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University for Business and Technology MATEMATIKA 1 (USHTRIME- MATRICAT DHE DETERMINANTAT ( PËRCAKTORET) )

University for Business and Technology

MATEMATIKA 1

(USHTRIME- MATRICAT DHE DETERMINANTAT

(PËRCAKTORET))

Mësimdhënësit

Dr. Azir Jusufi

Prishtinë

2012

Matricat dhe determinantat

1. A janë të barabarta matricat

 o A log 2 sin90  =   2 2 1 cos x
o
A log
2
sin90
= 
2
2
1
cos
x
sin
x
4
2
sin30
o 1
B 
=
cos180
o cos2
x 4
 
 
Zgjidhje.
o
2
log
10
sin90
2
1 1
=
=
A 
2 
2
2
1
cos
x
sin
x
4
1
cos2
x 4
1 
2
sin30
o 1
2
1
B =
=
2
o
cos180
cos2
x
4
 
 
1
cos2
x
4

Dmth

A=B

2.

Janë dhënë matricatë

A =

C

=

 

3

4

7

4

2

1

2

0

6

1

5

3

3

5

1

5

x

2

 

 

3

x

3

Njehsoni

A

a

)

±

B,

b) C+D,

Zgjidhje

a) A ± B,

A + B =

=

  

2

1

12

3

4

7

3

2

6

7

1

9

 

2

0

6

5

1

5

 

  

+

c)

  

B=

  

D=

 

1

3

A

B,

1

3

5

5

2

0

1

3

5

2

0

4

3

5

5

2

0

5

1

2     

4

2

 

2

x

3

3

x

d) B

C,

   =

  

3

4

+

+

7

+

(

(

(

3

e)

1)

3)

5)

B

+

2

0

6

+

+

D

5

2

0

+

+

5

+

1

5

2     

4

0

=

A - B =

=

4

7

2


3

4

7

7

2

6

3     

1

1

2

0

6

5

1

5

 

  

-

  

1

3

5

b) C+D, Nuk egziston

c) A B,

A

B =

3

4

7

2

0

6

5

1

5

  

  

1

3

5

=

=

3

(

 

7

(

4

1)

(

(

7)

+

1)

(

+

1)

+

2)

6

(

0

(

(

3)

+

3)

+

3)

+

1

5

(

5

(

5)

5)

(

5)

3 +

+

4 +

(

6 +

(

0 +

18) +

(

25)

5)

(

25)

15 +

20 +

(

(

35) +

4) +

0 +

12 +

5

2

0

2

0

4

=

  

  

3

4

7

(

(

(

5

2

0

3

(

2

0

  

4

=

5

+

7)

4

5

(

+

5 +

2)

0

2

6

5 ◊ + 1 0 5

2 +

2 +

0

0

0

0

0

(

+ 6

+ 0

8 +

14) +

0 +

+

0

20

4

20

1)

3)

5)

2

0

6

3

(

2

4

+

2

(

7)

2

    =      
=
 
 

22

9

36

5

2

0

5

1

5

2     

4

0

2)

0 +

+

6

0

0

0

11

20

23

4

4

5

+

1

+

+ 4

5

26

12

6

 

 

=

=

d)

B C,

 1  B ◊ C = 3   5    4
1
B
C =
3
5
4
+
10
+
(
12
+
4
+
20
+
0
+
(

e)

B D

5

2

0

2)

0

4)

2

0

4

 

   

 

4

2

1

+

1

3

5

+

+

25

10

0

+

+

+

1

5

3

  

6

 

0

12

=

Nuk egziston

 

  

=

1

3

5

    

4

8

24

+

4

4

4

+

+

5

2

0

32

13

17

    

2

+

2

2

+

2

0

+

4

(

(

(

3. Janë dhënë matricatë


A =

1 1

2

2 2

1

1 3

2

 

Gjeni A B BA

Zgjidhje

A

=

B

4


  4

8

=


 

+

+

+

(

(

(

1 2

1

2

2

1

8

4

8

)

)

