1.3).
.
1.1. E1 E2 , , D.
E1 E2 , ,
D
.
E1 E2 . ,
(. 1.1 1.2).
t, :
 1
u = u1 (t),
(1.14)
u2 = u2 (t).
(1.14) (1.11) (1.2),
: r(t) = r(u1 (t), u2(t)). r(t)
t (1.14):
2

(t) =

dr X r dui
=

.
dt
ui dt
i=1

(1.10), :
(t) =

2
X
i=1

u i Ei .

(1.15)

124

IV. .

(1.15)
E1 E2 . ,
,
,
(1.14) E1 E2 .
2.
.
D1 D2 , . D = D1 D2
. D u1 , u2
D u
1 , u
2 . U U
(. 3.1
). (.
1.2) :
,
u1 : U U
u

U.
1 : U
uu

(2.1)

u1 u u
1 (2.1) ,
u
:


u
1 = u
1 (u1 , u2 ),
u
2 = u
2 (u1 , u2 ).

u1 = u1 (
u1 , u
2 ),
u2 = u2 (
u1 , u
2 ).

(2.2)

2.1. (2.2), u1 u u
1 , .
u
-. (2.2). . U
D. E ,

2. . . .

125

(1.5)
(1.7), (1.6). (1.7) .

D (1.6):


x1 = x1 (
u1 , u
2),
x2 = x2 (
u1 , u
2).

(2.3)

1
, u
1
1 1
2
2
2 1
2
(1.2). u = u (
u ,u
) u = u (
u ,u
), 1 (2.2), u u
(2.3) (1.7).


u1 = u1 (x1 (
u1 , u
2 ), x2(
u1 , u
2 )),
u2 = u2 (x1 (
u1 , u
2 ), x2(
u1 , u
2 )).

(2.4)

(2.4)
. . 
(2.2),
, . (3.5), .
. (1.2) C m
u1 , u2 u
1 , u
2, (2.2)
C m .
r(u1 , u2) r(
u1 , u
2 ) - (1.2)
D.
D.
1 , U U
u1 u
1
1
1
1
2

). r(
u
= u (u u
u ,u
)

126

IV. .

(2.2)
r(u1 , u2 ):
r(
u1 , u
2 ) = r(u1 (
u1 , u
2 ), u2(
u1 , u
2 )).

(2.5)

(2.5) u
j ,
(1.10) :
2

X r ui
X ui
j = r =
E

=
Ei .
u
j
ui u
j
u
j
i=1
i=1
r(u1 , u2) = r(
u1 (u1 , u2 ), u
2(u1 , u2 )),

2

Ei =

X r u
X u
k
k
r
=

=
Ek ,
i
k
i
i
u
u

u
u
i=1
k=1

1, E
2 . ,
E1 , E2 E

.
j =
E

2
X
i=1

Sji Ei ,

Ei =

2
X
k=1

k,
Tik E

(2.6)

S T :
Sji (
u1 , u
2) =

ui
,
u
j

Tik (u1 , u2 ) =

u
k
.
ui

(2.7)

(2.7) , S T , (2.2).
.
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

2. . . .

127

(2.2) S T
, ,
.
2 3. ,
(2.2)
(2.7),
.
X
... ir
... pr
Fji11...
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Fqp11...
(2.8)
qs .
js =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

2.1. (r, s) F,

(r + s)
(2.8).
(2.8)
(1.6) .
1
2. (1)S = sign(det S) = 1
(2.8), .
X
... ir
... pr
Fji11...
(1)S Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Fqp11...
(2.9)
qs ,
js =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

2.2. (r, s)
F, (r+s)
(2.9).

128

IV. .

. , , , ,

, E (. ).
.
.
E .
. , , .
.
3. .

u1 , u2
E1 , E2 .

gij = (Ei | Ej ).

(3.1)

g 2 2, , .
det g > 0.

(3.2)

(2.6) (3.1) , (3.1)


(0, 2). g (3.1) .
,
E. , g

3. .

129

. g
.
(0, 2) . g.
.
: g11 = E, g12 = g21 = F , g22 = G.
.


E F


gij =
(3.3)
F G
g
= g1 .
g
g ij , i j :
3
X

g ij gjk = ji .

(3.4)

j=1

, g
6.1 . (2, 0) ,
. 6.1 .
g (3.4) .
g
.
(9.1) (9.2) :
i ... i
Bj11 ... jr1
s+1

2
X

i ... i

k i ... i

m
r1
Aj11 ... jm1
gkjn .
n1 jn+1 ... js+1

k=1
i ... i
Aj11 ... jr+1
s1

2
X

k=1

i ... i
im+1 ... ir+1
Bj11 ... jm1
n1 q jn ... js1

(3.5)
g

qim

130

IV. .

(3.5) ,
k 1
2. (3.4) (3.5)
.
( )
:


0 1
ij

.
dij = d =
(3.6)
1 0

(3.6) - (. (6.8)
). (3.6)
2 X
2
X

dpq Mip Mjq = det M dij ,

(3.7)

p=1 q=1

M 2 2. (3.7) (6.10)
( . [4]).
dij
g ,
:
p
ij = det g dij .
(3.8)
(3.7) ,
ij
pq , (3.8)
:
ij = sign(det S)

3 X
3
X

Tip Tjq
pq .

(3.9)

p=1 q=1

(3.9) (3.8) -

4. .

131

(0, 2). . D
,
ij = D

det g dij

(3.10)

(0, 2), . (3.10) (3.8) D ,


(.
(8.1) ). , .
, .
4. .
.

E1 , E2
.
. ,
, .
,
.
4.1. n D A ,
A D .
4.1 n :

132

IV. .

, . n
n=

[E1 , E2 ]
.
|[E1 , E2 ]|

(4.1)

n, (4.1), .

. , 1, E
2 (2.6):
E1 , E2 E
1 + T2 E
2,
E1 = T11 E
1

1 + T2 E
2.
E2 = T21 E
2

[E1 , E2 ],
1, E
2 ] = det T [E
1, E
2 ].
[E1 , E2 ] = (T11 T22 T12 T21 ) [E


, (4.1):
.
n = (1)S n

(4.2)

(1)S = sign(det S) = 1
, (2.8).
,
- .
D
D . n :
n = D

[E1 , E2 ]
.
|[E1 , E2 ]|

(4.3)


:
.
n=n

(4.4)

4. .

133

4.2. E1 , E2 u1 , u2 ,
n,
.
(4.1), E1 , E2 , n . , E1 , E2 ,
n. n
(4.3),
E1 , E2 . ,

n,
E1 , E2 .
, . D
.
, . : E
.
D C 2 .
- : E1 (u1 , u2), E2 (u1 , u2 ) n(u1 , u2 ). , . :
2
X
Ej
=
kij Ek + bij n.
ui

(4.5)

k=1

n c .., 1996.
CopyRight

134

IV. .

(. 3.1 ).
2
X
n
=
cki Ek .
ui

(4.6)

k=1

(4.5) n, (4.6) Ej . (Ek | n) = 0 :


(Ej /ui| n) = bij (n| n) = bij ,

(4.7)

(Ej | n/ui) =

(4.8)

2
X

cki gkj .

k=1

(4.7) (4.8).
, :
(Ej /ui| n) + (Ej | n/ui) = (Ej | n)/ui = 0.
bij ckj (4.5) (4.6):
bij =

2
X

cki gkj .

k=1

,
g
. :
bki =

2
X

bij g jk .

(4.9)

j=1

cki (4.6)
bij (4.5) :
cki = bki .

(4.10)

5. . . .

