Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 110

--

..


2010

629.5.017:532.593

,
, - . . . ;
,

. .. ,
. . ..

, . .
: . / . . . -- : , 2010. 110 .
, . , , . ,
.
180100 .

2.1.2.3046

(2009-2010).



--

, 2010


......................................................................................................... 4
1. ................................................................................. 6
1.1. ...................................... 6
1.2. ............................................ 11
1.3. ............................................................................... 13
1.4. ................................................................................................ 15
1.5. - .................................. 17
1.6. .................................................................................... 22
1.7. .................................................................................... 24
2. .. 27
2.1. ........................................................ 27
2.2. ................................................................. 35
2.2.1. ................................... 35
2.2.2. ............................................................... 40
2.3. ........................................................................... 45
2.4. - ................................. 50
2.5. - .......................... 53
2.6. .. 55
3. ............................................... 57
...................................................................... 57
3.1. , ................................... 60
3.1.1. .................... 60
3.1.2. .................................................................... 67
3.1.3. ....................... 70
3.2. ................................................................ 78
3.2.1. .................... 78
3.2.2. .................................................................... 89
3.2.3. ........................................................ 91
3.2.4. ............................................................................. 98
3.3. ........................................................ 102
3.3.1. ............................... 102
3.3.2. ............................................................................................ 106
............................................................................................. 109
........................................................................... 109


.
. :
1. . . ,
. . , , .
2. ,
, , , , , .
3.
.
4. (
, , ).
5. , ,
, , , .
6. ,
, , , .;

:
;
;
:
;
- : ;
( ).
,
.
( , ),
.

. .
,
, , . ,
, , , .

1.
1.1.
, . () . , , .
, .

: .

, . , - ,
. , , , .
, . . ,
, , .
: ,
.
.
.
,
( 1.1).
, .
c ,
:
g
(1.1)
c=
= 1.25 .
2
.

. , .
:
. , ,
, . , , () ( 1.2).
,
, , .

1.1. () ()

1.2.

, ().

( ).

, (. 1.3, ).
. 1.3, . . 1.4 , . . ,
(. 1.4,
). . , - (. 1.4, ).
(. 1.4, ).

. 1.3. () ()

)

. 1.4. (), () () [5]

, , . :
, .
( 1.5, 1.6).

1.5.

1.6.
, , ,
( ).
, ,
,

(. 1.7 1.8). 1.8
, , 15, 30 45

. [19].

1.7.

1.8. [19]

10

1.2.
.
, .
. ( )
( ) :
1

p ( x, y, z, t) =
+
( ) 2 + gz ,
(1.2)
t
2

, , t , g .
( 1.9) , :

( x, y, z) = 0

(1.3)


, , .
Sw . .
-,
. -,
. ,
- (
).

zw (x, y, t)

Sq

hw
x

Sw

H
Sb

. 1.9.

11

( ) , p = 0:

1
( ) 2 + gz w = 0
2

Sw ,

(1.4)

zw .
,
(1.2) (1.4) Sw.
w .

( x, y, z) = w

Sw

(1.5)

Sw

( x, y , z)
= vnw ,
n

Sw ,

(1.6)

vnw .
R (
S)

lim = 0;

=0
R n
lim

S .

(1.7)

Sb,
, (1.6)
( vnb = 0 ):

( x, y , H )
= 0,
n

Sb .

(1.8)

Sq . (1.6) vnq (t ) .
(, ) , . - ( , , , .).

(
zw (x, y, t = 0) = 0, t = 0).

12

1.3.

, ,
. ,
,
,
, , .
,
:
- (hw/ 0, hw ) z = 0;
-
v 2 = ( ) = 0 .
2

, , :
-
;
- ( );
- Sw .
(1.3),
(1.2)

p ( x , y , z , t ) =
+ gz .
t

(1.9)

z=0 :
(1.4)

(1.6)

t + gz w = 0 ,

(1.10)

( x, z) z w
=
.
z
t

(1.11)

(1.10) (1.11) . (1.10)

zw

zw
1 2
1
=
=
.
;
g t2
t
g t

(1.11):

2
g
+
=0
z t2

z = 0.

13

(1.12)

(1.8) :

v = grad ( ) = 0 .

(1.13)


(1.3) (1.12) . : :
rg kz
(x , z , t ) =
e cos (kx t ) ,

(1.14)

p ( x , z , t ) = gr e kz sin (kx t ) ,

(x , z , t ) =

(1.15)

rg cosh (kz + kH )
cos (kx t ) , (1.16)

cosh (kH )

cosh (kz + kH )
sin (kx t ) . (1.17)
cosh (kH )

p ( x , z , t ) = gr

z w ( x , t ) = r sin (kx t ) ,

(1.18)

r , = 2 , k= 2
( , 2 ):
, :
=

,
w

(1.20)

w .
( ):
k = 2 g ;
(1.21)

k tanh (kH ) = 2 g .

(1.22)

,
, : , :

c=

14

g
1.25 ;
2

(1.23)

g
2H
tanh
.
2

c=

(1.24)

( H 0 ) :
c = gH .

(1.25)

(1.23)
1.1 , , . ,
, ( , ), .
,
, .
1.1
,
, /
,

w ,

25
6.25
12
4

50
8.8
16
5.7

100
12.5
24
8

200
18
34
11.3

. ,
. , :

hw = 0,170, 75 .

(1.26)

hw/ .
1.4.


