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1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.

1.
.
. .
,
.
.
.
.
.

1.9. V , .
V
= V ()
1.10. ,
V
= V
1.11.

5
5
7
10
11
12
14
16

2.
2.1. . .
. GLn SLn
2.2. ,
2.3. .
2.4.
2.5. . .
2.6. .
2.7. .
2.8. .
2.9. .

2.10.
2.11. .
( )

23

3.
3.1. , ,
3.2. , .
,
1

18
19
21
22

23
25
26
27
29
31
33
35
38
40
41
45
45
46

3.3. , .
-
3.4. . QR-
3.5. . .

3.6. .
.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9. .

4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.

4.

.
.

. .

. .
On SOn , Un SUn
.

49
50
52
53
55
57
58
61
61
62
64
65
66
70
71

5.
73
5.1. , .
.
Hom(V, V )
73
5.2. , .
.
75
5.3.
79
5.4. .
81
5.5. .
82
5.6. .

84
5.7. .

85

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.

6.

:
, ,

,

6.6. ,

87
87
88
89
91
92
93


, - ,
2012 .
: , , . ,
. , .
, . ,
; .
1. 2 . .

[], [] [],
( , . . . . ,
).
( ) . . :
http://higeom.math.msu.su/people/taras/

[] . . . . , , 1974.
[] . . , . . . . ,
, 1986.
[] . . . .
http://mech.math.msu.su/~manuilov/linalg.html
[] . . . . II. .
, , 1986.


1.1. .
1.1.1. ( )
k V c +
V ,
+ : V V V,

(u, v ) 7 u + v

V k,
: k V V,

(, v ) 7 v ,

:
1) u + v = v + u u, v V ;
2) (u + v ) + w = u + (v + w ) u, v , w V ;
3) 0 V , v + 0 = v v V ;
4) v V v V , v + (v ) = 0;
5) (u + v ) = u + v u, v V k;
6) ( + ) v = v + v v V , k;
7) ( v ) = () v v V , k;
8) 1 v = v v V .
. 1)4) , V ()
. 0 , (v )
v .
k . 5)8) , k V . .
, k
R C.
.
.
1.1.2.
) 0v = 0 = 0 v V , k;
) (1)v = v v V ;
) v = 0, = 0, v = 0.
. ). , 0v + 0v = (0 + 0)v = 0v ,
0v = 0 . , 0 + 0 = (0 + 0) =
0, .. 0 = 0.
). , v + (1)v = 1v + (1)v = (1 + (1))v = 0v = 0, ..
(1)v v .
5

1.

, ). = 0, 0 = 1 (v ) = (1 )v = 1v = v .

1.1.3.
1. {0}, 0, .
2. , , , R.
3. k .
4. C R, R
Q. , k1
k2 (.. k2 k1 ), k2 k1 .
5.
{
}
kn := (x1 , . . . , xn ) : xi k
( ) n
k. , ..
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ) := (x1 + y1 , x2 + y2 , . . . , xn + yn ),
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) := (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ),
kn k. n-
( ) k.
Rn Cn .
n = 1 3.
6. X k,
kX , (.. f + g x X
f (x) + g(x) (.. ( f )(x) = f (x)). ,
X n , kn
.
7. C(R) C[a, b]
R.
( ).
8. .
9. R , , (
). R

. R n>0 Rn .
b R
.
10. k[x] k .
kn [x] n.

1.2. . .

11. m n k
Matk (m, n)
. m = 1 kn .
, . .
1.1.4. W V V , u, v W k
u +v W u W . , W , W
, V .
1.1.5. .
1. {0} V .
2. , , .
3. C(R) RR R.
4. R
b .
R
5. kn [x] km [x] m > n, k[x].
1.2. . .
V k.
1.2.1. v 1 , . . . , v k V 1 v 1 + . . . + k v k , i k.
{v i : i I}
iI i v i ,
i .

iI i v i , i .
{v i : i I} .
v i : i I v 1 , . . . , v k .
{v i : i I} ( )

, i , , , iI i v i =
0 (.. ,
). .
1.2.2. vi : i I V . , vi : i I
, {vi : i I}.
. . , v i : i I . W
, {v i : i I}, W
, W v i : i I.


1.

1.2.3. {vi : i I} ,
.
. 1 v 1 + . . . + k v k = 0, i = 0.
i v i = 1 v 1 . . . i1 v i1 i+1 v i+1 . . . k v k .
1
i , , v i v 1 , . . . , v i1 , v i+1 , . . . , v k .

1.2.4. {v i : i I}
V , v V

iI i v i . , ( ) V .
V , , .
.
1.2.5. {vi : i I}
V ,
v V iI i vi .

.
,

v
=

v
=
i
i
iI
iI i v i ,

0 = iI (i i )v i . {v i : i I} ,
, i = i , .. v .

1.2.6.
.
.
1.2.7. e1 , . . . , em f1 , . . . , fn () ,
. n 6 m.
. f j = a1j e 1 + . . . + amj e m , aij k, j = 1, . . . , n.
f 1 , . . . , f n ,
(1.1)

x1 f 1 + . . . + xn f n = 0

x1 = . . . = xn = 0.

(1.1) f i e 1 , . . . , e m , :
0 = x1 (a11 e 1 + . . . + am1 e m ) + . . . + xn (a1n e 1 + . . . + amn e m ) =
= (a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn )e 1 + . . . + (am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn )e m .
e 1 , . . . , e m , :

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = 0
...

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = 0
n > m, , (1.1).

1.2. . .

1.2.6. V .
, V e 1 , . . . , e m . {f i : i I}
. , f 1 , . . . , f n , n > m. , e 1 , . . . , e m ,
{f 1 , . . . , f n } e 1 , . . . , e m , 1.2.7. {f i : i I} , .. f 1 , . . . , f n . {f 1 , . . . , f n } e 1 , . . . , e m
{e 1 , . . . , e m } f 1 , . . . , f n , 1.2.7 , m = n.

1.2.8. V
(: dim V ) V . V
, dim V = .
{e i : i I}
.
. {0}
. dim{0} = 0, 0 .
1.2.9. W V , dim W 6 dim V , W = V .
. dim V = m e 1 , . . . , e m V .
dim W > m, W f 1 , . . . , f n n > m.
{f 1 , . . . , f n } e 1 , . . . , e m = V , 1.2.7. ,
dim W 6 dim V .
dim W = dim V = m f 1 , . . . , f m W .
e i f 1 , . . . , f m , f 1 , . . . , f m , e i m+1 V , 1.2.6.
, V f 1 , . . . , f m = W , .. V = W .

1.2.10. W V V .
. 1.2.9, W ; e 1 , . . . , e r . W = V , e 1 , . . . , e r V
. V e r+1
/ e 1 , . . . , e r = W .
W1 = e 1 , . . . , e r , e r+1 V . W1 = V , . W2 = e 1 , . . . , e r , e r+1 , e r+2 V ,
. k = dim V dim W . k- Wk V dim Wk = dim V . 1.2.9, Wk = V ,
e 1 , . . . , e r W V e r+1 , . . . , e r+k .

. . , ( ) . , ,
- ( ),
. [KM, 1.2].
1.2.11.
1. kn e 1 , . . . , e n ,
e i = (0, . . . , 1, . . . , 0) , i- 1,
. , dim kn = n.

10

1.

2. kn [x] 6 n
1, x, x2 , . . . , xn . , dim kn [x] = n + 1. k[x] 1, x, x2 , x3 , . . . .
, dim k[x] = .
3. R
e 1 , e 2 , . . ., e i = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .) , i-
1, . , e 1 , e 2 , . . .
b . , R
, ,
() e 1 , e 2 , . . ..
,
.
.
.
1.3. ,
1.3.1. V1 V2 V .
. u, v V1 V2 k u +v
v V1 , V2 , V1 V2 .

, V1 V2
.
1.3.2. V1 + V2 V1 V2 V
v V ,
v = v 1 + v 2 , v 1 V1 v 2 V2 .
1.3.3.
: V1 + V2 = V1 V2 . , V1 + V2 .
. V1 + V2 V1 V2 ,
v 1 + v 2 v 1 , v 2 V1 V2 .
V1 V2 V1 + V2 . v = 1 u 1 + . . . + n u n u 1 , . . . , u n V1 V2 . ,
u 1 , . . . , u k V1 , u k+1 , . . . , u n V2 . v = v 1 + v 2 ,
v 1 = 1 u 1 + . . . + k u k V1 v 2 = k+1 u k+1 + . . . + n u n V2 . ,
v V1 + V2 .

