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3128-70

-301

13737-90

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8338-75

. .
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.

..

..
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11371-78

32461

2360-78

3128-70

5.84.00.00
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1
.
"5"

1-62

A3

- (2:1)

85

E-E (4:1)

5.84.00.00

27
10
600,03

150

56

24

11

- (4:1)

32
25

12

1,5 N7/h6

750,03

36
110

292

80

M8

300

- (2:1)

7
23

24,6js7
26 H7/k7
. .

41
28
37
38
44

32 H7/l0

35

6 H7/k6
50 H7/h6

. . . .

2 R8/h8

17
18
19
22
42
13
14

3 Js7/k6

1 N7/h6

- (2:1)

34

30 H7/l0

39

2 Js9/h8

- (2:1) 5 Js11/h10

33

1. , ,
.
2. - , ,
HB 200...250
H 200...250
3. -201 6267-74
0,3-0,5 .
4. -257 1605-70
5.
t=0,05...0,2 ,

6. 6 .
7. -
.
8. Js7/k6
N7/h6
9. :
- L0/k6
- H7/l0
10.
11.
12.
:
V = 0.014 *

S = 90

2 N7/h6
2 L0/k6
6 H7/l0

20 L0/k6

15
16
21
29
30
26

31
40

.
. .

16,4js7

17 L0/k6

9
20

10,8js7 10,8js7 9,3js7 9,3js7 12,4js7

43

16 H9/k7
5 R10/h10

F = 400
V = 0.014 *
S = 90
U = 200
f = 50

-20...+40

5.84.00.00
.
. .
.
.

..

..
.

1:1

1
.
"5"
1-62
A1

- (2:1)

85

E-E (4:1)

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19
17

150

56

- (5:1)

600,03

3,5

18
110

292

80

M8

300

12
16

- (2:1)

2h12(-0,1)

11
13
:

24,6js7
26 H7/k7
. .

10,8js7 10,8js7 9,3js7 9,3js7 12,4js7

16,4js7

750,03

30 H7/l0

10

- (2:1)

21

.
. . . .
.
. .

50 H7/h6

16 H9/k7
5 R10/h10

14

22

5 Js11/h10

1. .
2. -201 6267-74
0,3-0,5 .
3. -257 1605-70
4.
t=0,05...0,2 ,

5. 6 .
6. -
.
7.
:
V = 0.014 *

S = 90

32 H7/l0
2 N7/h6
2 L0/k6
6 H7/l0

7
15
20

F = 400
V = 0.014 *
S = 90
U = 200
f = 50

-20...+40

5.84.00.00
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.
.

..

..
.

1:1

1
.
"5"
1-62
A1

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. .

150

600,03

750,03
70

300

. .

- (5:1)

3,5

M8

. . . .

(2,5:1)

1. F = 400
2. V = 0.014 *
3. S = 90
4. - 32461 .
200
50
5. - 4.1
6. IP44
7.

8. .
9. 3g.
10. -
t
= -40 ... +50 C

IT14

11. 2

2 H7
. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.00.00
.
-
1:1

1
.
"5"

1-62

A2

5.84.00.00
Z9=20; m=0,4

Z7=20; m=0,3

Z13=20; m=0,6

= 342.26 *

Z6=42; m=0,3

. .

Z11=20; m=0,4

0
9
=

VI

VII

Z4=42; m=0,3
Z8=42; m=0,3

Z5=20; m=0,3

Z10=42; m=0,4
Z12=62; m=0,4

Z2=42; m=0,3

Z3=30; m=0,3
VIII

Z14=20; m=0,6

. .

. . . .


Z1=30; m=0,3

1. i0 =174
2. F = 400
3. V = 0.014 *
4. S = 90
5. - 32461 , 50 .
6. 25 .
7. N10000092 8338-75


F = 400
32461
P = 25 n = 5100 /
-4
= 490*10 *
-4
= 784*10 *
U = 200 f = 50

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.
.

..

..
.

1:1

1
.
"5"
1-62
A2

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. .

0.02

Z10=42; m=0,4

65*

. . . .
.
. .

2 L0/k6

1 N7/h6

30,00,25

3 Js7/k6

8,8h7

6 H7

17,6h7

6 H7

2 L0/k6

Z11=20; m=0,4

*
1. 4 .
2. .

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.05.00
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4:1
1
.
"5"

1-62

A3

5.84.05.01
0.04
0,05

Ra 2,5
Ra 1,25

0.4
20
0

- 9587-81
x
0
7H
d
8.0
b
5

0.02 A
1.

9178-81
2. 200-250
3.
4.
:
H12,
h12
IT12
2

2,5h12

0.02

65

(5:1)
45

R0,1

2
1.7

5h12

0.02

. . . .

7,5h12

. .

Ra 1,25

3 k6

2,5h12

0,2545 (4 )

m
z

Ra 2,5

8,8h7

Ra 2,5

2 k6

Ra 1,25

0.04

0.022






9178-81

2 k6

. .

Rz 20 ( )

R0,05

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.05.01
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-
4:1
1
.
"5"
40 4543-71
1-62

A3

5.84.07.00
. .

60 js8

. . . .

50 h7

- (2:1)
1 Js7/h6

.
. .

4 . 4,5 H7

56*

5 H7/k6
1 R6/h6

2,5
102*
*
1 2
3

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.07.00
.

