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ISBN 978-5-7422-2982-7

. ., 2010
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, 2010


, ........................................................................ 5
............................................................................................................................... 6
1. ...................................................................... 10
1.1. ..................................................................................... 10
1.2. .......................................................................................... 13
1.3. ........................................................................ 17
1.4. ................................................... 19
1.5. ................................. 20
1.6. ............................................................................ 24
1.7. ......................................................... 25
2. .............................................. 27
2.1. Know-Net .............................................................................................. 27
2.2. ........................................................ 31
2.3. CommonKADS ..................................................................................... 35
2.4. DECOR.................................................................................................. 40
2.5. .......................................................................................... 42
2.6. On-To-Knowledge ................................................................................. 46
3. . 50
3.1. ....................................................................................... 50
3.2. ................................................................... 55
3.3. ............................................... 56
3.4. .................................................................................................... 61
3.5. ............................................................................................... 69
3.6. - ........................................... 79
4. ............... 80
4.1. : ................................. 80
4.2. .................................................................... 81
4.3. ............................................................................. 86
4.4. ........................................................................................ 89
4.5. ......................................................................... 92
4.6. ................................................................................... 94
4.7. ......................................... 95
4.8. ....... 96
5. ....................................................................... 99
5.1. .................................................................................................. 99
5.2. ................................................... 115
5.3. .................................... 118
5.4. ..................................................................................................... 121
6. ......................................................... 129
6.1. .................................................................. 130
6.2. .......................................... 132
6.3. .................................................................................................... 138
6.4. ................................................................................................... 141
6.5. .............................................. 142
6.6. ............................................................... 143

7. ............................................................................................... 152
7.1. ........................................................................................ 152
7.2. ............................................................................................................... 161
7.3. - .............................................................. 166
7.4. - .......................... 180
7.5. .................................... 186
7.6. / ( ) .................... 198
7.7. , , ....................................... 204
8. ......................................................................................... 206
8.1. () () ... 206
8.2. ........................................................... 213
8.3. ................................................... 216
8.4. ................................................................................ 222
8.5. ................................. 224
8.6. ............................................................ 228
8.7. ............................................................................................ 232
9. ................ 233
9.1. ................................................................................... 233
9.2. .................................................................... 241
9.3. .................................................... 247
10. ...... 257
10.1. ..................... 257
10.2. ................... 272
10.3. ................. 274
10.4. ......... 277
11. ................ 282
11.1. IBS...................................................................................... 282
11.2. (
) ..................................................................................... 290
11.3. ................... 296
11.4. .................................................................. 304
11.5.
....................................... 307
12.
............................................................................................. 312
12.1. ACTIVE ....................................................................................................... 313
12.2. NEPOMUK .................................................................................................. 317
12.3. OrganiK........................................................................................................ 325
12.4. X-Media ....................................................................................................... 327
12.5. Mymory........................................................................................................ 331
12.6. NEON .......................................................................................................... 333
12.7. KnowledgeWeb............................................................................................ 334
12.8. SEKT (Semantically-enabled Knowledge Technologies) ........................... 334
.................................................................................................................... 336
................................................................................. 339
........................................................................................................................ 340

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// Proceedings of the IJCAI-99 workshop on Ontologies and Problem-SolvingMethods
(KRR5) Stockholm, Sweden, August 2, 1999.
6
Fensel D. Ontologies: a silver bullet for Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce.
Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2001.
7
Berners-Lee T., Hendler J., Lassila O. The Semantic Web // Scientific American, May 17,
2001. ( http://ezolin.pisem.net/logic/semantic_web_rus.html)

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2-5, Bangkok, Thailand, 2008. P. 524-539.

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1. .
, .
. .
() .

208

. 8.2.

209

2. .
, ,
.
3. .
.
( )
,
. ,
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.
,
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:
; ; ,
; ,
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.