1.3.4. V1 V2 V

dim V1 + dim V2 = dim(V1 + V2 ) + dim(V1 V2 ).
. e 1 , . . . , e k V1 V2 . 1.2.10, e 1 , . . . , e k , f 1 , . . . , f l
V1 e 1 , . . . , e k , g 1 , . . . , g m V2 .
(1.2)

dim(V1 V2 ) = k,

dim V1 = k + l,

dim V2 = k + m.

1.4.

11

, e 1 , . . . , e k , f 1 , . . . , f l , g 1 , . . . , g m V1 + V2 .
, V1 + V2 = V1 V2 , V1 +
V2 . ,
.
(1.3)

1 e 1 + . . . + k e k + 1 f 1 + . . . + l f l + 1 g 1 + . . . + m g m = 0.


1 e 1 + . . . + k e k + 1 f 1 + . . . + l f l = 1 g 1 . . . m g m .
, , V1 , V2 . , V1 V2 e 1 , . . . , e k .
e 1 , . . . , e k , f 1 , . . . , f l , ,
1 = . . . = l = 0. , 1 = . . . = m = 0.
e 1 , . . . , e k (1.3) , 1 = . . . = k = 0.
, e 1 , . . . , e k , f 1 , . . . , f l , g 1 , . . . , g m V1 + V2
. , V1 + V2 dim(V1 + V2 ) = k + l + m.
(1.2) .

1.4. .
1.4.1. V1 + V2 V
(: V1 V2 ), v V1 + V2
v = v 1 + v 2 , v 1 V1 v 2 V2 , .
1.4.2. V1 , V2 :
) V1 + V2 ;
) V1 V2 = {0}.
) 0 = v1 + v2 , v1 V1 v2 V2 , v1 = v2 = 0;
) dim V1 + dim V2 = dim(V1 + V2 );
. ) ) ) ) ) ).
) ). v V1 V2 , v = 0. 0 = 0 + 0 = v + (v ),
v V1 v V2 . , 0
V1 V2 , .. V1 + V2 .
) ). 0 = v 1 + v 2 , v 1 V1 , v 2 V2 v 1 = 0,
v 1 V1 v 1 = v 2 V2 , .. v 1 V1 V2 V1 V2 = {0}. .
) ). v V : v = u 1 + u 2 = v 1 + v 2 ,
u 1 , v 1 V1 u 2 , v 2 V2 . 0 = (u 1 v 1 ) + (u 2 v 2 ), u 1 v 1 V1
u 2 v 2 V2 . , u 1 v 1 = u 2 v 2 = 0, .. v
.
) ). 1.3.4, .

:
1.4.3. V1 +. . .+Vn V , v V1 +. . .+Vn v = v 1 +. . .+v n ,
v i Vi , .
1.4.4. V1 , . . . , Vn V
:

12

1.

)
)
)
)
)

V1 + . . . + Vn ;
Vi (V1 + . . . + Vi1 + Vi+1 + . . . + Vn ) = {0} i = 1, . . . , n;
Vi (Vi+1 + . . . + Vn ) = {0} i = 1, . . . , n 1;
0 = v1 + . . . + vn , vi Vi , v1 = . . . = vn = 0;
dim V1 + . . . + dim Vn = dim(V1 + . . . + Vn ).

n; .
1.4.5. n > 3 ) ,
Vi Vj = {0} 1 6 i < j 6 n. , . ,
R2 e 1 , e 2 :
V1 = {e 1 },

V2 = {e 2 },

V3 = {e 1 + e 2 }

( , ).
Vi Vj = {0} i = j, V1 + V2 + V3 , , ,
e 1 + e 2 v 1 + v 2 + v 3 v i Vi ,
e 1 + e 2 = e 1 + e 2 + 0 = 0 + 0 + (e 1 + e 2 ). , dim Vi = 1,
dim(V1 + V2 + V3 ) = dim R2 = 2.
1.4.6. V1 , . . . , Vn k. , V1 . . . Vn ,
, (v 1 , . . . , v n ),
v i Vi , :
(u 1 , . . . , u n ) + (v 1 , . . . , v n ) := (u 1 + v 1 , . . . , u n + v n ),
(v 1 , . . . , v n ) := (v 1 , . . . , v n ).
1.5. .
V , W V .
1.5.1. v V
W v + W , v + w , w W .
1.5.2. v1 + W = v2 + W ,
v1 v2 W .
. v 1 +W = v 2 +W . v 1 v 1 +W = v 2 +W ,
w W , v 1 = v 2 + w . , v 1 v 2 = w W .
, v := v 1 v 2 W . , v 1 + W v 2 + W .
u v 1 + W . u = v 1 + w w W .
u = v 1 + w = v 2 + (v + w ), v + w W . , u v 2 + W
v 1 + W v 2 + W . v 2 + W v 1 + W
. , v 1 + W = v 2 + W .

1.5.3. V /W V
W {v + W : v V }
W :
(u + W ) + (v + W ) := (u + v ) + W,
(v + W ) := v + W.

1.5.

13

1.5.4. V /W .
. , ..
v v + W .
. u 1 + W = u 2 + W v 1 + W = v 2 + W ,
u := u 1 u 2 W v := v 1 v 2 W 1.5.2. ,
(u 1 + W ) + (v 1 + W ) = (u 1 + v 1 ) + W = (u 2 + v 2 ) + (u + v ) + W =
= (u 2 + v 2 ) + W = (u 2 + W ) + (v 2 + W ),
.. . .
, V /W . 1) 2) 1.1.1 ( )
V . V /W
0 + W = W , v + W
(v ) + W . 5):
(
)
(
)
(u + W ) + (v + W ) = (u + v ) + W = (u + v ) + W = (u + v ) + W =
= (u + W ) + (v + W ) = (u + W ) + (v + W ).
6)8) .

1.5.5. W V .
dim V /W = dim V dim W.
. dim V = n, dim W = k e 1 , . . . , e k W .
e 1 , . . . , e k , e k+1 , . . . , e n V . ,
(1.4)

e k+1 + W, . . . , e n + W

V /W .
, (1.4) .
k+1 (e k+1 + W ) + . . . + n (e n + W ) = 0 + W.
(k+1 e k+1 + . . . + n e n ) + W = 0 + W , .. v := k+1 e k+1 + . . . + n e n W
1.5.2. e 1 , . . . , e k W , v = 1 e 1 +. . .+k e k .

1 e 1 + . . . + k e k k+1 e k+1 . . . n e n = 0.
e 1 , . . . , e k , e k+1 , . . . , e n V , , k+1 = . . . = n = 0,
.. (1.4) .
, (1.4) V /W .
v + W V /W . v V :
v = 1 e 1 + . . . + k e k + k+1 e k+1 + . . . + n e n .

v + W = (k+1 e k+1 + . . . + n e n ) + (1 e 1 + . . . + k e k ) + W =
= (k+1 e k+1 + . . . + n e n ) + W = k+1 (e k+1 + W ) + . . . + n (e n + W ).
, (1.4) V /W , dim V /W = n k.

14

1.

1.6. .
1.6.1. V e 1 , . . . , e n V .
x V : x = x1 e 1 + . . . + xn e n . x1 , . . . , xn k
x e 1 , . . . , e n .
, , .
( ). , ,
, , .. x1 , . . . , xn x1 , . . . , xn .
x =
x1 e 1 + . . . + xn e n
n
i
x = xi e i ,
i=1 x e i (..
).
x e 1 , . . . , e n
n, () x,
1
1
x
x
.
.. x = .. . ... (x1 . . . xn )t .
xn
xn
V : e 1 , . . . , e n
e 1 , . . . , e n . e 1 , . . . , e n .
, :
e 1 = c11 e 1 + . . . + cn1 e n ,

e n = c1n e 1 + . . . + cnn e n ,
, ,
e i = cii e i ,

i = 1, . . . n.

c1 c1n
(e 1 . . . e n ) = (e 1 . . . e n ) ... . . . ... .
cn1 cnn
1.6.2.
1

c1 c1n
C = (cii ) = ... . . . ...
cn1 cnn
e 1 , . . . , e n e 1 , . . . , e n . .
1.6.3 ( ). x1 , . . . , xn

x e1 , . . . , en , x1 , . . . , xn

1.6.

15

e1 , . . . , en . .
:

x1 = c11 x1 + . . . + c1n xn ,

xn = cn1 x1 + . . . + cnn xn .
:

x1
x1
.
... = C
.. .

xn
xn

xi = cii xi ,

i = 1, . . . , n.

. , ,
.

x1 e 1 + . . . + xn e n = x = x1 e 1 + . . . + xn e n =

= x1 (c11 e 1 + . . . + cn1 e n ) + . . . + xn (c1n e 1 + . . . + cnn e n ) =

= (c11 x1 + . . . + c1n xn )e 1 + . . . + (cn1 x1 + . . . + cnn xn )e n .

e 1 , . . . , e n , xi = ci1 x1 + . . . + cin xn


1
1
x
x1
c1

.
.