.
(1.18) :

z w ( x , t ) = r cos (k 1 x 1 t ) + r cos (k 2 x 2 t ) =

2
+ 2
k k2
k + k2
= 2 r cos 1
x 1
t cos 1
x 1
t =
2
2
2
2

= A ( x , t ) cos (k x t ) ,

15

1 2 . ,
(,t) k = k =
( 1.10). , ( ).
:
1
1
k = (k1 + k 2 );
= (1 + 2 );
2
2
1
=
= 1 - ;
- ;
1 2
c=

- ; u =

(1 2 ) 2 =
(k1 k 2 ) 2 k

= 1/k

=1/(k1-k2)

1.10.
(1.20) (1.21)
u=g

1 2
1 2
1 g 1
=g
=
= c.
2
2
( 1 2 )( 1 + 2 ) 2 2
1 2

,
, :
u=

d d kg
1
=
=
dk
dk
2

g
1
=
2
k

2 g

1 g 1
= c.
2 2

(1.27)

,
( ) ( ). , ,
t ut. u , , - , -

16

, ,
, , ( 1.11).

u = c/2

ut
t
t

1.11.
( ) u,
.

1
kH
u= +
c.
kH
2
sinh
2
(
)

( k 0 ): u = c = gH .
1.5. -


, - . .
, n .
h ( 1.12):
hi1 hi < hi1 + h ,

i .
fi =

hi:
ni i.

17

ni
100% ,
n

pi =

hi :

fi
.
h

p
f
ni

h1

n1

n2
h2

hi

1.12.
, h0 :
P ( h h0 ) =

h0

p ( h ) dh .
0

, ( 1.13):
F (h ) = P(h hi ) .
:
dF (h)
p ( h) =
.
dh
, h0 , :

Q ( h0 ) = P ( h h0 );

Q (h) = 1 F (h) .


, , .
h:

h =

h max

p ( h ) h dh .
0

:
Dh =

h max

p ( h ) (h h

) 2 dh .

( ):

18

h = Dh .

p(h)

hm h

h1/3

h3%
h,

, %
Q

h,

1.13.
. ,
,
( 1000 ),
.
( , h = h h ):
( ):
2

Q ( h 0 ) = e 0 , 25 h 0 ;
:

(1.28)

Q (0 ) = e

0 , 757 02 , 3

Q ( 0 ) = e

0 , 712 02

:
.
( z -
):
h3% = 5,29 z - 3 %;
h1 / 3 = 4 z - 1/3 ;

19

h = 2 z = 2,5 z - ;

hm = 2 z - (. 1.14).
, , , , , .. ( 1.10).
:

z w (x , t ) =

rn sin (k n x n t ) .

n =1

t
1.14.
: ; -
, , .
. , , ,
:
2

z w ( x , t ) = r ( ) sin
x t d .
(1.29)
g

.
:
1
E 1 = gr 2 .
2
( ) , :

20

1
g rn2 .
2
n
:
e = g S ( ) d = gD r .
e=

1
Dr , S ( ) = r 2 ( )
2
. ( ) . . 1.15
.
, ,
, , , ,
. 1.16
.
, : II (II ); 12
(12 ); (JONSWAP). [17].
S()

1.15.

21

S,
2

, 1/
1.16.

1.6.

.
( ) .

, . ( ) ( 1.17). , :

cos 2 (kx t ) .
z w ( x , t ) = r sin (kx t ) +

.
, .


.
.
h/ = 1/7 ( 1.18).

22

,
(
).
z
r 2

h
x

r
1.17.
z
= 30

1.18.
.
1/10.
: 1/20 ;
1/30 .
.
, , , , ,

.
( ).
, , .

. ,
(1.26).

23

1.7.

. , ,
, ( ).
. ,
, ,
( 1.19). vp,
.
, , .
, , ( 1.20).
,
h1/3.
(1.27)
3000 . 8-9 .
,
.

( abnormal, freak, rogue waves,
, , ).
[22].
h
h0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0

0.5

1.0

V, /

1.19.

24

, - ,

. , .
, 25
, ,
. ,
, .
. ,
, .
,
(,
II , ) . , ,
.
, ,
. .

1.20.
, , ,
(1.27). 1995

25


. h1/3 = 11-12 .
25 . , .
. , ..
3-4
. , , . 1.21
.
-, -,
. .

hw,
,

1.21. 29.8

26

2.


. ,
. [2, 17].

(, ,
, ).
,
, . . ,
.

.
. CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamic). ( , ), ( , , .). CFD
.
.


.
NWT (Numerical Wave Tank) ( , ).
. NWT .
2.1.

: 1)
O x y z ; 2) , G . O x y ,

27

. G
, : - ; - ;
- .
. x, y , z , , :
x1

x = x(x,y,z) = x(x1,x2,x3) = {x} = x2 ;
x
3
1

= (,,) = x(1, 2, 3) = {} = 2 .

3

x = x g + x = x g + L

{x} = { x g } + [L ] { } ,

(2.1)

x g1

x g = {x g } = x g 2 ;
x
g3

l 11 l 12 l 13

L = [L] = l 21 l 2 2 l 2 3 ;
l 31 l 3 2 l 33

l i j = cos (x i , j ) - . xg G, x .
,
. , ,
.
(. 2.1)

q =q (q1, q2 , q3, q4 , q5 , q6 ) = q (1, 2 , 3, , , ).

