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qucsstudio

:
Gunthard Kraus, DG8GB,
Guest Professor at the Duale Hochschule Baden-Wuerttemberg (Friedrichshafen / Germany)
assisted by the Programs Author Michael Margraf, DD6UM)
Email: mail@gunthard-kraus.de
Homepage: www.gunthard-kraus.de

September 04th, 2015


1


1. .................................................................................................................................................. 6
3. : RC (LPF)..................................................................................... 8
3.1. : Transfer Function ................................................................... 8
3.1.1. .............................. 8
3.1.2. dB .........................................................................................13
3.2. ...............................................................................................15
3.2.1. RC Low Pass Filter ( ) ......................................15
3.2.2. LPF......................................................................................17
3.2.2.1. Pulse Source ...................................................................17
3.2.2.2. PWL (= - ) ........18
3.2.3. .........................................................................................19
3.2.3.1. ..................................................................................................19
3.2.3.2. ..........................................................................................................20
3.2.3.3. ................................................................................................21
3.2.3.4. ...................................................................................22
3.2.3.5. ................................................................................................................23
3.3. FFT (= ) .......................................................................................24
3.3.1. ......................................................................................................................................24
3.3.2. .....................................................................................................................................25
3.3.2.1: FFT ...................................................25
3.3.2.2. dB .....................................................................................28
3.3.2.3. FFT ( ) ! .........................................30
3.3.2.4. Window .........................................30
3.3.2.5. ..........................................................................................................32
4. : = FFT ..................................................................33
4.1. .............................................................................................................................................33
4.2. ..................................................................................33
4.3. ............................................................................35
4.4. ....................................................................................................................36
4.5. .........................................................................................37
4.6. ..........................................................................................38
5. : ...................................................................................................39
5.1. ..........................................................39
5.2. qucsstudio ............................................40
2

5.3. : SPICE .....................................................41


6. ........................................................................................46
6.1. ..............46
6.2. : ........................................................47
6.3. .....................................................................................................50
6.4. BFR92A....................................................................................................51
6.4.1. SPICE .........................................................................51
6.4.2. ..........................................................................................................53
7. ....................................................................................................................55
7.1. ...........................................................................................................55
7.2. ......................................................................................................55
7.3. ....................................................................................................................56
7.4. OPA Spice ......................................................................................57
7.5. , ...........................................................................................60
8. ...................................................................................................................65
8.1. qucsstudio ................................................................................65
8.2. phase_shifter_90deg.sch ...............................................................................................66
8.3. , D- .....................................................67
9. S-........................................................................................................................68
9.1. .............................................................................................................................................68
9.2. : 11 .............69
9.2.1. .....................................................................................................................69
9.2.2. LPF ....................................................................................................................71
9.2.3. qucsstudio S- LPF .....................................71
9.2.4. LPF ................................................75
9.2.5. ...................................................................................................76
10. ...................................................................................................................80
11. : MMIC 3 GHz .................................82
11.1. Touchstone (S2P Files) .......................................................................................................82
11.2. S- ABA52563 6 GHz........................................................83
11.3. ....................................................................86
11.4. (Smith chart) ...................................................................................................88
11.5. S11 S22 MMIC, ....................................................90
11.6. ...............................................................................................................91
11.6.1. PCB (= Printed Circuit Board, ) .......................................................................91
3

11.6.2. .....................................................93
11.7. ................................................................................................................................95
11.7.1. S-......................................................................................................95
11.7.2. k .......................................................................................96
11.7.3. : ? ......................................................98
12. 1 GHz...1,7 GHz................................................................................100
12.1. ...........................................................................................................................................100
12.2. , ........................................101
12.3. 1...1.7 GHz ...................................................103
12.4. ......................................................................................................................................105
12.5. S- ..........................................................................................................106
12.6. ..............................................................................................................................................107
13. RF ......................................................................................................................................109
13.1. .....................................................................................................................................109
13.2. ...........................................................................................111
13.2.1. ...........................112
13.2.2. ................................115
13.3. .........................................................117
13.4. IP3 ......................................................................................................................................120
14. ..........................................................................................123
14.1. ................................................................................................................................123
14.2. DOS Box, DOS Shell fds.exe .....................................................................................123
14.3. 10.7 MHz .........................................................................124
14.4. .................................................................................................................125
14.5. ..............................................................................125
14.6. .............................................................................................................................130
14.7. : N = 3 ....................................................................................132
14.8. = 5 .......................................................................................................134
14.9. : ..................................138
15. WLAN (= 2.45 GHz) ..............................141
15.1. ..............................................................................................141
15.2. .............................................................................................................142
15.3. .....................................................................................................144
15.4. WLAN .........................................145
15.4.1. qucsstudio .....................................................................................145
4

15.4.2. 50 .............................................................................................149
16. .........................................................................................................................................154
16.1. .....................................................................................................................................154
16.2. ...........................................................................................................157
16.2.1. .......................................................................................................................157
16.2.2. AM ............................................................................................................................160
16.2.3. AM .................................................................................................................162
16.2.3.1. ........................................................................162
16.2.3.2. AM product detector .............................................163
16.3. SSB = Single Side Band ( ) ...............................................164
16.4. , ...............................................................164
16.5. ..................................................................................................................168
16.6. : - SSB .....................................168
16.7. - IQ .....................................................169
16.8. SSB .......................................................................................................170
16.9. (ASK).............................................................................171
16.10. ..................................................................................................................172
16.10.1. ....................................................................................172
16.10.2. ........................................174
16.10.3. , ..................................................175
16.10.4. .......................................177
16.11. FSK = Frequency Shift Keying = Digital Frequency Modulation .................................................178
16.12. QAM .......................................................................................................................179
16.12.1. 4 QAM (= 4 PSK) ..................................................................................................................179
16.12.2. 16 QAM ...............................................................................................................................180
16.12.3. QAM ............................................................................................182

1.
:

Qucs Qucs-Studio!
Qucs. Qucs
. ,
( ) . : Files / Application
Settings / Language. .
,
. Harmonic Balance,
, . , qucs
, -
.

,

,
:
,
(
,
).

.
.
, , ,

, , :
. Michael Margraf (DD6UM)
, QucsStudio. ,
qucs qucsstudio. qucsstudio ,
.

qucsstudio
. ( )
2.4.1, . ,
,
7z - , ,
( ), , :

:
(, ..).
, - .
Windows. , ,
, ( , , :
, , ).
7

3. : RC (LPF)
3.1. : Transfer Function
3.1.1.
RC LPF
.
1:


LPF_01
,
.

.
Qucsstudio ,

LPF (
untitled). ,
RC-LPF_01
Windows (= File
save as.
).

2:
Components,
lumped components.

resistor US,
,
.

(= Ctrl+r)

3:
sources, AC Voltage Source
. Wire :

4:
.
. edit properties
100 k (). : Apply OK. ,
, 10 nF ( Apply OK).

5:
,

U=1V. ,
,
.
(wire label):
IN
OUT .

ac
simulation
( components /
simulations)
.


simulation :

ac

Sweep type = logarithmic


Start = 1Hz
Stop = 20 kHz
401 points per decade

display in schematic
.

6:

Display
mode,
.
Cartesian,
.




.
OUT.v ,

(Graph).
(: ) .
(thickness) 2.

10


Properties :
Frequency
x

Output
.
show Grid
logarithmic X Axis Grid
.
,
Apply, OK.

, :

,

U = 1,


(Transfer Function).

11

1:
Cartesian,
logarithmic. :

2:
Cartesian , :
a) linear (= logarithmic)
b) (=
. = red).
c) :

12

3.1.2. dB
, !

equation .

equation,
. , Apply OK.


(Cartesian) !

13

:
a) Properties Frequency x
Output in dB y.
b) logarithmic x-axis grid.

:
.