(e 1 , . . . , e n ) ..
= x = (e 1 , . . . , e n ) .. = (e 1 , . . . , e n ) ...

xn
cn1
xn


1
x
x1
.
... = C
.. .

xn
xn
, ,

i = 1, . . . , n.
1
c1n
x
.. .. ,
..
. . .

cnn
xn

xi e i = x = xi e i = xi cii e i ,

xi = xi cii = cii xi .

, ,
.
.
,
, , ,
.
( ). A = (aij ) l m, B = (bjk ) m n.
:

16

1.

l n- C = (cik ), A B,
cik = aij bjk ( j ).
() E :
E = (ji ),
{
1, i = j,
i
j =
0, i = j.
D = (djk ) C = (cij ), .. D = C 1 , cij djk = ki .
1.6.4.

) Ce e = (cii ) e1 , . . . , en e1 , . . . , en Cee = (cii ) e1 , . . . , en e1 , . . . , en ,


..
Cee Ce e = E.
, ().
) e1 , . . . , en , e1 , . . . , en , e1 , . . . , en ,
Cee = Cee Ce e .
. ,

e i = e i . . Cee = (cii ), Ce e = (cii ),


Cee = (cii ).

cii e i = e i = cii e i = cii cii e i = cii cii e i ,

cii = cii cii , .. Cee = Cee Ce e .


1.7. .

1.7.1. V W k. A : V W , u, v V
k
A(u + v ) = Au + Av ,

A(v ) = Av .

(.. ) A : V W
. V W ,
.
.
1.7.2.
1. f : V k V k k ( 1- )
.
.
2. A : V V V
. .
1.7.3. V W k , .

1.7.

17

. ,
, .. . ,
A : V W , dim V = dim W .
dim V = dim W = n. e 1 , . . . , e n f 1 , . . . , f n V
W .
A(xi e i ) = xi f i
( i ) A : V
W . , A1 (xi f i ) = xi e i
. , A .

n- R Rn ; n- .
1.7.4. A : V W . v V , Av = 0, A
Ker A. A : V W , Im A,
, : Im A = {Av : v V }.
1.7.5. A : V W . Ker A
V , Im A W .
. u, v Ker A, .. Au = Av = 0. A(u + v ) =
Au + Av = 0 + 0 = 0 A(v ) = Av = 0. , u + v Ker A
v Ker A, Ker A V .
x , y Im A, .. u, v V , , Au = x Av = y .
A(u + v ) = x + y A(u) = x . , x + y Im A x Im A,
Im A W .

1.7.6. A : V W . v + Ker A 7 Av V / Ker A
Im A.
.
, .
, v + Ker A 7 Av
Ae : V / Ker A Im A. , u + Ker A =
v + Ker A, Au = Av . 1.5.2, u +
Ker A = v + Ker A , u v Ker A, .. Au = Av + A(u v ) = Av . ,
Ae : V / Ker A Im A .
Ae . , e + Ker A) = A(v
e + Ker A). , Au = Av ,
. A(u
.. u v Ker A. 1.5.2 , u + Ker A = v + Ker A, ..
Ae . Ae : V / Ker A Im A
, .

1.7.7. A : V W
dim V = dim Ker A + dim Im A.

18

1.

. , dim(V / Ker A) =
dim Im A, dim(V / Ker A) = dim V dim Ker A 1.5.5 .

1.8. .

A : V W , e 1 , . . . , e m V , f 1 , . . . , f n
W .
1.8.1. A : V W e1 , . . . , em f1 , . . . , fn

1 1
a1 a2 . . . a1m
a21 a22 . . . a2m
A=
.. . .
.
...
. ..
.
an1 an2 . . . anm
n m, i- A(e i ) f 1 , . . . , f n :
Ae i = aji f j .
A,
x V A .
1.8.2. x = xj ej V , y = y i fi
W , .. y = Ax.
1 1
1
y
a1 . . . a1m
x
.
.
.
i
i j
.. = .. . . . .. ... .
y = aj x

yn
an1 . . . anm
xm
. ,
y i f i = y = Ax = A(xj e j ) = xj Ae j = xj aij f i .
{f i } , , y i = aij xj .

1.8.3. A : V W V
W
(A1 + A2 )(v ) := A1 v + A2 v ,

(A)(v ) := (Av )

. V W Homk (V, W ) Hom(V, W ).


1.8.4. dim V = m dim W = n. Homk (V, W ) Matk (n, m).
. e 1 , . . . , e m f 1 , . . . , f n V W . Homk (V, W ) Matk (n, m),
. , . , : n m- A = (aij ) ,
1.8.2. ,
Homk (V, W ) Matk (n, m) .


1.9. V

19

V e 1 , . . . , e m , W
f 1 , . . . , f n .
1.8.5 ( ).
A = D1 AC,
A A : V W
e1 , . . . , em f1 , . . . , fn ; A A
e1 , . . . , em f1 , . . . , fn ; C = Cee e1 , . . . , em
e1 , . . . , em D = Dff f1 , . . . , fn f1 , . . . , fn .
. C = (cii ) A = (aji ),
Ae i = A(cii e i ) = cii Ae i = cii aji f j .

, A = (aji ) D = (djj ),

Ae i = aji f j = aji djj f j .


, , {f j } ,

aji cii = djj aji . AC = DA , .. A = D1 AC.



1.9. V , .
V
= V ()
, f : V
k. ,
.
1.9.1. Hom(V, k) f : V k ( ) V V .
e 1 , . . . , e n V . V
x = xi e i V ,
(x ) = xi (e i ). 1 , . . . , n V
i (e j ) = ji .
x = xj e j
i (x ) = i (xj e j ) = xj i (e j ) = xj ji = xi .
i .
1.9.2. 1 , . . . , n V .
. . x1 1 + . . . + xn n = o.
, := xi i V . e j : 0 = (e j ) = xi i (e j ) = xi ji = xj . ,
xj , 1 , . . . , n V .
, 1 , . . . , n V . ,
= i i ,
i = (e i ). , x = xj e j V
i i (x ) = i xi = (e i )xi = (xi e i ) = (x ).

20

1.

, = i i , .. 1 , . . . , n V .

1.9.3. 1 , . . . , n V ( ) e 1 , . . . , e n .
1.9.4. dim V = dim V .
e 1 , . . . , e n V C = (cii )

, e i = cii e i . 1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , n .

1.9.5. 1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , n (C 1 )t .

. x = xi e i = xi e i i (x ) = xi =

cii xi = cii i (x ). ,

i = cii i .


1

1
.
... = C
..

n
n

(1 . . . n ) = (1 . . . n )(C 1 )t .

, (C 1 )t 1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , n .

1.9.4 , V V .
V (
V ); V V ,
. .
: V V
, V . ( ),
. , ; , R C.
, k , .. k,
b
. k
.
b .
1.9.6. k k
. , k e 1 , e 2 , . . ., e i = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .) ,
i- 1, .

(
)
b , f 7 f (e 1 ), f (e 2 ), . . . ,
A : (k ) k
f (k )
e i . . ,
A : A1
(
)
A1 (x1 , x2 , . . .) = f (k ) , f (e i ) = xi .

1.10.

21

y k () e i ,
f y
f (e i ). , A .

k = Z2 .
b
1.9.7. Z
2 Z2 . ,

Z2 .
b
. , Z
2 , Z2 b
, Z
2 Z2 . ( X
, X
N).
, Z
2 . n
( 2n ), Z
2 . (
, Z
2 [0, 1] ).
b
, Z
2
. , , : a1 , a2 , . . . ,. b,
k- k- ak . b a1 , a2 , . . .,
k- k- . b . ( Z
b
, Z
2
2
[0, 1] .)

, R
b (: R ,
R
b ).
R
1.10. ,
V
= V
, V V ( ), V .
V V , .
, V
V .
1.10.1. V . : V V , x V x V ,

x () := (x),
V ,
.
. , x V . ,
(x + y ) = x +y = x + y = (x ) + (y )

22

1.

(x ) = (x ), .. .
, : V V , .. Ker = {0}. (x ) = x = o.
, x () = (x ) = 0
V . , 1 , . . . , n
e 1 , . . . , e n V . , i (x ) = xi = 0, ..
x V e 1 , . . . , e n . , x = 0,
.. Ker = {0}.
dim V = dim V = dim Ker + dim Im (
1.7.7) dim Ker = 0, dim Im = dim V . ,
Im = V .
, , .

