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HLTH 634


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than five million people die
from injuries or violence worldwide1. Even though WHO projects the burden from injury or
violence to continue to rise, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, few
governments have enacted national policies or programs to battle this issue1. While injury and
violence prevention is not always perceived as a public health issue, Healthy People 2020 specifies
injury and violence as a leading health indicator with detailed goals to lower its prevalence in the
United States2. Comprehensive policies, well-designed action plans, and thorough enforcement
are critical to lowering the fatal and non-fatal consequences of injury and violence in the United
States1. Injury and violence prevention is complex and requires multi-disciplinary contributions
from all stakeholders, but especially decision-makers1.
Violence prevention is particularly vital to a healthier, better quality life for Americans. In
the United States, violence is often dealt with by law enforcement, while prevention seems
complex and unattainable. Violence is defined as the intentional use of physical force against
another person or against oneself, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in
injury or death3. Violence also includes suicide, rape, assault, child abuse, elder abuse3. For this
intervention and review, the focus will be on one of the specific health objectives designated by
Healthy People 2020: to reduce intimate partner violence in the United States by 10 percent 2.
According to the recent National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the weighted
percentage of lifetime prevalence of rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner
in the United States is 35.6% with an estimated number of victims of 42,420,000 people4. At this
rate of fluxuation, the goal of a 10% decrease by 2020 will not occur; therefore, stronger

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intervention must be put into place. Violence prevention is focused on understanding determinants
of violence, education, and law enforcement.
To decrease intimate partner violence in rural South Carolina utilizing public health strategies.
Incorporating a holistic, evidence-based perspective, Healthy Restorations mission is to provide
services to rural areas of South Carolina in order to help families break the cycles of intimate
partner violence. Through providing community education, resources for victims, and counseling
for victims and abusers, Healthy Restoration is committed to decreasing intimate partner violence,
a Healthy People 2020 Objective (IVP 39)1. As Jeremiah 30:17 (ESV)2 says, For I will restore
health to you, and your wounds I will heal, Healthy Restoration strives to bring mental, physical,
and spiritual restoration to hurting families in a comprehensive delivery.
Core Organizational Values
Evidence-Based Practices: We commit to utilizing scientifically-sound and current research
concerning intimate partner violence in all of our protocols, especially in education, safety, and
Respectful Leadership: Due to the nature of working with families in volatile situations, we strive
to maintain leaders that are respectful of the families needs, while still maintaining the leadership
qualities needed to be effective in ending violent relationships.
Servanthood: We commit to serve the community, following Jesuss example of servanthood.
(Matthew 25:31-40)2
Restorational Teaching: In all areas of service, we commit to promote restoration of our clients
mental, physical, and spiritual health.

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1. To provide a community service to rural areas of South Carolina by connecting them to

information and resources to prevent and restore those affected by intimate partner violence.
2. To train a group of people that will effectively teach prevention strategies to the target
3. To decrease intimate partner violence in rural areas of South Carolina.
4. To prepare community leaders (police officers, healthcare workers, religious leaders) to
better assess and prevent partner violence.
Performance Objectives
1. By May 1, 2016, 100% funding for the projected budget for Healthy Restoration will be
2. By May 1, 2016, 100% of personnel will be trained and ready to provide services to
clients and the community.
3. By December 31, 2016, the rate of intimate partner violent incidents will decrease by 10%
in each county where services are dispersed.
4. By December 31, 2016, Healthy Restoration will have provided services to at least 500
community members in rural areas of South Carolina.
5. By December 31, 2016, of clients receiving educational sessions and resource assistance,
at least 50% will describe themselves as not currently in an abusive relationship, measured
by a one year follow-up survey.
6. By December 31, 2016, of clients receiving educational sessions and resource assistance,
at least 50% will describe themselves as able to recognize signs of abuse and feel confident
in providing assistance.
7. By December 31, 2016, 75% of all participants will recognize the top signs of partner
violence, measured by a survey.