14

3.2.
3.2.1. RC Low Pass Filter ( )
, (Transfer Function)
(Time Domain)! Dirac .
( = ),
= . 1.
, :
, ,
100 1000. ,
1. ,
.
, .
LPF_01, LPF_TD .
, , (
LPF_01).
( AC sweep)
(Voltage Pulse, components /
sources).
:
Minimum Voltage U1 = 0 V
Maximum Voltage U2 = 1 MEG
Start point of the pulse = T1 = 1 ms
End point of the pulse = T2 = 1.001 ms (... 1 )
Rise time tr = fall time tf = 1 ns
. , , Transient simulation,
( Components / Simulations) t = 10 ms 100 001
( 100 ).

15


IN.Vt OUT.Vt cartesian
.

:
, (Zoom).
:

:
, limits manual x /
.
16

3.2.2. LPF
. .
3.2.2.1. Pulse Source
, , ,
:

T2 5 s,

.

10 !

17

3.2.2.2. PWL (= - )
: .
amplitude at a defined time,
.
.
qucsstudio :
a) File Based Voltage Source Components / Sources.
b) Voltage-Step.csv-file, (csv
).
( LPF01).
t = 0 U = 0V. t = 1 ms
0 V, 1 1 V. 1 V
10 ms.
:
(= , )
. carriage return, .

Voltage-Step.csv , .

,
All Files / ANSI Voltage_Step.csv LPF.
qucsstudio .

Voltage_Step.csv
File based Voltage Source.

... .

18

3.2.3.
3.2.3.1.
, :
fc = 1 / 2RC = 1 / 2 * * 100k * 10nF = 159.155 Hz
ac Voltage Source ( components / sources).
1 V 159.155 . .

,
,

ac voltage,
.
20 ms
( 100 001 ).


3
-45 .

19

3.2.3.2.



1 ,
0 V +1 V.
TH TL 1 .
0....20 ms 100001
. Rectangular Voltage
components / sources.
,
.

20

3.2.3.3.
, ,
f = 1 kHz.
a)
,
b) TH (= ) TL (= )
. , ( :
, edit properties).
, qucsstudio

High Level Time,
Low Level Time,
:
Tr = TH = Tf = TL = 0.5ms
!

0....10 ms.
:

21

3.2.3.4.


R1, Voltage Probe
(= components / devices)
R1.

3


IN.Vt,
OUT.Vt
R1
(Pr1.Vt).

, ?

:
R1

22

3.2.3.5.

Current Probe
components / devices.
, Pr2
,

.

IN.Vt,

OUT.Vt,
R1
(Pr1.Vt)
(Pr2.It)
:
R1

23

3.3. FFT (= )
(= Time Domain Frequency Domain )
3.3.1.
, Time
Domain, . ,
.
, , .
FFT , ,
!
FFT .
============================================================================
,
x.

Minimum frequency step = 1 / Simulation Time



. /
. (= ).
=========================================================================== The
Maximum Time Step :
a) , ,
.
b) = 1 / time step ,

(
).
c) FFT.
( )
x
.
==========================================================================

2.
!
:
( )
.

24

3.3.2.
3.3.2.1: FFT
= RC LPF (=
). 1 kHz, UH = +1 V, UL = 0 V.

, 2.

262 144 (= points)


20 .
20

1 / 20 ms = 50 Hz

IN Out . (
, ,
).
: -
Cartesian .

Data:
1:
time2freq(IN.Vt) Graph Properties.
2:
New Graph.
3:
, .

25

4:
2.

5:
Apply

Properties
:
Frequency x
Input Spectrum .
, show grid
Apply.

, , Limits
:
x 0
20000 5000

0 1 0.2
Apply

26


:
Properties logarithmic left Axis Grid.
Apply.


(1e-5)
(= 1)
Limits.
Apply.

27

3.3.2.2. dB
:
dB!
:

,
Data (
) :
1:
Graph Properties

:

dB(time2freq(IN.Vt))
2:
New Graph.
3:
,
.
4:
2.

5:
Apply

Frequency x INPUT in dB
Properties.


Limits
020000 ( = 5000)
dB
-100.....0 20 dB

Apply

28

29

3.3.2.3. FFT ( ) !
,
0 20000 dB -100 0 dB . Cartesian,
dB(time2freq(OUT.Vt)) Graph , .

,

,
.
, .

3.3.2.4. Window

, .
05 ms , .
, ,
.

Window, ( ,
). Window function
0 .
Qucsstudio 5 3 (= Hann), 5
(Blackmann), (.. Blackmann...).
: Hann Windowing

Graph Properties. 3!

30

,
-100 dB!

:
FFT, Blackmann Window (index = 5).
:
Graph Properties dB(time2freq(OUT.Vt,5))
:
,
Blackmann Window Function
( , ),
.

,
minimum frequency step = minimum line
width = 1 / simulation time

Windowing
(= ).

31

3.3.2.5.
.
.
t = 5 ms .
(Transient Simulation) (t = 5ms)
:

Cartesian FFT
, WINDOWING!
=

dB(time2freq(OUT.Vt))
-90 dB.
.
: windowing,

32

4. : = FFT
4.1.
:
?
, :

a) . (=-
) =
.
b)
.
,
.

4.2.
, :
Umin = 0V / Umax = 1000 V / Rise Time and Fall Time = 1 Microsecond / Pulse Length = 1
Millisecond.
2 50
. 262144 .
(= PWL =
- ) :
t = Null
t = 2 Milliseconds
t = 2,001 Milliseconds
t = 3,001 Milliseconds
t = 3,002 Milliseconds
t = 50 Milliseconds

U=0
U=0
U = 1000 V
U = 1000 V
U=0
U=0

,
a) .
b) ( Enter).
c) pulse.csv .
All files / ANSI
pulse.csv :
0
2e-3
2.001e-3
3.001e-3
3.002e-3
50e-3

0
0
1e3
1e3
0
0
33

Vpulse
Cartesian.

new diagram
time2freq(Vpulse.Vt)

.
x
0.....10000Hz 2000 Hz

sinx/x .

:
,
.

f = 1 / Pulse Length
,

34

4.3.


(Pulse Voltage Source)
TH = 1 ms.

100 .
50 , ,
1 / 50 ms = 20 ms
.




(= Zeros at
every multiple of f = 1 / Pulse
length = 1 kHz)

,
, ,
(= Harmonics =
f = 100
Hz ).

35

4.4.
:



, Sine Voltage
f = 1 kHz U = 1V. (stop time =
50 ms, 262144 , dB):

100 dB
. ,
FFT, Hann Window (index = 3)

dB(time2freq(Vpulse.Vt,3))


200 dB,

.

36

4.5.

(
components / nonlinear
components).
.
10 V, f = 1 kHz.
50 262144 .

( tmax = 10 ms) Vout.


10 V 0.7 V ( ).
FFT Vout Hann window (index = 3)
0...10 kHz. 150 dB
!
(= 2kHz + 3kHz + 4kHz +5kHz.....).

, FFT
:
Hann windowing
. ,
window,
:
Windowing , ,
!
:
+10 dBV.
3.1 V. ,

Udc = Umax /
(10V 0.7V) /
( 3 V)
37

4.6.
:
(Zener
diodes), ,
,
1N751 5.1V.

libraries / Zdiodes.
10 V 1 kHz.
50 ms 262144 .

( tmax = 5 ms)
((5.1V + 0.7V) = 5.8V. FFT Vout,
Hann window (index = 3), 0...10 kHz.
150 dB, ,
(= 3kHz + 5kHz + 7kHz +9kHz
+.....).
, :
,
FFT :
(Hann) Window
.
,
Window,
:
windowing , , ,
, !
,

38

5. :
5.1.
.
AC Voltage Source (peak value = 5 V,
frequency = 100 kHz)
(
components / nonlinear components),
R = 1k.
IN OUT1
.

?
,
, .
300 262 144 (
FFT). ,
. 0...30 s .

(5V 0.7V) = 4.3V -


0.7V.
:
FFT 0...1 MHz.

39



, ,
(= +
,
f = 100 kHz).

5.2. qucsstudio

:
a) 1N4148
b)
1N4004
library
. drag'n drop
.
300s
262144 .
Cartesian OUT1 OUT2.
.
1N4004 Reverse Recovery Time,
.
. , .
1N4148 , f = 10 MHz
.