2:1
1
.
"5"

1-62

A3

5.84.08.01

Rz 20 ( )

. .

62

Ra 2,5

245

20

Ra 2,5

17k6

8h12

0,545

2,545
Ra 2,5

. . . .
.
. .

A
4

Ra 2,5
34

7,5h12
0.04 A

m
z

0.6
62
0

- 9587-81
x
0
7H
d
37.2
b
8

14

38,4h10

Tr12x3 - 7e

20k6

2,545

24

0,545






9178-81

0.022 A

. .
.
.

..

..
.

*
1.

9178-81
2. H 80-100
3.
:
H12,
h12
IT12
2

5.84.08.01
.

-
4:1
1
.
"5"
101 613-79
1-62

A3

5.84.06.00
3
Z12=62; m=0,4

2 L0/k6

4 H8/s8

11

1 N7/h6

L0 = 15

8
2
10

A (5:1)

Z13=20; m=0,6
*
1. 3 4.
2. 1 .
3.
L0 = 15
4. 10 11 .

2 Js9/h8
R0,5

2 R8/h8

6 H7/k6

2 L0/k6

6 H7

3 H7/e7

1 N7/h6

4,9

. .

6 H7

25,6 h7

.
.

. . . .

4 Js7/k6

. .

65*

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.06.00
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4:1
1
.
"5"

1-62

A3

5.84.06.06

l0 =15

. .

*
l3 =11,8

Rz 20 ( )

*
F3 =125,1

l2 =12

F2 =112,6

0,62min

2,5*

Ra 6.3

Ra 6.3

17

0,25max
.

0,6
*
1. G = 78500
2. L = 228
3. i = 3.5
4. i = 5
5. t = 3,5
6. -
7. 3/4 , 3/4
8. l2 =12
9. l3 =11,8

. . . .
.
. .

3,5*

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.06.06
.

2:1
1
.
"5"
652-2,5 14959-79
1-62

A4

5.84.00.02
. .

40

Rz 40 ( )
Ra 2.5

26 k7
350,08

Ra 2.5

20

10H7

4 20,005

270,08
24 k7
2 M1

Ra 2.5

6
60

. .

1. HB 200...220
2.

3.
:
H12,
h12
IT12
2

0,2545
M1

. . . .

(4:1)

6
8

. .
.
.

..

..
.

5.84.00.02
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2:1
1
.
"5"
10 1050-88
1-62

A4

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"

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. . . .

.
18.04.2008


"

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..
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.
18.04.08

5.84.00.00
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1
39
. ..
1-62
"5"
A4

. .

. . . .

__

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.

__
__
__
__
__

2.
2.1.
2.2.

__
__

3.

__

4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.

__
__

5.
5.1. ,
5.2.

5.3.

__
__

6.
6.1.

__
__

7.
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.

__
__
__
__

8.

__

9.
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.

__
__
__
__

10.
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.

__
__
__
__

__

__
__

__
__

5.84.00.00

A4

__

12.

__

13. -
13.1. -
13.2. -

__
__
__

14.

__

15.

__

16.

__

17.

__

__

__

. .

. . . .

11.

5.84.00.00

A4

1.

1.1.

(. 1) .
1.2. :
1.


F,

. V , / -1
. S ,
.

400
0,014
90

12/3



d/p , d p

.
. . . .
.
. .


4.1
IP44

1.3

-
. - ,
146-75. z=1.
=0,4.
1.4.

:
- 32461, .
5100 /, 200 50;
= 25 ;

5.84.00.00

A4

- , 174.
, ,
(
7 1583-93);
- .
, ,
, . ,
, -
;
- :
, .
.

2.

2 .1

P
F * V
400*0.014
5.6
Pp =*
= *
= 1,5* 0.4
= 1,5*0.4 = 1,5*14 = 21 ,

P - , ;
F - , 400 ;
-1
V - , 0,014 / ;
- .
, 1.22.5
.

. . . .

2.2

32461

3.
3.1

32461 :
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5

5100 /
25
200
50
0,58
-4
3.1.6 , 490*10 *
-6
2
3.1.7 , J 9*10 *

.
. .

, n
, P
, U

, m

5.84.00.00

A4

3.1.8 ,

784*10

-4

4.
4.1.

n n
:
n
i0 = n
, n - , 5100 /

n
-
n =

2**V 6.28*14
= 29.31 /,
p = 3
-1
V - , 14 / ;
p - ,

5100
i0 = 29.31 = 174

. .

. . . .

4.2

,
. - .
:
n = 3*lg( i0 ) = 3*lg(174) = 6.72 7
7.
(.
[8], . 55-56)
n
i = i0 = 2.1;
4
i1 = (2* i ) = 1.4;
i2 = ( i ) = 1.4;
2
i 2.1 2
in = i7 = i = 1.4 = 3.1
1
2
i 2.1 2
in-1 = i6 = i = 1.4 = 3.1
2
i3 = i4 = i5 = i = 2.1

5.84.00.00

A4

. .

Z2=42; m=0,3

Z4=42; m=0,3

Z5=20; m=0,3

Z8=42; m=0,3

F = 400

Z3=30; m=0,3

32461
P = 25 n = 5100 /

Z1=30; m=0,3

Z7=20; m=0,3

. . . .

