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678.06
34.42
97
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, 2006. 512 ., .
ISBN 5-93913-081-
ISBN 3-446-15956-8 (Munich)
ISBN 1-56990-129-5 (New York)

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678.06
34.42
All right reserved. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich/FRG.
Authorized translation from the original English language edition published by
Carl Hanser Verlag, Muhich/FRG
.

.

ISBN 5-93913-081-
ISBN 3-446-15956-8 (Munich)
ISBN 1-56990-129-5 (New York)

Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, 1994


.., . 1,2,5,2005
., . 3,4,2005
.., . 6,2005
- , 2006

10
1.
11
1.1. ()
11
1.2. ()
13
1.3.
14
1.4.
18
1.5.
18
1.6.
23
2. ( ) . . . . 24
2.1.
24
2.2.
25
2.2.1. ,
25
2.2.2.
32
2.2.3.
40
2.2.4. (, )

55
2.3.
65
2.3.1.
65
2.3.2.
70
2.3.3.

73
2.3.4.

76
2.4. ,
85
2.4.1.
85
2.4.2.
86
2.4.3. : --
(PVT-)
90
2.4.4.
94
2.4.5. /
98
2.5.
109
2.6.
113
2.6.1.
113
2.6.2.
114
2.6.3.
120


2.6.4. ,
2.6.5.
2.6.6.
2.7.

2.7.1.
2.7.2.
2.7.3.
2.7.4. ( )
2.8.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3. , .
3.4.4. , .

3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.7.1.
3.7.2.

3.7.3. ()
3.7.4.
3.7.5.
3.8.
3.9.
3.10.
3.11.
3.12.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.3.5.
4.3.6.
4.4.
4.4.1.
4.4.2. ( )
4.4.3.
4.4.4. /

125
126
133
136
136
145
152
155
157
161
161
165
174
175
175
176
185
197
200
204
205
205
209
210
211
212
213
215
219
220
222
223
223
223
224
224
225
229
229
230
234
236
240
247
252
252
254
261
268


4.4.5.
4.5. ()
4.5.1.
4.5.2. ,
4.5.3.
4.6. .
4.6.1.
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4.7.
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4.7.3.
4.8. ( )
4.9.
4.9.1.
4.9.2.
4.9.3.
4.10.
5. :

5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
5.1.3.
5.1.3.1.
5.1.3.2.
5.1.3.3.
5.1.3.4. () . . .
5.1.4. . . .
5.1.4.1. . . . .
5.1.4.2.

5.1.5.
5.1.6.
5.1.6.1.
5.1.6.2. -
5.1.6.3. ,

5.1.6.4.

5.1.7.
5.1.7.1.
5.1.7.2.
5.1.8. -
5.1.8.1.
5.1.8.2.
5.2.

5.2.1.
5.2.2. ()
5.2.3. ()

7
270
285
285
286
296
297
297
299
302
302
302
303
307
309
311
311
311
317
320
322
322
322
324
330
331
336
338
339
339
339
341
342
347
351
352
354
355
356
356
356
358
358
358
359
359
360
361


5.2.4.
5.2.5.
5.2.6.
5.3.
6. ,

366
367
370
370
373

6.1.
6.2.
6.2.1.
6.2.2. ,
6.2.3.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3. ,
6.3.4.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.2.1.
6.4.2.2.
6.4.2.3.
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.5.2.
6.5.3.
6.5.4.
6.5.5. ()
6.5.6.
6.5.7.
6.5.8.
6.5.9.
6.6.
6.6.1.
6.6.2.
6.6.3.
6.7.
6.8.
-

373
376
376
378
380
384
384
385
394
398
404
404
405
406
410
432
446
446
447
466
469
472
474
474
477
479
480
480
483
492
495
496
499


,
(SPE) .
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, Plastics Engineering,
Polymer Engineering and Science, Journal of Vinyl Technology Polymer Composites. ,
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, 25 000 - ,
SPE , .
: 14 Fairfield Drive,
Brookfield Center, Connecticut 06805.