!
SPICE
SchottkyBAT17,
, qucsstudio.

40

5.3. : SPICE
, :

Qucsstudio SPICE ,
.
qucs!
.
BAT17.
1:
BAT17 spice model Google NXP .
BAT17.zip. .
BAT17.prm.
2:

BAT17.cir .qucs .

, ANSI All Files


. *.txt, qucsstudio .
:
*
*******************************************
*
*BAT17
*
*NXP Semiconductors
*
*Schottky barrier diode
*
*
*IFSM =
@ tp = s
*VF
= 600mV @ IF = 10mA
*
*
*Package pinning does not match Spice model pinning.
*Package: SOT23
*
*Package Pin 1: Anode
*Package Pin 2: not connected
*Package Pin 3: Cathode
*
*
*Simulator:
*
*******************************************
*#
.SUBCKT BAT17 1 2
*
* The resistor R1 does not reflect
* a physical device. Instead it
* improves modeling in the reverse
* mode of operation.

41

*
R1 1 2 6E+07
D1 1 2 BAT17
*
.MODEL BAT17 D
+ IS = 1.419E-09
+ N = 1.022
+ BV = 6
+ IBV = 2.45E-06
+ RS = 5.112
+ CJO = 7.867E-13
+ VJ = 0.1043
+ M = 0.1439
+ FC = 0.5
+ TT = 0
+ EG = 0.69
+ XTI = 2
.ENDS
*

(= )
(= .qucs) BAT17.cir.

, :

:
Google Siemens Infineon , BAT17.

, . ,
BAT17_Infineon.cir

.model :
a) .MODEL BAT17s D eol= end of line.
b) +.
eol.
42

:
Siemens Infineon. :

,
eol = end of line. BAT17_infineon_02.cir.
=============================================================================
:
BAT17, Vishay:
.model BAT17 D(Is=.25u Rs=8 N=1 Cjo=0.55p M=.3 Eg=.69 Xti=2 Iave=130m Vpk=4 mfg=Vishay
type=Schottky)
, .

eol = end of line = Enter.


(= mfg=Vishay type=schottky).
:
Iave=130m Ibv=130m
Vpk=4 bv=4 (...bv : breakdown voltage, ...)
BAT17_Vishay_01.cir.
:
.model BAT17 D
+ Is=.25u Rs=8 N=1 Cjo=0.55p M=.3 Eg=.69 Xti=2 Ibv=130m bv=4
:
a)
b)
c)
d)


Iave=130m Ibv=130m, Vpk=4 bv=4
.model BAT17 D , eol = end of line = Enter
. +,
eol = end of line = Enter

BAT17_Vishay_02.cir .qucs.
===================================================================

43

4:
BAT17_Infineon.cir.
Project,
Import Data.
BAT17_Infineon.cir.
.

, .
,
BAT17_Infineon.sch

Successfully converted file


'BAT17_Infineon.sch'.
.
, ,
.
:
3 -
BAT17 4 .

44

NXP-, ,
.
BAT17.cir
BAT17.sch:
,
.

, .

:

.

45

6.
6.1.

DC Simulation ( Components / Simulations).


(IN / IN1 / OUT1 / OUT) trans_amp_01.sch.

tabular

IN.Vt
IN1.Vt
OUT1.Vt
OUT2.Vt
Graph.
Apply OK.

46

, IN1.V OUT.V.


.
.
,
:
.

6.2. :

f = 1kHz 1 V .
10 ms 262144 .

47


IN1.Vt

OUT1.Vt
.
( ) 180 .
= .
:

Gain = (R4 || R5) / R3 = (0.56k || 3.3k) / 180) = 2.66


, .

48

, R5
OUT2.Vt, Time Domain ( ) Frequency Domain
( ):

OUT2.Vt = ,
.
:
:

dB(time2freqOUT2.Vt))
-
. .
:
( dBV = dBVolt = 1 V ).
.
:

dB(time2freqOUT2.Vt,3))
Hanning Windowing = 3. ,
. ,
- Windowing .

49

6.3.
10 Hz 1 GHz 4001 .
, dBV (= dB,
1 V).

OUT2.Vt :

50

6.4. BFR92A
6.4.1. SPICE

1:
Google bfr92 spice model.

NXP,
zip.
BFR92A-Spice.prm
.

BFR92A.cir
ANSI All
files.

NXP-.

51

2:
qucsstudio
Projects Import
Data.

BFR92A.cir
.


.
:

, IRB

, , BFR92A.cir , ,
IRB, . ,
:
Successfully converted file BFR92A.sch.
3:
BFR92A.sch .
,

.

BC847, paste copy.

52


, .


,
DC Simulation
Transient Simulation
1 ,

,
, FFT ( Hanning Windowing, index =3),
dB
6.4.2.
:
= (OUT2 / IN) dB 10 Hz 1000 MHz
:

Transfer_dB=dB((OUT2.v)/(IN.v))
Apply-OK

AC Sweep 10 Hz 1000 MHz 4001 Cartesian


.
x logarithmic :

53

54

7.
7.1.
Opamp, components / system
components.

G = -(R2 / R1)

R1 = 1k R2 = 10k 10 180 .
1V -10V.

7.2.

= +(R1 + R2) / R1 = 11. = 1V, = 11V

.
55

7.3.
.
(: R1 R2) R3.

UR3 = (IR1 + IR2) * R3


() Uout = -UR3
:
V1 ( ) : gain = R3 / R1 = 10k / 20k = 0.5
V2 ( ) : gain = R3 / R2 = 10k / 5k = 2

V1
1 V 1 kHz.

V2,
0 V, 1 V. f = 50 Hz.

() .
,

56

7.4. OPA Spice



. ,
500
1:
SPICE TL072, Texas Instruments (= TI).
. - :
* TL072 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER "MACROMODEL" SUBCIRCUIT
* CREATED USING PARTS RELEASE 4.01 ON 06/16/89 AT 13:08
* (REV N/A)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE: +/-15V
* CONNECTIONS:
NON-INVERTING INPUT
*
| INVERTING INPUT
*
| | POSITIVE POWER SUPPLY
*
| | | NEGATIVE POWER SUPPLY
*
| | | | OUTPUT
*
| | | | |
.SUBCKT TL072
1 2 3 4 5
*
C1
11 12 3.498E-12
C2
6 7 15.00E-12
DC
5 53 DX
DE
54 5 DX
DLP 90 91 DX
DLN 92 90 DX
DP
4 3 DX
EGND 99 0 POLY(2) (3,0) (4,0) 0 .5 .5
FB
7 99 POLY(5) VB VC VE VLP VLN 0 4.715E6 -5E6 5E6 5E6 -5E6
GA
6 0 11 12 282.8E-6
GCM
0 6 10 99 8.942E-9
ISS
3 10 DC 195.0E-6
HLIM 90 0 VLIM 1K
J1
11 2 10 JX
J2
12 1 10 JX
R2
6 9 100.0E3
RD1
4 11 3.536E3
RD2
4 12 3.536E3
RO1
8 5 150
RO2
7 99 150
RP
3 4 2.143E3
RSS 10 99 1.026E6
VB
9 0 DC 0
VC
3 53 DC 2.200
VE
54 4 DC 2.200
VLIM 7 8 DC 0
VLP 91 0 DC 25
VLN
0 92 DC 25
.MODEL DX D(IS=800.0E-18)
.MODEL JX PJF(IS=15.00E-12 BETA=270.1E-6 VTO=-1)
.ENDS

, qucsStudio!
.
57

:
a) , (*).
b) . .
c) , TL072.cir (
, ANSI All files)...
, :

2:
OPA . Project
Import Data. TL072.cir

.
3:
, TL072.sch 5-Port.
Sub-circuit ( , -
, TL072.sch ).

1 10.

58

( = 1 V, = 1kHz). 2
(+12V -12V). 0...10 ms, 16384
( , - OPA Spice ).

59

7.5. ,
, ,
! :

R C.