Z6=42; m=0,3

VIII

Z12=62; m=0,4

VI

Z10=42; m=0,4

Z9=20; m=0,4

VII

= 342.26 *

Z11=20; m=0,4
Z13=20; m=0,6

Z14=20; m=0,6

S=

90

4.3

5.84.00.00

A4

5.
5.1

, :

tg(+')
= F *d2 * 2 , F - ( ) ,
d2 = d - 0.5p = 12 - 1.5 = 10.5 -
;
= 20 - ;
f
0.1
' = arctg(f') = arctg
= arctg
=
cos(/2)
cos(30/2)
5.9 - ;
f = 0.1 - ;
= 30 - ;
( - . [8])
tg(25.9)
= 400*10.5* 2
= 1019.7 *

5.2


(. [1])
M2
M1 =
,
i12 * 12 *

. . . .

M1 - ;
M2 - ;
i12 - ;

12 - ;
- ;

= 0.98; 12 = 0.98;

. .


:
= = 8 = 1019 *
M8
1019
7 =
= 3.1 * 0.9604 = 342.26 *
i78 * 78 *

5.84.00.00

A4

342.26
6 = 3.1 * 0.9604
114.96
5 = 2.1 * 0.9604
57.0
4 = 2.1 * 0.9604
28.26
3 = 2.1 * 0.9604
14.01
2 = 1.4 * 0.9604
10.42
1 = 1.4 * 0.9604

= 114.96 *
= 57.0 *
= 28.26 *
= 14.01 *
= 10.42 *
= 7.75 *

, ,
,
,
,
=

5.3

. .

. . . .

(. [1]):
M
- , *
- , 49 *
7.75 * < 49 * ,
6.

6 .1
.

.

z1 17...28, ( ) z1
.

( - 5).
7 ,
. 2.

5.84.00.00

A4

2.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1.4
1.4
2.1
2.1
2.1
3.1
3.1

20
20
20
20
20
20
20

28
28
42
42
42
62
62

. .

. . . .


.
Z1 = 30; Z1 = Z1 * i1 = 42;
Z2 = 30; Z2 = Z2 * i2 = 42;
, 3.
3.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1.4
1.4
2.1
2.1
2.1
3.1
3.1

30
30
20
20
20
20
20

42
42
42
42
42
62
62


.
, 0.27%.
:
i = ij = 1.4*1.4*2.1*2.1*2.1*3.1*3.1 = 174.4 - .
i - io 174.8-174.4
i = i
= 174.8 = 0,23 %
o
, .

10

5.84.00.00

A4

7.
7.1

.
,
40
: , , .
= 1000
- ;
= 800-850
- ;
3
= 7.85 /
- ;
5
E = 2.1 * 10
- ;
-6
= (10.6-12.4)*10 1/ - ;
= 200-250
- ;
HRC = 50-55 - ;

YF (20) = 4.15, YF (62) = 3.73, .


, .
7.2
(. [1,4])
M * YF * K
3
m m * (
),
z * Ym * [F ]

. .

. . . .

:
-1
[F ] = n , n = 1.7
:
-1 = 0.43*
.. :
-1 = 1000 * 0.43 = 430
430
[F ] = 1.7 = 253

Km = 1.5- ;
M
- , ;
K = 1.25
- ;

11

5.84.00.00

A4

z
Ym = 9
[F ]
YF

- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( ).

, .
3 342.26 * 4.15 * 1.25
m 1.5 * ( 20 * 9 * 253 ) 0.509

7.3
(.
[7]):
3
3
Mi * * K * (i12 + 1)

H =

[H ]
2 2
i12 * di * bi

Mi
- , *;
K = 1.25
- ;
di = m * Zi
- , ;
bi = bm * m
- , ;
bm
- ;
3
3
K = 0.82 * ( Kv * E ),

Kv = 1.1 ( V < 15 /)
2* E1 * E2 2 * 2.1 * 10 5* 2.1 * 10 5
5
E = E + E =
=
2.1
*
10

5
5
1 2
2.1 * 10 + 2.1 * 10
;
E1 E2
- ,
;

3
3
5
2 1/3
K = 0.82 * ( 1.1 * 2.1 * 10 ) = 50.31 (/ )

. .

. . . .

0.6 .
.

12

5.84.00.00

A4

3
3
342.26 * 1.25 * 50.31 * (3.1 + 1)
H7 = (
) 500 ;
2
2
3.1 * ( 0.6*20 ) * ( 8 )
[H ] = 2.6 * 250 = 650 -
H7 < [H ], .. 500 < 650

. .

. . . .

, ,
.

13

5.84.00.00

A4

8.

, 1
.
(. [1])
:
mz
d=
- , - ,
cos
= 0;
mz
da =
+ 2*m*(h'a + x) - , h'a = 1 -
cos
;
= 0 - (
);
mz
df =
- 2*m*(h'a + c' - x) - , c' -
cos
,
m < 0.5, c' = 0.25; 0.5 < m < 1, ' = 0.35;
b = bm * m - , bm - ,

1
0.3
10.8

m,

. .