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1.6.
1. Deanin, R., Polymer Structure, Properties, and Applications, Cahners Publishing, Boston,
MA (1972).
2. Technical Bulletin, Designing with Plastics, Hoechst Celanese, Chatham, NJ (1989).
3. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Materials Design Guide, General Electric Plastics,
Pittsfield,MA(1989).
4. Moore, G. and Kline, D., Properties and Processing of Polymers for Engineers, PrenticeHall, Inc., London (1984).
5. Clements, L., Polymer Science for Engineers, Engineering Plastics I landbook, American
Society of Metals, International, Metals Park, OH (1988).
6. Technical Bulletin, Engineering Thermoplastics Basic Design Manual, The Dow Chemical
Co., Midland, MI (1988).
7. Dym, J., Product Design with Plastics, Industrial Press, Inc., NY (1983).
8. Powell, P., Plastics for Industrial Designers, The Plastics Institute, London (1973).
9. MacDermott, C, Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications, Marcel Dekker,
Inc., NY (1984).
10. Ehrcnstein, G. and Erhard, G., Designing with Plastics, Hanser Publishers, Munich (1984).

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34.

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3.

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(3.3)

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,

184


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G = E/[ ( 2 ( l + a ) ] .

(3.4)

,
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.

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.
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0,0 0,5. ,
.
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185

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(- ),
.
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186

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(3.6)

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.

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187

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188

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189

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190

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191

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. 3.25.

192

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193


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,
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194

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( 1,10,100,1000 . .),
.

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4000 /2 (74 ). 10 000

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10,100,1000 . .),
.

195
2

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(36 ). ,
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50 %

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50 %

196

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50 %

197

. 334.
.


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198

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199


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200

. 337.
50 %

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201

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. 339.

202


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203


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.

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204

. 3.42.


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(. 3.42 [6]).

3.6.

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205

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[6, 7] (. 3 43 [10]).

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4.9.2), .
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[6,7].

3.7.

3.7.1.
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206

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, .

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. 3.44.


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207

. 3.45.

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208

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209

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.

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14 . 593

210

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1,82 ).
(
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[6, 7].

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.


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211

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212

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.

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UL 94, [5].
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213

3.8.
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214

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,

215

3.9.

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[16].
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216

<

217

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.
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, 30-40
(
ASTM ISO) ( ,
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30
[18]. ,
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.
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,
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50 % ). ,
,
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. .
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.
1988

{CAMPUS) [16,18, 20]. CAMPUS
.

218

, ISO.
, ,
CAMPUS, .
CAMPUS {version 1)
30
,
.
,
.
, CAMPUS {version 2),
:
1) ;
2) , /;
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CAMP US
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:


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.
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.


( ).

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, CAMPUS
,
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[16,20].

219

. 3.51. , CAMPUS {version 2)

3.10.


. ,

. .
[23] {Evaiuator),
,
.
Evaiuator
. ,
.
.
Evaiuator ,
, / .
.

220

. 3.52. Evaluator ,
,

Evaluator ,
,
.

3.11.
:
: .
: , , -
.
: (
).

, (
).
,
.
ASTM D4000 (Standart Classification System for Specifying
Plastic Materials),
, [24].
( )

, , ,
(, 1030 ,
).
,
.

221

0 - , ,
.
1 - ,
D 1600.
2 , ,
. ,
.
3 - , .
4 - , .
5 ,
.
6 , ,
.
7 ,
.

. 353. ASTM ZM000



.
.
, ,
/ .
,
:
: ZM000 120 53380
:
1 20 66 D 4066
G33 33 %,
(D4066)
5 , 175
3 , 7500
3 , 75 /
8 , 235
0
,
.
, ,
,
.

222

3.12.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Nagarsheth, P., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 35, 220 (1989).


Woodruff, D., Business Week, April 30,110 (1990).
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Pittsfield, MA.
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Rietveld, J., Viscoelasticity, Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics,
ASM, 412, (1988).
Throne, J., and Progelhof, R., Creep and Stress Relaxation, Engineered Materials
Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics, ASM, 658, (1988).
Newby, G. and theberge, J., Machine Design, March 8 (1984).
So, Pa, Fractography, Engineered Materials Handbook, Volume 2, Engineering Plastics,
American Society of Metals, 805, (1988).
Technical Bulletin, Polycarbonate Design Manual, Miles Corporation, Pittsburg, PA.
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Testing, MS Thesis, Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts
Lowell (1993).
Deanin, R., Polymer Structure, Properties and Applications, Cahners, Boston, MA
(1972).
Aklonis, J., MacKnight, W. and Shen, M., Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity,
Wiley Interscience, NY (1972).
LeVerae, L., Plastic Design Forum, 18, (1) , 36, (1993).
Dieckmann, D., Plastics Engineering, 45, ( 1 1 ) , 29, (1989).
Mehta, K. and Oberbach, Society of Plastics Engineers RETEC, Rochester, 51, (1991).
Klein, A., Plastics Design Forum, 14, (2), 39, (1989).
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(1990).
Friedman, M., Plastics Design Forum, 11, (4), 61, (1986).
MacDermott, C, Selecting Thermoplastics for Engineering Applications, Marcel
Dekker,Inc.,NY(1984).
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ASTM D4000, Standard Classification System for Specifying Plastic Materials, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, 8.0, (1990).