210

RSS
RSS XML-,
, , . .
, RSS,
,
-.
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Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.9x) ;
RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 1.0)
;
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.
RSS 2.0
, , .
- RSS RSS-, RSS-
RSS-.
, RSS-, Safari, Maxthon,
Miranda, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird, Opera, Opera mini, Windows
Internet Explorer ( 7- ), Google Chrome. ,

(RSS-),
RSS-.
-,
RSS-, . , Google Reader,
Bloglines.
(Smart pull)
(Real push)
Smart-pull
,
(offline ).
.
Real-push.
, ,
,

211

. Real-push
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
.
(BackWeb, Marimba .)
push-
(B2C, B2B,
, , ,
,
. .).
8.2
(pull, )
(push, )

()

()
:

212


()

()

,
,
,
E-mail
( )

.
1. .
,
, .
2. , . .
, , ,
. .,
.

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.
3. .
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(. 8.2).
8.2.

,
- .
- ,

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. -
. ,
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213

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-. ,
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214

,

,
.
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,
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, .
,
, ; ,
, .

.
,
, ,
, , ,
. ,

.
.
,
(. 8.3).

. 8.3.

215

8.3.
A.
/ Augmenting Keyword Search with Ontology

( ) .
WordNet
(http://wordnet.princeton.edu).
:
/,
, ,
,
.


.
.
RDF , RDF-,
.
, , ,
. .
CIRI
.
,
,
.
,
.
. ()

() , .
, Ontogator41, OntoViews 42.
Hyvnen E., Saarela S., Viljanen K. Ontogator: Combining view- and ontology-based
search with semantic browsing // In Proc. XMLFinland 03, Oct. 2003.
41

216

() (views)
, . . 8.4, 8.5.

. 8.4.

Mkel E., Hyvnen E., Saarela S., Viljanen K. OntoViews - a tool for creating semantic
web portals // In Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Semantic Web, Springer Verlag, 2004.
42

217

. 8.5.

(
) ( , ), . . 8.6.

. 8.6.

218

Ontogator-
(, )
() .
,

() .

Longwell , Simile
43.
() ,

- ,
.
C. (Native Ontology-based Search)
:
(
).
, ,
.
SHOE44
,
. ,
.

. , :
,
.
SEAL 45.

http://simile.mit.edu/wiki/Longwell
Heflin J., Hendler J. Searching the web with SHOE, In Papers from the AAAI Workshop,
pp. 35-40, 2000.
45
Maedche A., Staab S., Studer R., Sure Y., Volz R. SEAL Tying Up Information
Integration and Web Site Management by Ontologies // IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin 25
(1), 2002. P. 10-17.
43

44

219

OntoLoger 46
.
, ,
.
. , OntoLoger
.
Knowledge Sifter
.
(ontology agent),
.
Haystack ,
.
,
, ,
.
, -
, ,
.


,
.

. ,
,
IEEE 2003 2005 ,
2009 , :
, IEEE, ,
,
;
, ,
.

Stojanovic N., Gonzalez J., Stojanovic L. Ontologer A system for usage-driven
management of ontology-based information portals. In Proc. L-CAP 03 Conf., 2003.
46

220

(, SPARQL), ,
.

/.
, Knowledge Sifter 47
,
(GRQL).
, .

/. - ,
() ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,

/. ,
/. ,
,
,
. ,
().

, , (. 8.7).

RQL-
Select x2 from
{x1}{x2;
},
{x2}

. 8.7.

47

Kerschberg L., Chowdhury M., Damiano A., et al., Knowledge Sifter: Ontology-Driven
Search over Heterogeneous Databases. In Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Scientific and Statistical DB
Management, 2004.

221


() ,
.


(Query ambiguity discovery)
(Query refinement).
8.3

Ontogator
+
+
+
OntoLoger
+
+
+
Knowledge
+
+
Sifter
OntoViews
+
+
+
+
+
OntoDoc
+
+
+
Ontobroker
+
+
+
SHOE
+
+
SEAL
+
+
Haystack
+
+
+
SemanticSearch
+
+
8.4.

view (, ontology view,
document-oriented views of knowledge bases).
segments,
modules, extracts, partitions, islands, packages //
.
222

(/views,
/segments, /modules, /extracts,
/partitions, /islands, / packages)
(Acker, 1994; Volz, 2003; Samson, 2005; Seidenberg, 2006;
Dellschaft, 2006), . . 8.8.