4
0.3
9.3

5
0.4
12.4

6
0.4
16.4

7
0.6
24.6

30
9.0
9.6
8.2
4

42
12.6
13.2
11.8
3

30
9.0
9.6
8.2
4

42
12.6
13.2
11.8
3

20
6.0
6.6
5.2
4

42
12.6
13.2
11.8
3

20
6.0
6.6
5.2
4

42
12.6
13.2
11.8
3

20
8.0
8.8
7.0
5

42
16.8
17.6
15.7
4

20
8.0
8.8
7.0
5

62
24.8
25.6
23.6
4

20
12.0
13.2
10.4
8

62
37.2
38.4
35.6
6

df

b,

3
0.3
9.3

d
da

dm ,
z ,
d,
da ,
df ,

2
0.3
10.8

. . . .

bm = 4;
d1 +d2
dm = 2 - ;

14

5.84.00.00

A4

9.
,
6 .
(. [3])
* sin
F = R * f , = 342.26 *
- 6 ,

= 15 - ;
R - , ;
f
- .
:
.
f = 0.08
[p] = 0.6

D1 = 8 , D2 = D1 + 2*b*sin = 11
342.26* 0.25
F2 = F = 9.5 * 0.08 = 112.60 - ,
.

9.1

D = 14,5

. .

. . . .

.
D1 + D2
R = 2
= 9.5 , D1 D2 - .
:

= R = 0.6, b = R * = 9.5 * 0.6 = 5.7

15

5.84.00.00

A4

9.2
, . (. [3])
h = 3 .
F1 = 0 L0 = L1
652 14959-79
:
L0 = L1 = 15 - .
:
8 * F **

d = (
);
*[ ]
= 11, .. , .
4* + 2
= 4* - 3 = 1.12
- ;

4
G = 7.85 * 10
- ;
[] = 960
- ;
8 * 112.6*11* 1.12
d = ( 3.14* 960
) 2.5 - ;
D = c * d = 14.5 - ;
= D + d = 17 - ;
:
3
8*c
=G * d
0.9 ;

:
H0 - * D 15 - 0.5 * 14.5
ip =
=
= 3.5.
d
2.5
i = 5;

. . . .

= 0.5

L2 = L0 - h = 12 - ;
L3 = 11.8
- ;
:
G * d
=
3 = 36 /
8 * ip * c

.
. .

- ;

16

5.84.00.00

A4

9.3

*
F3 =125,1
F2 =112,6

*
l3 =11,8
l2 =12
l0 =15

. . . .

17

2,5

. .

3,5

17

5.84.00.00

A4

10
.
- . ,
.

,
. (. [12])
6 = 114.96 *
2 * Mk
F= d
- ,
- , *
d - ,
2 * 114.96
Ft10 = 16.8
= 13.69
Fr10 = Ft10 * tg ( 20 ) = 13.69 * 0.36 = 4.98
- ;
2 * 114.96
Ft11 = 8.0
= 28.74
Fr11 = Ft11 * tg ( 20 ) = 28.74 * 0.36 = 10.46
10.1

? = 0 :

Fr10 * 10 - Fr11 * ( 10 + 40 ) - RBx * 60 = 0


Fr10 * 10 - Fr11 * 50 49.8 - 523
RBx =
= 60
= - 7.89
60

? = 0 :

B
Fr11 * 10 - Fr10 * ( 10 + 40 ) + RAx * 60 = 0
Fr10 * 50 - Fr11 * 10 249 - 104.6
RAx =
=
= 2.41
60
60

.
. .

XOZ:

. . . .

, .
- 40.
. ,
, .

18

5.84.00.00

A4

OZ:
? = 0 :

Ft10 * 10 + Ft11 * ( 10 + 40 ) - RB * 60 = 0
Ft10 * 10 + Fr11 * 50 136.9 + 1437
RB =
=
= - 26.23
60
60

? = 0 :

B
- Ft11 * 10 - Ft10 * ( 10 + 40 ) + RA * 60 = 0
Ft10 * 50 + Ft11 * 10 287.4 + 684.5
RA =
=
= 16.2
60
60

:
2
2
2
2
2
= ( D + 0.75 * M ) = ( Dx + D + 0.75 *M ) =
2
2
2
= ( 78.7 + 263 + 0.75 * 114.96 ) = 292 *
:

1.7 *
3
d (
)=(
) ,
0.1 * [ F ]
0.1 * -1

-1
[ F ] = 1.7 - ( 1.7 - )
, :
1.7 * 292
d ( 0.1 * 253 ) = 2.25

. . . .

,
D,
MDx = 78.7 *
MD = 263 *
= 114,96 *

. .

3 .

19

5.84.00.00

A4

10.2
0

Ft11

Fr11

A
Fr10
Fr10
RAy

Fr10

RAy A
RAx

B
Ft10

Fr11

RAx
10

40

Ft11
RBy

B
RBx

.
. . . .
.
. .

1
R
10.3

40

1
RB
1
RB

B
RBx

10

263 *

1
R

24,1 *

1
R

RBy

162 *

Ft11

78,7*

10
78,7*

Fr11
10

Ft10

Ft10

1
R
A

1
RB
1
RB

C
0

115 *


, ,
, (. [12])
f f ,
f - ,
, ;

20

5.84.00.00

A4

f - , .
f = (0.01 ... 0.03) * m, m - ,
2 2
f ? = ( fx + fy )
- , .
: f = 0.012
1
XOZ:
? = 0 :

1 * 50 - RBx * 60 = 0
50 5
RBx = 60 = 6 = 0.83

? = 0 :

B
1 * 10 - RAx * 60 = 0
10 1
RAx = 60 = 6 = 0.17

2
20
1
fx = ( - S'1 * 10 * RAx + S'2 * ( 3 * 30 + 20 ) * RAx + S'3 * 3 * RBx ) * EJ

S'1 = 20 * 24.1 / 2= 241

. . . .