, R C, SMD .
.
.
100 .

online (.. Burr


Brown Microchip, Texas Instruments).
: Sallen Key (LPF) .
online :
Filter:

Low Pass Filter

Filter Type:

Chebychev

Passband Corner Frequency:

3400 Hz

Passband Ripple of the attenuation

0.5 dB

Filter Order:
N=4
( ).
. AC sweep 10 Hz 20 kHz.
dB.

60

OUT.Vt :
A.
B.
C.
D.

. x 20000 .
dB -3 +1 dB. x 5 .
dB, -80 +10 dB. 20000 .
dB, -80 +10 dB. 10 20 .

(Time Domain = Transient


simulation).
, :
Frequency f

= 1kHz

Minimum voltage value

= -1V

Maximum voltage value

= +1V

HIGH time

= 500s

LOW time

= 500s

rise resp. fall time

= 1ns

0 50 262144 ( FFT). 50
b = 1 / 50 ms = 20 Hz.

61


0...5 ms.


, dB.

FFT Blackmann Windowing (index = 5) 0...50 kHz


:

62

:
, TL072 Spice .
(. 6.4)

:
, 4096 -
( ,
TL072)!

63

:
a) , 1 ,
.
.
b) 10 1 ,
.
, .
c) (= low Q, high
tolerances, ).
, , :
OPA . 90

, push pull
. - (=
)
.
100 .
. 1k3k
. ,
90 .

64

8.
8.1. qucsstudio
1:

qucsstudio.
.qucs.
*.qucs .

2:
qucsstudio projects (= ).
project / extract package digital simulations.
, Simulations_Digital.sch. , .
3:
, :

, phase_shifter_90deg.sch .

65

8.2. phase_shifter_90deg.sch

components / digital components:


a) S1 .
b) Y3, Y4 Y5 - .
c) Y1 Y2 - D-.
, .
.
2.

( ).

66

8.3. , D-
(phase shifter) .
.
. frequency_divider.sch.
.

List of times :
.
, system tick =
.
20 ns.
init = low , LOW .
, :

67

9. S-
9.1.
, ,
, , , , ,
:
a) .
b) / .
.

Z = 50
S- (= scattering parameters).
.
( = 50) (= Port 1) ,
RG58 Z = 50. (= Port 2) Z =
50. Incident Wave,
( Uincident = Uo / 2) .
Z = 50, , (=
= ) .
, Input
Reflection, , S11 ( dB).
S11 :
S = Scattering Parameter,
1 = , Port 1
1 = , Port 1 Uincident = Uo/2

:
S11 = =
. ( Z = 50,
, , , dB S11).
, :
a) R = Z = 50, .
S11 = dB.
68

b)
, .
S11 = +1 ( ) and S11 = -1 ( ). S11
dB.
S11 - Oneports, (
, , , ..).
Twoport, ! (= , -, ) (=
Port 2), , , ( Port 1).
S-, S21 Forward Transmission, .
S21 = Forward Transmission dB, (Port 2)
Z = 50.
( = Port 1), dB.
180 .
(Port 2) , Port 2.
Port 1 Z = 50. S:
S22 = output reflection, = ,
Z = 50. ,
( Z = R = 50).
S22 , S22
dB.
S12 = reverse transmission, ( Port
2), Port 1, .
, Port 2.
S12 (=
dB), .
============================================================================

9.2. :
11
9.2.1.
.
. , :
Low Pass Filters, (= ,
).
High Pass Filters, (= ,
).
Band Pass Filters, (= ,
).
69

Band Stop Filters, (= ,


).
,
.
Z = 50 .
:
a)

.
.
b)
- , ,
.
.
c)
() ,
. S21
. ,
.
:
.
3 (= S21
) .
d) (= )
S21,
, - . ,
,
.
S21 .

,
(= ,
). :

N !
70

, LPF N = 5. ,
T (, , ,
).


(Z = 50)!..
:
S21 3 dB.
.
, ,
.
:
,

9.2.2. LPF
, LPF Z = 50 N = 5 .
FM f = 10.7 MHz.
:

Z = 50

Chebychev

r:

N=5

0.3 dB

3dB :

11 MHz

Quality factor () :

Q = 70 at 11 MHz

qucsstudio .
9.2.3. qucsstudio S- LPF
. Filter Synthesis Tools
:

71

:
Realization
Filter Type
Filter Class
Order
Corner frequency
Ripple
Characteristic impedance

= LC Ladder (pi type)


= Chebyshev
= Low pass
=5
= 11 MHz
= 0.3 dB
= 50 Ohm

, , .
:
, , !
, (paste) , , :

72

:
power sources components / sources.
qucsstudio.

, 1 kHz
20 MHz.
:
!


-50 +10 dB 10 dB.

73

-1 0 dB 0.2 dB
S21 :

74

9.2.4. LPF
: Q = 70
11 MHz?

.
Rr = XL / Q = 2fL / Q = 2*11MHz*1,016H / 70 = 1


.
, S21 0.5 dB

75

9.2.5.

. AM
FM , QUAM,
, ..

,
:


.

,
.
,
, .


a) f = 1kHz U1kHz = 1V.
b) f = 3 x f1 = 3kHz U3kHz = 1/3 x (U1kHz).
c) f = 5 x f1 = 5kHz U5kHz = 1/5 x (U1kHz).
(=).
Operation Components / System components.
three inputs , .
0..2 :

76

, ,
.

, .

:
,

!
:


.
:

,
.

77

LPF,
. , quscstudio

S21_phase=wphase(S[2,1])
.

cartesian
,

gdelay(S[2,1])
. .
70ns
75% . .
?
LPF :
Uhigh
Ulow
Thigh
Tlow
Tr and Tf

= +1V
= -1V
= 150 ns
= 150 ns
= 1ns

0...1 65536 .

78

79

10.

Z = 50.
. , .
(
) . ,
. ,
. qucsstudio
Tools.
PCB ( ) RO4003,
Rogers. :
Dielectric constant

Er = 3.55

Tangent loss

TAND = 0.002

Copper resistivity

1.72e-8

PCB thickness

H = 32 mil = 0.813mm

Distance to the upper case cover

H_t = 13mm

Metal coating

copper with thickness = 0.035mm

Roughness of the copper plating

Rough = 1m

Micro strip Line.


, . 1 GHz,
(= angle, ) 90 Zo 50. Synthesize
:
Width
Length for 90 degrees at 1 GHz

W = 1.79 mm
L = 45.28 mm
80

. (= Power source,
) 50. S11
( dB).

microstrip
MS1 Substrate Subst1
components / transmission lines.
,
.
S11
dB.

. S11 (
) 0.5% 10 GHz.

81

11. : MMIC
3 GHz
11.1. Touchstone (S2P Files)

. ,
.
MMIC Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit, =
. Two port ,
S- Touchstone :
S11 / S21 / S12 / S22
.
ABA52563. (datasheet) ABA52563,
.
, ,
(MMIC_3GHz) ABA52563.S2P.
!
ABA-52563 S PARAMETERS
# ghz s ma r 50
0.05 0.01 146.6 12.10 -2.6
0.10 0.01 134.0 12.11 -4.8
0.20 0.01 -40.6 12.16 -9.6
0.30 0.01 -53.2 12.19 -14.5
0.40 0.02 -56.7 12.19 -19.5
0.50 0.03 -141.5 12.26 -24.8
0.60 0.03 -128.1 12.24 -29.8
0.70 0.04 -127.5 12.21 -34.9
0.80 0.04 -126.7 12.18 -39.8
0.90 0.05 -123.9 12.16 -44.7
1.00 0.05 -125.0 12.13 -49.7
1.20 0.05 -123.4 12.10 -59.6
1.40 0.06 -127.4 12.05 -69.4
1.60 0.06 -133.8 12.04 -79.6
1.80 0.06 -136.7 12.00 -89.8
2.00 0.07 -142.5 11.94 -100.4
2.20 0.07 -143.9 11.87 -111.2
2.40 0.08 -146.1 11.75 -121.9
2.60 0.09 -148.4 11.56 -133.2
2.80 0.09 -149.5 11.33 -144.5
3.00 0.10 -152.7 10.95 -156.1
3.20 0.10 -158.7 10.51 -167.5
3.40 0.11 -163.2 9.97 -178.7
3.50 0.11 -167.6 9.67 175.9
4.00 0.12 165.9 8.25 150.6
4.50 0.16 138.3 6.98 126.3
5.00 0.19 122.8 5.71 105.0
5.50 0.25 112.3 4.85 86.7
6.00 0.30 99.3
4.14 70.4