. 8.8.

/
,
.

.
() /
3 48:
1. , ,
2. ,
3. (traversal).
Seidenberg J. and Rector A. Web Ontology Segmentation: Analysis, Classification and Use
// WWW 2006, May 23-26, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2006.
48

223

8.5.


,
.
10 , -
,
-
- . ,
:
,
,
(),
,

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,

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,
(/-) /.
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,
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,

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.
, -
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.
224

, ,
, :
1. , ;
2. ;
3. .

49:
1.
;
2.
;
3. ()
.

. 8.9:

. 8.9.
Abecker A., Bernardi A., Hinkelmann K., Kuhn O., Sintek M. Toward a Technology for
Organizational Memories IEEE Intelligent Systems. 1998. 3, 40-48.
49

225



:

: ?, :
, : , : , , :
. , MS Word, : E:\home\experiences\ds9-1299pn.doc, : , : .

: 20 SUN Ultra, : Borg Inc., :


-

- -:
, 99, (activity)-:
, -:


.
,


,
50 (. 8.10).


-.
:
1. ,
2. , .

50

Oleg Rostanin; Harald Holz; T. Suzuki; K. Maeda; Andreas Dengel; K. Kanasaki TaskBased Process Know-How Reuse and Proactive Information Delivery in TaskNavigator. In:
Proceedings CIKM. P. 521-533, 11/2006.

226

. 8.10. () Prepare visit


of Ricoh CEO Task Navigator

227

() -
-, ,
,
()
. ,
,
, .

, , , , ,
,
.
8.6.


, .
,
,
2007 51,

:
(Indented List):
, Protege, OntoEdit, Kaon
,
Windows.
- (Nodelink and Tree):
,
- -
.

.
OntoViz, IzaVis (. 8.11), SpaceTree, OntoSphere (. 8.12).
51

Katifori A., Halatsis C., Lepouras G., Vassilakis C., Giannopoulou E. Ontology
visualization methods a survey. ACM Comput. Surv. 39(4), 2007.

228

. 8.11. IzaVis

. 8.12. OntoSphere (2 )

(Zoomable):

( , ).
(zoom-in),
( ).
: Grokker (. 8.13),
Jambalaya, CropCircles.
(Space-filling):


229

, , . .
: TreeMaps, Information Slices.
+ (Focus + Context):
(distorting)
().
,
.
- .

: , .
. 8.13. ontology visualization
( )

230

:
3D Hyperbolyc Tree (. 8.15).

Touchgraph

TGVizTab

(. 8.14),

. 8.14. TGVizTab

. 8.15. 3d-

231

(3D Information
Landscapes).
,
,
,
,
(
1000 ).
8.7.


(. 8.4).
8.4

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+ +/

232

9.

9.1.
,
, ,
.
. ,
, nline-,
(. collaborative software,
groupware, workgroup support systems, group support systems).
(
, , IP-, -)
, ,
wiki, . (. 9.1).
, ,
.
.
9.1


()


()

,
, on-line

E-mail, ,
,
wiki

,
on-line- .
233

Groupware. On-line , ,
.
on-line- .

on-line-
.
,
.

.
,
.
on-line-
,
,
(,
Second Life). online- ,

: on-line-
.

:
.
, , , ,
,
.
, , ,
, .

.

. Word- Excel-
, .

234

,
,
.
(, ,
), ,

. .
-
(, Google Docs, Zoho Writer) (. 9.1).
,

(. 6).

. 9.1.

,
.
.
235

,
,
.

.
, .
,
,
.
:
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236

: (. 9.2); ,
; ,
.

. 9.2.

,

.
.

Swiss Life (-SL),
2002 .
Swiss Life Group
.

237

,
, , . Swiss Life
.
:
, ,
, ,
.
: ,
; , ,
; ;
;
.

.

.
: ,
, , .
: ,
, , .
-SL (. 9.3):
, OntoEdit
,
Mind Manager, ;
Sesame RDF/RDFS, RDFS,
RDF facts, RDF Annotations
QuizRDF: .
-SL (700 )
, c , ,
(180 ), (130 ).
.
,
, .