S'2 = 30 * 78.7 / 2 = 1180.5


2
S'3 = 10 * 78.7 = 787

1
11447.65
11447.65
-3
fx = EJ *11447.65 =
=
=
0.21
*
10

4
5
4
E * pi * d
2.1 * 10 * 3.14 * 3
YOZ:
? = 0 :

1 * 50 - RBx * 60 = 0
50 5
RBy = 60 = 6 = 0.83

.
. .

? = 0 :

B
1 * 10 - RAx * 60 = 0

21

5.84.00.00

A4

10 1
RAy = 60 = 6 = 0.17
20
2*40
fy = ( - S''1 * 3 * RAy - S''2 * 30 * RAy - S''3 * ( 3 + 10 )* RAy 2*10 1
- S''4 * RBy * 3 ) * EJ
S''1 = 10 * 162 / 2= 810

S''2 = 40 * 162 / 2 = 6480

S''3 = 40 * ( 263 - 162 ) / 2 = 2020


2
S''4 = 10 * 263 = 2630

1
47922.6
47922.6
-3
fy = EJ *47922.6 =
=
=
0.89
*
10

4
5
4
E * pi * d
2.1 * 10 * 3.14 * 3
2

f ? = ( f x + f y ) = EJ * ( 11447.65 + 47922.6 ) =

49338.9
E * pi * d

4 =

. .

. . . .

49338.9
-3
=
=
0.9
*
10

5
4
2.1 * 10 * 3.14 * 3
:
f f
-3
-3
0.9 * 10 12 * 10
.

11
,
. , 1 /,
, . (c. [12])
3
()p = 0.01 * P * ( 60 * n * Lh ) ;
P = (X*V*Fr + Y*Fa ) * K * KT ;

P
- ;
X
- ;
Y
- ;

22

5.84.00.00

A4

V
- ;
Fr - , ;
K
- ,

.
KT
- ,
.
()p - , ;
ni = n * i7 * i6 - i- , /;
ni = 29.31 * 3.1 * 3.1 = 281.66 /
Lh - .
Lh ;
Lh = 5000 ;

T = 1,05 (
125);
K = 1,05;

:
- , 150% ;
, (. 10.1)::
2
2
2
2
FrA = ( RAx + Ryx ) = ( 2.41 + 16.2 ) = 16.4
2
2
2
2
FrB = ( RBx + RBy ) = ( 7.89 + 26.23 ) = 27.4
PA = X * V * FrA * K * KT = 25.8

PB = 43.14

. .

. . . .

Fa = 0, , X = 1, Y = 0;
V = 1 -
;

3
()pA = 0.01 * PA * ( 60 * 281.66 * 5000) = 113.2
()pB = 189.3
:
1000092 (C = 280 )

23

5.84.00.00

A4

1000092
100 ,
,
.
.
2.,
2. 6.
8338-75.

. .

. . . .

2,3
12
.
, ..
. ,
,
.
, ,
, : ,
, , ,
.
7 (9) 1583-93 (
).

24

5.84.00.00

A4

: , ,
.
:
5
= 0.7*10 ,
HB = 70
-6
= 218*10 1/
13 -
12.1 -
- .
, . . (.

. .

. . . .

[11]):
Hr
2*F
q = pi * d * H [ q ], y = d , Hr = y * d2 ;
2 r
2
[ q ] = 8 ... 10 - 101
613-79;
d2 = 10.5 - ;
y = 1.2 ... 1.5 - , = 1.35,
Hr = 1.35* 10.5 = 14.18
2 * 400
q = 3.14 * 10.5 * 14.18 = 1.7 < [ q ] .
:
F
= pi * d * e * H [ ],
r
101 613-79
[ ] = (0.2 ... 0.3) *
= 250
[ ] = 62.5

400
= 3.14 * 12 * 0.65 * 14.18 = 1.15 62.5 - .
12.2 - .
- :
F
ny = F [ ny ] , ny - ;
[ ny ] = 2.5 ... 5

25

5.84.00.00

A4

1.87*E*J
2 , l - (l = 90 )
l
5
E = 2.1 * 10 -
4
4
pi * d
d
3.14 * 12
12
J = 64 * (0.4 + 0.6*d-p ) =
*
(0.4
+
0.6*
64
9 ) = 1222
5
1.87*E*J 1.87*2.1*10 *1222
F = 2
=
= 59244
2
l
90
F 59244
ny = F = 400 = 148 > 2.5 - -
.
F =

14.

d 2 * (
),
pi * d * [ ]
- , = 114.96 *;
d - , d = 3 .
[ ] - ,
[ ] = 0.2 * = 0.2 * 800 = 200

. .

. . . .

40.
.
- 40 .

, :
114.96
d 2 * ( 3.14 * 3 * 200 ) = 0.1
1 .

15.

= d * h * l [ ] - (. [11]),
[ ]= 120 ...140 ;

26

5.84.00.00

A4

- , = 342.26 ;
d - , d = 3 ;
h - , h = 2;
K - K = 0.8 ;
l - , l = 4 ;
1019
1 = 16*2*5 = 6.37 [ ]
342.26
2 = 6*2*4 = 7.13 [ ]
7.75
3 = 4.5*0.5*2 = 1.72 [ ]
, .