0.03 0.3 0.15 -2.4


0.03 -0.3 0.15 -5.1
0.03 0.1 0.15 -9.6
0.03 1.2 0.15 -13.0
0.03 2.4 0.14 -15.7
0.03 1.0 0.15 -15.7
0.03 3.1 0.15 -17.6
0.03 4.3 0.15 -20.3
0.03 6.1 0.15 -22.5
0.03 7.4 0.15 -24.2
0.03 11.7
0.15 -26.4
0.03 10.8
0.15 -29.4
0.03 12.4
0.15 -32.4
0.03 13.0
0.15 -35.3
0.04 14.7
0.15 -37.8
0.03 14.3
0.15 -38.3
0.04 16.7
0.15 -37.8
0.04 16.2
0.15 -37.3
0.04 17.3
0.14 -36.9
0.04 15.6
0.14 -36.4
0.04 15.8
0.13 -35.9
0.04 15.6
0.13 -35.4
0.04 15.5
0.13 -34.9
0.05 16.0
0.13 -34.6
0.05 12.0
0.13 -33.4
0.05 12.7
0.14 -37.1
0.06 9.5 0.12 -48.4
0.07 6.0 0.12 -63.0
0.07 1.0 0.11 -83.5

82

:
a) , !, , .
b) , #, :
ghz

50

ghz : GHz.
m a , magnitude, angle, .
r

50

, 50 Ohms.

S11 S21 S12 S22


=============================================================================

11.2. S- ABA52563 6 GHz


:

a)
b)
c)
d)

P1 P2 power sources components / sources.


Two Port X1 S parameter file components / devices.
S parameter simulation components / simulations.
dB .

X1, .
ABA52563.S2P S-.
, 1 MHz 6 GHz 4096 .
83


S- .

, Cartesian ,
S-.

84

S- dB:

:
( S21) 3 GHz.
( S11) 3 GHz , -20 dB, , ,
50 .
( S12) , -20 dB 6 GHz. ,
, .
S22 ,
-15 -19 dB.

85

11.3.

PCB

.
:

:

a) 1 nF (RF) .
b) RF.
c)
.
, :

86

S- dB:

S21 - L1
. S22 :
, S22 =
1 = 0 dB.

87

11.4. (Smith chart)


Cartesian ( ) S. , ,
- . ,

.

.
,
. ,
. Smith chart,
.

, Reactance Chart, :
a) 50
.
b) . .
c) . .
:

.

88

. Admittance chart,
, .
,
:

==========================================================================

89

11.5. S11 S22 MMIC,


: , components / diagrams.
S11.
S22. .

:
a) .
b) -
, .
c) S22 (= ),
, - 100 nH
.

S11
400 600 MHz (=
).

,

.

90

11.6.
11.6.1. PCB (= Printed Circuit Board, )
,
:
a)
b)
c)
d)

RF Rogers RO4003 4350B.


(PCB).
.
RF
.
e) - ,
, (
Z ). ,
.
f) ,
.
g) (
0.6...0.8 mm). (=
)! - :
, ,
,
(= )
, GHz
dB , ,

. ,
, ,
SMA

91

SMA , SMA
.
- 8 GHz
, PCB .
SMB .

- : ?.
a) , dB
(NF) .
b) , 40 dB,
(S21 21 dB).

92

11.6.2.

Z = 50 . ,
; MMIC,
. (
).
Tools line calculation, Grounded Co planar Wave guide.
, 1 GHz .
Z = 50 electrical length, 90 . ,
Synthesize, Separation S = 1 mm
( ).
1.69 mm.

. Microwave Port
( ) 50.
1 GHz 6 GHz.

Coplanar Line
Components / Transmission Lines.



S,

Backside Metal = yes


.

93

S11.
,
S11 -35 dB.

, 1.74 mm
1.69 mm, . S11
, -50 dB.

94

11.7.
11.7.1. S-
11.3 .
:
a)
b)
c)
d)

5 mm SMA 470 pF.


5 mm MMIC.
5 mm MMIC 470 pF.
35 mm SMA .



.
1 MHz
6 GHz.
:
.

95

11.7.2. k
.
S- .
, .
:
k ( )
, !
, , Cartesian :

rollet()
, Apply, ( ) ,
6 GHz (= k 1).

96

Ref- MMIC
,
,
, k 1
7 .
1nH 1 mm. ,
L = 0.15 nH.


2.2 GHz.

MMIC.


Stability
Circles.
.

97

11.7.3. : ?
UKW Berichte.
Ansoft Designer SV.
S11:

2.5 GHz
.

(,
-10 dB)
.

S21
-

MMIC 100 nH
2.2 GHz.

.
(= ) f = 44 MHz -3dB.

98

S22:

S12 :

.
.

99

12. 1 GHz...1,7 GHz


( 0,4 dB)

12.1.
(MMIC) .
LNA :
50 - .
NF 0.5dB 50 .
, , S21 = 20dB 2 GHz.
.
:
SMD (= 2mm x 2mm, 8 = 4
). ,
.
SMD 0603 ( ).
10 GHz . ,
.
10 GHz
( 50 mA), .
0.25mm,
, .
, .
.
23 cm (= 1300 MHz)
1691 . ,
1 2 GHz:
:

0,4 dB

(S21):

20 dB

(k 1 10 GHz)
Agilent Avago MGA-635P8 .

100

12.2. ,
,
. 2500 MHz 3500 MHz,
[1] [2] [3].
.
Vdd = +5 V
MMIC GaAs pHEMT
. 1
Rbias = 3,6 k
(I = 55 mA).
HEMT
=
.
: R1
2 ,
L1 ,
C3
.
, .
L2 (6.8 nH) . R2
, .

S- MGA635P8_55mA.S2P Agilent Avago.


. L1 L2 (6.8 nH) SMD 0805
Q = 30 1 GHz.
1.4 .

101

S- dB- :
dB_S11=dB(S[1,1])
dB_S21=dB(S[2,1])
dB_S12=dB(S[1,2])
dB_S22=dB(S[2,2])
.

1 MHz 20 GHz
(
S-).
S- .
1.5 GHz
S21 = 21.9 dB.

GHz.
- Avago

8 GHz,

8 17 GHz...

S-


. ,
Cartesian,

1.9 3.5 GHz.

102

,
WLAN 2.4 GHz.
, ,
1...2 GHz.

12.3. 1...1.7 GHz


L1 L2 ,
.
R3 R4 .
C3 .
NF = 0.4 dB L1 = 33 nH / L2 = 15 nH.
10 .
- (= S21) 20 dB 1.7 GHz.
C1 C2 100 pF, 1 GHz.
Z = 50 qucsstudio

0.59 mm
1mm
Rogers RO4003 PCB 0.25 mm. PCB 30 mm.

103

f = 1...2 GHz.
1.7 GHz 0.4 dB.


10 GHz (= k 1).

S- 1...2 GHz. , S21 ( 19.3 dB) (=


20 dB).

104



.
Rogers RO4350B
PCB RO4003
(...RO4350B
RO4003,

).
10 mil = 0.254 mm,
35m
.
30 mm x 50 mm.

,

, MMIC 10
.

MMIC
0.6mm
.
, ,
. 0.3 mm.

12.4.
- ( = 0.25 mm)
. Enterprise
Gerber Plot , 4 235 Euro...
Rogers RO4350B RO4003.
:
10 GHz 0.0027 RO4003, 0.0037 RO4350.
r data sheet Rogers
.

( 35 mm x 55 mm).
SMB +5V.
SMB
,
( ).
105

12.5. S-
hp8410 S- (hp8745A).
20 dB .

S21: .