135

(4.10)
(4.5) (4.6) :
2

X
Ej
=
kij Ek + bij n,
ui
k=1

(4.11)

X
n
=
bki Ek .
i
u
k=1

(4.5) (4.6), (4.11), .


.
5.
.

. u1 , u2 (4.5):
2
X
Ej
=
kij Ek + bij n.
ui

(5.1)

k=1

u
1 , u
2 :
2
X
q
E
m E
m + bpq n
.
=

pq
u
p
m=1

(5.2)

Ej (5.1)
. (2.6):
2
2
2
q) X
X
X
q
(Tjq E
Tjq
Ej
E
q +
=
=

E
Tjq
.
i
i
i
u
u
u
ui
q=1
q=1
q=1

136

IV. .

:

2
2 X
2 
p
X
X
q
Tjm
Ej

E
q
m +
=
E
Tj

.
i
i
i
u
u
u
u
p
m=1
q=1 p=1
q / u
E
p p /ui = Tip :
(5.2). , (2.7) u
2
2 X
2 X
2
X
X
Tjm
Ej
m +
m ) E
m+
=

E
(Tjq Tip
pq
i
ui
u
m=1
q=1 p=1 m=1

2 X
2
2 X
2 
X
X
Tjm k
q p
=
+
(Tj Ti bpq ) n
S
Ek +
ui m
q=1 p=1
m=1
k=1

2 X
2
X

2
X

2
X

(Tjq

m
Tip
pq

k
Sm
)

q=1 p=1 m=1 k=1

Ek +

2 X
2
X
q=1 p=1

.
(Tjq Tip bpq ) n


n n
: n =
n. , Ej /ui
(5.1) , ,
E1 , E2 , n.
kij =

2
X

m=1

bij =

k
Sm

2 X
2 X
2
X
Tjm
k
m
+
Sm
Tip Tjq
pq ,
ui
m=1 p=1 q=1

2 X
2
X

Tip Tjq bpq .

(5.3)
(5.4)

p=1 q=1

(5.3) (5.4) kij bij .

5. . . .

137

(5.4) .
n (4.1), (4.2).
(5.4) :
bij =

2 X
2
X

(1)S Tip Tjq bpq .

(5.5)

p=1 q=1

bij (0, 2) .
n
(4.3), n (.
(4.4)). bij
(0, 2). (5.4) :
bij =

2 X
2
X

Tip Tjq bpq .

(5.6)

p=1 q=1

(0, 2) . (0, 2) . , bij


b .
.
5.1. kij bij
(4.11)
i j.
-. (1.10).
Ej (u1 , u2) =

r(u1 , u2)
uj

(5.7)

138

IV. .

(5.7) (4.11):
2
2 r(u1 , u2 ) X k
=
ij Ek + bij n.
ui uj

(5.8)

k=1

, (5.8)
, i j. , kij bij
E1 , E2 , n i j. . 
, (3.3):


L M

.
bij =
(5.9)
M N

.
g b . , ,
. .
(. [1]).
, ,
,
.

. :
bki

2
X

bij g jk .

(5.10)

j=1

bki (4.11). ( -

5. . . .

139

) (1, 1) .
(5.10) . ,
.
k1 k2 .
5.1. k1 (u1 , u2) k2 (u1 , u2)
u1 , u2 .

. :
H=

k1 + k 2
,
2

K = k 1 k2 .

(5.11)

bki .
, :
H=

1
tr(bki ),
2

K = det(bki ).

(5.12)

H (5.11) (5.12)
, K .
, H K
(3.3) (5.9):
H=

1 EN + GL 2 F M
,
2
EG F 2

K=

LN M 2
.
EG F 2

(5.13)

v(u1, u2 ) w(u1, u2 ) ,
, :
1
2
v
w


v=
w=
(5.14)
v2 ,
w2 .

140

IV. .

.
(5.14) :
v = v 1 E1 + v 2 E2 ,

w = w 1 E1 + w 2 E2 .

(5.15)

, . , (5.15) u1 , u2.
k1 6= k2 , . k1 = k2 ,
.
.
. , ,
,
, .
. k1 k2
. H .
. : K > 0,
, K < 0,
, , K = 0,
.
6.
.
(5.3) (6.1)
. , . c .., 1996.
CopyRight

6. . . .

141

kij , ,
, .
kij .
kij
. (5.12) :
ir
Aij11...
... js
=
+
ujs+1
r
2
X
X
vm ... ir
+
ijm
Aij11...

... js
s+1 vm

ir
js+1 Aij11...
... js

m=1 vm =1

s
2
X
X

(6.1)

i1 ... ir
n
w
js+1 jn Aj1 ... wn ... js .

n=1 wn =1

6.1. (6.1)
, (r, s) (r, s + 1),
, kij
(5.3).
-. . A B = A (1, 1),
(6.1). (6.1) ,
B (2.8). (5.3)
kij (6.1).
(2.8) B = A:
!
2
2 X
2
2
m
X
X

Ak X k j

A
k
m Aq .
+
ij A =
Sm
Tip
+

pq
p
ui

m=1 p=1
q=1
j=1

142

IV. .

.
Tip u
p /ui m

(2.7) A Aj
c :
2
Am X u
p Am
Am
=
=
=
u
p
ui u
p
ui
p=1
p=1
!
2
2
2
j
X
X
Tjm j X

m k
m A
=
T
A
=
A
+
T
.
k
j
ui
ui
ui
2
X

Tip

j=1

k=1

(6.2)

j=1

(6.2) Ak /ui
:
2
X
j=1

kij Aj =

2 X
2
X

j=1 m=1

k
Sm

2 X
2 X
2
Tjm j X
k
m
q
A
+
Sm
Tip
pq A .
ui
m=1 p=1 q=1

Aq Aj ,
Aj :
!
2 X
2 X
2
2
2
m
X
X
X
T
j
p
q
k
j
k
m
kij
Sm

Sm
Ti Tj
pq A = 0.
i
u
m=1 p=1 q=1
m=1
j=1

A
Aj .
(5.3). .
.
(5.3) . A ir
(r, s) , , js+1 Aij11...
... js (6.1),

6. . . .

143

(r, s + 1). (6.1):


ir
js+1
Aij11...
r + s . ... js /u
 
0 
i1 ... ir
ir
Aj1 ... js+1 m
Aij11...
... js+1 n :
0
ir
i1 ... ir
js+1
js+1 Aij11...
+
... js = Aj1 ... js /u

r
X

ir
m
Aij11...
... js+1 0

 

m=1

s
X

ir
Aij11...
... js+1

n=1

0 
n

(6.3)
.

A
(r, s). (6.3) :

ir
X
Aji11...

... js
... pr
=
S i1 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss Apq11...
=
qs
ujs+1
ujs+1 p1 ... pr p1
q1 ... qs

2
X

Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss

... pr
u
qs+1 Apq11...
qs
+
ujs+1 u
qs+1

p1 ... pr qs+1 =1
q1 ... qs
r
X
X
Spim
m
. . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
Spi11 . . .
js+1
u
m=1 p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs
s
X X
Tjqnn
q1
i1
ir
Sp1 . . . S pr Tj 1 . . .
. . . Tjqss
js+1
u
n=1 p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

... pr
Apq11...
qs +

... pr
Apq11...
qs .

ujs+1
u
qs+1 . u
qs+1 /ujs+1

144

IV. .
q

s+1
(2.7) , Tjs+1
, S T :

2 X
2
vm
X
Spim
m
im Tk
=

S
Sk ,
v
m
js+1 pm
ujs+1
u
v =1
k=1

Tjqnn
ujs+1

2
X

2
X

Tjwnn

wn =1 k=1

k
Sw
n

Tkqn
.
ujs+1

(6.4)

(6.4)
pm c vm qn wn .
ir
X
Aij11...
... js
=
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
ujs+1
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

2
X

s+1
Tjs+1

qs+1 =1

!
r
s
... pr
X
m  X
 0
Aqp11...
qs

V 0 +
W n ,
u
qs+1
m=1
n=1

(6.5)

:
V

m

 0

2 X
2
X

Svkm

Tkpm p1 ... vm ... pr


A
,
ujs+1 q1 ... qs

Sqkn

Tkwn p1 ... pr
A
.
ujs+1 q1 ... wn ... qs

vm =1 k=1

2 X
2
X

wn =1 k=1

(6.6)

m
ir
Aij11...
(6.3).
... js+1 0
, , :
ir
Aji11...
... js+1

m
0

2
X

vm =1

vm ... ir
ijm
Aij11...
.
... js
s+1 vm

6. . . .