238

. 9.3. -SL


,
:
(Capability
Modelling and Knowledge Management, Stader J., Macintosh A., Artificial
Intelligence Applications Institute, Division of Informatics, The University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland).
: ,
.
.
() .
, ,

239

workflow ,

.



.

(Integrated Processes and Tools for Personnel Development /Ernst
Biesalski, Andreas Abecker).
:
,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, /
(
, , ).
:
;
/ ;
(
/ ,
);
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.


.
.

(. 4.4).

240

9.2.


,
,
.
,
, .
.
, 2005 .
Wikipedia
,
. ,

. 1954
.
30-
, ,
,
. 70-
,

(social network analysis, SNA).
,
,
( ,
. .),
. ,

(. 9.4), , ,
, ,
, . .

241


( 25 150 ),
(,
, ,
, - ).

. 9.4.

,
. ,
, .
.

(, . 9.4). ,
,
,
.

,
, .
,
, , ,

.

,
242

.
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
. , ,
, (,
,
).

,
.
. 9.4
.
,
. .

. , ,
,
, ,
.
(
, ,
, . .)
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
, ,

243

.

. , IBM
,


(. 9.5). , (),
,

.
() .
,

.

. 9.5.

244


, , , ,
. Web
,
.
,
(Facebook, , , LinkedIn . .).

. IBM, IBM Lotus Connections.
IBM Lotus Connections ,
,
, ,
, , .
IBM Web 2.0
- .
Lotus Connections: (Profiles), (Blogs),
(Communities), (Dogear),
(Activities), (The homepage).
Web-
, IBM Lotus Notes, IBM Lotus Sametime,
IBM WebSphere Portal Microsoft Office.
(Profiles)
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,

, ,

,
,
, ,
.
245


IBM Tivoli Directory Integrator.

.
Social Network Fragments, MIT Media Lab, InFlow,
Orgnet.com, ArnetMiner (. 9.6) Ontos
(. 9.7).

,

.
,
,
?

. 9.6. Arnetminer

246

. 9.7. Ontos

9.3.
,
, , ;
". 52, ,
.
().
.
.
, , ,
.
- , , ,
, , ,
- , , .
52

Wenger E. Communities of practice learning as a social system // The Systems Thinker,


Vol. 9, No. 5. 1998.

247

,
,
.
.
. .
. .
,
,
,
, .
, .
.

.
, , , ,
.
, .
,
.

,
(. 9.8).

. 9.8. -

248


: 1. , 2. , 3.
, 4. , 5. .
53, . . 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4
9.5.
9.1


: , ,

9.2







.
Gongla P., Rizzuto C. R. Evolving communities of practice: IBM Global Services
experience // IBM Systems Journal, vol. 40, NO. 4, 2001.
53

249

. 9.2

9.3

250

. 9.3



, ,
/

9.4

,

,

,
,
,

,

251

9.5

, ,
, , .


.
.

.
,



.
IBM
Rational
,
IBM Rational .
.
, .
. 9.9. - IBM Rational.

. :

, -,
Lotus Quickr IBM Rational Team Concert (
IBM Rational Jazz).

- IBM
Forums.

IBM Lotus Sametime IBM


Lotus Sametime Unyte.

,
,

252

RSS- .

, IBM Learner
Portal.

, , ,
( IBM
Rational Asset Manager).

. 9.9. IBM Rational


,

(. 9.10).

253

. 9.10. KnowledgeWeb
( )

,
. 9.11.
,
, , .

254

. 9.11.

(
) 54 (. 9.12).
( )
,


,
, .

54

.., .., .. :
OWL // :
(. . . ) ., 2005. . 155182.

255

. 9.12.

256

10.

10.1.

().
,
. ,
,
, (CRM), (CAD),
(ERP, BPM). .

Gartner Group (http://gartner.com/).
, Gartner,
:
. (Information Access
Technology).
.

(Collaboration and Social Software).


. (Enterprise Content Management),



: , .


,
.
.
? ,
(:
, ?).

257

( ) .

.

Gertner . 10.1.