. .

.
(. [1]):
1
1
ni = 1 - 0.5 * pi * Ci * ev * f * ( Z + Z ),
1
2
ev - ( ev = 1.5 );
Fi + 2.92
Ci = F + 0.174 - ;
i
2 * Mi+1
Fi = d
- , ;
2i
Mi+1 - , i- ;
Mi+1
Mi =
- , i- ,
ii * i *
*;
- ;
i - i- ;
ii - i- ;
f - ( f = 0.05 );
Z1 - ;
Z2 - ;
d2i - , ;

. . . .

16.

:
M8 = 1019.7 *;C

27

5.84.00.00

A4

2 * M8

2 * 1019.7
F7 = d
= 37.2 = 54.82
27
54.82 + 2.92
C7 = 54.82 + 0.174 = 1.049
1
1
7 = 1 - 0.5*3.14*1.049*1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 62 ) = 0.992
:
M8
1019.7
M7 =
= 3.1 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 369.18 *
i7 * i *
2 * M7 2 * 369.18
F6 = d
= 24.8
= 29.77
26
29.77 + 2.92
C6 = 29.77 + 0.174 = 1.09
1
1
6 = 1 - 0.5*3.14*1.09*1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 62 ) = 0.992

. . . .

:
M7
369.18
M6 =
= 2.1 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 133.66 *
i6 * i *
2 * M6 2 * 133.66
F5 = d
= 16.8
= 15.91
25
15.91 + 2.92
C5 = 15.91 + 0.174 = 1.168
1
1
5 = 1 - 0.5*3.14**1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 42 ) = 0.99

. .

:
M6
133.66
M5 =
= 2.1 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 71.43 *
i5 * i *
2 * M5 2 * 71.43
F4 = d
= 12.6 = 11.34
24
11.34 + 2.92
C4 = 11.34 + 0.174 = 1.235
1
1
4 = 1 - 0.5*3.14**1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 42 ) = 0.989
:

28

5.84.00.00

A4

M5
71.43
M4 =
= 2.1 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 37.18 *
i4 * i *
2 * M4 2 * 37.18
F3 = d
= 12.6 = 6.06
23
6.06 + 2.92
C3 = 6.06 + 0.174 = 1.43
1
1
3 = 1 - 0.5*3.14**1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 42 ) = 0.988

. .

. . . .

:
M4
37.18
M3 =
= 2.1 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 20.40 *
i3 * i *
2 * M3 2 * 20.4
F2 = d
= 12.6 = 3.24
22
3.24 + 2.92
C2 = 3.24 + 0.174 = 1.79
1
1
2 = 1 - 0.5*3.14**1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 42 ) = 0.988
:
M3
20.4
M2 =
= 1.4 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 16.36 *
i2 * i *
2 * M2 2 * 16.36
F1 = d
= 12.6 = 2.60
22
2.6 + 2.92
C1 = 2.6 + 0.174 = 1.98
1
1
1 = 1 - 0.5*3.14**1.5*0.05 * ( 20 + 42 ) = 0.987
, :
7
7
? = n7 * n6 * n5 * n4 * n3 * n2 * n1 * n = 0.928 * 0.99 = 0.865 = 86.5 %
- .
M2
16.36
*. = M1 =
= 1.4 * 0.99 * 0.9 = 13.11 *
i1 * i *

.
(
):

29

5.84.00.00

A4

.
. . . .
.
. .

*. + *.
*.
= 78.4 * - ;
= 49 *
- ;
*. - ,
, *;
*. = J * e / ? - ,
, *;

e =t
- ;

* n 3.14 * 5100
=
= 534 / - ;
30 =
30
t - ;
534
2
e = 0.8 = 630 /
J - , ,
:
J
J = J + J. + 2 ,
i0
2
J - , * ;
2
J - , * ;
J2 + J3 J4 + J5
J6 + J7
J8 + J9
J. = J1 + 2
+2 2 +2 2 2 +2 2 2 2 +
i12
i1-2 *3-4 i1-2 *i3-4 *i5-6 i1-2 *i3-4 *i5-6 *i7-8
J10 + J11
J 12 + J13
J12
+2 2 2 2 2
+2 2 2 2 2
+ 2 -
2
i1-2 *i3-4 *i5-6 *i7-8 *i9-10 i1-2 *i3-4 *i5-6 *i7-8 *i9-10 *i11-12 i0
2
, , * ;
4 -12
Ji = pi * bi * * di *10 / 32 - i-
2
, * ;
ij-(j+1) - j- (j+1)- ,
;
bi - i- , ;
di - i- , ;

30

5.84.00.00

A4

3
- ( 40X = 7.85 / ).
:
Ji * 10
Ji * 10
Ji * 10
Ji * 10

-12

2
[ * ]

20.2

58.3

20.2

58.3

3.99

58.3

20.2

10

11

12

13

14

58.3

15.8

245.6

15.78

1166

127.8

8855

-12 2
2
/ i1-i [ * ]

0.99

16.21

3.99

-12 2
2
/ i1-i [ * ]
-12

40.05

0.79

3.676

0.41

0.29

. .

. . . .