:
1 - (surging);
2 - (swaying);
3 (heaving);
(rolling);
(pitching);
(yawing).

28

(2.2)

() vg =
vg (vg, vg, vg) = (, , ).
1

x1

x2
x3
. 2.1.
, ( )
:
d/dt = d/dt + ,
d
.
, :

v = d x dt = x& = x& g + x& = v g + d' x dt + x ,


a = &x& = &x& g + &x& = a g + d ' 2 x dt 2 + d ' x dt +

+ & x + d ' x dt + ( x ),

(2.3)

(2.4)

ag , & x
( , & = d ' dt ), ( x ) , d'2 x dt 2 - ,
2 d ' x dt .
.
:

29

m a g = m d ' v g dt + m v g = d ' Q dt + Q = F ,
I & = I d ' dt + I = d ' H dt + H = M ,

(2.5)

m , I :
I

I = I
I

m 0 0
m = 0 m 0 ;
0 0 m

I
I
I

I ,
I

(2.6)

Q , H , F
, , M , m , Iij
- . :

m g = m (v& g + v g v g ) = F ,

m g = m (v& g + v g v g ) = F ,
m g = m (v& g + v g v g ) = F ,

(
(
(

)
)= M
)= M

I & + (I I ) + I (& ) + I (& + ) + I 2 2 = M ,


I & + (I I ) + I (& ) + I (& + ) + I
I & + (I I ) + I (& ) + I (& + ) + I

m S q&& + b = F
:
m 0 0 0
0 m 0 0

0 0 m 0

0 0 0 I
0 0 0 I

0 0 0 I

0
0
0
I

I
I

0 ag
0 ag
0 ag
+
I &
I &

I &

30

(2.7)

F
0

F
0
+
,
2
2 =
(
)

+
+

I
I
I
I
I

M
(I I ) I + I + I 2 2 M

2
2
(I I ) I + I + I M

(
(
(

)
)
)

mS () , q&& , b , F
.
(2.7)
, : FT ; FG ; ,
FW ; , FF :

F = FT + FG + FW + FF .

(2.8)

FT .
, FW FF .
( , ,
, , ,
) .

,
, . ,
. , ,
.
. ,
.
,
. FW .

31

FF , .
FW , . ,
() .

( ).

( ) .
, ,

.
, ,
,

. ,
, .
FW, , :
F W = p n dS , M W = p n r dS ,
(2.9)
Ss

Ss

FW M W , n r , Ss .

:
1

p =
( ) 2 + gz = gz ,
+
(2.10)
t
2

, , t , g - , [27],
( t = t ) (v2/2) .
t
:
, ,
. n
( ).

32

( x, y, z) = 0

(2.11)

( x, y, z) = w ,

Sw

(2.12)

( x, y, z)
= vs ,
S s ,
n

lim = 0;
lim
=0
S ,
R
R n

(2.13)
(2.14)

, S = Ss + Sw + S , Ss, Sw S R , w vs - . w
vs .
Sb,
, (2.13)
: vb = 0 .
Sq ( 2.2).
(2.13) vq (t ) .

. 2.2
(2.11) .
t
(2.11) (2.14) t. t

33

(
FW ,
).
(2.11) (2.14)
t ,
(2.12) (2.13), w , vs ,
tw vts . ,
.
ti
(2.7) (2.10) .
( t0): ,
(2.12) (2.13). ,
w0 = 0 .
ti :

wi = w(i 1) +

ti 1

d
d
dt w(i 1) +
t ,

dt
dt w(i 1)

t .
ti-1. ( )
d dx dy dz
2
=
+
+
+
= t + ( ) .
dt
t x dt y dt z dt
p = 0. (2.10)

t = tw =

1
( w ) 2 gz .
2

(2.15)

d
1
= ( ) 2 gz . (2.12)
dt
2
:

t .
w(i 1)

1
2

wi w(i 1) + ( )2 gz

(2.16)

(2.13)
(2.3) (2.4):
vs = n v = n (v g + d' x dt + x ),

vts = n a = n a g + d' 2 x dt 2 + 2 d' x dt + & x + ( x )

34

1
2
( )
n 2

n d' x dt
[27]:
vs = n (v g + x ) ,
(2.17)
vts = n (a g + & x ) + q ,
(2.18)

1
2
( ) , (2.19)
n 2

kn ,
d' x dt = v g x . (2.18) , (2.19) ,
.

q = n ( ( x ) + 2 d' x dt ) k n (d' x dt )
2

2.2.

,
. 2.1,
. , , (Numerical Wave Tank).

(2.7) (2.10) ( ) , (
(2.11) (2.14)).
2.2.1.
t
(2.11) (2.14). ,
(2.14) .

(x) = 0

( x) =

S ,

(x)
=v
n

Sv ,

x
( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) , S = S + Sv , , v .