145

A 

i1 ... ir
m
(r, s). Aj1 ... js+1 0 :
ir
m
Aij11...
... js+1 0

 

2
X X

p1 ... pr vm =1
q1 ... qs

m
Spi11 . . . Spvm
. . . Spirr

(6.7)

... pr
Tjq11 . . . Tjqss ijm
Apq11...
qs .
s+1 vm

(5.3), :
ijm
=
s+1 vm

2
X

Skim

k=1

k=1

XX X
Tvkm
qs+1 q k
+
Skim Tjs+1
Tvm qs+1 q .
ujs+1
q=1 q
=1
s+1

(6.7)
: r pm , pm vm vm r.
,
S T = S 1 :
X
m
ir
Aji11...
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
... js+1 0 =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

2
X

qs+1
Tjs+1

qs+1 =1

... pr
Apq11...
qs+1

m 
0

+V

m
0

(6.8)

0
ir
Aij11...
... js+1 n
:
X
0
ir
Spi11 . . . Spirr Tjq11 . . . Tjqss
Aij11...
... js+1 n =
p1 ... pr
q1 ... qs

2
X

qs+1 =1

qs+1
Tjs+1

0
... pr
Apq11...
qs+1 n

 

+W

!
0 
n

(6.9)

146

IV. .

(6.5),
(6.9)
m(6.8)


0
(6.3). V 0 W n .

(r, s + 1), A. 6.1
. 
6.1 . ,
(5.3).

E, , E,
. ,
.
.
X .
A (r, s)
B = X A (r, s),
... ir
Bji11 ...
js =

2
X
q=1

ir
X q q Aij11...
... js .

(6.10)

6.2. :
(1) X (A + B) = X A + X B;
(2) X+Y A = X A + Y A;
(3) XA = X A;
(4) X (A B) = X A B + A X B;
(5) X (A) = (X A);
A B -

6. . . .

147

, X Y ,
.
6.2 (6.10),
, 6.2 5.2
, (6.10)
(5.5) . ,
E.
-.

. C = A + B,
A B (r, s).
... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
Cji11...
js = Aj1 ... js + Bj1 ... js .
... ir
Cji11...
js (6.1) :
... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
js+1 Cji11...
js = js+1 Aj1 ... js + js+1 Bj1 ... js .


X js+1 js+1 .
(6.10),
.
ir
, Bji11 ...
... js (6.10) X.
(2) (3) .
(4). C = A B.
C :
i ... i

... i

ir
r+p
r+1
r+p
Cj11... js+q
= Aij11...
... js Bjs+1 ... js+q .

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

(6.11)

148

IV. .
i ... i

r+p
Cj11... js+q
(6.11) (6.1)
.
D = C :
 ir+1 ... ir+p
i ... ir+p
... ir
js+q+1
Dj11... js+q+1
= Aji11...
Bjs+1 ... js+q +
js /u


ir+1 ... ir+p
... ir
js+q+1
+ Aji11...
+
js Bjs+1 ... js+q /u

r
2
X
X

... i

vm ... ir
r+1
r+p
ijm
Aji11...
Bjs+1
... js
... js+q +
s+q+1 vm

m=1 vm =1

r+p
X

2
X

... v ... ir+p

... ir im
r+1
m
Aji11...
js js+q+1 vm Bjs+1 ... js+q

m=r+1 vm =1

s
2
X
X

n=1 wn =1
s+q
X

... i

i1 ... ir
r+1
r+p
n
w
js+q+1 jn Aj1 ... wn ... js Bjs+1 ... js+q

2
X

... i

r+1
r+p
... ir wn
Aji11...
js js+q+1 jn Bjs+1 ... wn ... js+q .

n=s+1 wn =1

, :

ir+1 ... ir+p 
ir
i1 ... ir
js+q+1 Aji11...
... js Bjs+1 ... js+q = js+q+1 Aj1 ... js
(6.12)
ir+1 ... ir+p
ir+1 ... ir+p 
i1 ... ir
Bjs+1 ... js+q + Aj1 ... js js+q+1 Bjs+1 ... js+q .

(6.12) X js+q+1 js+q+1 .



A B, :
ir
Bji11 ...
... js =

2
X

k=1

i ... i

k i ... i

p
r
Aj11 ... jp1
.
q1 k jq ... js

(6.13)

6. . . .

149

ir
(6.13) (6.1). js+1 Bji11 ...
... js :
... ir
js+1 Bji11 ...
js

i ... i
k ip ... ir
2
X
Aj11 ... jp1
q1 k jq ... js

r X
2 X
2
X

m=1 k=1 vm =1

ujs+1

k=1

s X
2 X
2
X

vm ... k ... ir
ijm
Aij11...
... jq1 k jq ... js
s+1 vm
i ... i

(6.14)

k i ... i

1
p1
p
r
n
w
js+1 jn Aj1 ... wn ... k ... js .

n=1 k=1 wn =1

(6.14) vm
k, .
wn . , , vm wn
k. :
2 X
2
X

i ... i

v i ... i

p
r
kjs+1 v Aj11 ... jp1
,
q1 k jq ... js

(6.15)

k=1 v=1

2 X
2
X

i ... i

k i ... i

1
p1
p
r
w
js+1 k Aj1 ... jq1 w jq ... js .

(6.16)

k=1 w=1

, (6.15) (6.16) . k v w k
(6.16). (6.15) (6.16) (6.14)
.
(6.14) :
ir
js+1 Bji11 ...
... js

2
X
k=1

i ... i

k i ... i

p
r
js+1 Aj11 ... jp1
.
q1 k jq ... js

(6.17)


(6.17) X js+1
js+1 . 

150

IV. .

6.2

(6.12). (6.12) :


ir
i1 ... ir
v1 ... vp
k Aij11...
... js Bw1 ... wq = k Aj1 ... js

v1 ... vp
Bw
1 ... wq

ir
Aij11...
... js

v1 ... vp
k Bw
1 ... wq

(6.18)

(6.18) (6.12)
; , .
7.
.
, g E
(. (6.7) ). .
kij
(. (7.8) ).

. ,
.
7.1. g ij kij

2

k gij =

X q
gij X q

ki gqj
kj giq = 0,
k
u
q=1
q=1

(7.1)

7. . . .

151

-. (4.11). ,
:
2

Ei X q
=
ki Eq + bki n.
uk
q=1

(7.2)

(7.2) Ej
Ej n. Eq
Ej gqj :
(Ei/u | Ej ) =
k

2
X

qki gqj .

(7.3)

q=1

i j (7.3) .
(Ei | Ej /uk ) =

2
X

qkj giq .