: V V
( ). ,
, .
1.11.
1.11.1. A : V W .
A : W V ,
(A )(v ) := (Av )

W , v V,

A.
, A .
1.11.2. e1 , . . . , em f1 , . . . , fn V
W . A : V W A : W V
1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , m .
. A = (aij ) A
e 1 , . . . , e m f 1 , . . . , f n . x = xi e i
(A i )(x ) = i (Ax ) = i (ajk xk f j ) = ajk xk i (f j ) = ajk xk ji = aik xk = aik k (x ).
, A i = aik k . , i-
A = (aik ) i A 1 , . . . , m . , A
A .



2.1. . .
. GLn SLn
, . , A : V V
V . .
A A : V V
V
e 1 , . . . , e n . A = (aji ) A : V V e 1 , . . . , e n . , i-
A Ae i e 1 , . . . , e n :
Ae i = aji e j .
2.1.1.
1. id v V : id v = v .
id E. ,
A - E, A = id.
d
k2 [x]
2. dx
d
d
d
2
2. dx 1 = 0, dx x = 1 dx x = 2x. ,
d
1, x, x2
dx

0 1 0
0 0 2 .
0 0 0

3. R3 prv
v = (1, 1, 1).
e 1 = (1, 0, 0), e 2 = (0, 1, 0) e 3 = (0, 0, 1).
,v )
v . ,
, u R3 prv u = (u
(v ,v )
1
1
1
1
prv e 1 = prv e 2 = prv e 3 = (1, 1, 1) = e 1 + e 2 + e 3 .
3
3
3
3
, prv
1 1 1
3

1
3
1
3

3
1
3
1
3

23

3
1
.
3
1
3

24

2.

2.1.2 ( ).

A = C 1 AC,
A A : V V e1 , . . . , en , A
e1 , . . . , en C e1 , . . . , en e1 , . . . , en .
. V , C = D A = D1 AC
1.8.5.

A A , A = C 1 AC, C , . ,
.
C tr A A = (aij ) , tr A = aii .
2.1.3. .
. A = C 1 AC.
det A = det(C 1 AC) = (det C 1 )(det A)(det C) = (det C)1 (det C)(det A) = det A.

: aij = cii aij cjj ,

tr A = aii = cii aij cji = cji cii aij = ij aij = aii = tr A.



2.1.4. (, )
A : V V (, ) A
; det A (, tr A).
A , det A = 0.
A : V V B : V V
A B : V V , (A B)(v ) = A(Bv ).
2.1.5. A B
A B .
. A = (aij ) B = (bij ) A B
e 1 , . . . , e n C = AB = (cij ).
(A B)(e i ) = A(Be i ) = A(bji e j ) = bji Ae j = bji akj e k = akj bji e k = cki e k ,
.. C = AB A B.

2.1.6. A : V V :
) A , .. det A = 0;
) A , .. A1 : V V , A A1 = id;
) Im A = V ;
) Ker A = {0}.
. ) ) ) ).
) ). det A = 0 A A .
det A = 0. , A1 .
A1 , A1 .
, A A1 AA1 = E, A A1 = id.

2.2.

25

) ). A . , Im A =
V . v V ,
v
/ Im A. A1 (v ) = u. Au Im A. , Au =
A A1 (v ) = v . .
) ). Im A = V , .. dim V = dim Im A. 1.7.7, dim V =
dim Ker A + dim Im A. , dim Ker A = 0, .. Ker A = {0}.
) ). Ker A = {0}. , det A = 0. det A = 0, A
A e 1 , . . . , e n . ,
Ax = 0 x1 , . . . , xn . 1.8.2,
, Ax = 0, x = xi e i = 0. , Ker A x . .

Hom(V, V ) A : V V
V ( k, k). Hom(V, V )
( ) End(V ).
V () . V GL (V ). dim V = n, GL (V )
n k ;
GLn (k).
( ) 1 GLn (k);
SLn (k).
2.2. ,
2.2.1. V : V = V1 V2 . v V
v = v 1 + v 2 , v 1 V1 , v 2 V2 . P : V V ,
v = v 1 + v 2 v 1 , V1 V2 .
P Im P = V1 Ker P = V2 .
2.2.2. A : V V :
) A ;
) A2 = A.
. A V1 V2 , v = v 1 + v 2
(
)
A2 v = A A(v 1 + v 2 ) = Av 1 = v 1 = Av ,
.. A2 = A.
A2 = A. V1 := Im A V2 := Ker A. , A
V1 V2 .
, V = V1 V2 , .., V = V1 + V2 V1 V2 = {0}.
v V1 V2 . v V1 = Im A, .. u V , Au = v ,
v V2 = Ker A, .. Av = 0.
v = Au = A2 u = A(Au) = Av = 0,
.. v = 0. , V1 V2 . ,
dim(V1 V2 ) = dim V1 + dim V2 = dim Im A + dim Ker A = dim V,

26

2.

.. V = V1 V2 .
v V v =
v 1 + v 2 , v 1 V1 = Im A, v 2 V2 = Ker A. u V ,
v 1 = Au, Av 2 = 0.
Av = Av 1 + Av 2 = A(Au) = Au = v 1 .
, A V1 V2 .


1 V2 ,
( V)
E 0
, E k = dim V1 , 0
V1 V2
0 0
.
2.3. .
A : V V . A2 .
P (t) = a0 + a1 t + a2 t2 + . . . + an tn k[t]

P (A) := a0 id +a1 A + a2 A2 + . . . + an An ,
A.
2.3.1. P (t) A,
P (A) = O ( ).
2.3.2. t 1 id.
2.3.3. .
. dim V = n. n2 + 1 A0 = id,
2
A = A, A2 . . . , An . n2 ,
, .. a0 , a1 , . . . , an2 ,
2
, , a0 id +a1 A + . . . + an2 An = O. P (t) =
2
a0 + a1 t + . . . + an2 tn A.

1

2.3.4. P (t) ( ) A,
P (A) = 0, P (t) 1.
2.3.5. .
.
.
.
.
. P1 (t) P2 (t)
A. P1 (t) P2 (t) .
P1 (t) P2 (t) ,
P1 (t) P2 (t) = 0.


2.4.

27

2.4.

. : R
C ( )
C R ( ).
.
2.4.1. V (
C). VR , , V ,

. VR (
R), V .
2.4.2. e1 , . . . , en V . e1 , . . . , en ,
ie1 , . . . , ien VR . , dim VR = 2 dim V .
. , e 1 , . . . , e n , ie 1 , . . . , ie n VR .
1 e 1 + . . . + n e n + 1 ie 1 + . . . + n ie n = 0,
VR , k , k R. V
(1 + i1 )e 1 + . . . + (n + in )e n = 0.
e 1 , . . . , e n V , k + ik = 0, ..
k = k = 0. , e 1 , . . . , e n , ie 1 , . . . , ie n VR .
, v VR ( ) e 1 , . . . , e n , ie 1 , . . . , ie n . v V . e 1 , . . . , e n V ,
v = 1 e 1 + . . . + n e n
k C. k = k + ik , k , k R.
v = 1 e 1 + . . . + n e n + 1 ie 1 + . . . + n ie n .
, e 1 , . . . , e n , ie 1 , . . . , ie n VR .

2.4.3. V A : V V . , AR , A AR .
2.4.4. A e1 , . . . , en V A + iB, A B .
(
)
A B
;
) AR e1 , . . . , en , ie1 , . . . , ien
B A
) det AR = | det A|2 .
. A = (alk ) B = (blk ).
AR (e k ) = A(e k ) = (alk + iblk )e l = alk e l + blk ie l ,
AR (ie k ) = A(ie k ) = iA(e k ) = i(alk + iblk )e l = blk e l + alk ie l ,

28

2.

) .
) AR :
)
(
)
(
A iB B iA
A B

B
A
B A
(
) (
)
A iB B iA + i(A iB)
A iB
0

=
.
B
A + iB
B
A + iB
det AR = det(A iB) det(A + iB) = det A det A = | det A|2 .

.
2.4.5. V .
V J : V V , J 2 = id.
2.4.6. V
J . V
( + i) v = v + J (v).
V Ve , VeR = V ,
i J .
. 5)8) C. .

2.4.7. J V .
) V ; (
)
0 E
) J
.
E 0
. Ve
. V Ve , . V = VeR , 2.4.2 , dim V = 2 dim Ve .
, e 1 , . . . , e n Ve , e 1 , . . . , e n ,
ie 1 , . . . , ie n VeR = V . J (
i) 2.4.4 ). 
.
2.4.8. V R.
V V , (u, v ), u, v V , : J (u, v ) := (v , u). V^
V
C V VC .
2.4.9. e1 , . . . , en V .
(e1 , 0), . . . , (en , 0) VC . , dim VC = dim V .
. , , (e 1 , 0), . . . , (e n , 0)
VC .
(2.1)

1 (e 1 , 0) + . . . + n (e n , 0) = (0, 0)

2.5. .