35

, ,
- [4].
:

c ( ) ( )+ ( x)v ( , x )d S ( x ) + ( x )v ( , x )d S ( x ) =
S

Sv

v( x) ( , x)d S ( x) + v ( x) ( , x)d S ( x)

Sv

c ( ) ( )+ ( x)v ( , x )d S ( x )= v ( x ) ( , x )d S ( x ) ,
S

(2.20)


( 1, 2 , 3 ) , c( ) (
c = 0.5, c = 1),
, v =
.
n

[4]:

( , x ) =

1
,
4 R ( , x )

(2.21)

, , x (
), R .
(2.20) . ,
.
()
(2.20). [4]:
(x) v(x) ( Sv S )
:
n

(x)= i u i ( x),
i=1
n

(2.22)

v( x)= v i u i ( x),
i =1

i vi - ()
S, ui (x) - () ( i
S, ), n - -

36

S. (2.22) () k
m

k ( )= jk u jk ( )={U }Tk { }k ,
j =1

vk ( )= v j k u j k ( ) ={U } {v}k ,

(2.23)

T
k

j =1

- (.2.2), m - .
(2.23) (2.20).
, . (2.20) i :
N

c ( i ) ( i ) +

{U }k

k =1 k

v ( i , k ) d S k { }k =

{U }k ( i , k ) d S k {v}k ,

i= 1, 2, n,

k =1 k

(2.24)

N - . (2.24)

[H ]{ }=[G ]{v} ,

(2.25)

[H] [G] - , n n ,
{} {v} - v.

( ), , ( , , .) (2.23) (, .) [4].
(2.24) . .
. (2.23) m = 4 ,
[4]

1 1+
{U }=
4 1+
1

1
1 +
1 +
1

+
2
2 +
2

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

(2.26)

1 2 - (.2.3).

37

, (2.26)
v, [4]:
4

x k ( ) = x j k u j k ( ) ={U }k {x }k .
T

(2.27)

j =1

y z 1).
2
a

-1

b2
a

-1

x
y

d S k = J k d1 d 2
. 2.3.

d k = J

d 1 d 2 .

(2.28)

J ( k ) [4]:

J =

g 12 + g 22 + g 32 ,

(2.29)

{x } :
{x1 , x2 , x3 } { x , y , z }. , .
1)

38

y z z y
;

1 2 1 2
z x x z
g2=

;
1 2 1 2
x y y x
g3=

.
1 2 1 2
g1 =

(2.30)

(2.27)
z (2.30) ,
g1=

1
(A 1 + B 1 1 + C 1 2 ),
8

1
(A 2 + B 2 1 + C 2 2 ),
8
1
g 3 = A 3 + B 3 1 + C 3 2 ,
8

g 2=

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

B3

C1

C2

C3

( y y ) (z
(z z ) ( x
(x x ) ( y
( y y ) (z
(z z ) ( x
( x x )( y
( y y ) (z
1

(z
(x

4
4

)(
x )( y

(2.31)

) (
x ) (z
y ) (x
z ) + (y
x ) + (z
y ) + (x
z ) + (y

) (z z ) ,
z ) (x x ) ,
x ) (y y ),
y ) (z z ) ,
z ) (x x ) ,
x ) (y y ),
y ) (z z ) ,

z4 y2 y4
4

) (
y ) + (x

)(
x ) (y

)
y ).

z1 x 2 x 3 + z 2 z 3 x 1 x 4 ,
1

.
(2.24), , ,

39

c i i H
k =1

k =1

Hik

T
i k {U }k
4
1 2

T
{U }k 4
1 2

J
R

( 1 ; 2 )

3
ik

R i k ( 1 ; 2 )

d 1d

d 1d

{ }k =
(2.32)

{v }k ,

i = 1 , 2 , . . . n , n - ,
- i k ,

Rik ( 1 , 2 ) = (1i x1k (1 , 2 )) 2 + ( 2i x2 k (1 , 2 )) 2 + ( 3i x3k (1 , 2 )) 2 i k .


i ,
(2.32) [4]:
1 1

1 1

F ( 1 ; 2 ) d 1 d 2

i =1 j = 1

F ( 1i ; 2 j ) w i w j ,

(2.33)

1i , 2j - , wi , wj - , n, m -
1 , 2 .
i ,
, (2.32) . ,
, , Hik = 0.
(2.32) [4].
2.2.2.
:
;
( ); ; ; .
- 2.4. (2.7)
, , -.
FW
(2.9). (2.10).
( ,

40

, , , ).
,
.
.


(2.7)

t = t + t
2.4 -
(2.10)
t = t , .

:

(t i ) (t i 1 )

.
t
t


(ti ti+1) ,
.
t .

.
, t (2.11) (2.14)
t:

41

t ( x, y, z) = 0

(2.34)

t ( x, y, z ) = tw ,
t ( x, y , z)
= vts ,
n

Sw

(2.35)

Ss ,

(2.36)

.
(2.21) .
, tw vts (2.15) (2.18).
tw .
vts . .
[27]. ,
& ag
.
.
- , 2.5.

. - ( ) -- ( ).

t Tw 20 , Tw . t
x . :
x
.
t 1 .6
g
-
[27]. : xwj(t)
; wj(t) - ; q(t), q& (t ) , q&&(t ) - ,
; S(t) = S(xwj(t), q(t)) , ; (S(t)) t(S(t))
S(t),
.
t :

42

- :

xwj1 = xwj(t) + 1 xwj1 ;

xwj1 = (S(t)) t ;

1
( (S(t)))2) t ; wj1 = wj(t) + 1 wj1 ;
2
2
1
= q&& ((S(t)),t(S(t))) t ;
q& 1 = q& (t ) + q& 1 ;

wj1 = (-gzj +

q& 1

q 1 = q& (t ) t ;

q1

2
1
= q ( t) + q 1 ;
2

S1 = S(xwj1, q 1) - ;
(S1) ; t(S1) ;
- :
xwj2 = (S1) t ;
xwj2 = xwj(t) + c1 xwj1 + c2 xwj2;
wj2 = (-gzj1 + 1 ( (S1))2) t ; wj2 = wj(t) + c1 wj1 + c2 wj2;

q& 2
q2
S2 =
(S2)