(7.4)

q=1

(7.3) (7.4)

E:
(Ei /uk | Ej ) + (Ei | Ej /uk ) = (Ei | Ej )/uk =
= gij /uk =

2
X
q=1

qki gqj +

2
X

qkj giq .

q=1

, , , (7.1). . 
7.1 5.1 -

152

IV. .

:
2

kij =

1 X kr  grj
gir
gij 
g
+

.
2 r=1
ui
uj
ur

(7.5)

, , , (7.8) .
q gij = 0 .
(3.4).

ki . :
q ki =

2
2
(ki ) X i r X r i
+

qk r = 0.
qr k
uq
r=1
r=1

(7.6)

(3.4) (7.6):
2
X

ij

g gjk

j=1

2
X
j=1

2
X
(q g ij gjk + g ij q gjk ) =
j=1

q g ij gjk = q ki = 0.

(7.7)

(7.7) (4) (5) 6.2. j gjk . (7.7)


q g ij = 0.

g = 0,

g = 0,

(7.8)

7. . . .

153

(6.7) E.
7.1 , ,
g,
g
. :
q
q

2
X

k ...
gik A...
... ...

...
g ik A...
... k ...

k=1

2
X

k=1

2
X
k=1

2
X
k=1

k ...
gik q A...
... ... ,

(7.9)

...
g ik q A...
... k ... .

(7.9) (7.8)
(4) (5) 6.2.
7.2. : = 0.
,
.
7.1. M , x, :
d(ln det M )
= tr(M 1 M 0 ),
dx

(7.10)

M 0 ,
M .

154

IV. .

7.2. M
2 2
2
X
q=1


Miq dqj + Mjq diq = tr M dij ,

(7.11)

dij ,
(3.6).
, , (3.7), [4].
7.1 . x = uk (7.10) :

2
2
det g
1 X X qp gqp
1

=
g
.
2 q=1 p=1
uk
det g uk

(7.12)

, (7.11) M
, . k,
jki . :
2
X

qki

dqj +

qkj

q=1

diq =


2
X

qkq dij .

(7.13)

q=1

- 7.2. (3.8). (6.1). :

2
X
p

det g
q
q
k ij =
d

det
g

d
+

d
=
ij
qj
iq
ki
kj
uk
q=1
!

2
X
p

1
det g
q
q
= det g
dij
ki dqj + kj diq .
det g uk
q=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

8. .

155

(7.12) (7.13):
2

p
k ij = det g

1 X X qp gqp X q
g

kq
2 q=1 p=1
uk
q=1

dij .

(7.14)

qkq
(7.5). g pq :
2
X
q=1

qkq =

1 X X qp  gpq
gkp
gkq  1 X X qp gqp
g
+

=
g
.
2 q=1 p=1
uk
uq
up
2 q=1 p=1
uk

(7.14)
. k ij = 0. . 
.
D . 7.2 .

. ( ) E : = 0.
, 7.2. E

.
8. .

E
.
-
?

156

IV. .

. X Y (1, 2)
:
Yijk = i j X k j i X k .

(8.1)

Y (6.1):
i j X k =

2
2
X
(j X k ) X k
q
+

qij q X k ,
iq j
ui
q=1
q=1

2
2
X
(i X k ) X k
q
+

qji q X k .
j i X k =
i
jq
uj
q=1
q=1

(8.2)

(8.2) . kij :
!
!
2
2
k
k
X
X
X

+
kjr X r
+
kir X r +
Yijk =
j
i
ui uj
u
u
r=1
r=1
!
!
2
2
2
2
q
q
X
X q
X
X
X
X
+
kiq
+
jr X r
kjq
+
qir X r .
j
i
u
u
q=1
r=1
q=1
r=1
:
!
2
2
k
k
X
X


jr
ir
Yijk =

+
kiq qjr kjq qir X r .
(8.3)
i
j
u
u
r=1
q=1
, (8.3)
X . :
Rkrij =

2
2
X
kjr
kir X k q

kjq qir .
iq jr
ui
uj
q=1
q=1

(8.4)

8. .

157

(8.3) (8.1) :
k

(i j j i )X =

2
X

Rkrij X r .

(8.5)

r=1

X .
, :
(ij j i )Xk =

2
X

Rrkij Xr .

(8.6)

r=1

(8.5) (8.6) X (r, s):


(i j

... ir
j i )Xji11...
js

s
X

r
2
X
X

m=1 vm =1
2
X

n
Rw
jn ij

... vm ... ir
Rivm
Xji11...

js
m ij

(8.7)

... ir
Xji11...
wn ... js .

n=1 wn =1

(8.5), (8.6) (8.7) , Rkrij (8.4).


8.1. Rkrij ,
(8.4), (1, 3),
.
8.1
(5.3). , .
8.1. R ,

Rkrij . R X:
Yijk =

2
X
q=1

Rkqij X q

(8.8)

158

IV. .

(1, 2), R
(1, 3).
- . u1 , u2 u
1 , u
2 .
r ( 1 2). X, ,
u1 , u2 r- ,
.
Yijk :
Yijk

2
X

Rkqij X q = Rkrij .

(8.9)

q=1

X
m =
X

2
X

Tqm X q = Trm ,

q=1

Y
, (8.8):
n
Ypq
=

2
X

n X
m =
R
mpq

m=1

2
X

n T m .
R
mpq r

(8.10)

m=1

Yijk (8.9)
n
Ypq
(8.10), ,
Y u1 , u2 u
1 , u
2:
Yijk =

2 X
2 X
2
X

n=1 p=1 q=1

n
Snk Tip Tjq Ypq
.

(8.11)

8. .

159

(8.9) (8.10) (8.11) :


Rkrij =

2 X
2 X
2 X
2
X

n .
Snk Trm Tip Tjq R
mpq

n=1 m=1 p=1 q=1


(1, 3)
. . 
8.1 8.1.
, (8.6)
(1, 2) X,
R X.
,
(8.4), . :
Rqrij =

2
X

Rkrij gkq .

(8.12)

k=1

(0, 4) (8.12)
R. (8.4)
:
Rkq
ij

2
X

Rkrij g rq .

(8.13)

r=1

. (0, 4) (2, 2)
R. .

160

IV. .

8.2. R, (7.5) (8.4), :


(1) Rkrij = Rkrji ;
(2) Rqrij = Rrqij ;

(3) Rqrij = Rijqr ;

(4) Rkrij + Rkijr + Rkjri = 0.


-.
(8.4). i j (8.4) .
(1)
.
(8.7) :
(ij j i ) gqr =

2
X
k=1


Rkqij gkr + Rkrij gqk .

(8.12) :
(i j j i ) gqr = Rrqij + Rqrij .

(8.14)

(.
(7.1)). (8.14) ,
(2) .

(8.4). (8.4) , i j r i:
Rkrij =

2
2
X
kjr
kir X k q

kjq qir ,
iq jr
ui
uj
q=1
q=1

8. .

Rkijr =
Rkjri =

161

2
2
X
kri kji X k q

krq qji ,
jq ri
uj
ur
q=1
q=1

2
2
X
kij
krj X
k q

kiq qrj .
rq ij
ui
ui
q=1
q=1


. , .
.
, . ,
, Rqrij . q r i j :
Rqrij = Rrqji ,

(8.15)

. (8.15) :
Rqrij = Rqijr Rqjri,
Rrqji = Rrjiq Rriqj .

(8.16)

Rijqr ,
, :
Rijqr = Rjirq .

(8.17)

(8.17) (4) :
Rijqr = Riqrj Rirjq ,

Rjirq = Rjrqi Rjqir .

(8.18)

(8.16) (8.18). , (1)


c .., 1996.
CopyRight

162

IV. .

(2) . (8.15) (8.17) :


2 Rqrij 2 Rijqr = 0.
2 ,
. . 
R, (8.4),
. :
Rrj =

2
X

Rkrkj .

