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2014


................................................................................................................................3
GSM......................................................................................................................4
1.1 A3...............................................................................................................4
1.2 8...............................................................................................................5
1.3 A5...............................................................................................................6
1.4 .............................................................................................6
1.5 .........................................................................................7
UMTS....................................................................................................................8
2.1 .........................................................................................................8
2.2 .............................................................................................................10
2.3 .................................................................................................10
2.4 ...........................................................................................11
2.5 ........................................................................................11
LTE......................................................................................................................13
3.1 ..............................................................................................14
3.2 ................................................................................................................14
3.3 ........................................................................................................14
3.4 .......................................................................................15
................................................................................................................................16
............................................................................................................17


1994 .
,
242 . 790 . [1].

. ,
, .
,
.
.

, ,
.
.
,
, .

GSM
GSM,
. GSM- 20
1994 .
, GSM
. :
,
;
GSM
;
-

, GSM (1900/2100 3G, 2600 LTE
900/1800 GSM) 1.
GSM
( , ,
, ):
3 , ;
8 , ,
A3 A5;
A5
.
() -, A3
A8, ASIC- A5.
ASIC- A5 , A3,
A8 .

,
,
.
.

1.1 A3
GSM
.

1 11.12.2013

890-915 935-960 3G, 1710-1785
1805-1880 LTE. [2]
, .
4

,
. ,
. [4]
SIM

.
.
128- Ki,
(MS Mobile Subscriber), (AuC Authentication Centre). Ki
SIM-, A3.
(HLR Home Location Registry)
(MSC Mobile Switching Centre).
MS , MSC MS.
MS HLR (IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
. HLR IMSI ,
, , MS IMSI .
, HLR IMSI
uC.
AuC IMSI, Ki IMSI. AuC
128- RAND. AuC 32-
SRES (SRES Signed Response) A3: SRES = A3(RAND, Ki).
MSC SRES RAND MS .
RAND, MS SRES A3
Ki: SRES = A3(RAND, Ki), MSC. SRES
SRES, MSC,
.
,
1998 .
, GSM. [5]
, Ki SIM-, , ,

. ,
, .

1.2 8
, , AUC
64- Kc A8: Kc = A8(RAND, Ki). Kc
A5 .
RAND, SRES, Kc , MSC HLR. AuC
HLR, HLR
MSC. ,
GSM core network, , MS
, MSC MS. ,

IMSI -
IMSI.

1.3 A5
A5 :
A5/0 ;
A5/1 , ;
A5/2 (
);
A5/3 , 2002
A5/1. GSM- ,
.
, GSM A5/1.

.
.
,

. ,
5. .
. , 2 64 .
[3], 10
. 254 .

.
. .

. .
240 [3].
, . .
,
. ,
40% A5 ,
,

( ( 2231 )4/3 )

. [3]

1.4
, GSM
(International Mobile Equipment Identity, IMEI).
. IMEI
(, , ). IMEI
: Type Allocation Code (TAC), Serial Number (SRN)
Software Version Number (SVN). TAC
, . SNR,
,
TAC. SVN
.
7

,
, EIR.
IMEI . EIR ,
:
White list IMEI ,
;
Black List IMEI , ,
;
Gray list IMEI ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .

1.5
GSM .
,
.
GSM ,

. ,
(, A5/3)
. ,
,
,
. .

[6].

UMTS
UMTS GSM 2007 [7].
, ,
2.
UMTS .
R99, UMTS
. 384 /,
.
HSPA, HSDPA HSUPA (,
),
1,8; 3,6; 7,2 14,4 /[8].
, HSPA+ 21,1 42,2 / (
Dual-Cell).
UMTS :
GSM.
3G
3
;

.
;

,
.
3G:
3G
2G, ;
3G
2G;
3G,
, 3G.
.

2 ( . handover)

3 ( . fraud) ,
,

9

2.1
UMTS GSM. ,
User Equipment (UE), UE , .
Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
.
-. ,
UE, MSC/VLR SGSN
IMSI TMSI.

AKA

.
1) MSC/VLR SGSN (Authentication
Data Request) AUC .
IMSI.
2) AUC, ,
, (AV
Authentication Vectors) MSC/VLR SGSN
(Authentication Data Response).
.
, .
. ,
.
MAP.
3) (Authentication and key establishment)
, MSC/VLR (SGSN)
(AV) ( RAND
AUTN) UE. RAND AUTN USIM
(Universal Subscriber Identity Module),
, AUC.
4) , USIM AUTN.
, , , , UE
MSC/VLR SGSN
(User Authentication Response),
RES, UE.
MSC/VLR (SGSN) RES , AUC,
. ,
.
,
, USIM (Radio Network
Controller).
AUC
SQN.
,
AMF F1F5. F1-F5 , 3GPP
.
10

( MILENAGE), 3GPP TS 33.206.