4.
4.1.
,
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224


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225

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227


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229

4.3.



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230

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231

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= 3,00 - 3,13(2R/W) + 3,66(2R/W)2 - ^.53(2R/W)3


. 4.5.

232

. 4.6.


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234

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236


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237

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239


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240

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243

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244

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245

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246

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2800 / 2 (19,3 )
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.

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248

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249



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252

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253

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254

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4.4.2. ( )
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316

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318

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319

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320

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4.10.
1. Structural Plastics Design Manual, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Manual
and Report on Engineering Practice No. 63, April (1982).
2. Roark, R. and Young, W., Formulas for Stress & Strain, 5th ed., McGraw Hill, NY (1975).
3. Crate, J., Plastics Design Forum, 9 (4), 77 (1984).
4. Lee, C, Dubin, A., Elmer, D., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 912 (1987).
5. Trantina, G., Minnichelli, M, SPE Annual Technical Conference, 37, 438 (1987).
6. Levy, S. and DuBois, J., Plastics Product Design Engineering Handbook , 2nd ed.,
Chapman and Hall, NY (1984).
7. Rolfe, S., and Barsom, J., Fracture & Fatigue Control in Structures, Applications in
Fracture Mechanics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1977).
8. Technical Bulletin, Lelij, J., Engineering Design, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington,DEU991).

321

9. Technics! Bulletin, Cabibre Polycarbonate Design Manual, Dow Chemical Company,


Midland, MI (1988).
10. Mehta, K., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 38, 2058 (1992).
11. Technical Bulletin, Marks, F Engineering Design, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.,
Wilmington, DE( 1989).
12. Technical Bulletin, Designing with Plastics, Hocchst Celanese, Chatham, NJ (1989).
13. Aklonis. J., MacKnight, W., and Shen, M., Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity, Wiley
Interscience,NY(1972).
14. Throne, J., and Progelhof, R., Creep and Stress Relaxation in Engineered Materials
Handbook Vol 2 , ASM, Metals Park, OH (1988),
15. Technical Bulletin, Polycarbonate Design Manual, Mobay Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.
16. Technical Bulletin, Lexan Design Guide , General Electric Company Pittsfield, .
17. Beer, F. and Johnson, E., Mechanics for Engineers, McGraw Hill, NY (1976).
18. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum, 15 (6), 42 (1990).
19. Allied Signal Corporation, Morristown, NJ.
20. Technical Bulletin, Ultem Design Guide, General Electric Company Pittsfield, MA.
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21 . 593

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5.3.
1.
2.
3.
4.

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

Kelly, W., British Plastics and Rubber, July/August, 12 (1984).


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6. ,


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417

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6.8.
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5. Kaeufer, H., Kunststoffe, 79 (4) 339 (1989).
6. Miller, E., Plastics Product Design Handbook, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY (1981).
7. Anonymous, Plastics Design Forum , 2 (2) 34 (1977).
8,9. Lee, C, and Dubin, A., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 34 1564 (1988). Lee, C, Dubin.
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10. Trantina, G., and Minnichelli, M., SPE Annual Technical Conference, 33, 438 (1987).
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,
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.

497

Wuebken, G., Plastics Design Forum , 9 (3) 37 (1984).


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Technical Bulletin, ITW Shakeproof, Illinois Products, Elgin, IL.
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56.
57.
58.
59.
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61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
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88. Atkinson, J., and Turner, ., Polymer Engineering & Science, 29 (19) 1368 (1989).
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79
138

174

41, 67, 110, 144, 227,


323
226,
240
224,249,359

35, 38
98
18,23
18,74,466
437
252, 271, 278,399
260
265
215
88,118,407,421
424
50
78
466

467
467
405
Plastite 419
Poly fast 420
'419
406
405,415
410,417
50
177,
245

106
18,23,150
22
83
25
141
65,77,101
25,61, 63,85

85
50,85
110,134
85

500

440
432

129
128
445
405
131
442
25,34
385
25,113

50, 53,54
16
48-50
406
431
461
14
212
33,52

100,
103
87
139
148
134,379,383
361
11
378,401
180
180
307, 378
98
180
28
21
413
18, 22, 465
98,128,395