29

k = k + ik C. (k + ik ) (e k , 0) = k (e k , 0) + k J (e k , 0) =
(k e k , k e k ), (2.1)
(1 e 1 + . . . + n e n , 1 e 1 + . . . + n e n ) = (0, 0),
k , k , k , . , (e 1 , 0), . . . , (e n , 0) . , VC , .

2.4.10. V A : V V
. AC : VC VC , AC (u, v ) := (Au, Av ), A.
2.4.11. A A e1 , . . . , en .
AC (e1 , 0), . . . , (en , 0) A.
. AC (e k , 0) = (Ae k , 0) = (alk e l , 0) = alk (e l , 0).

VC (u, v ) VC u + iv .
AC AC (u + iv ) = Au + iAv .
2.4.12. (VC )R V V .
. , VC = V^
V , (V^
V )R = V V 2.4.6 ( ,
).

(), (VR )C V V , V
, , V ,
v := v .
, .
2.5. .
-.
2.5.1. W V A : V V , A(W ) W .
2.5.2. Ker A Im A A
.
W V A : V V . e 1 , . . . , e k W e 1 , . . . , e k , e k+1 , . . . , e n V .
A = (aij ) A . Ae j = a1j e 1 + . . . + akj e k
j = 1, . . . , k. , A
(
)

A=
,
0
(n k) k .

30

2.

, V = W1 W2 , A(W1 ) W1 A(W2 ) W2 ,
A -
(
)
0
A=
,
0
2.5.3. W V b := Aw
A : V V . Ab : W W , Aw
w W , A W
A|W .
Ae : V /W V /W ,
e + W ) = Av + W , -.
A(v
- . , v + W = u + W ,
v u W , A(v u) W ,
e + W ) = A(u + v u) + W = Au + A(v u) + W = Au + W = A(u
e + W ).
A(v
2.5.4. W V A : V V . e1 , . . . , ek W e1 , . . . , ek , ek+1 , . . . , en
V . A
(
)
b
A
A=
,
e
0 A
b A|W e1 , . . . , ek , A
e A
ek+1 + W, . . . , en + W V /W .
. .

2.5.5. v V A, Av = v k.
k ,
v , Av = v .
2.5.6. ,
, 0 ,
A id.
. Av = v , v
Ker(A id).

2.5.7. A. V = Ker(A id) , .
2.5.8. V .
. , v V , Av = v V .

2.5.9.
1. id : V V
1.

2.6. .

31

2. A : V V 0 .
3. P : V V 0 1. P
U W , U ,
= 1, W , = 0.
2.6. .
2.6.1. PA (t) := det(A t id) A.
, PA (t) det(A tE), A A , E
.
PA (t) = an tn +
an1 tn1 + . . . + a0 : an = (1)n , an1 = (1)n1 tr A, a0 = det A.
2.6.2. A
.
. , A id , .. det(A id) = 0, PA (t). ,
PA (t), det(A id) = 0,
.

2.6.3.
) A : V V C
1.
) A : V V R
1 2.
. ) , C , PA (t) .
A v , .. Av = v v .
). ,
. ,
PA (t) . + i . + i AC (,
A AC ). u + iv VC .
Au + iAv = AC (u + iv ) = ( + i)(u + iv ) = (u v ) + i(u + v ).
, Au = u v Av = u + v , u, v V
A.

V = Ker(A id) .
2.6.4. V .

32

2.

. dim V = k. e 1 , . . . , e k
V V . Ae i = e i i = 1, . . . , k,
A

0
..

A=
.
0

e
0
A
e tE) = ( t)k P e(t), Ae PA (t) = det(A tE) = ( t)k det(A
A
. , k = dim V .

2.6.5 (). PA (t) A : V V , .. PA (A) = O.
. , . , .
c
. M M
, ij-
ji- M . ,
c = det M E.
MM
M A tE, A A
.
(2.2)

(A tE)(A\
tE) = det(A tE) E = PA (t)E.

A\
tE t
n 1, n = dim V . ,
A\
tE = B0 + tB1 + t2 B2 + . . . + tn1 Bn1 ,
Bi . PA (t) = a0 + a1 t + . . . + an tn (2.2),
(A tE)(B0 + tB1 + t2 B2 + . . . + tn1 Bn1 ) = (a0 + a1 t + a2 t2 + . . . + an tn )E.
t,
AB0 = a0 E,
B0 + AB1 = a1 E,
B1 + AB2 = a2 E,
...
Bn2 + ABn1 = an1 E
Bn1 = an E
A, A2 , ..,
,
0 = a0 E + a1 A + a2 A2 + . . . + an An .

2.7.

33

A . 
. , , C. V .
V , A = id . PA (t) = t,
PA (A) = id A = O.
dim V = n, ,
n1. U A;
u .
u . A
(
)

A=
e ,
0 A
e - A,
e - V /U .
A
,
e tE) = ( t)P e(t),
PA (t) = det(A tE) = ( t) det(A
A
PAe(t) -. dim V /U =
e = O. -
n 1, PAe(A)
, v V PAe(A)v U , .. PAe(A)v = u
. ,
PA (A)v = ( id A)PAe(A)v = ( id A)(u) = 0,
Au = u. , PA (A) = O .
R AC
A. V VC A AC , PA (t) = PAC (t) PA (A) = PAC (A) = 0.

2.7. .
2.7.1. A , , .
, , , .
, .
2.7.2 ( ). A n- V , n ( ),
V .
.
2.7.3. V1 , . . . , Vk ,
1 , . . . , k A, V1 . . . Vk .

34

2.

. k. k = 1 .
,
(2.3)

v 1 + . . . + v k = 0,

v i Vi , v 1 = . . . = v k = 0. (2.3) A,
1 v 1 + . . . + k v k = 0
(2.3) k :
(1 k )v 1 + . . . + (k1 k )v k1 = 0.
(1 k )v 1 = . . . = (k1 k )v k1 = 0.
1 k = 0, . . . , k1 k = 0, v 1 = . . . = v k1 = 0.
(2.3) , v k = 0.

.
2.7.4. ,
, .
2.7.2. , A . D A 1 , .
. . , k ,
i ri . PA (t) = det(D tE) = ki=1 (i t)ri .
k
, PA (t)
i=1 ri = n , i
ri , .. dim Vi = ri .
, PA (t) 1 , . . . , k ,
i ri , ki=1 ri = n dim Vi = ri . 2.7.3,
V1 , . . . , Vk , n = dim V . , V = V1 . . . Vk .
Vi ,
V , . , A .

2.7.5. PA (t) n =
dim V . A .
A ( , ).
1
, . ,
. ,
. , C .
(
)
0 1
1. ,
R2 , 1 0
, t2 + 1
2
.
(
) C : f 1 = (1 i), f 2 = (1 i)
i 0

.
0 i
2.7.6.

2.8.

35

(
)
1 1
2. ,
, 0 1
: (t 1)2 1
2, 1 ( e 2 = (0 1) ).
2.8. .
2.8.1. A , Ak = O
k. k, Ak = O,
A.
2.8.2. A, e 1 , . . . , e n

0 1
0
0 ...

(2.4)
...

1
0
0
( , ).
e n 7 e n1 7 . . . 7 e 1 7 0.
, An = O, .. A n.
.
2.8.3. A : V V ,
dim V = n.
) A 0;
) A , A = O;
) An = O, .. A n = dim V .
. ). Ak = O Ak1 = O.
v , u := Ak1 v = 0. Au = Ak v = 0, .. u
0. = 0 ,
w = 0, , Aw = w . 0 = Ak w = k w .
0 = k , .. = 0 .
). A , , ). ,
A = O.
). ) ,
A (t)n . An = O .

,
2.8.2.
2.8.4. A : V V . V , A (2.4) .
.
, , , (
) .

36

2.

2.8.4. , (2.4),
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

?
r

, A. ,
.. ( 0), . (2.4),
( ).
, , A .
V . dim V = 1, A , V .
dim V = n > 1, , n,
. V0 = Ker A
A. dim V0 > 0, dim V /V0 < n.
e + V0 ) = Av + V0 . - Ae : V /V0 V /V0 , A(v
Ae . :
e
V = V0 V0 A. D
e
A,
e
eei , i = 1, . . . , m ( m D),
eei = e i + V0 , e i V . D V . i = 1, . . . , m i D
( ) e i , Ae i , . . . , Ahi 1 e i , Ahi e i , hi i-
e Aehi eei = 0, Ahi e i V0 Ahi +1 e i = 0.
D.
Ah1 e 1 , . . . , Ahm e m V0 , V0
( )
D; A .
, D V
, . ,
, , V .
, D V . v V .
hi 1 fj
ei .
ve = v + V0 . ve = m
j=0 ij A e
i=1
v

m h
i 1

ij Aj e i V0 .

i=1 j=0

Aj e i , j 6 hi 1, D,
, V0 D . v D.

