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()

..

2011

17
70
: , . . . . .
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. . . : (), 2011. 90 .
,
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, .
, ,

.
.
.

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(), 2011

. .

,
.
,

,
. . -
, , .
: , .
:
, ;
,
;
,
;
.
- .

(), 2009

. .

,
, .

. , .
, , ,
, .

. , -, , .

(), 2009

. .

m n ,
m n :
a11 a12 ... a1n

i = 1, m;
a
a
...
a

22
2n
A = 21
=
a
,
ij
m n
...
... ... ...
j = 1, n.

am1 am 2 ... amn

aij ;
i ;
j .
m n,
A

m = n,
A

A, B
A=B
aij = bij


A = (a11 a12 ... a1n )

b11

B = 21

b
m1

(), 2009

0 =0
...
0

0
0
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0
...
0

a11 0 ... 0
0 a
... 0
22

... ... ...


...
0 ... ann
0

E =0
...
0

0
1
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0
...
1

. .

A + B = aij + bij = cij = C

m n m n

m n

cij = aij + bij , i = 1, m ,

j = 1, n

a11 a12 b11 b12 a11 + b11 a12 + b12


a a + b
b = a + b21 a 22 + b22
21 22 21 22 21

+
+
a
a
b
b
a
b
a
b
32
31 32 31 32 31 31 32
3 2

3 2

1.

A+ B = B+ A

2.

( A + B ) + C = A + (B + C )

3.

A+0 = A

A = aij = aij
a
11

a 21

1. ( A + B ) = A + B
3. A = (A)

i = 1, m ,

j = 1, n

a12 a11 a12


=
a 22 a 21 a 22

2. ( A + B ) = A + B
4. A 0 = 0

a11
a
A = 21
m n ...
a
m1

( )T = A

1. AT

a12
a 22
...
am2

... a1n
... a 2n

... ...
... a mn

a11
a
T
A = 12
n m ...
a
1n

a21
a22
...
a2 n

... am1
... am 2
... ...
... amn

2. ( A + B )T = AT + B T

3. (A) = AT
T

(), 2009

. .

A B = C

m n n k

= ij ,

( A = B)

m k

b1 j

b2 j

cij = (ai1 ai 2 ... ain )


= ai1b1 j + ai 2 b2 j + ... + ain bnj
...
bnj

a11
a
21

a12 b11 b12 a11b11 + a12 b21

=
a 22 b21 b22 a 21b11 + a 22 b21

2 2

2 2

a11b12 + a12 b22


a 21b12 + a 22 b22

2 2

1. ( A B ) C = A (B C )

2. ( A + B ) C = A C + B C

3. A (B + C ) = A B + A C

4. ( A B ) = (A) B = A (B )

5. A B B A

7. ( AB )T = B T AT

6. A E = E A = A

A
A m = A A ... A
m

1. A 0 = E

2. A1 = A

3. A m A k = A m + k

4. A m

(), 2009

( )k = Amk

. .

a11

A = a 21
...
a n1

a12
a 22
...
an2

... a1n
A11

... a 2n A 1 = 1 A12

... ...
...
A
... a nn
1n

A21
A22
...
A2n

... An1
... An 2 ,

... ...
... Ann

A ( 0 )

Aij aij .
A A 1 = A 1 A = E

a11
a
A = 21
m n ...
a m1

a12
a 22
...
am2

... a1n
... a 2n

... ...
... a mn

A (rang A)

b11 b12

B = 0 b22
... ...
0
0

... b1r
... b2r
... ...
... brr

... b1k
... b2k rang B = r.
... ...
... brk

B ,
bij 0 , i = 1, r , r < k

(), 2009

. .

a
A = 11
a 21
2 =

a12
a
det A = 2 = 11

a 22
a 21

a11
a 21

a12
a 22

a12

a 22

= a11a 22 a12 a 21

a11
A = a 21

a31

a12
a 22
a32

a11
a13

a 23 3 = a 21

a31
a33

a11
3 = a 21
a31

a12
a 22
a32

a13
a
a 23 = a11 22
a32
a33

a12
a 22
a32

a13
a 23
a33

a
a 23
a12 21
a31
a33

a 23
a
+ a13 21
a31
a33

a 22
a32


1. ,
(. . ).

a11
a 21

a12
a
= 11
a 22
a12

a 21
.
a 22

2. ()

a11
a 21

(), 2009

a12
a
= 21
a 22
a11

a 22
a12

. .


3. ()
.

ka11
a 21

ka12
a
= k 11
a 22
a 21

a12
.
a 22

4. , (),
.
4.1.

() ,
.

5. () ,
.
6. - ()
2- , 2-
,
, :

a11
a 21

a12 + b a11
=
a 22 + c a 21

a12 a11 b
.
+
a 22 a 21 c

7. , -
() (),

a11
a 21

(), 2009

a12
a 22

+ =

a11
a 21 + ka11

a12
a 22 + ka12

10

. .

a11
= a 21
a31

a12
a 22
a32

a13
a 23
a33

aij

aij

(1)i + j .

i- j- .

Aij .

M ij .

Aij = ( 1)i + j M ij


8. ( ())
()

= a 21 A21 + a 22 A22 + a 23 A23 .


9. - ()
()

a 21 A11 + a 22 A12 + a 23 A13 = 0 .


n-

a11
a
A = 21
...
a n1

a12
a 22
...
an2

a11
... a1n

... a 2n = a 21

n
... ...
...
a n1
... a nn

a12
a 22
...
an2

... a1n
... a 2n
... ...
... a nn

= a1 j A1 j
j =1

(), 2009

11

. .



m n :

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,


a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2n xn = b2 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a x + a x + ... + a x = b ,
mn n
m
m1 1 m 2 2
x1 , x2 ,..., xn ;

aij i = 1, m, j = 1, n ;

bi .
x1
x
...2 , . . ,
x
n
.

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = 0,


a x + a x + ... + a x = 0,
21 1
22 2
2n n

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = 0.



(), 2009

12

. .

a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 = b1 ,

a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3 = b2 ,
a x + a x + a x = b
32 2
33 3
3
31 1
1.

a11
= a 21
a31

a12
a 22
a32

a11
x3 = a 21
a31

a13
a 23
a33

a12
a 22
a32

b1
x1 = b2
b3

b1
b2
b3

x1 =

a12
a 22
a32

x1

a11 b1
x 2 = a 21 b2
a31 b3

a13
a 23
a33
;

x2 =

x2

x3 =

a13
a 23
a33

x3

2.

a11
A = a 21

a31

a12
a 22
a32

( )

a13
a 23

a33

x1

X = x2
x
3

b1

B = b2
b
3

A X = B X = A 1 B
3.

a
11
a 21
a31

a12
a 22
a32

a13
a 23
a33

b1

b2 .
b3

,
.
1. .
2. ( ), (
).
3. , .
4. ,
, .

(), 2009

13

. .