. 10.1.


Magic Quadrant Gartner.
(. 10.2):
1. ,
;
2. ,
, ,
, ,
.

258

: Gartner Group, 2007


. 10.2.

,
Autonomy (IDOL Server), Fast Search&Transfer
(FAST ESP, Convera RetrievalWare), Endeca, IBM.
.

( , , IP-, -)
, wiki,

259

, .
,
,
.
,
, . ., .
BEA (BEA
Aqualogic), SpikeSource (SuiteTwo), Socialtext (Socialtext), IBM Microsoft,
. . 10.3:

: Gartner Group, 2007


. 10.3.
-

260

. (Enterprise
Content Management)

, , ,
, , .
, ,
, .
IBM
(Content Manager, Filenet P8), EMC (EMC Documentum), Opentext (Livelink
ECM 10), . . 10.4:

: Gartner Group, 2007


. 10.4.

261



IBM, EMC, Opentext Microsoft.

. IBM
,
.
,
, .

IBM OmniFind
OmniFind
.
, ,
, . .
Omnifind
,
.
.
IBM Classification Module

,
.
IBM Omnifind,
(browsing)
(,
).
WebSphere Portal
WebSphere Portal ,
.

( )
(
).

262

IBM Lotus Notes and Domino


IBM Lotus Notes IBM
Lotus Domino, ()
.
.
Microsoft Outlook.
IBM Lotus Sametime
IBM Lotus Sametime
Web- (
). Lotus Sametime , ,
(, ).
IBM Lotus Quickr
IBM Lotus Quickr
,

, .

, , , wiki

.
IBM Lotus Connections
IBM Lotus Connections

-,

,
.
Lotus Quickr ,
Lotus Connections ,
.
: Profiles, Blogs, Communities, Activities
Bookmarks (Dogear). ,
, , , :
Profiles; Activities;
Bookmarks (Dogear); Blogs;
Communities, , -

263

IBM Lotus ,
.


, ,
.
IBM Content Manager
, ,
.
(, , Web, )
.
IBM WebSphere Information Integrator
WebSphere Information Integration ,
, ,
- . ,

.

,
, :
1)

IQMen
(http://www.iqmen.ru/our_proposal/)

c
:

,
.

,
.

,
, .

264


.
2) ZOOM
,
.

,
.

,
.


.
3) DocsVision
(http://www.docsvision.com/).
DocsVision ,
.
4) - (http://www.evfrat.ru)

. :

;
5) ndex.Server
.
2.0
2005
, Web 2.0,

-.

- ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,

265

.
-

.
2.0:

- (mail.ru, yandex.ru, gmail.com),

c (ICQ, google-)

(, ,
, Google-) - ,
, .
RSS- . ,

(,
vkontakte.ru,
moikrug),
, ,
,

RSS- (
, Google Reader). RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
, ,

, , - . .

Peer-to-peer ( P2P-)
(, , ) ,
.

,
.

-
(del.icio.us,
),


, ,
, ( )
, .

(photosight.ru,
flickr.com), (slideshare) (youtube),
(, ), ,
.

266


wiki- (pbwiki.com, wikispaces.com)
- (. ru.wikipedia.org).
C
-


(Google Docs),

(mashups),
Web 2.0
(, Google, Yahoo c
Panoramio, flickr
)

(Google ) . .
Web 2.0 (Software as a
Service, SaaS). ,
-. .
, .

AppExchange Salesforce.com,
-,
(CRM-, .).
SaaS
, .
Gartner , 2011 . SaaS
25 %,
2005 .
Web 2.0
: ,
. McKinsey
Web 2.0
75 % (70 %
, 51 %
).

267

55. 10.5
10.6 ,
, .

: InformationWeek Research, 2006


. 10.5. 2.0

: InformationWeek Research, 2006


. 10.6. 2.0
55

Bughin J., Manyika J. How businesses are using Web 2.0: A McKinsey Global Survey
// McKinsey Quarterly, March, 2007

268

Web 2.0
,
.
, (.
IBM Lotus Quickr, Sametime .).
, wiki
, .
.
,
2.0, .
, , wiki
.