)

+

+

+

1

2

3

1

2

3

 

1

+

2

+

1 +

 

4

-4

1

4

+

2

4

+

+

2

4

6

dhe

1

2

2

1

0

1

 

1

+

2

+

1

+

0

0

0

+

+

+

4

B=   -4

 

1

1 4

=

 

2

1

4

4

+ 2

+

1

2

+

(

(

(

4

4

4

1

2

3

=

 

3 7

8

6

1

11

1

2

2

1

0

1

 

)

)

)

1 1

2 1

3 1

+

+

+

2

4

4

 

1 1

2 1

1 1

1)

1)

1)

+ 2

1

+

2

2

2

+

2

1

3

5

(

(

(

1 +

2

3

+

2

2

+

2

+

1)

1)

1)

+

+

5

2

0

5

+

5

5

+

1 1

2 1

1 1

2

1

2

+ 0

0

0

+

+

2

+

0

4

3     

3

3

1 1 + 

+ 

2 1

+

3 1

B

=

A

=

4

-4

1

4

+

4

+

1

+

2

+

4

+

4

+

1

2

2

1

0

1

A


 

B

1 0

6

7

B

4

1 4

5

A

1

0

1

 

8

+

+

8

2

+

 

1

2

1

1

+

+

2

2

+

2

0

2

2

1

2

1

2

3

 

=

 

4

+

4

+

1

+

2

+

4

+

4

+

3

0

3

=

 

3

6

7

8

1 1 1

7

=  

4

4

2

4

4

 

4. Janë dhënë matricatë

1

0

x

M =

2

1

2

1

3

4

 

dhe

4 1

4 1

1 1

 

=

 

1

+

2

+

+

2

7

0

6

2

2

2

11

6

6

 

7

0

6

N=

1 1

 

6

6

x

9

x

1 1

+

0 1

+

1 1

+

9

0

8

 

9

0

8

y

x

8

 

=

4

4

1

5

x

x

2

2

2

1 1

+

2 1

+

2 1

+

 

3

1

6

7

0

6

 

1

1

2

+

0

+

2

+

2

8

7

1 1

(

4 1

4 1

1 1

1

2

2

1 1

6 )

6

2

+

2

+

+

2

2

4

4

1 3

0

+

3

1 3

+   + 

9

=

0

8

 

Gjeni x dhe y, në menyrë që të vlenë vetia komutative

M N =N M

Zgjidhje

=

=

2

1

2

y

0

x

x



 

x

9 x

x

y

1

3

4

xy

5

x

8 x

x

x

 

1


 

 

 

x y

x

x

8

9

5

x

x

 

1

=  

 

x

0

x

+2 9+(-1)

x

x

x

x

x

1

y

0

x

+2

y

y

x

+(-1) 8

x

x

8

8

M

N

+1 9+3

+1

+3

x

)

x

 

=

+2 9+4

 

+2

+2 -8

+24

x

x

x

+2 +32

+4

=


x

2

x

+18+(- )

0+9+3 x

+18+4

x

+2 +(-8)

0+ +24

+2 +32

x

5+2

x

5

+(-

18 y

2

x

9+3

+18+4

x

x

xy

5+

4

11

x

x

x

 

0+ +3

x

x

x

+2 +4

x

 

1

0

x

2

1

2

1

3

4

 

 

=

x

 

1+y 0+5

x

x

1+8 0+

x

x

x

x

9

x

2+y 1+5

2+ x

1+

x

2+8 1+

x

2

2

2

x

9

x

N

M

9 1+ x

x

0+

x

+0+5

x

+0+

x

x

2

= 9+0+

x

2

2 +y+10

18+ +2

2 +8+2

x

x

x

x

x

Atëhere kemi

x

9+3 x

x

+3y+20

x

+24+4

x

+4

 

=

 

6

x

9+

+

x

x

x

2

2

2 +y+10

x

18+3

x

x

+8

4

x

+3y+20

7

 

9 +

x

24+3

x

1 5+2

x

0 5+1

x

5+2

x    

+(-1)