(i; j ),

yj

i = j = 1, i j

(i; j; k ),

i = j = k = 1,
i j, i k , j k

z
zk

j
0 i

xi

xi

k
i

yj
y

xOM = xi + y j + z k = ( x ; y; z )

OM = xi + y j = ( x ; y )

A( x1; y1; z1 ), B( x2 ; y 2 ; z 2 )
AB = ( x2 x1; y 2 y1; z 2 z1 )

A( x1; y1 ), B( x2 ; y 2 )
AB = ( x2 x1; y2 y1 )

a = ( x; y ), a = x 2 + y 2

a = ( x; y, z ), a = x 2 + y 2 + z 2


a = ( x1; y1 ), b = ( x2 ; y 2 ),
a = ( x1; y1; z1 ), b = ( x2 ; y 2 , z 2 ),
a b = ( x1 x2 ; y1 y 2 ),
a b = ( x1 x2 ; y1 y 2 ; z1 z 2 ),

k a = (kx1; ky1 )

x
a b 1 =
x2

k a = (kx1; ky1; kz1 )

y1
y2


a
x
y
=
a b 1 = 1 =
x2 y 2
b

y
y

a = ( x; y )

0
cos =
cos =

x
;
a

x = a cos

y
;
a

y = a cos

(), 2009

y
z

a
z1
=
z2
b

a = ( x; y; z )

cos =

x
;
a

cos =

y
;
a

y = a cos

cos =

z
;
a

z = a cos

x = a cos

14

. .


M ( r ; )

0
e
;

r , r [0; );

- , < ( 0 < 2 )

M (r ; )

r
0

( ; ) ;
(r ; )

()


r = x2 + y2 ,

tg =

y
,
x

( , ,
, , < )

x = r cos ,
y = r sin

(), 2009

15

. .

a b = a b cos ,


= a; b a b

1.

a =a

2.

(a ) b = (a b)

3.

a b = b a

4.
5.

(a + b) c = a c + b c
a b a b = 0

a = ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , b = ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 )
a b = x1x2 + y1 y 2 + z1 z 2
1. :

cos =

a b
ab

a
b

2. :

a b a b = 0

F
3. : A = F S

S
4. : a b = a np a b = b npb a

(), 2009

16

. .

c = a b , :

1. c = a b sin a; b ;
2. c a ,

c b;

3. a , b , c

1.

a b = b a

2.

a b = a b

3.

(a + b) c = a c + b c

4. a a

5.

=0

a b ab =0

i j k
a b = x1 y1 z1
x2 y 2 z 2

a = ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , b = ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 )

1. :

S = ab
2. :

S=

1
ab
2

3. :

a
b
a

a b ab = 0

(), 2009

17

. .

abc = a b c .

1. abc = b a c
2. abc = bc a = c ab

3. a , b , c abc = 0

a = ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) ,

b = ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 ) ,

c = ( x3 , y3 , z3 )

x1 y1 z1
ab = x 2 y 2 z 2
x3 y 3 z 3

1. :

V = abc = S h

c
b
a

2. ():

1
1
V = abc = S h
6
3

b
a

3. :

a , b , c abc = 0
4.

M1, M 2 , M 3 , M 4
M 1 M 2 M 1 M 3 M 1M 4 = 0

(), 2009

M2

M1

M4

M3

18

. .



. ,

n = ( A; B ) , M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) ,

nl

A( x x0 ) + B( y y0 ) = 0

M0

2.

n = ( A; B )

Ax + By + C = 0

3.

a = ( p; q )

M0

M 0 ( x0 ; y0 )

x x0 y y 0
=
p
q
.

x = x0 + pt ,
y = y0 + qt ;

M0

M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ),
a = ( p; q )

5. ,

M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ), M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ),

M2

x x1
y y1
=
x2 x1 y2 y1

M1

6.

y
x y
+ = 1.
a b

b
0

7. ,

M0

M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ),

y y0 = k ( x x0 )

k = tg

8.

y = kx + b

(), 2009

19

. .

l1 : A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0,

n = ( A1; B1 ) ,

l2 : A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0,

n = ( A2 ; B2 ),

A
k1 = 1
B1
A
k2 = 2
B2

n1

l1 l 2 n1 n2

n2

l1

l2

A1 B1
=
A2 B2

k1 = k 2

l1 l 2

l1 l 2

A1 B1 C1
=
=
A2 B2 C 2

l1 l 2 n1 n2

n2

A1 A2 + B1 B2 = 0 k1 =

l2
l1

1
k2

n1

l1

os =

l2
0


l : Ax + By + C = 0,

d=

(), 2009

n1 n2
k k2
tg = 1
1 + k1k 2
n1 n2

0 ( 0 ; 0 )

Ax0 + By0 + C
A2 + B 2

20

. .

y
M ( x; y ) B2

r1
A1
x=

1.

B1

r2

F2

A2
x=

x2
a2

2. a, b, c
3.
4.
5.

F1

[A1 A2 ]

[B1B2 ]

6.

y2
b2

=1

b2 = a2 c2

A1 ( a; 0 ), A2 (a; 0 )

B1 (0; b ), B2 (0; b )

A1 A2 = 2a
B1B2 = 2b

F1 ( c; 0 ), F2 (c; 0 )

7.

F1F2 = 2c

8.

9.
10.

(), 2009

c
<1
a

x=

r1 = a + x
r2 = a x

21

. .

b
y= x
a

M ( x; y )

r2

B2
b

r1
A1

F1

x=

0
B1

A2

x=

F2

3.
4.

[B1B2 ]

y2
b2

=1

b2 = c2 a2

[A1 A2 ]

A1 ( a; 0 ), A2 (a; 0 )
A1 A2 = 2a
B1B2 = 2b

F1 ( c; 0 ), F2 (c; 0 )

6.

F1F2 = 2c
c
= >1
a
a
x=

7.
8.
9.

b
y= x
a

10.
11.


12.
13.

r1 = x + a, r2 = x a
r1 = ( x + a ), r2 = ( x a )
x2 y2 = a2

x2
a

(), 2009

a2

2. a, b, c

b
x
a

x2

1.

5.

y=

y2
b

=1

22

. .

y
p
2
0

x=

p
2

y 2 = 2 px

p
F ; 0
2

x=

y
F p
2
0
y=

p
2

y=

p
2

p
2

y 2 = 2 px

p
F ; 0
2

0 p
2
F

(), 2009

p
2

p
2
0

x=

x=

p
2

x 2 = 2 py

p
F 0;
2

y=

p
2

x 2 = 2 py

F 0;
2

y=

p
2

23

. .



1.

a = ( p; q; r ),

M 0 ( x0 ; y 0 ; z 0 )

x x0 y y 0 z z 0
=
=
p
q
r

M0

2.

a = ( p; q; r ), M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z 0 )
x = x0 + pt ,

y = y0 + qt ,
z = z 0 + rt

M0

3. ,

M 1 ( x1; y1; z1 ),

M 2 ( x2 ; y 2 ; z 2 )

x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
x2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1

M2
M1

4.
( )

n1 = ( A1; B1; C1 )

n 2 = ( A2 ; B2 ; C 2 )

1
l
a

a = n1 n 2
A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0.

(), 2009

24

. .



1. ,

n = ( A; B; C ),

M0

M 0 ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 )

A( x x0 ) + B( y y0 ) + C ( z z 0 ) = 0

2. ,

M 1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ), M 2 ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 ), M 3 ( x3 , y3 , z3 )

M2

M1

M3

M ( x; y; z )
M 1M M 1M 2 M 1M 3 = 0

x x1

y y1 z z1

x2 x1 y 2 y1
x3 x1 y3 y1

z 2 z1 = 0
z3 z1

3. ,

M 0 ( x0 ; y 0 ; z 0 )
M0

M ( x; y; z )

a = ( p1; q1; r1 ) b = ( p2 ; q2 ; r2 )
M 0M a b = 0
4.