S11 , .

S22 ,
1.5GHz.

S12 -44dB 12 GHz,


, . ,

106

12.6.
-
. 0.4 dB
.
, 1 GHz.
:

: ( SKTU),
( ) (=
3dB). ( )
6 dB, .

- (NF) 0.4...0.5 dB.


,
!
Ulli Kafka (
Eisch Elektronik)

.
, -
0.3 dB 1 GHz
1.7 GHz
0.4dB.

107

email, .


MGA-635P8 I = 55 mA 2.5 GHz:

Output IP3 =
P1dB_out =

+35,9 dBm
+22 dBm



:
[1]: Data sheet and S parameter filed for the MGA-635P8 coming from the Avago Technologies
homepage
[2]: Application Note of Avago: MGA-635P8 GaAs ePHEMT MMIC 2.5 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with
Superior Noise and Linearity Performance
[3]: Application Note of Avago: MGA-635P8 GaAs ePHEMT MMIC 3.5 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with
Superior Noise and Linearity Performance

108

13. RF
13.1.
:
Audio ( ) , RF !

, RF Threeport .
- (= )
.
:
a) RF = (radio frequency) .
b) LO = (local oscillator) .
. LO .
c) IF = (intermediate frequency) .
.
:

IF !
.
:
a) .
b) .
c) .
, LO
.

109

:
True Multipliers,
, (
).
.
.
Additive Mixer, ( , , FET).
LO U / I .
, RF -
RF LO .
: . 100 .
: RF 1
.
.
Switched Mixers,
. , .
DBM (= double balanced mixer,
) . 4
. 3 .
3 .
:
D2 D4 ( )
,

LO. , RF

.


. 50% RF
, 50%
.
: , ,
, , , RF . IF
, , RF +1.
LO
D1 D3, RF , RF
. , , RF
-1.
, RF ( = LO ,
= +1 -1), .
110

: .
. . ,
.
: , LO
. ,
LO.
5...8 dB.
/ .

13.2.
,
components / system
components
Operation .
,

multiplication 2 entries.

V1 ( = 1V
/ = 1 kHz)

( = 0.5V / = 10
kHz).
:

111

IF Time Domain Frequency Domain (


). phase inversions, ,
LO . (=
) .
13.2.1.
LO.
a) RF (
)
,
( 50
mV).
. (:


).
b) LO (= Local Oscillator Signal)
+1 V 0 V.
c) IF (= Intermediate Frequency, ).

RF 50 mV
f = 1 kHz...

LO ,
10 kHz...

112

RF 1 kHz ,
.
10 kHz / 30 kHz / 50 kHz ..
:
LO ( ) ,
.. (= ).
RF 1 kHz
.
LO .
:
a) RF ?
b) dB LO RF LO + RF?
:

113

RF : A
50 mV f = 1 kHz.
B FFT . 50mV.
C - B dB 1 Volt. ,
-26 dBV (.: -26 dB Volt).

IF (= D) RF 50% -
ON / OFF. 25 mV ( E)
6 dB -32 dBV ( F).
9 kHz 11 kHz F
RF 10 dB.

, Single Balanced Mixer 10 dB.

114

13.2.2.

+1V -1V.

,
ON / OFF.

,
.

IF
.

RF IF
.

115

: RF 50 mV f = 1 kHz.
: FFT 50 mV 1 kHz .
: dBV, -26 dBV.
D: RF .
: 9 kHz 11 kHz 32 mV.
RF LO IF !

.
F: RF (f = 1 kHz)
(9 kHz 11 kHz) IF -26dB - (-30dB) = 4 dB.

.
116

13.3.
(= DBM = )
, NOAA, fRF = 137 MHz
FM . ,
, , fIF = 100 MHz, DBM.
DBM , RF 137 MHz LO
37 MHz. LO ,
, .
, f = 100 MHz
3 MHz (fIF = 100 MHz), .
SDR (= software defined radio). DBM:

RF . URF = 10 mV / f =
137 MHz Uinc = URF /2 = 5 mV = -46 dBV.
components / lumped components / three winding Transformer.
1.
(1N6263) qucsstudio Schottky diode.
LO 3 V 37 MHz.
10 , 262 144 FFT.

1 / 10 s = 100 kHz
:
117

IF RF , LO
.
IF , ( = 0....400 MHz).


(137 MHz + 37 MHz = 174
MHz) (137 MHz
37 MHz = 100 MHz) RF
LO ()
.

, IF :

118

:
,
, RF LO
!
( )
:

RF+3xLO = 137 MHz +3x(37 MHz) = 137 MHz + 111 MHz = 248 MHz
RF - 3xLO= 137 MHz - 3x(37 MHz) = 137 MHz 111 MHz = 26 MHz

119

2:
RF , .
:
IF -51.6 -51.8 dBV (= -51.7
dBV).
RF -46 dBV.
, 4.7 dB, .

13.4. IP3

, .

IP3 ( Pout / Pin )


RF .
, 3

:
IP3 - ,
.
:

, IP3,
3 !
( )
, ,
.

120

IP3
, .
3
.
. IP3-
!
( 2 .
. , ,
).
, DBM .

a) , .
200 mV, 0.5 MHz.
b) LO 2 V.
c) 0 100 s, 1 / 100s =
10 kHz 262 144 .
FFT ,
:
Hanning window (index = 3) 98 MHz
102 MHz 1 MHz.
dB -30 -110 dB.
, .

121

3 99.5 MHz 101 MHz


RF 100 MHz 100.5 MHz.
3 -31.5 dBV -(-97.5 dBV)

= 66 dB.

IP3 = RF Incident Power Level


+
0,5 x (Level Difference)

, :
.
, .
200 mV:
Uinc = 0.707 x (200 mV / 2) = 70.7 mV ( )
dBm
20 x log (70.7mV / 223 mV) = -10 dBm
50 .
:

IP3 = -10 dBm + 0,5 x (66dB) = +23dBm


!

122

14.
(= 10.7 MHz)

14.1.
RF (= 1 3%
). , .
, , ,
.
, DOS, ,
. DOS Windows . ,
DOS , ,
.. .
Windows Narrow
Band Pass = Coupled Resonator Type. , :
a) DOS Box, DOS
, .
b) DOS Shell DOS.
c) fds.exe (= ...)
.

:
2.4.0. qucsstudio
. ,
fds.exe... (= 14.9) qucsstudio fds.exe.
: DOS!

14.2. DOS Box, DOS Shell fds.exe


3 qucsstudio
(www.gunthard-kraus.de) .

DOS Box DOS-Shell.


fds.exe ,
filters. DOS Shell,
.
Edit / Settings
DOS Box.

123

DOS Shell . Edit Add new


entry.

,

fds.exe ( PC).
,
DOS Box.
fds
DOS Shell.
!

14.3. 10.7 MHz


10.7 MHz (IF) FM .
( ..)
, ,
. ,
,
10.7 MHz.
= .
, . :
:

Z = 50 .

Chebychev 0.3 dB

10.7 MHz

3 dB :

500 kHz

6 dB

70 dB 9 MHz 12 MHz

70 dB 500 MHz

(: 30 mm x 50 mm)
. SMA ,
. Rogers RO4003 32 MIL = 0.813
mm, ( = 35 m, = 2 m).
, ,
, .
.
124

14.4.
:
a) ?
b) ?
c) ,
?
d)
Q ?
e) 70 dB 500 MHz?
Coupled Resonator Band pass Filter Typ = Narrow Band pass -
.
(50 ),
.
, ,
.
Q .
: N = 3. (
) .

14.5.

DOS Shell,
fds.exe.
Chebychev
Filter OK.



NarrowBP
.

125

( ENTER ):
Center Frequency
Poles
Ripple
3 dB or ripple width
Bandwidth
Zsource
OK?

= 10.7
=3
= 0.3
=3
= 0.5
= 50
=y

:
L
Match to a lower rs/rl

= 1000 nH
=y

50 .