2.8.

37

D. ,
. ,

,
m
hi

A
e
=
0,

i
i=1 i
h1
A e 1 , . . . , Ahm e m V0 . hi > 1,
m
)
(
A
i Ahi 1 e i = 0,
i=1

i=1

i Ahi 1 e i V0

i Aehi 1 eei = 0.

i=1

, i = 0, Aehi 1 eei e V /V0 .


D
, ,
D, , D. D,
. ( ) h.
Ah1 . , h- ,
,
. .
. . , , , , ,
, . , dim V0 = dim Ker A .
- Ae V / Ker A,
.. dim Ker A2 dim Ker A, . ,
, k- -
V / Ker Ak1 , .. dim Ker Ak dim Ker Ak1 . .

.
, . k A,
, 0. D V / Ker Ak1 . V ,
Ker Ak1 . ,
A. Ker Ak1 ,
Ker Ak2 , ,
Ker Ak1 / Ker Ak2 .
, , , Ker Ak2 / Ker Ak3 . .
, , , Ker A.

38

2.

2.9. .

A , (1)n (t )n , (A id)n = 0
. , A id
.
, , A id .
2.9.1. v V A,
k, m, (A id)m v = 0.
R , .
2.9.2. R V .
. u, v R , .. (A id)l u = (A id)m v = 0
l, m. (Aid)m (u) = 0 k. p = max{l, m}.
(A id)p (u + v ) = 0, .. R .

R V A, .
2.9.3. R , A. V R , ..
.
. , , v , (A id)v = 0, .. v R R .
, V R .
, R u, (A id)m u = 0,
m , .. v := (A id)m1 u = 0. (A id)v =
(A id)m u = 0, .. v , .

R .
2.9.4. A V , 1 , . . . , k A.
V , ..
V = R1 . . . Rk .
.
2.9.5. R A id, k ( , R A).
(A id)|R : R R
= , = .
. v R , .. (A id)m v = 0.
(A id)m (A id)v = (A id)(A id)m v = 0,

2.9.

39

(Aid) (Aid)m A,
. , R (A id)-
, (A id)|R .
v Ker(A id)|R , .. v R Av = v . (A id)v = ( )v ,

( )m v = (A id)m v = 0.
, = , v = 0. , = ,
(A id)|R , .
, e 1 , . . . , e r R (A id)mi e i = 0, (A id)m v = 0
v R , m m1 , . . . , mr . ,
(A id)|R .

2.9.6. R1 , . . . , Rk , 1 , . . . , k , R1 . . .Rk .
. k. k = 1 .
, k 1 .
,
(2.5)

v 1 + . . . + v k = 0,

v i Ri , v 1 = . . . = v k = 0. (A k id)p v k = 0 p.
(2.5) (A k id)p ,
(2.6)

(A k id)p v 1 + . . . + (A k id)p v k1 = 0.

R1 , . . . , Rk1 A k id,
(A k id)p v i Ri , i = 1, . . . , k 1.
(2.6) , (A k id)p v i = 0, i = 1, . . . , k 1.
A k id R1 , . . . , Rk1 , ,
v 1 = . . . = v k1 = 0. (2.5) , v k = 0.

2.9.7. R
A.
. r . Ab = A|R
A R Ae : V /R V /R -.

(2.7)

PA (t) = PAb(t)PAe(t) = ( t)dim R PAe(t)

(. 2.5.4), dim R 6 r .
, dim R < r . (2.7) ,
e v + R PAe(t), .. A.
() , ..
e + R ) = (v + R )
A(v

Av + R = v + R .

, Av v = (A id)v R . R ,
0 = (A id)m (A id)v = (A id)m+1 v , .. v R . v + R
V /R . .


40

2.


2.9.4. dim V = n ri
i , i = 1 . . . , k. ki=1 ri = n (
) , dim(R1 . . .Rk ) = ki=1 ri =
dim V . , V = R1 . . . Rk .

V = R1 . . . Rk V .
2.10.
, A|R ( A R ). (A id)|R ( 2.9.5), R
. (A id)|R (2.4), A|R

1
0
...

(2.8)
J =
..

. 1
0

( , , ).
2.10.1. (2.8) . A - c (2.8) (, ),
A. , , .
2.10.2. A V
( ).
().
. . , 1 , . . . , k
A. Ri
(A i id)|Ri . A
V = R1 . . . Rk ( ).
. ,

(.. ). . Wi
, i . (A i id) Wi , Wi Ri . ,
V = W1 . . .Wk V = R1 . . .Rk (
). , dim Wi = dim Ri Wi = Ri . , ,
i ,
Ri .

2.11. .

41

,
, A .
A id.
(.. ) 2.8.4.

,
A Matn (C) J, , ..
J = C 1 AC C.
. , . , id
.

2.10.2
(
) R. , , 0 1

R2 , ().
1 0
, A, .
1 , . . . , k ( ) . Ri . A i E , :
rk(A i E)mi = rk(A i E)mi+1 . Ri = Ker(A i E)mi , mi , i . Ri (A i id)|Ri
( 2.8);
A.
, .
2.10.3.
A
k
mi
C P (t) = i=1 (t i ) , 1 , . . . , k A,
mi , i .
2.11. .
( )
().
.
2.11.1. f (t) . (2.8) n

f ()
f (n1) ()
f () 1!
...
(n1)!

..
..
..

.
.
. .
(2.9)
f (J ) =

f ()

f ()
1!
0
f ()

42

2.

.
f (t) = tm , .. m- . Jm = (am
ij ), .. (ij)-
m
m
J aij . f (t) = tm1
am1
ij

f (ji) ()
ji m1j+i
=
= Cm1

,
(j i)!

k!
Cki = i!(ki)!
; Cki = 0 i < 0
i > k. Jm = Jm1 J

am
ik

j=1

am1
a1jk
ij

ji m1j+i kj 1k+j
Cm1

C1
=

j=1
k1i m+ik
ki m+ik
ki mk+i
= Cm1

+ Cm1

= Cm

. , (2.9) f ,
f (t).

(2.9)
J, .
A ,
, .. J, A = CJC 1 .
A
Am = (CJC 1 )m = CJC 1 CJC 1 . . . CJC 1 = CJ m C 1 .
f (t):
(2.10)

f (A) = Cf (J)C 1 .

A,
.
2.11.2. A 1 , . . . , k r1 , . . . , rk . ,
f (t) g(t) A,
(2.11)

f (j) (i ) = g (j) (i ) i = 1, . . . , k, j = 0, . . . , ri 1.

2.11.3. f (t) g(t)


A, f (A) = g(A).
. , f (t)
A (2.9) (2.10) f (t) i ri 1.

f (t) A (, ),
, . A n, g(t) n 1, (2.11),
.
f (A) = g(A). A,
g, (2.11)

2.11. .

43

ri mi i
( ).
(2.9) (2.10)
f ( ).
f ( ) A,
f (A) , f . , ,
( ) . , , eA , sin A, cos A,

A ln A .
(2.9) (2.10) f (A) f ,
A.
.
2.11.4. A

1 k
A2 A3
eA =
A = id +A +
+
+ ....
k!
2
6
k=0
, .
2.11.5. det eA = etr A .
. : A =
CJC 1 . (2.9) (2.10) f (t) = et ,
A

det e = det(Ce C

) = det e =

eri i = e

i=1 ri i

= etr J = etr A .

i=1


ea eb = ea+b , ,
. , .
2.11.6. A, B : V V , .. AB =
BA, eA eB = eA+B .
. :

k
(
1 i )( 1 j ) 1 i j
1
e e =
A
B =
AB =
Ai B ki =
i!
j!
i!j!
i!(k

i)!
i,j>0
j=0
i=0
k>0 i=0
A B

k
1
1
k!
Ai B ki =
(A + B)k = eA+B .
k! i=0 i!(k i!)
k!
k>0
k>0

A B , (A + B)k
.



3.1. , ,
.
.
3.1.1. (A, V ), A, , V k,
+ : A V A,

(P, v ) 7 P + v

P A v V . ( P v
P +v .) ,
:
1) P + 0 = P P A;
2) (P + u) + v = P + (u + v ) P A, u, v V ;
3) P, Q A v V , ,
P + v = Q.
A ( ,
V ). v , P, Q A
3), P Q. 2) , P Q + QR = P R.
. 1)2) ,
A V .
3) , .
, G G. ,
A V .
3.1.2.
1. () . , :
, .
2. Ax = b,
A , x b . A x ,
V y Ay = 0. (A, V )
. , x A y V , A(x+y) = Ax+Ay =
b x + y A.
3. V , A V ;
45

46

3.