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, n = ( A; B; C )

(), 2009

25

. .

n1 = ( A1; B1; C1 )
1 : A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,
2 : A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0, n2 = ( A2 ; B2 ; C 2 )

1 2

1 = 2

A1 B1 C1 D1
=
=
=
A2 B2 C2 D2

n2

1 || 2 n1 || n 2

n1

A1 B1 C1
=
=
A2 B2 C 2

n2

1 2 n1 n2

n1 n2 = 0

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C 2 = 0

n1

os =

n1 n2
n1 n2

(), 2009

: Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, 0 ( 0 ; 0 ; z 0

d=

Ax0 + By0 + Cz 0 + D
A2 + B 2 + C 2

26

. .



x x1 y y1 z z1
, a1 = ( p1; q1; r1 ) , M 1 ( x1; y1; z1 )
=
=
p1
q1
r1
x x2 y y 2 z z 2
, a2 = ( p2 ; q2 ; r2 ) , M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ; z 2 )
l2 :
=
=
p2
q2
r2

l1 :

a2

l1 l2 a1 || a2
a1

l2

p
1 =
p2

l1

q1 r1
=
q2 r2

a1

l1 l 2 a1 a 2 a1 a 2 = 0

a2

l2

p1 p 2 + q1q 2 + r1r2 = 0

l1

l1
l2

a1

a2

M1

l1 , l 2 M 1M 2 a1 a 2 = 0

M2

l1 l2 M 1M 2 a1 a2 0

l1
l2

(), 2009

os =

1 2
1 2

27

. .

x-x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
;
a = ( p; q; r ) , M 0 = ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 )
p
q
r
: x + By + Cz + D = 0 ; n = ( A; B; C )
l:

a
l

l an
Ap + Bq + Cr = 0


l p + Bq + Cr 0
l
l = K
x = x0 + pt
K
y = y + qt

K :
z = z0 + rt
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

a
n

l n || a
A B C
= =
p q r

l n a,
M 0

M0

Ap + Bq + Cr = 0

Ax0 + By0 + Cz 0 + D = 0

(), 2009

sin =

n
n

28

. .

z
x2

y2
b

z2
c

=1

x2

y2
b

z2
c

=1

x2

(), 2009

y2
b

z2
c

= 1

29

. .

z=

x2
a

y2
b2

z=

x2
a

y2
b2

y
x

x2
a

y2
b

=1

(), 2009

30

. .

z
x2
a

y2
b

=1

y 2 = 2 px

0
y
x

x2

y2
b

z2
c

=0

(), 2009

31

. .


.
, .
U , ,
.

,

1 2
,
,
1 2 .
:
= 1 2 = {b | b A1 b A2 }

1 2
,
,
1
2 . :
= 1 2 = { | A1 A2 }

1 2
D ,
1 ,
2 . :
D = 1 \ 2 = {d | d A1 , d A2 }

( U)
- ,
,
U. = U \ A

(), 2009

32

. .

1.

= ;

( )

2.

( ) = ( ) ;
( ) = ( )

( )
3.
( )
4.
5.

6.
7. (
)
8.

( ) = ( ) ( )
( ) = ( ) ( )
= ;
=
= ;
=

=U
= ,

=
( ) = ;
( ) =

9. ,

= ;

= ;

U =U ;

U = A

(), 2009

33

. .



,
. : A, B, C, .
( )



()

0 1
( ), ,
1 0
, .



(0 0 0
), 1 0 0
,
0 1 0
.
1 1 1



(0 0 0
),
1 0 1
,
0 1 1
.
1 1 1




0 0 1
( ),
1 0 0
,
0 1 1
.
1 1 1




0 0 1
( ), 1 0 0
, 0 1 0
, 1 1 1
.

(), 2009

34

. .



1.


= ;
=

2.

( ) = ( ) ;
( ) = ( )

3.

( ) = ( ) ( ) ;
( ) = ( ) ( )

4.

= ;

=
5.

6.

= ;
=

7. , - = ( );
() -

= ;

= ;
= ();
= ;
= ;

8. -

,
9.

= ( )

,
10.

( ) = ;
( ) =

(), 2009

35

. .


: V E, e E
u v , .


,
.
, .
,
.
()

(
).
(deg)

;
;
x z ;
x m ;
p(,) ;
x (A,D) y(A,D) ;
deg() = 4, deg() = 2

(
).
,
, .
, .

,

.

(), 2009

36

. .

()
, , -

.
,
, .

) ;
)

,

e1
V1

V2

e4
V4
e2
e3
V3

.
-

V1 V2 V3 V2 V4

, V1 V2 V3 V4 .


.
,
.

,
-

V3
e1
V1

e2
V2

e3
V4

(e1, e2, e3) V1 V4

(), 2009

37

. .

x1
x2

f (),

yn

y Y .

xn

y = f (x)

y1
y2

x X

X ( D( y ) ) , ( x, y).
Y ( E ( y ) ) , ( y).

x = ( y ) , y = f 1 ( x ).

x1
x2

y1
y2

xn

yn
Y

f 1 ( x ) .
1. y = f (x) x y.
2.
x y, y x.

F ( x, y ) = 0 (y x).
y = f (( x ))

1
f ( x)

f ( x) 0

2. 2n f ( x)

f ( x) 0

3. log a f ( x)

f ( x) > 0

1.

4.

arcsin f ( x)
arccos f ( x)

(), 2009

1 f ( x) 1

38

. .

1. , y = x , R .

2. ,

y = a x , a > 0, a 1.
3. , y = log a x .
4. ,

y = sin x, y = cos x
y = tg x, y = ctg x .

5. ,

y = arcsin x, y = arccos x
y = arctg x, y = arcctg x .

y = a0 x n + a1x n 1 + ... + an

(

)

-
a0 x n + a1 x n 1 + ... + an
y=
b0 x m + b1 x m 1 + ... + bm

(), 2009

39

. .




1. y = x , R
n
y = xn , n N
1. D( y ) = ( ; )
y
y = x2
2. E ( y ) = [0; + )
3.
4.

5. [0; ) ,

0
y = xn , n N
y

y=x

y =nx,

( ;0]

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

2. E ( y ) = ( ; )
3.
4.

5. D( y )

n N, n > 1

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

y=3 x

2. E ( y ) = ( ; )

0 1

3.
4.

5. D( y )

1. D( y ) = [0; )

y= x

2. E ( y ) = [0;+ )

1
0 1

(), 2009

3.
4.

5. D( y )

40

. .




1. y = x , R

y = xn, n N

y=

2. E ( y ) = ( ;0 ) (0;+ )
3.
4.

1. D( y ) = ( ;0 ) (0;+ )

1
x

5. ( ;0 ) (0;+ )

y=

1 0

1. D( y ) = ( ;0 ) (0;+ )

2. E ( y ) = (0;+ )

x2

3.
4.

5. ( ;0 ) (0; )

2.

y = a x , a > 0, a 1

y = ax
(0 < a < 1)

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

y = ax
(a > 1)

2. E ( y ) = (0;+ )
3.
4.
5.

1 0

(), 2009

D( y )

a > 1, D( y )
0 < a <1

41

. .




3.
y = log a x , a > 0, a 1
1. D( y ) = (0;+ )
y
2. E ( y ) = ( ; )

y = log a x (a > 1)

3.
4.

5. D( y )

a > 1, D( y )

y = log a x
(0 < a < 1)

0 < a <1

4.

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

y = sin x

2. E ( y ) = [ 1;1]

3.
4. T = 2
5.

0
1

2 x

+
2

n
;
+
2

n
, n Z ,
2
2

+
2

n
;
+ 2n , n Z
2
2

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

y = cos x

2. E ( y ) = [ 1; 1]

0
2 1

(), 2009

3 x
2

3.
4. T = 2
5.