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8. By December 31, 2016, 90% of participating community leaders will sign a pledge to help
decrease partner violence.
9. By December 31, 2016, 75% of all participants will know current information regarding
domestic violence laws in their area.
10. By December 31, 2016, 95% of all participants will have received printed materials for
personal use or dispersal that contains signs of abuse, resource information, and contacts.
Sponsoring agency: Safe Harbor
Intended Audience
For the issue of intimate partner violence, the primary target audience of the intended
population (South Carolina) is typically abusers and victims of intimate partner violence (IPV).
However, specifically for this e-portfolio project, the focus will be toward the influential
secondary target audience of community leaders in various fields related to a public health
approach to decreasing domestic violence, including leaders in the medical field, law enforcement,
and religious organizations. Understanding the target population is an important first step in
developing an effective communication strategy. The characteristics of the influential leaders in
South Carolina that contribute to its current disparities in intimate partner violence include:

Behavioral inhibiting behaviors of law enforcement and religious organizations that

perpetuate IPV4, lack of knowledge/questioning of medical professionals that could prevent
addition IPV

Cultural varying cultures, but the majority would include influences from white, maledominated communities

Demographic high educational attainment, middle to high-income, influential


Physical typically white, male, especially SC law enforcement(687 white male officers
compared to 100 females of all races5), religious leaders

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Psychographic knowledge of IPV may be limited, attitudes/beliefs may coincide with

the culture/political nature of SC (very conservative)

The focus of this project is to decrease intimate partner violence in South Carolina by increasing
knowledge, as well as altering attitudes and behaviors among influential community leaders
(medical, law enforcement, and religious organizations), that will in turn influence the primary
target audience. Currently, the atmosphere of dealing with the issue of IPV is mainly to treat it as
a one-time criminal act. However, by communicating its widespread effects on the overall health
of the community (victims, abusers, family members, financial aspects, law enforcement aspects,
schools, community safety), and the need for a public health strategy, this secondary target
audience can gain knowledge that will help them make better decisions in battling IPV in South
I plan to partner with a local community organization, Safe Harbor, which not only provides
services to IPV victims in the form of counseling and shelter, but also is working to provide
preventive measures like education for law enforcement, middle and high school students, and
policymakers. Their vision is to eliminate domestic violence and create a culture of healthy
relationships in the Upstate of South Carolina6, which is directly related to the goals of this
Following the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)s suggestion of utilizing
the Social-Ecological Model for violence prevention7, the strategies for this intervention are based
in understanding the factors that influence intimate partner violence and preventing it from
happening. Because of the complexities and history of partner violence in the United States, and
per the Social-Ecological Model, the intervention must address the issue at various levels:
individual, relational, community, and societal7. In addition, the Health Belief Model10 will be used

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in planning this health program plan. Under the theory that people will act to avoid a health threat,
if they believe it is serious and that the benefits of action outweigh perceived barriers, concepts of
the intervention will include perceived threat, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity,
perceived benefits, barriers to action, cues to action, and self-efficacy10.
Violence is a major public health issue in the United States, and includes many different
types of violence, each with their own determinants and prevention strategies. For example,
compared to a violence prevention strategy aimed at adult relationships, adolescent dating
violence may have very different determinants and prevention strategies, but can be useful in the
program planning process. In Prevention Program Development and Evaluation: An Incidence
Reduction, Culturally Relevant Approach, Conyne suggests that effective programs must be
comprehensive, provide direct experiencing methods (hands-on, interactive), provide sufficient
dosage, are theory-driven, provide opportunities for positive relationships and build effective
collaborative community partnerships, are appropriately-timed, are culturally-relevant, have
competent staff, are applied in a ready setting with fidelity and fit, and are often most effective
in groups12.
Management chart

Directors: Somer Holladay

Board members will include a diverse group from different perspectives of those involved
with partner violence, including law enforcement, lawyers, therapists/counsellors, and
child protective services. In order to provide a holistic approach that attempts to restore
its clients from all areas of health, this diverse group of board members will be crucial in
ensuring the clients receive the most comprehensive services available.

Brief History:
o According to the Violence Policy Center, South Carolina ranks first in the nation

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for women killed men3. In South Carolina, 96% of female victims are murdered by
someone they knew, and of that 96%, 62% are murdered by an intimate partner
(husband, common-law husband, boyfriend, ex-husband/ex-boyfriend)4. Because
resources and educational opportunities are scarce in rural areas, Healthy
Restoration strives to fill in the gaps of service by targeting rural areas of South
Carolina. The director, Somer Holladay, was a victim of intimate partner violence
and was able to escape due to services provided by a local womens shelter. Since
then, she returned to school and put her attention and passion into creating a
healthier environment, without fear of violence from a partner.