:
-6
2
J. = 82.6*10 *
:
-6
-6 0.101
-6
2
J = 9*10 + 82.6 * 10 + 2 = 90.59 * 10 *
174
-6
90.59 * 10 * 630
*. =
= 0.062 * = 62 *
0.865

*. + *.
78.4 13.11 + 62 = 75.11 * ()
*.
49 13.11 * ()
C, ,
.

17.
? < [ 0 * s ],
? - , [ 0 * s ] -
. ,
,
.
.
,
,
, .

v=pi*d*n/60=3.14*0,0014*5100/60=3,7 /c. , v < 5 /,

31

5.84.00.00

A4

.
. . . .
.
. .

7-G 1758-81.
( c.
[1])
= 0.7*K * (F ' + F '), K - .
imin
s i1 i2
s
Fi1 ' Fi2 ' -
,
Fi2 ' = Fp + ff , Fp - ,
ff - ,
. ..
.. .. (. [1])
: Fp2 = Fp4 = Fp6 = 24 ; Fp8 = 26 , ff = 9
Fp10 = Fp12 = 26 ; Fp14 = 30 , ff = 10
: Fp1 = Fp3 = Fp5 = Fp7 = 22 ; ff = 9
Fp9 = Fp11 = 22 ; Fp11 = 24 ; ff = 10
s - ;

:
F'i0 min 1 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 34.53
F'i0 min 2 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 34.53
F'i0 min 3 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 34.53
F'i0 min 4 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 26 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 35.61
F'i0 min 5 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 26 + 10 + 22 + 10 ) = 36.70
F'i0 min 6 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 26 + 10 + 22 + 10 ) = 36.70
F'i0 min 7 = 0.71 * 0.75 * ( 30 + 10 + 24 + 10 ) = 39.93


2
2
2
2
Fi0 max = Ks * [ ((Fi1 ) + (E? M2 ) ) + ((Fi2 ) + (E? M2 ) ) ],
Ks - .
: 1 = 0,83; 2 = 0,85; 3 = 0.85
er * tg 2
2
E? M = [ ( cos ) + (ea * tg ) ],
- 0,
, - 20, ,

ea - ,
er - .
,
, ,

32

5.84.00.00

A4

.
. . . .
.
. .

, .
F'i0 max 1 = 0.83 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 53.1
F'i0 max 2 = 0.83 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 53.1
F'i0 max 3 = 0.83 * ( 24 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 53.1
F'i0 max 4 = 0.83 * ( 26 + 9 + 22 + 9 ) = 54.8
F'i0 max 5 = 0.83 * ( 26 + 10 + 22 + 10 ) = 56.4
F'i0 max 6 = 0.83 * ( 26 + 10 + 22 + 10 ) = 56.4
F'i0 max 7 = 0.83 * ( 30 + 10 + 24 + 10 ) = 61.4
jn min
jt min = cos * cos ,
= 20, = 0.
jn min -
.
jn min 1-6 = 11; jn min 7 = 13
jt min 1-6 = 8.5 , jt min 1-6 = 9.6

2
2
2
2
2
jt max = 0.7 * (EHS1 +EHS2 ) + (0.5*(T1 + T2 ) + 2*(fa ) + p1 + p2 ).

p = 20 , f ,
a
T ,
EHS .
EHS1
EHS2
TH1
TH2
fa
18
26
38
45
16
18
26
38
45
16
18
26
38
45
16
18
26
38
45
16
18
28
38
53
16
jt max 1 = jt max 2 = jt max 3 = 64.74 ,
jt max 4 = 67.93 , jt max 5 = jt max 6 = 71.00 , jt max 7 = 75.1
,
.
, Fi0 ,
F'i0 *180*60
6.88*F'i0
i0 = m*z *1000* = m*z
,
1
1

33

5.84.00.00

A4

.
. . . .
.
. .

6.88*jt
i0 = m*z .
1
:
34.53

=
6.88
*
i min 1
i min 2
i min 3
0.3*42 = 18.8'
35.61

=
6.88
*
i min 4
0.3*42 = 19.4'
36.7

=
6.88
*
i min 5
i min 6
0.4*42 = 15.0'
39.93

=
6.88
*
i min 7
0.6*62 = 7.38'
:
53.1

=
6.88
*
i max 1
i max 2
i max 3
0.3*42 = 28.9'
54.8

=
6.88
*
i max 4
0.3*42 = 29.9'
56.4

=
6.88
*
i max 5
i max 6
0.4*42 = 30.8'
61.4

=
6.88
*
i min 7
0.6*62 = 11.3'

. , n ,
i0 ? ,
p
2

=
E
+
t*

[
? ( *V ) ],
i0 ? i0 ?
j i0 j
p
Ei0 j =
;

i0 min j + i0 max j
-
2

Vi0 j = i0 max j - i0 min j - ;


- j- .
j

i0 j

i0 j = i0 j * K ,
K - ,

B
. j- j = .
j
j- :
1
=
j ij-B , ij-B -
j- .

34

5.84.00.00

A4

360 , = 1.
.
:
Ei1 = Ei2 = Ei3 = (18.8 + 28.9)/2 = 23.85'; Ei4 = (19.4 + 29.9)/2 = 24.65'
Ei5 = Ei6 = (15.0 + 30.8)/2 = 22.9'; Ei7 = (7.38 + 11.3)/2 = 9.4'

. .

. . . .