- .
,
.

. ,
,

, -
. ,

, , , ,
; , Photoshop . .
,
. 10.7.


,
.

269

. 10.7.



. ,
. .

, ,
.
)
,
. ,
(),
.
,
.
(corporate
memory)56,
Khn O., Abecker A., Corporate Memories for Knowledge Management in Industrial
Practice: Prospects and Challenges. 1998.
56

270


, .


.

:

(
) ( ).
)
,
(,
, .) , web,
57 (. 10.8).

. 10.8.

,
:
57

Collins H. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. AMACOM, 2003.

271


( ).


,
,

.
10.2.

, , (Staab,
Maedhe, Studer). ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, . . 10.9.

. 10.9.

272


,

-,
.
,
,
.


, . . 10.10.

. 10.10.

(. 10.10)
(
, , ) ()
273

,
.

, ,
, .

, .

OWL, RDF.

, , ,
,
.

, .
, ,

(, ).

(,
SPARQL).
10.3.


( 10.2)
, . 10.1.
, ,
:
,
,
-,
,
.
274

10.1



Altova Semanticworks, NeOn Toolkit, DOODLE
(Domain ontology rapid development environment),
DOE, DOME, Fenfire, Graphl, GrOWL, IBM
Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit, Infered,
IsaViz, KAON OI Modeler, Linkfactory, Ontotrack,
Powl, Protg, Rhodonite, SemTalk, SWOOP,
Topbraid composer, WebODE, DogmaModeler,
ICOM

KAON2, Jena, Sesame, Ontology Server, RDF Server,


Knowledge zone, Onthology, OntoSelect, DAML
Ontology Library, SchemaWeb, ONTOSEARCH2,
Protg Ontologies Library, OntStore, RDFPeer,
RDF2GO

AJAX Client for SPARQL, Bor, Corese, KAONP2P,


KAONWeb, Oyster2

AeroText, Sesame

Brownsauce, BrowseRDF, Drve RDF Browser, Disco,


Horus, Longwell, OINK, RDF Gravity, Tabulator,
Welkin, Jambalaya, Ontosphere 3D, OntoViz,
OWLViz, TGVizTab

Ontogator, SemSearch, Knowledge Sifter, Haystack,


OntoViews

HermiT, Pellet, FaCT++, Racer Pro, CEL, CB

ARP: Another RDF Parser, CLEANONTO,

ConsVISor, Eyeball, ODEVal, OWL API, Semantic


Web RDF Library for C#/.NET

275

. 10.1

AMV,
AUTOMS,
CMS,
CtxMatch,

eTuner/iMap/Glue/LSD, Falcon-AO, NOM, QOM,

APFEL, H-Match, LOM, MapOnto, MetaQuerier,


MoA, OLA, S-Match, SAMBO, ToMAS/Clio,
OntoBuilder, OntoMerge, Aligment API & Aligment
server, COMA & COMA++, FOAM, PROMPT,
Rondo, Chimaera, MAFRA, Mapping Discovery

OCAT, OntoMat-Annotizer, M-OntoMat-Annotizer,

PhotoStuff (Mindswap), AKTive Media Ontology


based annotation system, Ontolog, Magpie

KIM, AKTiveAgent, GATE ML, OntoOffice,

OntoText

CLIE, AKTive Futures, ALVIS


(Ontology
populator)

Watson, Swoogle

KAON, DOME, MarcOnt Portal, Linkfactory, Powl


Longwell, TGVizTab, OntoViz, Jambalaya, OWLViz,

/facet, mSpace, VIKI, CropCircles, CS Aktive Space,

SpaceTree, TreeMap, Spotlight, IsaViz


(ontology views)

GATE Ontology Editor, OCAT

(
)
- Hybrid OWL-S Web Service Matchmaker OWLS
MX, The TUB OWL-S Matcher (The OWLSM),
WSMX Discovery Framework, OWL Semantic Search
Services (owl-semsearch)
- WSMX Selector and Ranking Prototype

- Kweb Semantic Web Service Composition, Semantic

Web service composition through Cusal Link


Composition, Composer, Semantic web services
browser and composer, Web service Composition,
Service Composition Engine (Developed within ASG)

- WSMX Choreography Engine, IRS-III

276

10.4.