[ + 2n;2n], n Z ,
[2n; + 2n], n Z .

42

. .




4.

y = tg x


+ n; + n ,
2

1. D( y ) =

nZ
2. E ( y ) = ( ; )

0
1

3 x
2

3.
4. T =
5.


+ n; + n , n Z
2

y = ctg x

1. D( y ) = (n; + n ) , n Z

2. E ( y ) = ( ; )

3
2

3.
4. T =

5. (n; + n ),

nZ

5.

y = arcsin x
y

1. D( y ) = [ 1;1]


;
2 2

2. E ( y ) =
3.

4. D( y )

(), 2009

43

. .




5.

y = arccos x

1. D( y ) = [ 1; 1]

2. E ( y ) = [0; ]
3.
4. D( y )

y = arctg x
y

1. D( y ) = ( ; )

2
0


;
2 2

2. E ( y ) =
3.

x 4. D( y )

y = arcctg x
y

1. D( y ) = ( ; )
2. E ( y ) = (0; )
3.
4. D( y )

(), 2009

44

. .





x
x
y
e e
sh x =
2


h x =

e +e
2
x

1
0


th x =

e e
e x + ex
x

1
0

-1

th x =

e +e
e x e x
x

1
0
-1

(), 2009

45

. .


1.

2.
3.

lim C = C , = const.

x x0

lim ( f1 ( x ) f 2 ( x )) = lim f1 ( x ) lim f 2 ( x ) .

x x0

lim

x x0

x x0

( f1 (x ) f 2 (x )) =

lim f1 ( x ) lim f 2 ( x ) .

x x0

lim f1 ( x )
f1 ( x ) x x 0
4. lim
=
,
lim f 2 ( x )
x x0 f 2 (x )
x x0

5.

x x0

x x0

lim f 2 ( x ) 0 .

x x0

lim C f ( x ) = C lim f ( x ) .

x x0

x x0

sin x
lim
=1
x 0 x

1
lim 1 + = e , lim (1 + x )1 x = e
x
x 0
x

=1
x x0
lim

: x 0
1. sin ax ~ ax.

6. e x 1 ~ x .

2. tg ax ~ ax.

7. a x 1 ~ x ln a.

3. arcsin ax ~ ax.

8. ln(1 + x) ~ x.

4. arctg ax ~ ax .
5. 1 cos ax ~

(ax)
.
2

(), 2009

9. log a (1 + x) ~ x log a e.
10. (1 + x) k 1 ~ k x , k > 0 .

46

. .

= 0,

= ,
0

0
= 0,

= ,

, a > 1
=
0, 0 < a < 1

.

:


.
:
n

lim

a0 x + a1 x

n 1

+ ... + a n

x b0 x m + b1 x m 1 + ... + bn

, n > m

.
= 0, n < m
a b , n = m
0 0
[1 ] .
:
.

(), 2009

.
0
:
0


( 0 ) .
:
1)


;
2)
,

[0 ].
:

.

0
[ ].
:

0

.

0

,

47

. .

,

y = f ( x ) . x0 , :
1) y = f ( x ) x0 , . . x0 D( y ) ;
2) lim f ( x) , . .

lim

x x0 0

x x 0

3) lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) . .

lim

x x0 0

x x0

f ( x) =

f ( x) =

lim

x x0 + 0

lim

x x0 + 0

f ( x) ;

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) .

x0 , x0 , x0 .

I

lim

x x0 0

lim

x x0 + 0

f ( x) =

lim

x x0 0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )

II

lim

f ( x)

x x0 + 0

f ( x)

x0

(), 2009

lim

x x0 0

f ( x) =

x0

x0

48

. .

y =

y
dy
f ( x + x ) f ( x )
= lim
= lim
x
dx x 0 x x 0

1.

= 0

1.

2.

(u ) = Cu

2.

3.

(u v ) = u v

3.

(x n ) = nx n 1
(a x ) = a x ln a
(e x ) = e x

4.

(u v ) = u v + v u

4.

(ln x ) = 1

5.

(log a x ) =

u v v u
u
5. =
v
v2

1
x ln a

(sin x ) = cos x

7. (cos x ) = sin x
6.

8.

(tg x ) =

1
2

12.

13.

(), 2009

3.

(u n ) = nu n 1 u
(a u ) = a u ln a u
(eu ) = eu u

4.

(ln u ) = 1 u

5.

(log a u ) =

1.
2.

1
u
u ln a

(sin u ) = cos u u

7. (cos u ) = sin u u
6.

8.

(tg u ) =

1
2

cos u
1

9. (ctg u ) =
u
2
sin u
1

10. (arcsin u ) =
u
2
2
1 x
1 u
(arccos x ) = 1 11. (arccos u ) = 1 u
1 u2
1 x2
1

(arctg x ) = 1 2
12. (arctg u ) =
u
2
1+ u
1+ x
(arcctg x ) = 1 2 13. (arcctg u ) = 1 2 u
1+ u
1+ x

cos x
1

9. (ctg x ) =
sin 2 x
1

10. (arcsin x ) =
11.

49

. .

y = f (u ) , u = ( x ), u
y x = f u u x
,

F ( x; y ) = 0 .
F ( x; y ) = 0 x, y
x. y .
,

x = x(t ),
y = y (t ).

y
y x = t
xt

y = f (x) (.. ln y = ln f ( x) ).
x, y (..

1
y = (ln f ( x )) ).
y

y .

y =

(), 2009

d2y
dx 2

= ( y )

50

. .

y = f ( x ) x :
dy = y x .
y = x , dx = x .

dy = y dx

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )x



y = 0 y .
y = 0 y .

+
x1

x2

max

min

, ,
y = 0 .
y = 0 .

x3

x4

(), 2009

51

. .

, M

M .

0 M

l : x = a ,

y = f (x)

lim

f ( x ) = ,

lim

f ( x ) =

xa 0

xa +0

y = f (x)

l : y = kx + b ,

f (x )
,
x x

k = lim

(), 2009

( f (x ) kx )

y
y =b

y = f (x)

b = lim

l:y=b

52

. .

f (x ) 0
f ( x )

= = lim
x x 0 g ( x )
x x0 g (x ) 0
lim

0
0 ,

).

,

0

[0 ], [ ]


.
1) (.. lim f ( x ) g ( x ) = y );
x x0

2) (.. ln lim f ( x ) g ( x ) = ln y ,

[1 ] , [ ] , [0 ]

x x0

);
3) , -

,
0

;
4) y ln y = a .

(), 2009

53

. .


: (n + 1) x0 , x1 , x2 ,, xn [a; b] ;
f (x) ,
xn

x0

x1

x2

f ( x0 )

f ( x1 )

f ( x2 )

f ( xn )

: f (x)
x0 , x1 , x2 ,, xn [a; b] n (x) n ,
Pn ( xi ) = f ( xi ), xi [a; b], i = 0,1,, n .