+3

x

x

x

+4

x

=

(

(

(

1 +y

1 + x

1 +8

)

)

)

3+5 4

3+ x

3+

4

=

x

4

 

M


x

1)

4)

7)

N

=

N

M

2

18 y

+2

x

-8

9+3

+18+4

x

x

xy

x

+2

+24

x

+32

5+

4

11

x

x

x

9+ 3

18 =

6

x

2)

x

=

9+

x

2 5)

 

=

 

6

x

9+

+

x

x

x

2

x

+y+10

2 18+3

x

2

4

x

+8

y

+2

x

-8= 2

x

+y+10

x

+24=18+3

x

2

x

+18+4

x

=

x

+

2

x

8)

xy

+2

x

+32= 4

x

+8

x

+3y+20

9

+

24+3

7

x

x

=

3)

6)

9)

5+

4

x

x

+3y+20

+

7

x

x

x

= 9

11

x

=

24+3

N g a

1 ) d h e

8 ) k em i

1)

1 8

=

6

x

x

=

3

d h e

 

8)

xy

+ 2

x

+ 3 2 = 4

x

+ 8

3 y+ 2

3 + 3 2 = 4

3 + 8

3 y+ 6 + 3 2 = 1 2 + 8

3 y= 2 0 -3 8

y= -

D

m

t h

 

x

=

3

d h e

y

= - 6

 

1 8

3

y

= -6

5.

Të llogaritet

f

(

x

)

=

x

2

Zgjidhje

f

(

x

)

2

= x

3

x+

x

2

=

1

-1

2

0

3

1

4

-2

1

 

=

1+0+8

-1+( 3)+(-4)

2+( 1)+2

3

x =

E

=

3

1

0

0

1 0

3

2 1

-1

0

1

0

0

0

1

 

f

(

x

)

=

x

2

3

+

x

3

x

+

5

n ese

x =

5

 

1

-1

2

0

3

1

4

-2

1

 

=

 

1 1+0 -1 1+3

2 1+1

0+0+4

0+9+(-2)

0+3+1

4+0+4

-4+( 6)+(-2)

8+( 2)+1

4

-2

1

 

=

 

3

-3

6

0

9

3

matrica njesi

5 =

 

9

8

3

4

7

4

12

-6

3

5

 

E

8

12

7

 

=

-

 

1

0

0

3

-3

6

(

(

(

=

 

0

1

0

0

9

3

1

-1

2

0

3

1

1)+4 2 1)+(-2) 2

1)+1 2

 

9

8

3

4

7

4

0

0

1

 

12

-6

3

=

 

 

5

0

0

+

 

4

-2

1

 

1 0+0 -1 0+3

8

2

12

7

 

0

5

0

5

0

0

0

0

5

0

5

0

0+1

 

0

0

5

=

 

3+4 1 3+(-2) 1

3+1 1

 

11

5

3

4

3

1

1 4+0 -1 4+3

2

4+1

4

6

 

9

(

(

(

 

2)+4 1 2)+(-2) 1

2)+1 1

=

6.

Të vërtetohet se

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

Zgjidhje

 

n

=

 

1

0

0

Vertetojm se

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

 

n

=

 

1

0

0

Për n=1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

 

1

=

 

1

0

0

Për n=2

 

 

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

2

 

=

1

0

0

=

1 1

0

0

1

1

+ 0

0

+ 1 0

0

+

0

+ 0

0

+ ◊

1 0

1 0

+

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

n

1

 

0

n

1

 

0

1

1

 

0

1

1

 

1 0

0

0

0

0

 

1

0

0

0

1

0

0 + 1

1 1

+

0 1

+

0

+

1 0

+

0

1 0

+

0

1

1

 

=

1 0

0

0

0

0

0 1 +

1 1

+

0 1

+

0 1 +  

1 1

+

1 1

+

1    

0

0

=

0

1

0

0

2

1

 

Për n=3




1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

 

3

 

=

1

0

0

Supozojm

0

1