= q&& ((S1),t(S1)) t ;
q& 2 = q& (t ) + c1 q& 1 + c2 q& 2 ;
= q& 1 t ;
q 2 = q(t) + c1 q 1 + c2 q 2 ;
S(xwj2, q2) - ;
; t(S2) ;

- :
xwj3 = (S2) t ;
xwj3 = xwj(t) + c3 xwj2 + c4 xwj3;
wj3 = (-gzj2 + 1 ( (S2))2) t ; wj3 = wj(t) + c3 wj2 + c4 wj3;

q& 3
q3
S3 =
(S3)

= q&& ((S2),t(S2)) t ;
q& 3 = q& (t ) + c3 q& 2 + c4 q& 3 ;
= q& 2 t ;
q 3 = q(t) + c3 q 2 + c4 q 3 ;
S(xwj3, q3) - ;
; t(S3) ;

- :
xwj4 = (S3) t ; xwj (t+t) = xwj(t) + 1 ( xwj1 + c5 xwj2 + c6 xwj3 + xwj4);
6

wj4 = (-gzj3 + 1 ( (S3))2)t ;


2

wj(t+t) = wj(t)+ 1 (wj1 +c5wj2 + c6wj3+ wj4);


6

q& 4 = q&& ((S3),t(S3)) t ; q& (t+t) = q& (t ) + 1 ( q& 1 + c5 q& 2 + c6 q& 3 + q& 4);
q 4 = q& 3 t ;

6
q (t+t) = q(t) + 1 ( q 1 + c5 q 2 + c6 q 3 + q 4);
6

S(t+t) = S(xwj3, q3) - ;


(S(t+t)) ; t(S(t+t)) .
k 2.1.

43

2.5 -

44

2.1

- 1 ( 2 -1)
2
-

1
2

1
2

2- 2

2+ 2

(2- 2 ) - 2
2

1
2

(2+ 2 )

2.3.


.
. , , 1.3.
(2.7)
:

m q&& = F

0
m 0 0

m 0 m g

m
0

m g
0
m g
I
I

m g a g F
m g a g F

0 a g F
=
I & M ,
I & M

I & M

(2.37)

m , q&& , F .
(2.8), FW , , (. 2.6):

FW = FW0 + FD + FK + FS ,

(2.38)

FW0 ,

( ), FD ( -

45

), ,
, FK ,
, FS .
(2.9). (2.10), :

vc
p =

g ( + z g + ) ,

(2.39)

vc - . , (2.38),
:
6

= W0 + D + K = W0 + D + i ,
i =1

i , i.
W0 (1.3)
(1.12). (1.14).
i (1.3), (1.12) :

i ( x, y , z)
= vn
n

Ss ,

(2.40)

vn .
D (1.3),
(1.12) . (2.13) ,
K

W 0 D
+
=0
n
n

Ss .

[17] . , , (, .), (, ). (2.37)

m q&& + a q&& + b q& + c q = FW0D (hw , w ) ,

46

(2.41)

FW0

W0

FD

FW

F
2.6

a ( ), b ,
, c ( ), q&& , q& q , , FW0D (hw , w )
, hw , w .
. , [2, 7, 17].
, ,
. ,
(2.41), . , , - , .
66 , .
, , (2.41)
. , (1, 3, 5), 1, 3 ( -

47

2.1 (2.2)). (2, 4, 6) 2, .


,
. ( ).

a33&&g + b33&g + c33 g + a35&& + b35& + c35 = Fd cos t + Fi sin t ;


a53&&g + b53&g + c53 g + a55&& + b55& + c55 = M d cos t + M i sin t ,
ij , bij cij ,
( a, b c (2.41)), Fd , Fi , Md Mi
, .
, , ,

- (4 2).
, .
, ,
( ):

( m + a33 )&& + b33& + gS 0 = z w ( gS 0 a33 02 + i 0b33 ) ,

(2.42)

m , S0 , zw = r e i0t
, 0 .

, :

( I + a 44 )&& + b44& + mgh = mgh ,

(2.43)

h , -
[2, 16, 17], = 0 e i0t
, 0 = 2r/ .
(2.41) (2.43)
. :

( m + a33 )&& + b33& + gS 0 = 0 ;


( I + a )&& + b & + mgh = 0 ;

44

44

( I + a55 )&& + b55& + mgH = 0 ,

48

(2.44)

H .
= 2/:

3 = 2

m + a33
;
gS0

4 = 2

I + a44
mgh

5 = 2

I + a55
mgH

(2.45)

- , ( 7-8%). :

2
(m + a22 )
I + a44 a24
4 = 2
.
mgh

I =

:
:
[16]:
:

m 2
2
B 4 z go
;
12

2B2 H s
;
= m
+

11
,
4
12

I 0,125mB 2 ;

I = 0 ,065 mL 2 ,

B , zgo , , , Hs
, L .
(2.45) , ij
, . :

3 2

(T + 0,4B ) ,

3 2,5 T ;

5 2

(
T + 0,42 2 B ) ,

5 2,5 T ,

5 k T , k = 3,14 (3 2 ) + 2,53

49

B
;
3 T

k B
h

(2.46)

, , k , [2, 10, 16, 17]. k


2.2.
2.2 k


0,75 0,85
0,8 0,9
0,8 0,86

(2.46)

. .
, 4.
2.4. -


(2.41) q . , 0, -
().
(, ) ,

. 2.7.

r,
a = q / r .
2.7, , . ,

,
.
.
,
,
.