(8.19)

k=1

(8.19) Rrj :
Rrj =

2 X
2
X

g ik Rirkj .

i=1 k=1

g ik 8.2 Rrj :
Rrj = Rjr .

(8.20)

R (0, 2) (8.19)
.
, .
:
2
X
k=1

Rkkrj = 0,

2
X

k=1

Rkrik = Rri .

8. .

163

R :
R=

2 X
2
X

Rrj g rj .

(8.21)

r=1 j=1

R(u1 , u2 ), (8.21),
u1 , u2 .
R (8.13):
R=

2 X
2
X

Rij
ij .

(8.22)

i=1 j=1

(8.22) (8.21).
, (8.21).
Rkr
ij
R .
. , 8.2
. , 8.2
Rkr
ij
. k = r i = j .
21
12
21
12
21
21
12
R12
12 , R12 , R21 R21 , R12 = R21 = R12 = R21 .
(8.22) :
21
12
R = R12
12 + R21 = 2 R12 .

D :
kr
Dij
=


R k r
i j jk ir .
2

164

IV. .

D
12
D12
= R12
12 .
D = R. :
Rkr
ij =


R k r
i j jk ir .
2

(8.23)

r, (8.23) :
Rkrij =


R k
i grj jk gri .
2

(8.24)

(8.24)
. :
Rij =

R
gij .
2

(8.25)

.
. , (7.5), () , :
k Rqrij + i Rqrjk + j Rqrki = 0.

(8.26)

(8.23) .
( 2) 8.2.
.
9. -.


(4.11). - E1 (u1 , u2 ),

9. -.

165

E2 (u1 , u2 ) n(u1 , u2 ).
. , .
. , .

.

f = f (x, y) :
f
= a(x, y),
x

f
= b(x, y).
y

(9.1)

(9.1) y,
x, :
b
a

= 0.
y
x

(9.2)

(9.2) (9.1).
f (x, y), (9.1).
(4.11).
(4.11) :
2

X q
Ek
=
jk Eq + bjk n.
uj
q=1

(9.3)

(9.3) ui
Ek /ui

166

IV. .

n/ui (4.11):
2

Ek
=
ui uj
+

bjk X q
+
jk biq
ui
q=1
qjk

2
X

ui

q=1

2
X
s=1

n+

sjk qis bjk bqi

(9.4)
Eq .

i j (9.4).
, .
(9.4). :
2
X

qjk

2
2
X
qik X s q

sik qjs
jk is
ui
uj
s=1
s=1

k=1


+ bik bqj bjk bqi Eq +
2

bjk X q
bik X q
+

ik bjq
iq
jk
ui
uj
q=1
q=1

Eq +

n = 0.

E1 , E2 n, ,
.
:
qjk
ui

2
2
X
qik X s q
+

sik qjs = bjk bqi bik bqj ,


jk is
uj
s=1
s=1
2

bjk X q
bik X q

b
=

jk biq .
jq
ik
j
ui
u
q=1
q=1

9. -.

167

,
(. (8.4)).
:
Rqkij = bjk bqi bik bqj .

(9.5)

, :
i bjk = j bik .

(9.6)

,
(9.6) .
(9.5) (9.6)
(4.11).
,
-.
(9.5) 16
. , (8.24)
. (9.5)
k. :

R q k
i j jq ik = bqi bkj bqj bki .
2

(9.7)

(9.7)
. (9.7) ,
(9.7) :

bqi bkj bqj bki = B iq jk jq ik .
(9.8)
q = 1, k = 2, i = 1 j = 2 (9.8),
B (9.8) :
B = b11 b22 b12 b21 = det(bki ) = K,

168

IV. .

K (. (5.12)).
,
(9.5)
R = 2 K,

(9.9)

. .

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

1.
.
r(t) - ,
. D , , ,
u1 , u2 . ,
u : D U ,
U R2 . U
, t:


u1 = u1 (t),
u2 = u2 (t)

(. (1.14) ).
u1 -
r = r(u1 , u2),

(1.1)

(1.2)

- .
r(t) = r(u1 (t), u2(t)).

(1.3)

170

V. .

(1.3) t :
(t) =

2
X
i=1

u i Ei (u1 (t), u2 (t)).

(1.4)

(. (1.15)
). (1.4) , .
, .
u i
(1, 0). () . (1.4)
() .

.
, . (2.3) . (1.4)
:
v
Zb u
2 X
2
uX
t
L=
gij u i u j dt.
(1.5)
a

i=1 j=1

(1.5)
. s = s(t)
, , dui = u i dt, :
ds2 =

2 X
2
X

gij dui duj .

(1.6)

i=1 j=1

(1.6)
:

2. . . .

171

ds2
. t = s
,
2 X
2
X

gij u i u j = 1,

(1.7)

i=1 j=1

(. 2
).
2. .

t = s , (1.1)
. (s) (1.4)
s. (1.4)
(3.8) :
k n =

2
X

k=1

u
k E k +

2 X
2
X
i=1 j=1

u i

Ei j
u .
uj

(2.1)

n , n. Ei /uj (4.11) IV. :


k n =
+

2
X

u
k +

k=1
2
2 X
X
i=1 j=1

2 X
2
X

kji u i u j

i=1 j=1
i

bij u u

n.

Ek +

(2.2)

172

V. .

k n (2.2). :
k =

2 X
2
X

bij u i u j .

(2.3)

i=1 j=1

k, , (2.3) ,
. (2.3), (2.2) :
!
2
2 X
2
X
X
k
k i j
k n k n =
u
+
ji u u
Ek .
(2.4)
k=1

i=1 j=1

(2.4) E1 E2 ,
.
. :
2

!
2 X
2
X

X


k i j
k
k =
u
+
ji u u
Ek .
(2.5)


k=1

i=1 j=1

(2.5)
. k 6= 0, (2.5)
n (2.4) :
k n k n = k n .

(2.6)

n (2.6)
.
(2.6) n
n n, , . , n .

2. . . .

173

, E1 E2 n
.
:
n = [ , n].

(2.7)

(2.7) n , .
k n
(2.6).
k n = k n + k n.

(2.8)

(2.8) ,
k n .
k2 = (k )2 + (k )2 .

(2.9)

(2.3)
t = s. :

k =

2 X
2
X

bij u i u j

i=1 j=1

2 X
2
X

(2.10)

gij u i u j

i=1 j=1

(2.10) (2.3)
(1.7).
u i :
dui
dui ds
=
.
dt
ds dt

(2.11)

174

V. .

(2.10)
u i , (2.10)
.
(2.10) ,
.
. gij bij ,
, .
a , .
u1 , u2
a1 , a2 E1 E2 .
:
b(a, a) =

2 X
2
X

bij ai aj .

(2.12)

i=1 j=1

2.1. ,
a , ,
(2.12) .
,
,
.
: K < 0,
: K = 0. , K > 0,
.
2.2. ,

, .
(2.12)

2. . . .

175

:
b( , ) =

2 X
2
X

bij u i u j = 0.

(2.13)

i=1 j=1

(2.13) (2.10) , : k = 0.
K < 0

. , .
u1 , u2,
.
.

. ,
(. (5.14) (5.15) 5 ).
,
.
2.3.
, : k = 0.
= k n (2.8)
:
d
= k n.
ds

(2.14)

,
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

176

V. .

. .
(2.5):
u
k +

2 X
2
X

kji u i u j = 0.

(2.15)

i=1 j=1

(2.15) .
(2.11).
3. .

(2.15) (8.18), . .
: 2
3.
.
.
3.1. , A B ,
, .
, E A B ,
. 3.1 . ,

.
(, x = 0 y = x3 ).
:
: f (x0 + h) = f (x0 ) + O(h2 ).