(x x0 )(x x1 )(x xn1 )
(x x1 )(x x2 )(x xn )
n ( x) =
f ( x0 ) + +
f (x )
(xn x0 )(xn x1 )(xn xn1 ) n
(x0 x1 )(x0 x2 )(x0 xn )
n = 1
(x x1 ) f ( x ) + (x x0 ) f ( x ) ;
P1 ( x) =
0
1
( x0 x1 )
( x1 x0 )
n = 2
(x x1 )(x x2 ) f ( x ) + (x x0 )(x x2 ) f ( x ) + (x x0 )(x x1 ) f ( x )
P2 ( x) =
0
1
2
( x0 x1 )( x0 x2 )
( x1 x0 )( x1 x2 )
( x2 x0 )( x2 x1 )

( xi ; f ( xi )) , ( xi +1 ; f ( xi +1 ))
x xi
( f ( xi+1 ) f ( xi ) )
f ( x ) = f ( xi ) +
xi +1 xi


x0 x1 x2 xn
y0 y1 y 2 y n
h = xi +1 xi ,
: y0 = y1 y0 ; y1 = y 2 y1 ..;
: 2 y0 = y1 y0 ; 2 y1 = y 2 y1 ..
y0
2 y0
n y0
(x x0 ) + 2 (x x0 )(x x1 ) + + n (x x0 )(x x1 )(x xn1 )
Pn ( x) = y0 +
h
2!h
n!h
n = 2
y
2 y0
(x x0 )(x x1 )
P2 ( x) = y0 + 0 ( x x0 ) +
h
2!h 2

(), 2009

54

. .


: z = x + yi, i 2 = 1

1. x = Re z z,

y = Im z z

2. z = x yi z .

3. z = x yi , z .

r = x 2 + y 2 - 4. ;
,

tg =

y
, ( < )
x

z1 = x1 + y1i, z2 = x2 + y2i :
z1 = z 2

:
z1 = x1 + y1i, z 2 = x 2 + y 2 i .

x1 = x 2 ,
y1 = y 2 .

1. z1 + z 2 = ( x1 + y1i ) + ( x 2 + y 2 i ) = ( x1 + x 2 ) + ( y1 + y 2 )i .
2. z1 z 2 = ( x1 + y1i ) ( x 2 + y 2 i ) = ( x1 x 2 y1 y 2 ) + ( x1 y 2 + y1 x 2 )i .

z
z z
3. 1 = 1 2 .
z2

1.
2.
3.
4.

z2 z2

: z = r (cos + i sin )

z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 )
z1 = r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 ) ,
z1 z 2 = r1 r2 (cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )) .
z1 r1
= (cos(1 2 ) + i sin (1 2 )) .
z 2 r2
+ 2k
+ 2k

n
z = n r cos
+ i sin
k = 0,1,2, , n 1.
,
n
n

z n = r n (cos n + i sin n) .
: z = r ei

1. z1 z 2 = r1r2 e

i ( 1

(), 2009

z1 = r1 ei1 ,
z2 = r2 ei 2
+ 2 )
z
r
2. 1 = 1 ei ( 1 2 )
3. z n = r n ein
z2 r2

55

. .



D = {z | z = x + iy} , E = {w | w = u + iv} - .

,
z D w E .

w = f (z ) , f ( x + iy ) = u ( x; y ) + iv( x; y ) ,
u ( x; y ) = Re f ( z ) - f (z ) ;
v( x; y ) = Im f ( z ) - f (z ) .



w
f ( z + z ) f ( z )
= lim
z
z 0 z
z 0

f ( z ) = lim


( - -)
w = u ( x; y ) + iv( x; y ) z = x + iy

u v u
v
= ;
=
x
x y y


u
v
+i ;
x
x
u
u
f ( z ) =
i ;
x
y
f ( z ) =

(), 2009

v
v
+i ;
y
x
v
u
f ( z ) =
i
y
y

f ( z ) =

56

. .

F ( x ) + C f ( x )

X :

f (x )dx = F (x ) + C ,
f ( x ) ;

f ( x )dx ;
x ;
;

F ( x ) f ( x ) , .. F ( x ) = f ( x ) .

1.

( f (x )dx ) = f (x )

2. d

3. dF ( x ) = F ( x ) + C
5.
6.

( f1 (x )

4. af ( x )dx = a f ( x )dx ,

a = const

f 2 ( x ))dx = f1 ( x )dx f 2 ( x )dx

f (ax + b )dx =

( f (x )dx ) = f (x )dx

1
F (ax + b ) + C ,
a

y = F ( x ) + C

a, b const.

1. :

f ( x )dx = f ((t ))(t )dt

2.
:
0

(), 2009

udv = uv vdu

57

. .

x n +1
1. x dx =
+C,
n +1
n

n 1

12.

x2
2. xdx =
+C
2

13.

3. dx = x + C

4.

dx
= ln x + C
x

14.

15.

dx
1 x

dx
1 x

= arcsin x + C

= arccos x + C

dx
x2 a2
dx
x2 + a2

dx
2

x +1

= ln x + x 2 a 2 + C
x
1
arctg + C
a
a

= arctg x + C

dx

x 2 + 1 = arcctg x + C
=

1
xa
ln
+C
2a x + a

1
a+x
ln
+C
2a a x

5. e x dx = e x + C

16.

ax
6. a dx =
+C
ln a

17.

7. sin xdx = cos x + C

18. tg xdx = ln cos x + C

8. cos xdx = sin x + C

19. ctg xdx = ln sin x + C

9.

10.

11.

dx
cos 2 x

dx
sin 2 x

= tg x + C
= ctg x + C

dx
a2 x2

= arcsin

(), 2009

x
+C
a

dx
x2 a2
dx
a2 x2

dx

20.

cos x = ln tg 2 + 4 + C

21.

dx
x
=
+C
ln
tg
sin x
2

22.

f ( x )
f (x ) dx = ln f (x ) + C

58

. .

udv = uv vdu

1.

Pn (x ) e

Pn (x)

e kx dx

Pn (x ) a dx,
Pn (x ) cos kxdx,

Pn (x)

a kx dx

Pn (x)

cos kxdx

Pn (x ) sin kxdx,
Pn ( x )

Pn (x)

sin kxdx

Pn (x ) ln xdx ,
Pn (x ) arctg xdx,

ln x

Pn ( x)dx

arctg x

Pn ( x)dx

arcctg x

Pn ( x)dx

arcsin x

Pn ( x)dx

arccos x

Pn ( x)dx

kx

dx ,

kx

2.

Pn (x ) arcctg xdx,
Pn (x ) arcsin xdx,
Pn (x ) arccos xdx
3.

dv

ax

cos bxdx ,

kx
a cos bxdx ,

sin bxdx ,

kx

sin bxdx ,

cos(ln x )dx

(), 2009

ax

sin (ln x )dx ,

).

59

. .

1.

Ax + B
2

ax + bx + c

(D < 0 )
P (x )
2. n
dx
Qm ( x )

dx

x +

b
= t.
2a

) n m ;
) Qm ( x ) ,
..

)s

Qm ( x ) = ( x a )k x 2 + px + q ;
)
:

(x a )

( x a )k

A1
;
xa

Ak
A1
A2
+
+ ... +
x a ( x a )2
( x a )k

(x 2 + px + q )

(x 2 + px + q)k

Ax + B
2

x + px + q

A1 x + B1
x 2 + px + q

+ ... +

Ak x + Bk

(x 2 + px + q)k

(), 2009

60

. .

Ax + B
2

ax + bx + c

dx

x +
2

m1
m2

dx

(
)
(
)
R
x
ax
b
ax
b
,
+
,
+
,

n
n
1
2

m1
m2

ax + b n1 ax + b n 2
R x, cx + d , cx + d ,dx

x (a + bx

) dx

n p

) ;

m +1
;
n

m +1
+
n

2
2

R x, a x dx,
2
2

R x, x a dx,
2
2

R x, x + a dx.