50

2.7 :
; ;

. . . ( 1,5).
. ( ). (
) .
: ;
;
, . 2.8 ,
, ,
, . , , .
,

( ), .

2.9. , ,
,

.

51

2.8 :
; ( )

2.9 :
;

52

2.5. -


( ),
(
2.10).

2.10

(1.28) (1.29). (, , .) , , n.1

q (t ) = q n ( n ) sin (k n x n t ) = q ( ) sin (kx t )d .

( ):

q (t ) = q n ( n ) sin ( n t ) .
n

,
:

q (t ) = A (i ) z w ( , t ) = An rn sin ( n t ) ,
n

(i) ( ), zw
, rn , n
( ). . :
.
() .
1

53

A (i ) = A1 ( ) + iA 2 ( ) = A ( ) e i ( ) ,
|A()| ,
, () - .

Sw() (. 1.11). Sq(). :

S q ( ) = A ( ) S w ( ) .
2

(2.47)

,
. :
1. . n (n = 1,
2, N) .
2. n . . ,
.
3. ( ) :

S w ( n ) = S w ( n )

S w ( n )
,
1 + 4 nv g

d
=
d

n = 1, 2, N,

v , n = (2 v cos )/g
, .
4. (2.47) .
5. , :
D q = S q ( )d S q n ;
:

q = Dq ;

3 %:

qa 3% = 2,64 q ;

qa = 1,25 q ;

Dq&
Dq

Dq& ( , S q& = 2 S q ).

54

2.6.

(2.41 2.43)
, , , . (
).
, ,
.
, . , , . , ,
, , 2.1.
, . , ,
.
, :
-
;
- ,
, ,
. .
, , - ( , .), .
(, , , .) , .
. ,
( , , ,

55

, .). , , -
.
. :
- ,
;
- . ,
,

( ,
);
- , .
,
:
- , , ;
- ( , , ,
.), , .
;
- . ,

;
- .
, , ;
- ,
, ;
- ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- .

56


. .

3.

.
, . ,
, , .
: ; ; ; ;
;
, , - ; , , , ; ; .

, :
(, , , , , .);
( , , ,
, , .);
, , , ( , ,
.).
(. 3.1)1. ,
1

57

= + kv cos ;

.
c + v cos

(3.1)

= 0 ( )
= 180 ( )

= 90 ()

= 135 (
)
= 45 ( )
3.1
.
, .
.

, ,
(3.1):

v cos =

=
1, 25 .

(3.2)


(. 3.2).
. . :

58


, ,

;

;
.
, ,
() . 3.3.

= 8

= 4

= 16

= 12

3.2

59

3.3 ,

- 190

3.1. ,

3.1.1.
. ,
.
. , , .
.

60

, l:

M = mgl = mgh sin ,

(3.3)

h = r a , r ,
. (
). .
r Ix :

r = Ix V ,

(3.4)

V .
(3.4) (3.3) :

M = gI x sin mga sin = M + M .

(3.5)

,
.
, M
( . -
Ix .
( ) .
, (3.3) (3.5) ( 1015).

. . , ,
. , ,
.
() , , , , , , , .
,

,
. -

61


(
). .
, .
. ,
, .
, (, )
( 3.4).
( ,
) ( 3.5). ( 3.6), : ;
; , .

3.4

3.5

3.6

62

.
, ,
. , ( 3.7).

t=0
= max
d
dt

=0

d 2
= max
dt 2

t = T/4
=0
d

= max
dt
d 2
=0
dt 2

t = T/2
= max
d
dt

=0

d 2
= max
dt 2

t = 3T/4
=0
d

= max
dt
d 2
=0
dt 2

t=T
= max
d
dt

=0

d 2
= max
dt 2

3.7


. ( 3.8).
. (1.20) (2.46) ,
200 , ,
, 12 . 16 .
3.9 . , , .
, ,
, . . ,
, ,
,
, .

63

t=0
=0

d
= max
dt
d 2
=0
dt 2

t = T/4
= max
d

t = T/2
=0
d

t = 3T/4
= max
d

dt

dt
d 2
=0
dt 2

d
= max
dt 2

=0

d
= max
dt 2
2

= max

dt
2

=0

t=T
=0

d
= max
dt
d 2
=0
dt 2

3.8
,

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

zg

3.9

. (
), ,
.

.

64

, , ,
.
( ) , , .
.
.
FD .
. 3.10
CFD. , :
;
;
;
.

3.10
3.11
.
,
, , .
,
( ). b ( 3.11). R1

65

R2, (
, , , , .).

.
: . . , .
( 3.12). , .
.

3.11 ,

3.12 ,

66

. , , ( 3.13).

3.13

3.1.2.
, . , , , , .

. ,
. ,
, .

.
.
,
.
,
- .
, [16].

67

. (2.43),
h, ,
, :

( I + a 44 )&& + b44& + mg (h + h(t ) ) = 0 ,

(3.6)

h(t ) = (1 + S 0 z g m ) h .
(3.7)
(3.7) , (3.6)
, .
, , . , ,
. ,
. :
0 = 2, , 2/3,

,

(0 = 2). 1,9 0 2,1. , (. 3.14).