Location: Healthy Restoration will be centrally located in the Columbia area of South
Carolina but will reach to rural areas all over South Carolina.

Healthy Restoration will plan and raise funds during 2016, open and begin dispersing
services in 2017. It is in the very beginning stages of the planning process.


Staffing Requirements

Executive Director: Somer Holladay


Requirements: Background in public health (at least bachelors degree but

prefer graduate degree in related field), At least 5 years management
experience, Well-spoken/Public speaking experience, Passion for
decreasing violence


Job Description: Directs all aspects of an organization's policies, objectives,

and initiatives. Responsible for the short- and long-term effectiveness and
growth of the organization.

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Salary and Benefits: $60,000 Base Pay7, Biannual bonuses, $5,000 sign-on
bonus, 50% Premium Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for
family health insurance


Administrative Assistant

Requirements: 2 years experience in office experience (bookkeeping,

clerical, or secretary experience is acceptable) or Associates degree in
Administrative Sciences


Salary and Benefits: $25,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance


Human Resource Manager


Salary and Benefits: $40,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance


Public Relations Manager


Salary and Benefits: $40,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance


Chief Financial Officer


Salary and Benefits: $50,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance


Accounting Assistant

Salary and Benefits: $30,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance


Grant Writer

Salary and Benefits: $30,000 Base Pay, Biannual bonuses, 50% Premium
Paid for individual health insurance and 33% for family health insurance

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Website Hosting
Office Rental
Office Supplies

Projected Budget
Evaluation strategies

Evaluation Questions
The evaluation questions will answer the program objectives. For example, By December 31,
2016, did 75% of all participants will recognize the top signs of partner violence?
Evaluation Team
Because of the diversity of the participants, a diverse group will be needed for the evaluation so
that they may conduct the evaluation most effectively. Evaluators with varying specialties or
interests will be important. For example, an evaluator with experience with previous research
concerning law enforcement will be helpful because of the nature of the research and the
Type of Evaluation

Process evaluation will be conducted during the intervention by surveys and interviews
with both the implementation team, peer evaluators, and participants to gauge the initial
effectiveness of the intervention. If any aspect of the program is not beneficial or potential
ineffective, the implementation team will revise or remove this part of the program.

Outcome evaluation will be completed at the end of all intervention activities to assess the
overall effectiveness of the health program. This evaluation will assess whether the planned
intervention met the program objectives. Surveys and interviews will be conducted again and
analyzed by the evaluation team.
Data Collection Methods

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Pre-test and Post-test surveys

Qualitative interviews
Analysis Plan
The implementation team will conduct pre-test and post-test surveys during each
education session to measure the effectiveness of the program. These surveys will be collected and
sealed for the evaluator. The implementation team will also conduct open discussion interviews to
discuss the material presented and gained knowledge at the end of sessions, to use for
improvement and future discussion.

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1. Schopper D, Lormand JD, Waxweiler R. World Health Organization. Developing policies
to prevent injuries and violence: guidance for policy-makers and planners. 2006; pp 3-4.
Accessed August 2014 from
2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2020: Injury & Violence
Prevention. 2014. Accessed August 2014 from
3. Rosenberg ML, O'Carroll PW, & Powell KE. Let's be clear: violence is a public health
problem. JAMA. 1992; 267(22), 3071-3072. Accessed August 2014 from
4. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. FastStats: All Injuries. 2012. Accessed August
2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/injury.htm.
5. Cook PJ, Ludwig J. Gun Violence: The Real Costs. Oxford University Press. 2000; pages
6. Gerney A, Parsons C, Posner C. America Under the Gun: A 50-State Analysis of Gun
Violence and Its Link to Weak State Gun Laws. 2013. Accessed August 2014 from
7. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Injury and Violence Prevention. 2014.
Accessed October 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/socialecologicalmodel.html.
8. Center for American Progress. Fact Sheet: South Carolina Gun Violence. 2011. Accessed
September 2014 from http://cdn.americanprogress.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/04/SouthCarolinaGunViolence1.pdf.
9. Price JH, Thompson AJ, & Dake JA. Factors associated with state variations in homicide,
suicide, and unintentional firearm deaths. Journal of community health. 2004; 29(4), 271283. Accessed August 2014 from
10. McKenzie JF, Neiger L, Thackeray R. Planning, Implementing, & Evaluating Health
Promotion Programs: A Primer. 6th Edition. 2012; Page 72.