V . ,
Rn , An .
3.1.3. ( )
(A, V ) (O, e 1 , . . . , e n ), O A,
, e 1 , . . . , e n V .
P A (O, e 1 , . . . , e n ) x1 , . . . , xn OP e 1 , . . . , e n , ..
OP = x1 e 1 + . . . + xn e n .
3.1.4.
(A, V ) (B, W ), B A
W V , , (B, W )
(A, V ).
, (B, W ) (A, V ),
1) P B w W P + w B;
2) P, Q B P Q W .
3.1.5. (B, W ) An
:
) , .. P B f 1 , . . . , f k
W Rn . P B P =
P + x1 f 1 + . . . + xk f k .
B = P + f 1 , . . . , f k .
) :
B = {x Rn : Ax = b}.
W Ax = 0.
.
.

Ax = b: P ,
f 1 , . . . , f k Ax = 0.

f 1 , . . . , f k Ax = 0; b
Ax = b
P Ax = 0.
3.2. , .
,
3.2.1. R , f : V V R (
(a, b) := f (a, b) ), :

3.2.

47

1) , ..
(1 u 1 + 2 u 2 , v ) = 1 (u 1 , v ) + 2 (u 2 , v )
(u, 1 v 1 + 2 v 2 ) = 1 (u, v 1 ) + 2 (u, v 2 )
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 R u, u 1 , u 2 , v , v 1 , v 2 V ;
2) : (v , u) = (u, v ) u, v V ;
3) : (v , v ) > 0 v V ,
(v , v ) = 0 v = 0.
. , .
3.2.2. C , ( ) f : V V C
( (a, b) := f (a, b) ), :
1) , ..
(1 u 1 + 2 u 2 , v ) = 1 (u 1 , v ) + 2 (u 2 , v )
(u, 1 v 1 + 2 v 2 ) = 1 (u, v 1 ) + 2 (u, v 2 )
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 C u, u 1 , u 2 , v , v 1 , v 2 V ;
2) : (v , u) = (u, v ) u, v V ; , (v , v ) v V .
3) : (v , v ) > 0 v V ,
(v , v ) = 0 v = 0.

. , .
3.2.3. 1. u = (u1 , . . . , un ) v =
(v , . . . , v n ) Rn
1

(3.1)

(u, v ) := u1 v 1 + u2 v 2 + . . . + un v n .

Cn
(3.2)

(u, v ) := u1 v 1 + u2 v 2 + . . . + un v n .

2. MatC (n, n)
n
n

t
(A, B) := Tr(A B) =
aij bij .
i,j=1

MatC (n, n) Cn .
3. C[a, b] ,
[a, b]. f g
b
(f, g) :=
f (x)g(x)dx.
2

48

3.

1) 2) , 3) ,
b
a f 2 (x)dx f 2 (x)
f (x) 0.
,
b
(f, g) := a f (x)g(x)dx.

3.2.4. V . v

V (v , v ) v |v |.
u, v V , ,
. u v .
3.2.5. u
V . v V v = v1 +v2 , v1 u, v2 u.
. . v = v 1 +v 2
. R v 1 = u, v 2 = v u. u v 2
0 = (u, v 2 ) = (u, v u) = (u, v ) (u, u).
= (u, v )/(u, u)
(3.3)

v1 =

(u, v )
u.
(u, u)

v 1 v 2 = v v 1 . ,
v 1 , v 2 = (v v 1 ) u.

3.2.6. (3.3)
v u pru v , v pru v
v u ortu v .

( (u, v ) (u, v ) )

(u, v )(u, v )
|(u, v )|
| pru v | = (pru v , pru v ) =
u,
u =
=
.
(u, u) (u, u)
(u, u)
|u|
3.2.7 ( ).
u, v
|(u, v)| 6 |u| |v|,
, u, v .
. u = 0, . u = 0.
v = v 1 + v 2 , v 1 = pru v v 2 = ortu v . (v 1 , v 2 ) = 0,
|v |2 = (v , v ) = (v 1 + v 2 , v 1 + v 2 ) = (v 1 , v 1 ) + (v 1 , v 2 ) + (v 2 , v 1 ) + (v 2 , v 2 ) = |v 1 |2 + |v 2 |2 .
|v 1 | 6 |v |, v 2 = 0, ..
v u. , |v 1 | = | pru v | = |(u|u,v| )| ,
|v 1 | 6 |v | .


3.3.

49

3.2.8. u, v

(u, v )
(u, v ) := arccos
[0, ].
|u| |v |
, .
3.2.9 ( ). u, v

|u + v| 6 |u| + |v|.
. ,
(u + v , u + v ) 6 (u, u) + (v , v ) + 2|u| |v |.

:
(u, v ) + (v , u) 6 2|u| |v |,
.

3.3. , .
-
3.3.1. v1 , . . . , vk .
.
.
:
k

i v i = 0.
i=1

v j
:
k
k
(
)
0 = v j,
i v i =
i (v j , v i ) = j (v j , v j ),
i=1

i=1

.
v j = 0, , (v j , v j ) = 0, , j = 0. j = 1, . . . , k,


, ki=1 i v i .
3.3.2. e 1 , . . . , e n , .
1, .
3.3.3. a1 , . . . , ak V .
b1 , . . . , bk , i = 1, . . . , k b1 , . . . , bi
a1 , . . . , ai .

50

3.

. k = 1 : b 1 = a 1 .
, i ,
i + 1 . b 1 , . . . , b i ,
a 1 , . . . , a i . , b i+1
b 1 , . . . , b i , b i+1 a 1 , . . . , a i , a i+1 = b 1 , . . . , b i , a i+1 ,
b i+1
b i+1 = a i+1 + 1 b 1 + . . . + i b i .
1 , . . . , i , b i+1
b 1 , . . . , b i .
b j , (b j , b ) = 0 j = ,
0 = (b j , b i+1 ) = (b j , a i+1 ) + j (b j , b j ),
j =
(3.4)

(b j ,a i+1 )
(b j ,b j )

j = 1, . . . , i. b i+1

(b 1 , a i+1 )
(b 2 , a i+1 )
(b i , a i+1 )
b1
b2 . . .
bi =
(b 1 , b 1 )
(b 2 , b 2 )
(b i , b i )
= a i+1 prb 1 a i+1 prb 2 a i+1 . . . prb i a i+1 .

b i+1 = a i+1

b i+1 = 0 ( b 1 . . . , b i , a i+1 ), b i+1


b 1 , . . . , b i , b 1 , . . . , b i , b i+1 = b 1 , . . . , b i , a i+1 = a 1 , . . . , a i , a i+1 .

a 1 . . . , a k b 1 , . . . , b k .
b 1 , . . . , b i = a 1 , . . . , a i i = 1, . . . , k , a 1 . . . , a k
b 1 , . . . , b k .
3.3.4. V
.
. ,
V . b 1 , . . . , b n . , |bb 11 | , . . . , |bb nn |
.

3.3.5. u v u1 , . . . , un
v 1 , . . . , v n V .
(u, v) = u1 v 1 + u2 v 2 + . . . + un v n .
. e 1 , . . . , e n . (u, v ) =
(u e i , v j e j ) = ui v j (e i , e j ) = ui v j ij = u1 v 1 + u2 v 2 + . . . + un v n .

i

3.4. . QR-
3.4.1.
(, )
(, ).
3.4.2. :
) C (, );
t
) C t C = E (, C C = E);

3.4. . QR-

51

) C Rn
(, Cn );
) CC t = E (, CC t = E);
) C Rn
(, Cn ).
. ) ) , t
C t = C 1 (, C = C 1 ). ) )
) ) (3.1) (3.2) Rn Cn .
) ). e 1 , . . . , e n e 1 , . . . , e n C = (cii ) , ..
e i = cii e i . (e i , e j ) = ij (e i , e j ) = i j ,
(3.5)

i j = (e i , e j ) = (cii e i , cjj e j ) = cii cjj (e i , e j ) = cii cjj ij = cii ij cjj .

,
t
t
E = C EC C C = E. .
t
) ). C C = E
, , cii ij cjj = i j . t

e 1 , . . . , e n . C C = E , C
, e 1 , . . . , e n , e i = cii e i .
(3.5) (e i , e j ) = cii ij cjj = i j , ..
e 1 , . . . , e n , C .

3.4.3 (QR-). (, ) A
A = QR,
Q (, ) , R .
. a 1 , . . . , a n Rn ( Cn ), A. ,
b 1 , . . . , b n . C , ..
(b 1 . . . b n ) = (a 1 . . . a n ) C
B = AC, B , b 1 , . . . , b n .
C ( (3.4)).
b i b i = |bb ii | , B = (b 1 , . . . , b n )
. B = AC , C , |b1i | .
Q = B R = C 1 , A = QR.

. QR- A
( R ), A
().