3.14 :
; ;

68

( (3.7)) .

. .
,
.
(2.46)
, :
B = 6 Th .
, , , .
, ,
,
[15].

, .
, . ,
. ,
. , ( 3.15).

3.15

69

3.1.3.
, , ( , ). .
, . : 1) , ; 2)
,
.
.
, , .
nc,

:

nc =

c .


. :

k =

a0 ac
,
a0

(3.8)

0 .
, , . , ,
, , .
bc b0 , (. 3.16):

bc =

ln

i
,
i+ 1

b0 =

70

i + i +1
1
ln
.
i+ 2 + i+ 3
2

3.16. :
,

3.17. ()
[25]

71

a =

1 +

n2

+ 2b

(3.9)

n , b = bc b = b0 .

. 3.17.
( 3.1):
,
. ,
( (), );
, , ,
( , , ).
3.1 [26]

- ,

-
,

% , %

30-40

40-60

1-4

30-50

1-2

70-80

1-4

>90

1-3

45


- ,
.

72

(
), , (
),
. U-
(. 3.18) -.
.
, .

, .
. , .
3.17, ,
. ,
. ,
, . , ,
.
(. 3.19) , ,
.
, . .
,
.
, , , ..,
, .

, . , -
[11].
, .

. , (. 3.20 3.21).

73

3.18.

3.19.

3.20.
(. 3.22). ,
.
, .

74

3.21.
() ()

3.22.
() , .
, (a). (c) .
, ( , ),

, .

75

.
, .
, , . ,
, .
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
, . . , . 20 30%.
( )
, , . (. 3.23, ).

. . 3.24
.
, 10 ,
, , .


. . -

. .
.
, , (. 3.25).
, . , . , [6].

76

. 3.23. () ()

. 3.24. (1)
(2).
(3)
, ,
.
, ,
( ,
).
20%. , , .
,
.
(. 3.25, ), . ,
,

77

. ()
(. 3.25, ) . ( ),
(. 3.25, ).

. 3.25.
3.2.

3.2.1.
(2.46)
, ,
( ) ( )
.
,
, ,
.
, (. . 2.7 2.9), ,
.
, , , . 3.4
3.26,: , . , . ,
.
. , ,
(. 3.26,). (

78

) ,
. , , , (. 3.26,).
( )
. .
,
, .

. 3.26. :
; ( );

( )
.

. ,
.

(), .
( ) .
(), .

79

,
. , ( ). , , (. 3.27, 3.28). ,
,
, , .

. 3.27. Zumwalt

. 3.28. Bourbon Orca

80


. .
.
( ) , ,
.

.

,
. Msw . Msw Mw.
() Msl
Mgw:
M = Msw + Mw + Msl + Mgw.

(3.10)

, , . , (. 3.29).
( ). ,
.
.
, . .
. .

[9].

. ,
:

81

,
.

(3.10) ,
(. 3.30).

. 3.29.

. 3.30. World Glory


, , ,
(. 3.31).
, ,
:
1)
, ;
2) ,
, ;
3) ( , )

( );

82

4) (),
, [10].
Mw
= 1,25 L
=L

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

0,25

Fr

. 3.31.
[9]

, .
/L, ,
.
.

,
(, , .) .
,
.

,
.

.
. .

83


,

, .

[19]: 1)
; 2) .
, , .
. ,
, , , ,

.
, ,
.
, . , , .
.
. 3.32 3.33 [24].
(. 3.34). .
( = 14 ; = 9,7 ; L =
80 ):

3.32

84

3.33

. 3.34 : ;
;
[14];

[19]

85

) ;
) ;
) , ,
,
[14];
) ,
[19].
3.35 3.39 , 6 100 6 .
:
-
, ,
. ( 3.35 3.39);

3.35 (
3.34, ) 6
- .
( 3.35 3.37
, );

86

3.36 (
3.34, ) 4

3.37 ( 3.34, ) 5

87

3.38 ( 3.34, ) 5

3.39 ( 3.34, ) 6

88

- ( 3.34, ) ( 3.34, ), , . ()
,
,
;
- .
:
- ; . (
)
.
- ( 3.34, ),
,
.

;
- , , ,
, -
,
;
- , 3.34,
, ,
.
3.2.2.

. .
: 1)
4

4 = n ,

n = 2 ,3 ,... ,

(3.11)
c+v
( : 4 = 2); 2) .
(3.11) (2.46)
, [13]:

89

Fr =

L k

Lh

LB

1
2

(3.12)

.

( ).
, ,
. , 4 = 2, .
.
, .

(. 3.40, 3.41).
3.42
150 225 9 (Fr = 0,2).
, 60.

3.40

90

3.41

3.42 [28]
3.2.3.
. (.
3.43).
(. 3.36).
,

91

.
. :
, ,
, .
: 1) ; 2) ,
. ,
, , , . 2 4 /.
:

T ( x) + 0 (t ) + x (t ) w ( x, t ) < 0 ,
() , 0(t), (t) , w(x,t) .
( 0,2 ).
. v
1
pmax = c p v 2 .
2
cp . 3.44 .
,
. .
.

,
, (, .) [18] ,
.
,
(. 3.45). ,

92

,
.
,
(. 3.46).
,
.
. .
.