3. . . .

177

, A B
, () ,
, A B. .
.
3.1 , .
. A B ,
, D
.
(1.1).
:
 1
u = u1 (t, h),
(3.1)
u2 = u2 (t, h).
h t , ,
. h, ,
. (3.1) , h
.
(3.1) ,
.
a t [0, a].
uk (0, h) = uk (0, 0),

uk (a, h) = uk (a, 0).

(3.2)

(3.2) , h
A B .

178

V. .

ui (t, h) t. , ,
u i = ui/t
.
h = 0
h = 0 t
. (3.1) h = 0 (1.7) (2.15) . h 6= 0
t
,
.

h. (1.5):
v
Za u
2 X
2
uX
L(h) = t
gij u i u j dt.
0

(3.3)

i=1 j=1

h = 0 L(0) = a. 3.1
:
L(h) = a + O(h2 ) , :
dL(h)
dh

= 0.

(3.4)

h=0

- 3.1. (3.4) (3.3) .


(t, h)
(3.3). (3.3) :
dL(h)
=
dh

Za
0

/h
dt.
2

(3.5)

3. . . .

179

, (3.5):
!
2 X
2
2 X
2 X
2
X
X

gij uk i j

i j
=
gij u u
=
u u +
h
h i=1 j=1
uk h
i=1 j=1
k=1

2 X
2 X
2
X
k=1 i=1 j=1

2 X
2 X
2
X

gij

X X X gij uk
(u i u j ) u k
=
u i u j +
u k
h
uk h
i=1 j=1 k=1

gij ki u j

k=1 i=1 j=1

u k X X X
u k
+
gij u i kj
.
h
h
k=1 i=1 j=1

ki kj k
. , gij
:
2
2
2
2 X
2
X
X X X gij uk i j
j
i u
=
u

+
2
g
u

.
ij
h
uk h
h
i=1 j=1
i=1 j=1
k=1

(3.5) :
a

2 X
2 X
2 Z
X
gij u i u j uk

I1 =
dt,
uk 2 h
i=1 j=1 k=1

(3.6)

I2 =

2 X
2 Za
X
i=1 j=1 0

gik u i u k

dt.
h

(3.7)

(3.7) (3.1):
u k
2 uk
=
.
h
t h

180

V. .

, t h (3.7),
:
Za
0

gik u i u k
gik u i uk

dt =
h
h

Za
0

gik u i

uk
dt.
h

(3.2) h.
, uk /h t.
(3.7) :
a



2 X
2 Z
X
gik u i uk

I2 =
dt.
t
h

(3.8)

i=1 k=1 0

I1 I2 (3.6) (3.8). dL/dh (3.5) :



! k
2
2 Za
2
X
dL(h) X X
gij u i u j
gik u i
u

=
dt.
dh
uk 2 t
h

i=1 k=1
j=1
0

h
uk /h. h = 0
uk =

uk
h

(3.9)

h=0

uk = uk (t) (3.9) . , (
).

3. . . .

181

h = 0 dL/dh. (t, 0) = 1.
(1.7) , t
.
!
2 X
2 Za
2
X
X
dL(h)
gij u i u j
d(gik u i )
=

uk dt.
dh h=0
uk 2
dt
i=1 k=1 0

j=1

h
, t d/dt.

, t .
i k
uk , Uk :
!
2
2
X
X
d(gik u i )
gij u i u j
Uk =

=
uk 2
dt
i=1
j=1
(3.10)

2 X
2 
2
X
X
1 gij
gik
i j
i
=

u u
gik u
.
2 uk
uj
i=1 j=1
i=1
u i u j
(3.10) . :
Uk =


2 X
2
X
1 gij
i=1 j=1

uk

gik
gjk

j
u
ui

u u

2
X

gik u
i .

i=1

k Uk , U q , :
Uq =

2
X
k=1

g qk Uk .

182

V. .

:


2 X
2 X
2
X
g qk gkj
gik
gij
q
q
U = u
+
+

u i u j .
i
j
k
2
u
u
u
i=1 j=1
k=1

(7.5) ,
. :
q

U = u
+

2 X
2
X

qij u i u j .

(3.11)

i=1 j=1

(3.11) (2.15), U q = 0. Uk
U q
Uk =

2
X

gkq U q .

q=1

Uk . (3.4), , ,
. . 
4.
.
E (8.18)
.
(8.6) :
a i +

2 X
2
X

ijk u j ak = 0.

(4.1)

j=1 k=1

(4.1) .
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

4. . . .

183


u1 , u2
(1.1). a
t = 0. a : a1 , a2
. (4.1),
t = 0:
a1 (t)

= a1 ,

a2 (t)

t=0

= a2 .

(4.2)

t=0

(4.2) a1 (t) a2 (t),


a(t) . a .

a () E, .
:
a=

2
X
i=1

ai E i .

(4.3)

(4.3) t, , a1 a2
t (4.1):
2

XX
Ei j
da X i
=
a Ei +
ai
u .
dt
uj
i=1

(4.4)

i=1 j=1

Ei /uj
(. (4.11) ).
!
!
2
2
2
2 X
2
X
da X i X X i j k
j k
=
a +
jk u a Ei +
bjk u a n.
dt
i=1
j=1
j=1
k=1

k=1

184

V. .

, ai (t)
(4.1), Ei :
!
2 X
2
X
da
j k
=
bjk u a n.
(4.5)
dt
j=1 k=1

n (4.5) .
a :
da
= b( , a) n.
dt

(4.6)

(4.6)
.

(r, s).
t
(. (8.10) ).
:
ir
dAij11...
... js
+
dt
r X
2 X
2
X
vm ... ir
+
iqmvm u q Aij11...

... js

ir
t Aij11...
... js =

m=1 q=1 vm =1

s X
2 X
2
X

(4.7)

ir
n
w
q Aij11...
q jn u
... wn ... js .

n=1 q=1 wn =1

(4.7) A :
t A = 0.

(4.8)

4. . . .

185

(4.8) 8.2 .
4.1.
A(t) (r, s), ir
, Bji11 ...
... js =
ir
t Aij11...
... js , (4.7), B(t) = t A (r, s),
A(t).
8.2 .
.
t , (4.7), ,
X (. (6.10) 6.2 ).
4.2. t
:
(1) t (A + B) = t A + tB;
(2) t (A B) = t A B + A t B,
(3) t (A) = (t A);
-.

. C = A + B.
C(t) :
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
... ir
Cji11...
js = Aj1 ... js + Bj1 ... js .
... ir
Cji11...
js (4.7) -

186

V. .

:
... ir
i1 ... ir
i1 ... ir
t Cji11...
js = t Aj1 ... js + t Bj1 ... js .

.
(2). C = A B.
C :
i ... i

... i

ir
r+1
r+p
r+p
Cj11... js+q
= Aij11...
... js Bjs+1 ... js+q .

(4.9)

i ... i

r+p
Cj11... js+q
(4.9) (4.8)
.
t C :

 ir+1 ... ir+p


i ... ir+p
... ir
tCj11... js+q
= dAji11...
js /dt Bjs+1 ... js+q +
+


ir+1 ... ir+p
... ir
+ Aji11...
js dBjs+1 ... js+q /dt +

r X
2 X
2
X

... i

vm ... ir
r+1
r+p
ivmm u q Aji11...
Bjs+1
... js
... js+q +

m=1 q=1 vm =1

r+p
2 X
2
X
X

... v ... ir+p

... ir im
r+1
m
q Bjs+1
Aji11...
j s vm u
... js+q

m=r+1 q=1 vm =1

s X
2 X
2
X

n=1 q=1 wn =1

... i

ir
r+1
r+p
wjnn u q Aij11...
... wn ... js Bjs+1 ... js+q

s+q
2 X
2
X
X

... i

r+1
r+p
... ir wn q
Bjs+1
Aji11...
... wn ... js+q .
j s jn u

n=s+1 q=1 wn =1

, -

4. . . .