L,
:
,
50 100 ,

! , 1 H =
1000 nH 63 10.7 MHz.

126

, :
43.012 pF.

172.46 pF. qucsstudio. , ,
1 .

100 kHz 500 MHz.


,
S11 S21 9...12 MHz.
,
, (: 70 dB 9 MHz
12 MHz).


0.3 dB (
)

127

500 MHz.
,
70 80 dB.

N = 5 fds.

128

. :

= 6 dB .
Q .
( Amidon
) Q = 150. f = 10.7 MHz L = 1H
Rr = XL / Q = 2 * * 10.7MHz * 1H / 150 = 0.45.

( ).

129

,
10.7 MHz .
5.23 dB ,

6 dB.

14.6.
Q

. Boonton RX Meter
1960 HAM Radio
. ,
10 MHz 250 MHz
Schering .
,
.
,
,
. , ,
100 pF. ,
L = 1 H, 16 MHz,
-100 pF.
Neosid.
7.5 mm x 7.5 mm , .
:
, Q = 100.
,
Amidon. ,
,

.
( 30 MHz)
,
.
130

,
.

. ,
. .
(T20-2, T37-2 R44-2)
. :
0.01 . 2 ,
1 30 MHz.
/ , .
,
1H, 16 MHz :

T37-2 .
? :
a) , .
b) .

:

( =
FR4, = 1.52 mm).

araldite.

,
.
:

:
131

1.013 / 1.01 / 1.015 H, 162 / 167 / 164.


, .

14.7. : N = 3

(: = 1...2%).
.

30 mm
x 50 mm.

.
: -
.
, ,
.


132

,
:

S11 S21.
2.9 dB 10.7 MHz.
S11 , .

. S21 2.2 dB
2.9 dB.
.

?

133

S21, 1 GHz, ,
70 dB 500 MHz .

14.8. = 5

, .

134

( = Rogers RO4003 / = 2 MIL = 0,813 mm).


.
(= ) .
.
500 MHz
. C .

S21 (, , ) ,
(-4 dB -5.16 dB).

135

1 GHz,
. hp8410,
Rohde and Schwarz Analyzer ZVRE.
, . .


.
, SMD , ,

136

5 , . .

137

14.9. :
( qucsstudio, 2.4.0, fds.exe)
, 5 . ,
DOS Box DOS shell .
:
Center Frequency
Poles
Ripple
3 dB or ripple width
Bandwidth
Zsource

= 10.7 MHz
=5
= 0.3
= 3 dB
= 0.5 MHz
= 50

qucsstudio 2.4.0. Tool. Filter Synthesis


coupled LC resonator:

.
:
,
(= start frequency and stop frequency)!
calculate. ,
. ,
.
, :

138

, qucsstudio :
, fds.
fds:
a)
, 14.5 .
b) 3dB .
c)
50 Ohms.

, (
).
110 MHz 130 dB.

139


. 1 21 MHz 20001
( = 0....-5 dB / = 10.2 MHz
11.2 MHz).

5 .
S11 dB:

?!

140

15. WLAN (= 2.45 GHz)

15.1.
:

,
, .

120 = 377 . , ,
(
, ).
, ,
.

, .
,
, , , !
.
, :
a) ,
(= ,
).
, ,

b) , ,
: .
c) . ,
(= Near Field Region,
), 90 ,
( ).
,
, , . 3
.
d) ( : =
10 ) (=
). ,
, (
). 1/, ,
,
.

141

, . ,
, :

Preceived = Ptransmitted * Gtransmitting_antenna * Greceiving_antenna * ( / 4**d)2


d - .
- .
G - .

15.2.
.
, .
3-5 , , .
0.49 x ( / 2)
( ).
.


( ),

, .

,
(- /2 = 180 ).

U = .
,
.


.
150 1000 (
), /2
.
, , ,
= .
, 200,
400.
U = 0, ,
. , 200
, .
142

, Z = 50 ..?
. (=
) ,
.
EM simulator for planar structures,
SONNET LITE .
.
, (www.gunthard-kraus.de),
Sonnet Lite
5.8 GHz.
:
?
:

! ,
!
,
.
.
.
.
.

.
143

, , ,
(= ).
8.
8 , .

15.3.
a) , .
, ,
.
. 50 .
r
, .
:
,
, ,
. ?
: .
,
S11. , S11
, .
b) .
. ,
.
, ( = 10
). (= )
.
- 180 . 90
(= ),
30 40 dB.
dB.
c) .
, (=
). ,
, 360
. (
) .
d) .

. ,

dBi
144

, 2.15
dBi. ,

dBd
, dBi 2.15 dB.
: ?
, 15.1,
, :
. ,
.
, ( =
10 ). (= )
.
d ,
, .
, (. 14.1):

Preceived = Ptransmitted * Gtransmitting_antenna * Greceiving_antenna * ( / 4**d)2


, .
dB dBm , :

Antenna Gain in dBi =

[(Received Level in dBm) (Transmitted Level in dBm) - 20*log( / 4**d)] / 2


: 6-7 dBi.

15.4. WLAN
15.4.1. qucsstudio
:
, ,

/2 = 180 .
, Q
( ,
Q). , ,
.
Rogers RO4003 ( = 32 mil = 0.813 mm, r = 3.55). 2450
MHz.
1:
qucsstudio patch_antenna. patch_01.
145

2:
Tools line calculations. microstrip line .
:
er = 3.55 / TanD = 0.002 / H = substrate height = 32mil = 0.813 mm/ H_t = cover height = 500 mm /
copper thickness = 35 m / roughness = 2,5 m / frequency = 2.45 GHz

2.45 GHz 180 .


( ), , 5
, .

146

3:
. , ,
,
.
length = width = 33.08 mm
Z = 4.655

4:
.
33.08mm. 100 .

/2 ,
-
, !
100 :

, :
a) MS1 33.08 mm, 33.08 mm
Subst1. (MS1
Components / Transmission Lines / Microstrip Line.
b) Subst1 Components / Transmission Lines
, .
c) S11, dB S11.
d) 2...3 GHz 65 536 .

147

, :

2.44872 GHz, 1.28 MHz = 0.05 %...


OK!

5:
:
, microstrip open components
transmission lines.
. , frequency
for zero phase 2.45 GHz.
32.12 mm 33.08 mm.
qucsstudio
. EM Sonnet Lite ,
148

(, ) .
!
( Sonnet Lite www.gunthardkraus.de ).
Sonnet:

457 ,

914 . -
, /2 = ,
.
457 50 ?
15.4.2. 50
:
a) /4
b) , .
, b) .

,
a)
.
b)
,
.


(= 914 ).
,
0.5 x 914 = 457
.
x , 50
!
,
SMA ( PCB), .
Meteosat .

149

x qucsstudio.
( Z = Ohms).

32.12 mm / 2 = 16.06 mm.
, Port 1 .
, :
= 8.03 mm + 8.03 mm +16.06 mm = 32.12 mm
:

S11 , :

150

S11
.
:
. ,
,
.
( S11 , ,
).
:
,
16.06 mm = !

151

:
4.77 mm
. .

:
Patch width = 33.08mm
Patch length = 32.12mm
Feedpoint
= 4,77mm = 20.83 mm


,
SONNET LITE.

,
2439 MHz
2450 MHz. S11
-20dB.

,
( Gerber Plot
).
152

100mm x 100mm

Resonance frequency = 2443 MHz


S11 , -30dB.

153

16.
16.1.
100 ,
. :

- :


. 10% ,
.
:
f = 1 kHz 300 km. ,
30 km 75 km...
, :
(= , )
(= ). .
.
(: National Instruments):

, Amplitude Modulation (AM) :


.
, Frequency Modulation (FM) :
.
, Phase Modulation (PM) :
.
154


. , Wikipedia:

: QAM
AM FM QAM.

.
I ( ),
Q ( ).


I ,
.
16 QAM
.
16
(= ).

.

155

4 QAM 2
.

156

16.2.
16.2.1.

:
(= ) .
:
, f = 10 kHz,
(= f = 1 kHz).

, , :
a) ,
b) .
.