( )
.
.

(. 10.2),
(. 10.3),
.
- .
On-To-Knowledge 2.6.

: DILIGENT NeOn.

,
.

DILIGENT

(evolution)
.
:
1. .
,
.
2. .
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277

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279

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Hefke M., Jager K., Abecker A. Best Practice Cases for Knowledge Management and Their
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6-8 September, 2006, Graz, Austria.

290

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(, best practice cases)

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,
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. - : , 2010.
,
http://bigc.ru/publications/mn/navigator/

: Kudryavtsev D. From context to knowledge:
consecutive mapping ontologies and contexts // 6th International Conference on
Knowledge Management, 6-8 September, 2006, Graz, Austria. Graz: J.UCS,
2006. P. 97-104.
URL: http://bigc.ru/publications/bigspb/km/context_knowledge.php
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311

12.


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312

: http://cordis.europa.eu/, 2010
. 12.2.
7-


.
,
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,
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: http://active-project.eu/
ACTIVE


:
1.

313

,
, , (
);
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Workspace) ACTIVE.

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, ,
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.
, Accenture, ,
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: http://nepomuk.semanticdesktop.org/
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IST, FP6-027705.


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317


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318


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).

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319

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320

. , Semantic Desktop
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Intelligence, DFKI). Nepomuk
Unix- KDE (K Desktop
Environment). Nepomuk
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321

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324

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,

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-

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). ,

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(wikis, ,
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325

.
2.0 Semantic Web
. 2.0,
SLATES ( ):
(Search)
.
(Links)

-.
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.
(Tags) ,

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(Extensions)
(collaborative intelligence)
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(Signals)

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326

: ,
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.
12.2
SLATES

SLATES

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12.4. X-Media
: http://www.x-media-project.org/
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. ,
,
,
(,
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.

327


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328

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Fiat:

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330


:
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12.5. Mymory

.
: http://www.dfki.uni-kl.de/mymory/
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331

, , .
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332

12.6. NEON
NeOn (www.neon-project.org) 14
6- . 2006.

,
. NeOn

-

. NeOn ,
: 1.
; 2.

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,
.
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6. NeOn,
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8.
2:

,
9.
NeOn ,
10. NeOn,
11. NeOn.

333

12.7. KnowledgeWeb
: www.knowledgeweb.semanticweb.org
:
1.
- :
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1.2. ,
1.3. ,
1.4. ,
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;
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3.1.
(EASE, the European Association for Semantic Web
Education),
3.2. ,
3.3. ;
4.
KnowledgeWeb-.
12.8. SEKT (Semantically-enabled Knowledge Technologies)
: http://www.sekt-project.com/
: 01.01.2004, : 36 months
:
Next Generation Knowledge Management (NGKM).
,

334


.
:
1.
,
2.
,
3.
,
4.
(mapping, alignment) (merging)
,
5.
,
6.
,
7.
DILIGENT,
8.
, , Usability,
,
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: ,
10. : ,
11. :
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335



, , ,
, ,
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336

, - ,
, .

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337

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.

338


1. ., . : . :
-, 2002. 504 .
2. . ., . . :
. . .: , . , 2008.
488 .
3. . . . ,
, . : . -: , 2009 . 304 .
4. . ., . ., . ., . .
. . .., : , 2006. 304 .
5. . . () : ,
, , : -, 2009. 624 .
6. . . : , , 2002.
199 .
7. ., . :
. : . -:
, 2006 . 296 .
8. ., . () :
IBM Institute for Business Value. . . .: , 2006. 248
.
9. ., . .
. .: -, 2003. 384 .
10. .. :
, , . .: , 2002. 352 .
11. .., .., ..
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12. : / . . . . .,
. . .: - , 2009. 514 .
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, ,
.
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).
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Discovery in Databases

.
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Information requirement] ,
,
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indexing language] ,
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,

340

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.

341

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342

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343

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.

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. () . -
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semantic web
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(http://kmtec.ru/). -

.