187

:

ir+1 ... ir+p 
ir
i1 ... ir
t Aij11...
... js Bjs+1 ... js+q = t Aj1 ... js
(4.10)
ir+1 ... ir+p
ir+1 ... ir+p 
i1 ... ir
Bjs+1 ... js+q + Aj1 ... js t Bjs+1 ... js+q .

, (4.10) .
A(t) B(t), :
... ir
Bji11 ...
js

2
X

i ... i

k i ... i

p
r
Aj11 ... jp1
.
q1 k jq ... js

(4.11)

k=1

ir
(4.11) (4.7). t Bji11 ...
... js :
ir
t Bji11 ...
... js

i ... i
k ip ... ir
2
X
dAj11 ... jp1
q1 k jq ... js

dt

k=1

r X
2 X
2 X
2
X

m=1 k=1 q=1 vm =1

s X
2 X
2 X
2
X

vm ... k ... ir
iqmvm u q Aji11...
... jq1 k jq ... js
i ... i

(4.12)

k i ... i

p
r
n
w
q Aj11 ... wp1
.
q jn u
n ... k ... js

n=1 k=1 q=1 wn =1

(4.12) vm
k, . wn .
, , vm wn
k. (4.7) :
2 X
2 X
2
X

i ... i

v i ... i

p
r
kq v u q Aj11 ... jp1
,
q1 k jq ... js

(4.13)

k=1 q=1 v=1

2 X
2 X
2
X

k=1 q=1 w=1

i ... i

k i ... i

p
r
w
q Aj11 ... jp1
.
qk u
q1 w jq ... js

(4.14)

188

V. .

, (4.13) (4.14) . k v w k
(4.14). (4.13) (4.14) (4.12)
. (4.12) :
ir
js+1 Bji11 ...
... js

2
X

k=1

i ... i

k i ... i

p
r
js+1 Aj11 ... jp1
.
q1 k jq ... js

(4.15)

(4.15) , . 

t t
( . 2 ). t t
t A =

dt(t)
tA
dt

(4.16)

A . (4.7)
. (3) X 6.2
.
A (r, s) . ,
(r, s).
, ,
A
A(t) . :
ir
i1 ... ir
1
2
Aji11...
... js (t) = Aj1 ... js (u (t), u (t)).

(4.17)

A(t) A .

4. . . .

189

, (4.17),
:
ir
2
ir
X
dAij11...
Aij11...
... js
... js q
=
u .
dt
uq
q=1

(4.18)

(4.18) (4.7)
uq q.
:
ir
t Aij11...
... js =

2
X
q=1

ir
u q q Aij11...
... js .

(4.19)

(4.19) ,
A t
A
.
A = 0. (4.19) A
, (4.8).
A
,
.
4.1. A , : A = 0.


:

g, g
() .
.
c .., 1996.
CopyRight

190

V. .

a b , .
:
(a | b) =

2 X
2
X

gij ai bj .

i=1 j=1

a b , (4.8) a b .
a(t) b(t) .
(t), :
(t) = (a(t) | b(t)) =

2 X
2
X

gij (t) ai (t) bj (t).

(4.20)

i=1 j=1

(4.7) t c .
2

XX

d
= t =
t gij ai bj + gij t ai bj + gij ai t bj .
dt
i=1 j=1
(2) (3) 4.2.
tai = 0 t bj = 0 , - a(t)
b(t)
a b. , t gij = 0
. (t) (4.20)
d/dt = 0 (t) = (a | b) = const.
.
4.3. .

5. .

191

,

.
g g
, (7.9) :
t
t

2
X

k ...
gik A...
... ...

...
g ik A...
... k ...

k=1

2
X

k=1

2
X
k=1

2
X
k=1

k ...
gik t A...
... ... ,

(4.21)

...
g ik tA...
... k ... .

(4.21), , .
4.4. .
5. .
.
R2 . u1 , u2. u1 , u2
, .
() ,
.

.


: P (u1 , u2 ) Q(u1 , u2 ). , -

192

V. .


:

I
ZZ 

Q
P
1
2
P du + Q du =

du1 du2 .
(5.1)
u1
u2

(5.1) (. [2]). (5.1) .


.
u1 , u2 -
.
.
,

,
.
(5.1).
. P v1 , Q v2 .
(5.1) :
I=

I X
2

vi (u1 , u2 ) dui.

(5.2)

i=1

(5.2)
, (1.1).
:
I=

Zb

2
X
i=1

vi u i

dt.

(5.3)

5. .

193

, [a, b] ,
(5.2).
,
5.1. a < b t a b ,
,
. t = (t) (5.3)
, ,
.
. u i (5.3)
:
u i =

j=1

j=1

X
dui X ui d
uj
=
=
Sji u
j .
j
dt
u
dt

(5.4)

(5.4) (5.3)
I:
I=

Zb

2
X
j=1

2
X

Sji

vi

i=1

dt.

(5.5)

(5.3) u
1 , u
2 .
i
i
(5.3) u u
vi vi :
I =

Zb

2
X
i=1

vi u

dt.

(5.6)

(5.5) (5.6) , . ,

194

V. .

( ),
vi vi
:
vj =

2
X

Sji

vi =

vi ,

i=1

2
X

Tij vj .

i=1

.
, (5.2)
.
(5.1). ,
ZZ
I=
F du1 du2 .
(5.7)

(5.7). , (. [2])
ZZ
ZZ
1
2
F du du =
F | det J| d
u1 d
u2 ,
(5.8)

J , :
1

u
u1


u
1 u
2

.
J =
(5.9)
2
2
u
u


1

u

u
2

(5.9) S (.

5. .

195

(2.7) ). F :
F = | det S| F.

(5.10)

F . ,
(5.10) , . ,
(5.7)
I=

ZZ p

det g f du1 du2 ,

(5.11)

det g . (5.11) f

. det g = (det T )2 det g


.
(5.1), (5.11).
P = v1 Q = v2 , , v1 v2
.
Q
P
v2
v1

.
1
2
1
u
u
u
u2

(5.12)

(5.12)
dij (. (3.6) ):
2

XX
X
v2
v1
vj
dij

=
=
1
2
i
u
u
u
ui
i=1 j=1

i=1

2
X
j=1

dij vj

(5.13)

196

V. .

, dij
(. (3.7)
).
:

ij

2 X
2
X

ip

g g

jq

2 X
2
X

pq =

p=1 q=1

p=1 q=1

det g g ip g jq dpq .

(3.7)
ij :
p
ij = D det g1 dij .
(5.14)

(5.14) , dij (5.13) :


!
2
2
X
X
p
v1

v2

=
D det g ij vj .
i
u1
u2
u
i=1
j=1
:
i

y =

2
X

ij vj .

(5.15)

j=1

(5.13) :
2

v2
v1

=
D
1
2
u
u
i=1

= D

det g

2
X
i=1

det g y i
=
ui
 !
y
1 ln det g i
+
y .
ui
2
ui

c .., 1996.
CopyRight

(5.16)

5. .

197

7.1 . ,
, , . (7.12) 7.2 .
:

2 X
2
2
X
X
ln det g
pq gpq
=
g
=
2 qiq .
i
i
u
u
p=1 q=1
q=1

(5.17)

(5.17) (5.16) :
2
X
p
v2
v1

det
g
D
u1
u2
i=1

!
2
y i X q i
+
y .
ui q=1 qi


y:
2
X
p
v2
v1

det
g
i y i .
D
u1
u2

(5.18)

i=1

(5.18),
(5.15) q ij = 0 :
I X
2

i=1

vi dui = D

ZZ X
2 X
2

i=1 j=1

ij i vj

p
det g du1 du2 .