157

(AC sources, components


/ sources) :

(=
1 kHz 0.5 V)...

f =
10 kHz 1V.

, ,
operation ( Components / system components
multiplication).
, :
a) ,
b)
.




,

operation,
addition.

158

Qucsstudio modulated source components /


sources, AM.
, , .
(1 kHz / 0.5 V), (10 kHz / 1 V)
m = 1.
(: m
- ).
, m =1 AM
Uinf / Ucarrier = 0.5 V / 1 V = 0.5 = 50 %.
m 2 100% .

159

16.2.2. AM
AM !
, , .
.
:


!
.
, :

160

(= ) ,
:

:
a) 1 V
b)
= 0.25 V = 0.5 V / 2 ( )
:
(
). , (LSB)
(USB) .
:

.
,
(LSB)
-

161

16.2.3. AM
16.2.3.1.
AM ,
( = 1 kHz / 0.5 V, =
10 kHz / 1 V).
AM BAT41,
R = 1 k 100 nF, .
,
. , (R = 50 k / C = 4,7 nF)
. 0...10 ms 65536 . (
BAT41 library / Schottky Diodes).

162

16.2.3.2. AM product detector


, , .
:

- !
:
, +1 -1.
, .
-1 . LPF
, , .

163

16.3. SSB = Single Side Band ( )


3 :
Lower Side Band LSB ( )
Upper Side Band USB ( )
( ).
, . ,
, .
, (LSB
USB), (= SSB = Single Side Band
). :
.
.
/
/.
( - )
. .
:
a) SSB SSB .
product detector.
b) , LSB USB -
LSB.
.
SSB . :
a) ,
;
b) , ,
;
c) , IQ
- .
.

16.4. ,
, ( ) (
) Real Signal, .
, , Imaginary
Signals ( ).
Complex Signal, .
164

, .
(phasor) , ,
. , ,
, , .
, .
Real World, ;
Imaginary World, .
, , ,
,
.
:
= ,
. 50%
.
, , .

165

: .
a)
(= 1 kHz
1 V),
.

f = +1 kHz / 0.5 V
f = -1 kHz / 0.5 V.
,
, :

U+1kHz = U+1kHz_max * ej2`*1kHz*t = (0.5V)* [cos(2*1kHz*t) + j sin(2*1kHz*t)]


U-1kHz = U-1kHz_max * e-j2*1kHzt = (0.5V)* [cos(2*1kHz*t) - j sin(2*1kHz*t)]


, ,

U1kHz_max = U+1kHz_max + U-1kHz_max = 2 * 0.5V = 1V


b)
f = 10 kHz 1V.

f = +10 kHz / 0.5 V
f = -10 kHz /
0.5 V

:

U+10kHz = U+10kHz_max * ej2`*10kHz*t = (0.5V)* [cos(2*10kHz*t) + j sin(2*10kHz*t)]


U-10kHz = U-10kHz_max * e-j2*10kHz*t = (0.5V)* [cos(2*10kHz*t) - j sin(2*10kHz*t)]
,

U10kHz_max = U+10kHz_max + U-10kHz_max = 2 * 0.5V = 1V

166

, :

, , :

:
a) f = fcarrier + finf 0.5 V
b) f = fcarrier finf 0.5 V
, ,
!
f = fcarrier,

167

16.5.
, !
,
, .
,
(= LSB USB).
, :
, I (=In Phase Signal),
.
I , Hilbert Transformer,
. , ,
90 !
Q (= Quadrature Signal, ).
DSP, I Q,
( Q
90 ), ( Q -90
), , , .
, SSB

16.6. : - SSB
:
a) Iinf ( ),
(= )
.

Uinf = Iinf + j * Qinf


b) Ucarrier = Ucarrier_max * e+jct

, .
c) .
d) .
, , (
):

Uinf * Ucarrier = (Iinf + j * Qinf) * [cos(ct) + j * sin(ct)] =


[Iinf * cos(ct) Qinf * sin(ct)] + j * [Qinf * cos(ct) + Iinf * sin(ct)]
.
, (=
).

168

: 90
.
)

Upper Side Band = USB.

Lower Side Band = LSB,


- +.

16.7. - IQ
:
I Q 90 . ,
:

( )2 = I2 + Q2
(DSP): I,
Q. ,
= .

169

16.8. SSB
,
. product detector,
16.2.3.2, , SSB .
.
DSP IQ
. , , ,
.

:
Understanding the 'Phasing Method' of Single Sideband Demodulation:
http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/176.phpUnderstanding the 'Phasing Method' of Single
Sideband Demodulation aus: http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/176.php

170

16.9. (ASK)
, ON OFF.
, , (0 1)
.
.
,
. (= ),
1 V (= ). f = 1 kHz.
f = 17 200 Hz. SAQ = = 200 kW
1924 , Alexanderson Generator.
1 V.

ASK 17 200 LSB, USB;


1 kHz .
171

16.10.
: ,
. ,
.
16.10.1.
(= components / sources), ,
AM, FM PM.
PM:

[A*sin(*t)] .

V3(t). , :
2*M*V3(t) [2*M] * V3(t)
, . -
, M = 1 2 = 360 .
V3(t), , ,
!

, - .
.
1 ,
1
1 V = HIGH. t =
3 ms
1 . LOW
20 ms.
,
.
modulated source, (
components / sources), PM, 4 kHz / 1 V,
= 0, m = 2.5. , 5 A...E.

172

A:
. V3
= sin(t) f = 4 kHz.
B:

. .
:
,
. ,
4kHz ( ).
D:
.
.
E:
, . ,
,
4 kHz.

173

16.10.2.

1 2
,
, . 2
, .
2 3 4
, =
. 3 (=
). 4 ,
, .
4 5 6
, .
, . 6 ,
, , ,
.
6 8
2 4 - .
, , , , ,
. 8 ,
. ..
, :

174

( )
90 !
, :
.
16.10.3. ,
, - .
20 ms.
, : f = 1 / 20 ms = 50 Hz.
f = 500 Hz / 1 V.
f = 6 kHz 1 V.
m = 1.
FFT 0...15000 Hz

time2freq(UPM.Vt)

175

(500 Hz)
.
.
6 kHz.
(, )
m. -
m.

176

16.10.4.

,
!

,
, ,
:
FM

.

= F.

F = +-75 kHz FM +-2 kHz

FM .
FM 20 Hz 15 kHz. ,
,
:

:

Phase Deviation =
(Frequency Deviation) / (Information Frequency)
,
, ! ,
/ .
Pre Emphase FM :

(= ). FM
De Emphase (= ).
:
FM ?
:

FM = 2 * ( +
)

177

FM , 75 kHz
57 kHz (= RDS ):

b = 2 * (75 kHz + 57 kHz) = 264 kHz.


:
(FM) . ,
.
/
(PM) .
, , ,
, /.

===========================================================================

16.11. FSK = Frequency Shift Keying = Digital Frequency Modulation


, 0 1 .
Space, , Mark, . qucsstudio
modulated source , FM. ,
.

178

16.12. QAM
16.12.1. 4 QAM (= 4 PSK)

QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation,


.
PM.
PM technical handbook for qucs (
qucsstudio) , ,
:

=
, .
:
t ,
. , f = 6 kHz.
.
M = 1.
, V3(t):
45 :

V3(t) = 0.125

135 :

V3(t) = 0.375

225 :

V3(t) = 0.625

315 :

V3(t) = 0.875

( V3(t) = 1 2*1 = 360 ....)


, 4QAM.csv
PM :

179

16.12.2. 16 QAM

16 QAM .
.


V3(t) ,
, .
, :

, *csv
.
180

0000 / 0011 / 1110 / 1010


16 QAM.
f = 6 kHz 1V.
, .
:
0000 = 100% 135
0011 = 74% 200
1110 = 74% 290
1010 = 100% 315
:
16QAM_amp.csv...

... 16QAM_phase.csv

181

16.12.3. QAM
:
product detector QAM .
product detector ,
QAM .

90 .
, I Q ,
.

182

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