(), 2009

b
= t.
2a

(ax + b ) = t s ,
s -

m1 m2
; ;
n1 n2

ax + b s

= t ,
+
cx
d

s -
m m
1 ; 2 ;
n1 n2


) x = t k , k
m n;
) (a + bx n ) = t k , k
;
) (a + bx n ) = t k n , k
.
():
x = a sin t , ( x = a cos t ),

a
a
, x =
,
sin t
cos t
x = a tg t , ( x = a ctg t ) .
x=

61

. .

R(sin x, cos x )dx

sin

2dt
x
= t , d =
2
1+ t2
2t
1 t2
, cos x =
.
x = 2arctg t , sin x =
2
2
1+ t
1+ t

tg

x cos n xdx
m, n , )

)
;

sin x ,

cos x

sin 2 x =

1 cos 2 x
,
2

sin x cos x =

cos 2 x =

1 + cos 2 x
,
2

sin 2 x
;
2

) m, n - ) , ,
,
;
;

x = arctg t
tg x = t ,
) m, n , )

t
1
dt
sin
x
=
cos
x
=
,
.
(m + n ) , d =
2
2
1+ t2
1+ t
1+ t
;
3

tg

xdx, ctg n xdx

tg x = t , tg x = t
:

sin mx cos nxdx,


sin mx sin nxdx,
cos mx cos nxdx

(), 2009

sin cos =

1
(sin ( ) + sin ( + )) ,
2

sin sin =

1
(cos( ) cos( + )),
2

cos cos =

1
(cos( ) + cos( + ))
2

62

. .

y = f (x )

f ( x)dx =

a
n

= lim f (i )xi

f (i )

0 i =1

= max xi
0

xi i xi +1

1 i n

-
b

f (x )dx = F (x ) a
b

= F (b ) F (a ),

F ( x ) f ( x )

1.

f (x )dx = 0

a
b
2.

f (x )dx = f (x )dx

a
b
3.

4.

b
b

kf (x )dx = k f (x )dx ,

k = const .

( f1(x ) f 2 (x ))dx = f1(x )dx f 2 (x )dx

a
b

x = (t )
f ( x )dx = dx = (t )dt =
t

b
b
udv = u v a vdu
a
a

= f ((t ))(t )dt

(), 2009

63

. .


II
( )

I
( )
+

lim f ( x )dx
f (x )dx = b
+

a
b

f ( x )dx = lim

a a

a+
a

f (x )dx = f (x )dx + f (x )dx,

c ( ;+ )

f (x )dx = lim
f (x )dx
0

f ( x )dx

b
f ( x )

a
f ( x )

b
b

a +

f ( x )dx
f (x )dx = lim

c 1 c + 2
a

c
f ( x )

b
c 1

f (x )dx = lim
f (x )dx + lim
f (x )dx
0
0

(), 2009

c + 2

64

. .

y = f (x )

S=

f (x )dx

0 a

f (x )dx

S=

= f ( x )dx

y = f (x )

S = ( y )dy

x = (y)

d
x = (y)

( y )dy = ( y )dy

S=

y
S=

+
0

b x

f (x )dx + f (x )dx

y = f 2 (x )
S=

0 a

( f 2 (x ) f1 (x ))dx

y = f1 ( x )

(), 2009

65

. .

r = r ( )

1 2
S = r ()d
2

, ,

x = x(t )

t2

S = y (t )x(t )dt

y = y (t )

t1

t1 t t 2

l : y = f ( x ), a x b

l=

1 + ( f ( x ))2 dx

l : x = x(t ), y = y (t ), t

l=

y = f (x )

(xt )2 + ( yt )2 dt

y
d

x = (y)

Vx = y 2 dx
a

V y = x 2 dy
c

x

b

S x = 2 y 1 + ( yx )2 dx
a

(), 2009

66

. .


F ( x )

A = F ( x )dx
a
t2

S = v(t )dt

( v(t ) )

t1



( ( x ) )

M x = ( x ) ydl
a
b

M y = ( x )xdl
a



( ( x ) )

J x = ( x ) y 2 dl
a
b

J y = ( x )x 2 dl
a

( ( x ) )

(), 2009

m = ( x )dl
a

xc =

My

m
M
yc = x
m

67

. .

z = f ( x; y ) x y ,

(x; y )

D -

z .
z = f ( x; y ) ( x; y ),
z ().
z = f ( x; y )

f ( x; y + y ) f ( x; y )
z
f ( x + x; y ) f ( x; y ) z
zy =
= lim
= lim
y y 0
y
x x 0
x
x = const
y = const

z x =

=
z xx

2z
x

2z
=
z xy
xy

=
z yy

2z
y 2

2z
=
z yx
yx

z = f ( x; y )
z
z
dz = dx +
dy
x
y

f ( x0 + x; y 0 + y ) f ( x0 ; y 0 ) +

(), 2009

z
z
x + y
x
y

68

. .

z = f ( x, y )

dz z dx z dy
= +
dt x dt y dt

x = x(t ),
y = y (t )

z = f ( x, y )
y = y(x )

dz z z dy
=
+
dx x y dx

z = f ( x, y )
x = x(u; v ),
y = y (u; v )

z z x z y
= + ,
u x u y u
z z x z y
= +
v x v y v
,

F ( x; y )
dy
= x
dx
F y ( x; y )

F ( x; y ) = 0

F ( x; y; z )
z
,
= x
x
Fz ( x; y; z )

F ( x; y; z ) = 0

F y ( x; y; z )
z
=
y
Fz ( x; y; z )

u = u ( x; y; z )

u u
u
u
= cos + cos + cos
l x
y
z
u = u ( x; y; z )

grad u =

(), 2009

u
u
u
i+
j+
k
x
y
z

69

. .


z = f ( x, y )
1.
2. z x , z y .
3.

z x = 0

z y = 0
( M 0 ..) .
4. ,
:

(M 0 ) ,
A = z xx
(M 0 ) ,
B = z xy
(M 0 ) .
C = z yy

5. = AC B 2 .
6.
, ..
M 0 z = f ( x, y ) :
) , > 0 A > 0 ;
) , > 0 A < 0 ;
) , < 0 ;
) , = 0 .
7. .

(), 2009

70

. .

S : F ( x; y; z ) = 0

S :

z = f ( x; y )

M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z 0 )
Fx( x0 ; y0 )( x x0 ) + Fy ( x0 ; y0 )( y y0 ) + Fz( x0 ; y0 )( z z 0 ) = 0

z z 0 = f x( x0 ; y0 )( x x0 ) + f y ( x0 ; y0 )( y y0 )


, 0

x x0
y y0
z z0
=
=
Fx( x0 ; y0 ) Fy ( x0 ; y0 ) Fz( x0 ; y0 )

(), 2009

x x0
y y0
z z0
=
=
f x( x0 ; y0 ) f y ( x0 ; y0 )
1

71

. .

z = f ( x, y )

f (xi ; yi )Si ,
f (x; y )dS = lim
0
i =1

f ( xi ; y i )

= max{d i },

1 i n

d i

x
M i ( xi ; y i )

Si

V =

f (x; y )dS

1.

2.

= ( x; y ) dS

( x; y )

(), 2009

kf (x; y )dS = k f (x; y )dS ,


D

( f1

f 2 )dS =

3.

f1dS f 2dS
D

D1
D

k = const

D2

f (x; y )dS = fdS + fdS


D

D1

D2

72

. .

y =?

y = f 2 (x )

y =?

y =?

f1 ( x )

f (x; y )dxdy =

y = f 3 (x ) b

f 2 (x )

f1 ( x )

D
c

f 3 (x )

f1 ( x )

dx f (x; y )dy + dx f (x; y )dy

y = f1 ( x )

y = f 2 (x )

f2 (x )

f (x; y )dxdy = dx f (x; y )dy

y = f1 ( x )
0

d
=?