.
, ,
( ), ( ,
). ,

. ,
,
. -
.
AV 5 : RAND, XRES, CK, IK AUTN ,
, GSM.

2.2
UMTS OSI, MAC
(Media Access Control) RLC (Radio Link Control).
,
RLC .
RLC, MAC.
RLC .
.

.
, . ,
.
4 :
COUNT-C . 32- ,
. COUNT-C 2
: Hyper Frame Number (HFN) Connection Frame Number (CFN) RLC
Sequence Number (RLC-SN). COUNT-C ,
.
BEARER 5 . ,
,
, .
,
COUNT-C .
DIRECTION , Uplink
Downlink.
LENGTH 16 ,
.
F8.
, KASUMI,
64 128- . [9]
, ,
.
11

2.3
, UE RNC.
.
RRC ,
Message Authentication Code (MAC-I).
MAC-I
. XMAC-I
( MAC-I) MAC-I. ,
, .
F9 . F9
5 MAC-I.
COUNT-I 32 ,
. RRC Hyper Frame Number (HFN)
RRC . RRC . COUNT-I
, RRC
MAC .
FRESH 32 , RNC
UE RRC Security Mode Command,
. ,
.
DIRECTIONAL , :
Uplink Downlink.
IK , ,
UE, MSC/VLR
SGSN RNC. .
MESSAGE .
F8
F9 ,
(BEARER). ,
RRC
MAC-I.
,
, .

2.4
UMTS , GSM, , MSC/VLR
IMEI , EIR.
IMEI Black List, MSC/VLR
, , , Location Updates,
, .
,
.

12

2.5
, ,
UMTS,
. GSM,
, .
,
, .
. ,
,
.

2G. 3G [10].
2G
,
3G. ,
R99 DC-HSPA. .
: Quad Cell, MIMO 3G,
3GPP, [12].
,
:

.

.

13

LTE
LTE UMTS[12],
, -
4G.
LTE
(
), ,
[13].
IP-,
Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB),
3G 2G .
CSFB : LTE ,

( ,
) 2 10 [14], ,
. - Voice over LTE
(VoLTE), LTE,
, CSFB,
2014
.
LTE
3G,
.
LTE . IP. 3G

(Mobile Switching Centre) (
GGSN/SGSN), LTE
EPC (Evolved Packet Core) IP.

LTE:
, 3G;
-;
LTE
3G LTE;
-
USIM.

AKA.
,
. ,
, :

14

,
;
(NAS),

(UE), (AS),

;
,
, ;
3G
LTE.

3.1
LTE
5 , 700
[12]. ,
. ,
2600 ,
, ,
. ,
.

() . , :
GPS, .
, .
,
,
.
, , ,

3.2 4

,
LTE-.
,
, .

4 (. Femtocell) ,
( ).
,
( ), ( 4
16/32 ).
15

3.3
LTE . LTE
(RNC), 3G

RNC, .
3G ,
,
RNC. ,
eNodeB (eNB).
, .
eNB. IP,
,
, eNB [12].

3.4
,
LTE, . ,
, UMTS.
, , ,
LTE. ,
. ,
GSM,
. 3G
.
,
, ,
. ,
:
.
, , ,
.
.

16



. GSM
,
3G ,
. LTE
,
CSFB VoLTE ,
IP .
GSM. :
.
. UMTS
,
LTE. ,
GSM, , - .
,


, .

17


1. AC&M:
http://svr.corp.megafon.ru/press/information/telecom/20140320-1249.html
2. 11 2013 . ( 13-22) http://minsvyaz.ru/ru/doc/?
id_4=1054
3. . , , 1997 .
4. GSM http://confonline.susu.ru/index.php?option=
com_content&view=article&id=73:-gsm-&catid=10:2011-02-15-12-19-11&Itemid=17
5. - - (.: Smartcard Developer
Association), 13.04.1998
6. GSM: - . ., . . .
http://www.detsys.ru/?tc=111&sc=113
7. - :: :: -
http://www.megafonnw.ru/info/rus/news/pressreleazes/umts_first.html
8. HSPA http://www.3gpp.org/technologies/keywords-acronyms/99-hspa
9. 3GPP TS 35.201 35.202
10. 3G http://www.rmmc26205.ru/bezopasnost_3g
11. HSDPA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-Speed_Downlink_Packet_Access
12. LTE http://www.osp.ru/nets/2012/06/13032673/
13. LTE - CS Fallback http://anisimoff.org/lte/cs_fallback.html
14. LTE / 4G http://www.1234g.ru/4g/golos-poverkh-lte-4g

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