3.43

3.44

93

3.45

3.46
() : ()
(). t = 38

94

( ) . . ,
1 .
500 .
, , . , , ,
. , . . ,
.
. .
.

. , , . . ,
. , ,
.
,
.
, ,
. . , ,
.

95

, ,
.
.
.

. . ( ).
, .
, ,
. , .
. , ,
, , - .
3 10
.
, . , . . .
,
, ,
.

:
1. , (
), , . . , ,
, , .
2. ( , )

96

. .
3.
.
,
, ,
. , , ,
, .
(
). ( ).
, , :
;
. ;

;
,
. , , , , , .
,
. ,
,
, , .

: 1) ; 2) (); 3) ; 4) ().
,
,
. , , , , ,
(
L/H). ,

97

.
, , , .
.
3.2.4.
. , , ,
. , ,
,
.
, . .
, ,
, ,
.

. 3.47. ( )
(. 3.48).
, [17].
, , .
r zw :

r = z w = z w 3 + x .
:

h = r H ,

98

H . (.
3.49)

hmax = k 0 h .
k0 . 0,6 < < 0,8 [17]:
L
L

+ Fr 2 .
3
g
g

hmax,
.
. 3.50.
k0 = 1 +

0,45

3.47.

99

3.48.
hmax
h
H

3.49.

hm

3.50.

100

h( x ) = k h ( x ) hmax = k 0 k h h ,

2
p ( x ) = k p ( x ) hmax
.

. 3.51 , 10, 30 50. kh kp .


, . 3.50 3.51
.
(. 3.52) . .

kh = 0,37
kp = 0,45

kh = 0,28
kp = 0,28

kh = 0,33
kp = 0,4

3.51. :
) ; ) ) ,
10, 30 50
( 0,3 ) [23]

101

3.52.
,

. ,

.
. , .
( ),
.
3.3.

3.3.1.

( ).
, .

(. 3.53),

102

. . 3.54
. ,
.
. , ,
,
.

3.53.

3.54.
, , 180135, 60120 %
. .
. 3.55.
, ,
.

103

3.55. -

104


, .
(3.11) ,
= ( v ) :

Fr =

1
n

2
k g

Lh
LB

, n = 1, 2, 3,

. 3.56.

,
60

40

20

-20

-40

-60
0

250

500

750

1000

1250

t,

3.56.

105

3.3.2.
- ,
.
, . , . .
: 1) ; 2) , , . , 50
.

, 0,6 0,8 .
. ,
, , .
, ,
.
.
( 0,6 0,8 )
, .
,
.
.
( ,
), (
).
, , . 3.57 3.58 ,
, - . ,
.

106

3.57.

3.58.
45
.
(. 3.59). [13],
1,0 1,3 .
( ).
3.60 3.61 .

3.59. ,
(
)

107

3.60.

3.61.

108

,
.
,
,
,
.
. , , .
, . .
,
: kks@knastu.ru, chizhium@rambler.ru.

1. .. . .: , 1986. 160 .
2. .., ..
. 2. - .: , 1975.
3. .., .. . .: , 1982. 288 .
4. ., ., . :
. . - .: , 1987. 524 .
5. - . / . -. .: , 1986. 184 .
6. .., .. . .: , 1986. 88 .
7. .. : . - .:
, 1986. 312 .
8. .., .., .. . .: , 1987.
9. .., .., .. .
.: , 1974. 432 .
10. . ., . . . - . .: , 1982. 117 .
11. .. : . / .. . - : - , 2007. 321 .
12. .. . . .: , 1989. 240 .

109

13. .. . .:
, 1978. 272 .
14. .., .., ..
// , 5, 2001, . 9 - 13.
15. / .. ,
.. , .. . .: , 1989. 264 .
16. .. . - .: , 1983. 328 .
17. . 2. . . / . .. . - .: , 1985. 440 .
18. .., .. // . 2001. . 42, 4. . 112-118.
19. .. . : , 2003.-172 .
20. .. (
) / .. , .. , .. ,
.. ,
.. ,
.. ,
.. ,
.. , .. , . , .. , .. .
-: , 2004. 288 .
21. .. .
: - . -, 1999. 182 .
22. .. .
.: , 1987. 192 .
23. BUCHNER B. Green Water on Ship-type Offshore Structures. Grafisch
Bedrijf Ponsen & Looijen bv: Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2002. 280 p.
24. Hirota K., Matsumoto K., Takagishi K., Yamasaki K., Orihara H.,
Yoshida H. Development of bow shape to reduce the added resistance due to
waves and verification of full scale measurement // Proceeding of International
Conference on Marine Research and Transportation, 2005. pp 63-70.
25. Kawazoe T., Nishikido S., Wada Y. Effect of Fin Area and Control
Methods on Reduction of Roll Motion with Fin Stabilizers // Bulletin of the
MESJ, Vo1. 22, No.1, p. 25-32.
26. Rawson K.J., Tupper E.C. Basic ship theory. Vol. 2, Butterworth
Heinemann, 2001. 731 p.
27. Tanizawa K. The State of Art on Numerical Wave Tank // Proc. 4th
Osaka Colloquium on Seakeeping Performance of Ships, Osaka, Japan, 2000.
pp. 95 113.
28. The Specialist Committee on Prediction of Extreme Ship Motions and
Capsizing / Proceedings of the 23rd ITTC Vol. II, 2002.

110