(5.19)

D (5.19). ,
,

198

V. .

1 , u
2.
u1 , u2 u
, u
1 = u1 u
2 = u2 ,
, 5.1.
, ,
. D (5.19) .


: ,
n
.
n
D .
6. -.

.
(4.6) , ()
:

, . , ,
,
,
(. 4.3).
,
.
?
.
. ,

6. -.

199

D , (. (3.10) ).
, D n (.
(4.3) ).
6.1. (1, 1)
:
ji

2
X

jk g ki,

(6.1)

k=1

, /2 = 90 n.
-. a n a. ,
b = (a), a /2 = 90 n,
:
b = (a) = [n, a].

(6.2)

(6.2)
n, (4.3) .
a E1 , E2 :
a = a 1 E1 + a2 E2 .

(6.3)

b (6.2) :
b=

2
X
j=1

[[E1 , E2 ], Ej ] j
a .
|[E1 , E2 ]|

(6.4)

200

V. .

(6.4) (. [4]):


(E1 | E1 ) (E1 | E2 )
2
= det g.
|[E1 , E2 ]| = det
(E2 | E1 ) (E2 | E2 )

(6.4)
:
[[E1 , E2 ], Ej ] = E2 (E1 | Ej ) E1 (Ej | E2 ).
(6.4) :
b=

2
X
j=1

g1j E2 g2j E1 j

a .
det g

(6.5)

(5.14)
(6.5) :
!
2
2 X
2
X
X
b=
ki gkj aj Ei .
i=1

j=1 k=1

(6.1)
, b
a. . 
g.
, = 0.
:

a . a(t) , :

6. -.

201

t a = 0 (. (4.8)). b(t)
:
b(t) = (a(t)).

(6.6)

t (b) = t (a) + (t a) = 0. (6.6)


.
(2) (3)
4.2. , - a(t) b(t)
. :
(a) = b,

(b) = a.

(6.7)

a(t) b(t) a(0) b(0) .



x . x(u1 , u2)
,
, x x/|x|. x
|x| = 1.
a b
x = cos() a + sin() b.

(6.8)

(t) a
x, a x .
.
(6.8) t, , a b
:
t x = ( sin() a + cos() b) .

(6.9)

202

V. .

, t
t. , t = .

(6.8) (6.7):
(x) = cos() b sin() a.

(6.10)

(x) (6.10) t x
(6.9). a b
. :
((x) | tx) = (cos2 () + sin2 ()) = .

(6.11)

(6.11) x.
- x(t) x , t x
x
(. (4.19)).
=

2 X
2 X
2
X
q=1 i=1 j=1


xi ij q xj u q .

(6.12)

(6.12) (6.11)
(6.1) .
x .
x ,
a . .
x . ,

,
.
, , x.

6. -.

203

. [0, 1] t . x(0) x(1)


u1 (0), u2(0):
x(0) = x(1) = x(u1(0), u2(0)).
x(t), a(t) . a(0) a(1)
.
E.
(1) (0) , a .
x a a x
(6.8). , , x ,

4

= (0) (1) =

Z1

dt.

,
(6.12),
:
!
Z1 X
2 X
2 X
2
 q
i
j
4 =
x ij q x u
dt.
(6.13)
q=1 i=1 j=1

(6.13) (5.3)
:
4

I X
2 X
2 X
2

q=1 i=1 j=1

c .., 1996.
CopyRight


xi ij q xj duq .

(6.14)

204

V. .

.
, (5.19):
4

ZZ X
2 X
2 X
2 X
2

i=1 j=1 p=1 q=1

ij i xp pq j xq

p

det g du1 du2 .


, D :
ZZ X
2 X
2 X
2 X
2
4 =
xp ij pq i j xq +

i=1 j=1 p=1 q=1

+ i xp ij pq j xq

p

det g du1 du2 .

(6.15)

, i xp ij pq j xq
(6.15) .
, :
ij pq = dij dpq = pi qj qi pj .

(6.16)

(6.16) (8.23)
. dij dpq .
x
y = (x). x y . :
2
X

xq xq = 1,

xi =

q=1

2
X
q=1

2
X

gik xk ,

yi =

k=1

k xq xq = 0,

yq =

2
X
p=1

2
X

gik y k ,

(6.17)

ji xj .

(6.18)

k=1

pq xp ,

yi =

2
X
j=1

6. -.

205

(6.17) , |x| = 1, xi yi .
(6.18)
(6.17), (6.18) y = (x).
(6.16) k xq xj xp
q, p j. (6.17) (6.18):
k x i =

2
X
q=1

y q k x q

y i = zk y i .

(6.19)

(6.19), i xp = zi y p
j xq = zj y q (6.15), .
(6.16) (6.15) 4 :
4

ZZ X
2 X
2

i=1 j=1

x i i j x j j i x j

p

det g du1 du2 .

x (8.5) .
, (8.24) (9.9) :
4

ZZ X
2 X
2

i=1 j=1

K gij xi xj

p

det g du1 du2 .

, x . i j
:
ZZ
p
4 =
K det g du1 du2 .
(6.20)

206

V. .

, , (.
6.1). , .
(5.1)
,
(6.20)
.

a .
. (t)
.

t = s, .
41 , 42 , . . . , 4n (. 6.1).
(t) (t) a(t).
a ,
. (t)
, , .
41 , 42 , . . . , 4n .
(t) .
(t) ,

6. -.

207

(6.8) (6.9), :
= (( ) | t ).

(6.21)

t (. . E1 , E2 ):
t k = u
k +

2 X
2
X

kji u i u j .

(6.22)

i=1 j=1

, t = s , (6.22) (2.5)
(2.4). :
t = k n k n = k n .

(6.23)

n ,
.
( ) (6.21). , n
( ) . (t) , :
= (( ) | n) = 1.

(6.24)

(6.23) (6.24) :
= k .

(6.25)

(t) . (6.25)
:
4

k ds +

n
X
i=1

4i .

(6.26)

208

V. .

4 x a
, 4 a .
4 + 4
x . ,
.
x. , 4 + 4
2 = 360:
4

+ 4 = 2 r.

(6.27)

r (6.27) .
: 6.1 ,
.
(6.27) ,
. (6.27) . ,

, 2. r = 1.
(6.20) (6.26) (6.27):
ZZ

det g du du +
1

k ds +

n
X

4i

= 2.

(6.28)

i=1

(6.28) , -.
6.2. 2 : (
) .

6. -.

209

, . (6.28) ,
.
:
1 + 2 + 3 = + K S,
K S
.
. , ,
, .
. .

1. . . , , , 1996; . math.HO/0405323 http://arXiv.org


r-sharipov/r4-b2.htm GeoCities.
2. . . , . 1
. 2, , , 1985.
3. . . , ,
, 1977.
4. . . , , , 1985.

1 .

5. . .
, , ,
1997; . physics/0311011
http://arXiv.org r-sharipov/r4-b5.htm GeoCities.
6. . . , - math.HO/0403252
http://arXiv.org, 2004; . r-sharipov/r4-b6.htm
GeoCities.

[5] [6] 2004 .

c .., 1996.
CopyRight


http://www.geocities.com/r-sharipov

0081 1.04.1993

21.11.96. 6084/16. 1. .
. . . . 11,7. .-. . 10,7. 100.
505.
- ,
, 450074, , . , 32.

Оценить