2 (y)

1 ( y )

f (x; y )dxdy = dy f (x; y )dx


D

x = 1 ( y )

x = 2 ( y )

r ?

r = r2 ()
r = r1 ()

(), 2009

x = r cos
f ( x; y )dxdy = y = r sin
=
dxdy = rdrd

r2 ( )

r1 ( )

d f (r cos ; r sin )rdr

73

. .

M x = y( x; y )dxdy
D

M y = x( x; y )dxdy
D

( x; y ) D

J xx = y 2( x; y )dxdy
D

J yy = x 2( x; y )dxdy
D

J 0 = x 2 + y 2 ( x; y )dxdy
D

( x; y ) D

xc =

yc =

My
m

Mx
m

m = ( x; y )dxdy D ,
D

( x; y ) D
D

S = dxdy = rdrd
D

(), 2009

74

. .


I
( )

II
( )
n

f ( x; y )dl = lim f ( xi ; yi )li

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy == lim P(xi ; yi )xi + Q(xi ; yi )yi

0 i =1

AB

0 i =1

= max li

= max Li

1 i n

1 i n

AB ,
dl

f (x; y )dl = f (x; y )dl

1.

AB

( f1

2.

1.

BA

f 2 )dl =

AB

AB

f1dl f 2 dl
AB

2.

AB

AB

4.

AB

fdl = fdl + fdl


AB

AC


m = ( x; y )dl AB
AB

(), 2009

BA

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy

kf (x; y )dl = k f (x; y )dl

3.

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy


L

24,
I ,
II .

CB

A = P( x; y )dx + Q( x; y )dy
L

75

. .


I ( )

AB : y = y ( x ), a x b
dl = 1 + ( y )2 dx
b

f (x; y )dl = f (x; y(x ))


AB

II ( )

L : y = y ( x ), a x b
b

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = P(x; y(x ))dx + Q(x; y(x )) y (x )dx

1 + ( y )2 dx

AB : x = x(t ),
dl =

y = y (t ), t

(xt )2 + ( y t )2 dt

f (x; y )dl = f (x(t ); y(t ))

AB

(xt )2 + ( y t )2 dt

x y dxdy = Pdx + Qdy

D
L

(), 2009

L : x = x( y ), c y d

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = P(x( y ); y )x ( y )dy + Q(x( y ); y )dy


L

L : x = x(t )
y = y (t )

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = P(x(t ), y (t ))xt dt + Q(x(t ), y (t )) y t dt


L

76

. .

y = f ( x )g ( y )
M 1 ( x )N1 ( y )dx +
+ M 2 ( x )N 2 ( y )dy = 0

y
x
) P( x, y )dx + Q( x, y )dy = 0 ,
P( x, y ) , Q( x, y )
) y =

y
= t,
x

y = t x,
) y = f ( x, y ) ,
y = t x + t
f ( x, y )



y = u v , y = u v + v u
y + p( x ) y = f ( x )
( u , v x )


y + p( x ) y = f ( x ) y n ,
y = u v , y = u v + v u
n 0, n 1
( u , v x )

,
,

P( x, y )dx + Q( x, y )dy = 0 ,

P Q
=
y x

x0
x

y0
y

x0

y0

P(x, y 0 )dx + Q(x, y )dy = C

P(x, y )dx + Q(x0 , y )dy = C

( ( x0 ; y0 ) ,
,

(), 2009

77

. .

1. y (n ) = f ( x )

2. y = f ( x, y )
y
3. y = f ( y, y )
x

y = x 2 +

y = z , y = z ,

1
x2 +1

y ( x + 7 ) = y

z = z ( x ) , z =

y = z , y = zz ,
dz
z = z ( y ) , z =
dy

y ( y + 3) = ( y )2

4. F ( x, y, y , y ) = 0

F ( x, y, y , y )

y, y , y

dz
dx

y
= z , y = zy
y

x 2 yy = ( y xy )2

y = y z + z 2 , z =

dz
dx




: y + py + qy = 0 , p, q R

y k 2 , y k , y 1

k 2 + pk + q = 0


, , ..

k1 k 2 , (D > 0 )


, , ..

k1 = k 2 , (D = 0 )


, ..

k1, 2 = i , (D < 0 )

(), 2009

y = C1e k1 x + C 2 e k 2 x
y = e k1 x (C1 + C 2 x )

y = e x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x )

78

. .




: y + py + qy = Pn ( x )e x

k 2 + pk + q = 0
: Y = y + y

1.

, ..

y = Qn ( x )e x

k1 , k 2
2.

, ..

n=0
Q0 ( x ) = A ,
n =1
Q1 ( x ) = Ax + B ,

y = xQn ( x )e x

= k1 = k 2
3.

, ..

y = x 2Qn ( x )e x

= k1 = k 2

n=2
Q2 ( x ) = Ax 2 + Bx + C ,
n=3

Q3 ( x ) = Ax 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D



: y + py + qy = M cos x + N sin x

k 2 + pk + q = 0
: Y = y + y

i
i k1, 2
i
i = k1, 2

(), 2009

y = A cos x + B sin x
y = x( A cos x + B sin x )

79

. .

an ,

an > 0

lim an = 0 ,

?
( )

an

an

lim an 0 ,
(

n =1

. !

, lim an = 0 )

bn

n =1

an

n =1

an
= k , k 0 ,
k
n bn
lim


,
,

(), 2009

an

n =1

an

n =1

an

n =1



an +1

lim n an = l ,
= l ,
lim
n
n an
[1; )
l > 1 ; l > 1 ; f ( x ) ,
l < 1 ;
l < 1 ;
a1 = f (1),..., an = f (n ),...,
+

l = 1 l = 1
f ( x )dx an

n =1

80

. .

an

a)
(

);
) ;

5n 2 + 3n
3
n =1 n + 1

) , ,
, .
) ;

2n
n =1

n!

n =1 3n + 1

n =1 n

n =1 n + 3

(), 2009

n n

sin

n =1 4n + 1
4n + 1 2 n

5
n

n =1

(n + 3)!
n =1
4n

1 1
+ + ...
2 3

2.
( )

= 1+

7 12 ... (5n + 2 )

)
.

( )
1.

n =1 (n + 1)ln

>0

3.

aq

n 1

q < 1, S =

n =1

1
2

n =1

>1

(n + 1)

a
1 q

q 1

81

. .

( 1)n +1 an ,

n =1


:
2. lim an = 0

1. n > a n +1 ,

n +1

( 1)

an

n +1

( 1)

, ..

n =1
, ( S a1 )

n =1
,

n +1

( 1)

n =1

an

(), 2009

( 1)n +1 an

n =1

n =1

n +1
( 1) an
n =1

( 1)n +1an

n =1

an ,

n =1

( 1)n +1an

n =1
.

( 1)n +1an . ,

n +1
( 1) an

an

an > 0

n =1

( 1)n +1an . ,

n =1

( 1)n +1an

n =1

82

. .

u1 ( x ) + u 2 ( x ) + ... + u n ( x ) + ... =

un (x ) ,

u n ( x )

n =1


x ,

( x x0 ) ,

a0 + a1x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n + ... =

an x n

n =0

a0 + a1( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + an ( x x0 ) + ... =

(), 2009

an
,
n a n +1

R = lim

x0

R=

an (x x0 )n

n =0

1
lim n a n

x0 R

x0

x0 + R

83

. .