Vi1 = Vi2 = Vi3 = 28.9 - 18.8 = 10.1';


Vi4 = 29.9 - 19.4 = 10.5'
Vi5 = Vi6 =30.8 - 15.0 = 15.08';
Vi7 = 11.3 -7.38 = 3.92'
:
1
=
1 85.0 = 0.012; 2 = 0.025; 3 = 0.052; 4 = 0.109; 5 = 0.227; 6 = 0.455;
= 1;
7

:
p
Ei0 ? = 0.012*23.85 + 0.025*23.85 + 0.052*23.85 + 0.109*24.65 + 0.227*22.9 +
+ 0.455*22.9 + 1*9.4 = 22.3'
, :

i0 ? = 22.3 + 0.48*27.04 = 24.8'


:
8.5

=
6.88*
min 1
min 2
min 3
min 4
0.3*42 = 4.64
8.5

=
6.88*
min 5
min 6
0.4*42 = 3.48
9.6

=
6.88*
min 7
0.6*62 = 1.76
:
64.7

=
6.88*
max 1
max 2
max 3
0.3*42 = 35.4
67.93

=
6.88*
max 4
0.3*42 = 37.1
71.00

=
6.88*
max 5
max 6
0.4*42 = 38.8
75.1

=
6.88*
max 7
0.6*62 = 13.9
:
E1 = E2 = E3 = (4.64 + 35.4)/2 = 20.02'; E4 = (4.64 + 37.1)/2 = 21.30'
E5 = E6 = (3.48 + 38.8)/2 = 21.4'; E7 = (1.76 + 13.9)/2 = 7.83'
V5 = V2 = V3 = 35.4 - 4.64 = 30.76';

V4 = 37.1 - 4.64 = 32.46'

35

5.84.00.00

A4

V5 = V6 =38.8 - 3.48 = 35.32';

V7 = 13.9 -1.76 = 12.14'

:
p
E ? = 0.012*20.02 + 0.025*20.02 + 0.052*20.02 + 0.109*21.3 + 0.227*21.4 +
+ 0.455*21.4 + 1*7.83 = 18.7'
, :
= 17.74 + 0.39* 1781.9 = 27.2'
?

. .

. . . .

:
? =
?
i0 ? + ? = 24.8 + 27.2 = 52.0'

36

5.84.00.00

A4

1. , .., .., .., .: .


, 1995.
2. , . ... .:
, 1982.
3. , .. , .. , .. ,
. .., 2001.
4. . .., .., .., . ,
1988.
5. . 1, .., .: , 1979
6. . 2, .., .: , 1979
7. , . .., .1, .: , 1982.
8. , . .., .2, .: , 1982.
9. , , .., .1, .:
, 1982.
10. , , .., .2, .:
, 1982.
11. ,
. .., ..,
12. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , . , 2000
13. .

. .

. . . .

37

5.84.00.00

A4

1
: 174
: 7
: 3.1
???????????-????????????????????????????????????????????????????????-
|
|
|
|
| N | +?????????????????????????????+
|
|
|

|
???????????-+?????????????????????????+??????????????+??????????????+
|
1
|
1.40
|
30
|
42
|
|
2
|
1.40
|
30
|
42
|
|
3
|
2.10
|
20
|
42
|
|
4
|
2.10
|
20
|
42
|
|
5
|
2.10
|
20
|
42
|
|
6
|
3.10
|
20
|
62
|
|
7
|
3.10
|
20
|
62
|
???????????-+?????????????????????????+??????????????+??????????????-

. .

. . . .

*****
1 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
30
|
42
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.30
|
|

|
9.60
|
13.20
|
|

|
9.00
|
12.60
|
|

|
2.80 > 4
|
2.80 > 3
|
|

|
10.80
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????
*****
2 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
30
|
42
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.30
|
|

|
9.60
|
13.20
|
|

|
9.00
|
12.60
|
|

|
2.80 > 4
|
2.80 > 3
|
|

|
10.80
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????
*****
3 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
20
|
42
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.30
|
|

|
6.60
|
13.20
|
|

|
6.00
|
12.60
|
|

|
2.80 > 4
|
2.80 > 3
|
|

|
9.30
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????
*****
4 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
20
|
42
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.30
|
|

|
6.60
|
13.20
|
|

|
6.00
|
12.60
|
|

|
2.80 > 4
|
2.80 > 3
|
|

|
9.30
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????

38

5.84.00.00

A4

. .

. . . .

*****
5 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
20
|
42
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.40
|
|

|
8.80
|
17.60
|
|

|
8.00
|
16.80
|
|

|
3.60 > 5
|
3.60 > 4
|
|

|
12.40
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????
*****
6 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
20
|
62
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.40
|
|

|
8.80
|
25.60
|
|

|
8.00
|
24.80
|
|

|
3.60 > 5
|
3.60 > 4
|
|

|
16.40
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????
*****
7 *****
??????????????????????????????-??????????????????????????????????????
|

|
+??????????????????????????????+??????????????????+??????????????????+
|

|
20
|
62
|
|

|
40
|
40
|
|

|
0.60
|
|

|
13.20
|
38.40
|
|

|
12.00
|
37.20
|
|

|
5.60 > 8
|
5.60 > 6
|
|

|
24.60
|
???????????????????????????????+??????????????????????????????????????

39

5.84.00.00

A4