176,194, 240
59
432
39,88,171,262
385
387
385
386
25,26,40, 58, 59,
140
110
423
78
-
82
183

212
15

94 212
212
201
203
203
315

367
367

343
138,141,144
48
44
48
171-173
149,339
480,483

487
488
488
487

460
430
432
309
428

14
114
450,451
230,402
-
358
201
26, 35, 85,98,103,108
262,309,421


413
247
231,250

210,375,406
20
184
91
73
23,168,210
124,379
20
404
429
430
203


176
190,193
48
13
96
303
303
307
227, 385, 387, 394

501


336

131
26,42, 65, 70, 323, 433
71
71

65
25,61,63,85
26,27,42,48,
56, 85, 343
31
24
153
155
152,438
136,138

79

79
145
342
146,357
151
343,433
438
28

347
350,357
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357
60
60
30
352,357
155
26
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120
82

502


174

479
370

24,162
161
360
324

244
180,242
186
183
183
242
244,276
181,402
242
180
14,16
15
15
-
14,15

253
412,413
253
305
304, 307
256
129
236, 245, 274, 281, 287
311
237,312
237
317
18,23, 74,106,465
55
253, 358,399,434
34,85,98,329
180

67
66
136,192,251
46
310
26
26,138
123
29
297

324
340
491
20
55, 61
11
276
343
234, 287, 293
234
236,273
235
236
236,273
32
439

255,268
255,268
126
412,422
25, 99,103,109,134
50
40,45,48,54,101
11,13
59
20,466
12
285,296
18,466
214

285
343
78
19
126
193
19
186,239,243
17,213

33
123
15,19
88
114
19,29
147,151

338

45, 52
102

179
179
179
180
180
376
460
118,264
239
19

26, 232, 356, 359


219
174, 249,322,356

336

338
339
331

503

16
38
38,205,315
477
114,120,128,134
131
184
385
28
256
46
79, 366,495
96
13
88, 99, 104, 109,
118,171,261,309
474
39,99
197,198,239,247
50
469
446
466
477
474
474
469
447
(
) 472
276, 288,294,
305
241
21,175,186,240
213
22
206
22
240
204
29

12

504

30
358
358

42
52

46,53,214
48,52

28,30,32
30
123
484

450, 494
384
480
404
458,494
376
446
457
495
455
456,494

83
60
32,42,79
14,19
297
302
299
18
329
211

13
32
32
331

21

61,65
96
13
122,171
245
86
20, 32, 85
20,50
206
112,209
20,42, 47,50,85,110
112,207
20
113
361
21
11
12, 89, 206,462
137,145,153
13
13,
89,104,207,464

209
125,397
396
57, 85, 86, 87, 108,
148,314
16
21
192, 246,377

71
386
114,171
386

35,182
200
143
55,85,104
98
94

91
98

120,133
414
86,155
86,148,155

22
88,118

19
18,23
86
25
331
367
55
32,46
123
255
406,420

490
120,466
452

428
429

120,

505

472
167


53
21,22,96,177
28
20
ASTM174,220
CAD- 167, 227, 323, 329,
369
CAMPUS 218
Evaiuator219
Fused Deposition Manufacturing
338
In-Mold Reciprocating Pins 82
ISO 174
Laminated Object Manufacturing
339
Multi-Live Feed Injection Molding
79
Push-PullMolding 8\
PVT- 90,136,210
Selective Laser Sintering 336
Shear Controlled OrientationInjection Molding 79
SPE 340
SPI339
Stereo Lithography Apparatus 331

1
1
1 ()
1

=
=
=
=

25,4 ()
0,3048 ()
140- 6
0, 9144

1 3 ( 3 )
1 ()
1 3
1 3
1

= 1-10"63
= 0-3
= 1,639-10"5 3
= 2,832-"2 3
= 3,785- 10" 3 3

1
1

= 2,83-10-'2
= 4,536--1

1 /3 (/ 3 )
1 /3
1 / 3

= 1,0-10-3/3
= 3,61--2 /3
= 2,77--2 /3

()
1 / 2 (/ 2 )
1 ()
1 / 2
1
1
2
1 /

= 1,0 ()
5
= 1,013-
= 6,8947-103
2
= 145 /
= 14,6885 / 2
= 0,0681

1 ()
1 -/2
1 -/2

= 0,1 -
= 6,8947-103 -
= 6,8947-10"


1
1 -
1-

= 1,0-107 ()
= 9,81
= 1