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
f (n ) ( x 0 )
2
( x x0 ) +
(x x0 ) + ... +
(x x0 )n + ... =
f ( x0 ) +
1!
2!
n!
f (n ) ( x )
0 ( x x )n
=
0
n
!
n=0


f (n ) (0 )
f (0 )
f (0 ) 2
f (n ) (0 ) n
f (0 ) +
x+
x + ... +
x + ... =
xn
1!
2!
n!
n!
n=0

f ( x ) ()

1. .
2. f ( x0 ), f ( x0 ) , , f (n ) ( x0 ).
3. ():

f (x )

f ( x0 ) +

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
(x x0 )2 + ...
( x x0 ) +
1!
2!

f (n ) ( x 0 )
(x x0 )n + ...
+
n!
4. .
5. x ,

lim Rn ( x ) = 0 f (n ) ( x ) < C .

(), 2009

84

. .



xn
x x 2 x3
xn
e = 1+ +
+
+ ... +
+ ... =
1! 2! 3!
n!
n = 0 n!
x

< x <

2 n +1
2 n +1

x x3 x5
n x
n x
sin x =
+
... + ( 1)
+ ... = ( 1)
(2n + 1)!
(2n + 1)!
1! 3! 5!
n=0

< x <
2n
2n

x2 x4
n x
n x
+
... + ( 1)
+ ... = ( 1)
cos x = 1
(2n )!
(2n )!
2!
4!
n=0

< x <

(1 + x )m

= 1+
+
=

m
m(m 1) 2 m(m 1)(m 2 ) 3
x+
x +
x + ... +
1!
2!
3!

m(m 1)(m 2 )...(m n + 1) n


x + ... =
n!
m(m 1)(m 2 )...(m n + 1)
n

n =1

n!

x +1

1 < x < 1
n +1
n +1

x 2 x3 x 4
n x
n x
ln (1 + x ) = x
+

+ ... + ( 1)
+ ... = ( 1)
2
3
4
n +1
n +1
n=0

1 < x 1
2 n +1
2 n +1

x3 x5 x7
n x
n x
arctg x = x
+

+ ... + ( 1)
+ ... = ( 1)
3
5
7
2n + 1
2n + 1
n=0

1 x 1

(), 2009

85

. .


f (x) 2 ( ; ) :

a0
1
1
1
+ (an cos nx + bn sin nx ) , a0 = f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos nxdx , bn = f ( x) sin nxdx
2 n=1



2
f (x) :

a0 =

a0
+ an cos nx ,
2 n =1

2
2
f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos nxdx , bn = 0

0
0

f (x) :

a0 = 0 , an = 0 , bn =

bn sin nx ,

n =1

2
f ( x) sin nxdx
0

a0
nx
nx
1
1
1
n
n
+ an cos
x + bn sin
x , a0 = f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos
dx , bn = f ( x) sin
dx
2 n=1

a0
n
f (x) :
+ an cos
x,
2 n=1

nx
2
2
a0 = f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos
dx , bn = 0
0
0

(), 2009

n
x,

n =1
nx
2
a0 = 0 , an = 0 , bn = f ( x) sin
dx
0

f (x) :

bn sin

86

. .


1. , . . : . . -
/ . . . . : , 2004,
616 .
2. , . . : . / . . , . . . . : -, 2000. 416 .
3. , . . : . /
. . , . . . ; . . . . . : ,
1998. 567 .
4. , . . : .
: 2 . / . . . : -, 2003.
. 1. 416 .
. 2. 544 .

(), 2009

87

. .


1. a n a m = a n + m .

5. (a b) m = a m b m .

2. a n : a m = a n m .

a
6.
b

n m

3. (a )

=a

nm

am
b

1
8. a n =
, a 0.
an

9.

n m

m
=an .

7. a = 1, a 0 .

1. : log a x = b a b = x, a > 0, a 1 .
log x

2. : a a = x .


log c b
1. log a x + log a y = log a xy .
1. log a b =
.
log c a
x
1
2. log a b =
.
2. log a x log a y = log a .
y
log b a
1
3. log m b = log a b .
3. log a x n = n log a x .
a
m
n
4. log a a = 1 .
4. log m b n = log a b .
a
m
5. log a x log b y = log a y log b x .
5. log a 1 = 0 .

1. a 2 b 2 = (a b)(a + b) .
2. (a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2 .
3. a 3 b 3 = (a b)(a 2 ab + b 2 ) .

4. (a b) 3 = a 3 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 b 3 .

(), 2009

n-
an = an 1 + d ,
an = a1 + d ( n 1 )
d

bn = bn 1 q ,

bn = b1 q n 1

a1 + an
n
2
2a + d ( n 1 )
Sn = 1
n
2
b1 (1 q n )
, q 1
Sn =
(1 q )
b
S = 1
1 q
Sn =

88

. .

0
sin

cos

tg

ctg

1
2
3
2
3
3

2
2
2
2

3
2
1
2

1
1

3
2

3
3



1
1
1. sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1. 2. tgx ctgx = 1 . 3. tg 2 x + 1 =
. 4. ctg 2 x + 1 =
.
sin 2 x
cos 2 x

2tgx
.
1. sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x . 2. cos 2 x = cos 2 x sin 2 x . 3. tg 2 x =
2
1 tg x

1 cos 2 x
1 + cos 2 x
1. sin 2 x =
.
2. cos 2 x =
.
2
2
x
x
3. 1 cos x = 2 sin 2 .
4. 1 + cos x = 2 cos 2
2
2

1. sin( ) = sin cos sin cos . 2. cos( ) = cos cos sin sin .

+

tg tg
. 4. sin + sin = 2 sin
.
cos
2
2
1 tgtg

+
+

. 6. cos + cos = 2 cos
.
5. sin sin = 2 sin
cos
cos
2
2
2
2
+

7. cos cos = 2 sin
.
sin
2
2

3. tg ( ) =

1. sin x = a x = (1) arcsin a + n,


sin x = 0 x = n, n .
n

arcsin( x) = arcsin x.
2. cos x = a x = arccos a + 2n,
arccos( x) = arccos x.
3. tgx = a x = arctga + n,

(), 2009

cos x = 0 x =

tgx = 0 x = n, n .

+ n, n .
2

arctg ( x) = arctgx.

89

. .


f (x) 2 ( ; ) :
a0
1
1
1
+ (an cos nx + bn sin nx ), a0 = f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos nxdx , bn = f ( x) sin nxdx



2 n =1

2
f (x) :

a0 =

f ( x)dx ,

an =

a0
+ an cos nx ,
2 n =1

f ( x) cos nxdx ,

bn = 0

f (x) :

a0 = 0 , an = 0 , bn =

bn sin nx ,

n =1

f ( x) sin nxdx

2
a0
1
1
1
nx
n
n
nx

+ an cos
dx
dx , bn = f ( x) sin
x + bn sin
x , a0 = f ( x)dx , an = f ( x) cos

2 n =1

2
f (x) :

a0 =

a0
n
+ an cos
x,
2 n =1

2
nx
2
,
f
(
x
)
dx
=
a
f ( x) cos
dx , bn = 0
n

(), 2009

f (x) :

a0 = 0 , an = 0 , bn =

bn sin

n =1

n
x,

2
nx
f ( x) sin
dx

90

. .
. .

2011. 6090/8. .

. . . . 11,25. .-. . 4,73.

(). 432071, . , . , 8/8