52

3.

3.5. .
.
3.5.1. W V
. W W , , W , ..
W = {v V : (v , w ) = 0 w W }.
, W .
3.5.2. W V V = W W .
. a 1 , . . . , a k W ,
V a k+1 , . . . , a n .
, b 1 , . . . , b k , b k+1 , . . . , b n V , k W , b 1 , . . . , b k = a 1 , . . . , a k = W .
b k+1 , . . . , b n W . ,
v V
v = 1 b 1 + . . . + k b k + k+1 b k+1 + . . . + n b n ,
|
{z
} |
{z
}
W

.. V = W + W .
, . v W W . v W ,
(v , w ) = 0 w W . v W , w
v . (v , v ) = 0, .. v = 0 .

3.5.3. W V
. v V v = v 1 + v 2 ,
v 1 W , v 2 W . v 1
v W prW v , v 2 = v prW v v W
ortW v .
, ortW v = prW v .
3.5.4. W V : W = a1 , . . . , ak . v V W

prW v = 1 a1 + . . . + k ak ,

(a1 , a1 )1 + (a1 , a2 )2 + . . . + (a1 , ak )k = (a1 , v),

(a , a ) + (a , a ) + . . . + (a , a ) = (a , v),
2

(ak , a1 )1 + (ak , a2 )2 + . . . + (ak , ak )k = (ak , v).

. v = prW v + ortW v . ortW v = v


1 a 1 . . . k a k a 1 , . . . , a k . a i ortW v ,
(a i , v 1 a 1 . . . k a k ) = 0,

3.6. .

53

i- .

3.5.5. V .
v V W V v
w W :
(v , W ) := min (v , w ).
w W

(v , W )
v w W , ,
w W .
prW v , .
3.5.6.
:
(v, W ) = (v, prW v).
. w W . =
(v , prW v ), = (v , w ) v 1 = prW v . , 6 .
0 6 , 6 , 6 cos > cos , ..
(3.6)

(v , v 1 )
(v , w )
>
.
|v | |v 1 |
|v | |w |

v = v 1 + v 2 , v 2 = ortW v W . (v , v 1 ) = (v 1 + v 2 , v 1 ) = |v 1 |2
1, w )
(v , w ) = (v 1 + v 2 , w ) = (v 1 , w ). (3.6), |v 1 | > (v|w
,
|
.

3.6. .
.
3.6.1. (A, V ) , V .
P Q (A, V )
P Q:
d(P, Q) := |P Q|.
P (B, W ) P Q B:
d(P, B) := min d(P, Q).
QB

(C, U ) (B, W )
P C Q B:
d(C, B) :=

min

P C, QB

d(P, Q).

54

3.

3.6.2. P
(B, W ) P Q, P
Q B, W :
d(P, B) = | ortW P Q|

Q B.

. ,
ortW P Q Q B. Q B .
P Q = prW P Q + ortW P Q P Q = prW P Q + ortW P Q . ,
P Q = P Q + QQ , QQ W .
P Q = prW P Q + ortW P Q = QQ + P Q = QQ + prW P Q + ortW P Q .
| {z } | {z }
|
{z
} | {z }
W

V = W W
ortW P Q = ortW P Q, .
, Q B |P Q| > | ortW P Q|.
,
|P Q|2 = (P Q, P Q) = (prW P Q + ortW P Q, prW P Q + ortW P Q) =
= (prW P Q, prW P Q)+(ortW P Q, ortW P Q) = | prW P Q|2 +| ortW P Q|2 > | ortW P Q|2 ,
, (prW P Q, ortW P Q) = 0.
, d(P, B) = minQB |P Q| > | ortW P Q|.
, | ortW P Q| , .. |P Q | = | ortW P Q|
Q B. Q P + ortW P Q.
, , |P Q | = | ortW P Q|. C ,
Q = P + ortW P Q = P + P Q prW P Q = Q prW P Q,
Q B prW P Q W , .. Q B.


. :
3.6.3.
(C, U ) (B, W ) P Q, P C Q B,
U + W :
d(C, B) = | ortU +W P Q|

P C, Q B.

. . , ortU +W P Q
P C, Q B. P C, Q B . P Q =
prU +W P Q + ortU +W P Q P Q = prU +W P Q + ortU +W P Q . ,
P Q = P P + P Q + QQ , P P U QQ W .
P Q = prU +W P Q + ortU +W P Q = P P + QQ + prU +W P Q + ortU +W P Q .
{z
} |
{z
}
|
{z
} |
{z
} |
U +W

(U +W )

U +W

(U +W )


ortU +W P Q = ortU +W P Q, .


3.7.

55

, , , P C Q B
|P Q| > | ortU +W P Q|. ,
d(C, B) =

min

P C, QB

|P Q| > | ortU +W P Q|.

, | ortU +W P Q| ,
.. |P Q | = | ortU +W P Q| P C, Q B.
prU +W P Q U + W :
(3.7)

prU +W P Q = u + w ,

u U w W . P = P + u, P (C, U ).
, Q = P + ortU +W P Q. , , |P Q | =
| ortU +W P Q|. C ,
Q = P + ortU +W P Q = P + u + P Q prU +W P Q = Q w ,
Q B w W , .. Q (B, W ).

d(C, B) = 0, P Q , , . , P Q ,
(C, U ) (B, W ) .
, u w (3.7) , .. U W = {0}. ,
3- .
3.7.
3.7.1. a 1 , . . . , a k

(a 1 , a 1 ) (a 1 , a 2 ) . . . (a 1 , a k )
(a 2 , a 1 ) (a 2 , a 2 ) . . . (a 2 , a k )
.
G = G(a 1 , . . . , a k ) =
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.
(a k , a 1 ) (a k , a 2 ) . . . (a k , a k )
G : Gt = G ( G t
, .. G = G.)
a 1 , . . . , a k (. 3.5.4).
3.7.2. G a1 , . . . , ak ,
A = (aij ) , a1 , . . . , ak
.
G = At A.
.
( 3.3.5).


56

3.

3.7.3. P (A, V ) ,
a 1 , . . . , a k V . P , a 1 , . . . , a k ,
A:
(P ; a 1 , . . . , a k ) := {Q A : Q = P + x1 a 1 + . . . + xn a k ,

0 6 xi 6 1}.

3.7.4. k- volk
(P ; a 1 , . . . , a k ) :
1) vol1 (P ; a 1 ) := |a 1 | ;
2) volk (P ; a 1 , . . . , a k ) := volk1 (P ; a 1 , . . . , a k1 ) | orta 1 ,...,a k1 a k |.
(
3- ) ( )
. volk (P ; a 1 , . . . , a k ) , P ; volk (a 1 , . . . , a k ).
3.7.5. :
(
)2
volk (a1 , . . . , ak ) = det G(a1 , . . . , ak ).
, volk (a1 , . . . , ak ) .
. k. k = 1, , |a 1 |2 = (a 1 , a 1 ).
volk1 , volk . a k = pra 1 ,...,a k1 a k +orta 1 ,...,a k1 a k , pra 1 ,...,a k1 a k = 1 a 1 +. . .+k1 a k1 ,
b = orta 1 ,...,a k1 a k . (a i , b) = 0 i = 1, . . . , k 1 (a k , b) =
(b, b).



(a 1 , a 1 ) . . . (a 1 , a k ) (a 1 , a 1 ) . . . (a 1 , a k1 ) (a 1 , 1 a 1 + . . . + k1 a k1 + b)






..
..
..
..
..
..
..
det G =
=


=
.
.
.
.
.
.
.



(a k , a 1 ) . . . (a k , a k ) (a k , a 1 ) . . . (a k , a k1 ) (a k , 1 a 1 + . . . + k1 a k1 + b)




(a 1 , a 1 ) . . . (a 1 , a k1 ) (a 1 , a 1 )
(a 1 , a 1 ) . . . (a 1 , a k1 ) (a 1 , a k1 )








..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
= 1
+ . . . + k1
+
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.




(a k , a 1 ) . . . (a k , a k1 ) (a k , a 1 )
(a k , a 1 ) . . . (a k , a k1 ) (a k , a k1 )



(a 1 , a 1 )
...
(a 1 , a k1 )
(a 1 , b) (a 1 , a 1 )
...
(a 1 , a k1 )
0



..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. =
+
=
(a k1 , a 1 ) . . . (a k1 , a k1 ) (a k1 , b) (a k1 , a 1 ) . . . (a k1 , a k1 )
0


(a k , a 1 )


...
(a k , a k1 )
(a k , b)
(a k , a 1 )
...
(a k , a k1 )
(b, b)


(a 1 , a 1 )
...
(a 1 , a k1 )

(
)2
(
)2


..
..
..
=
(b, b) = volk1 (a 1 , . . . , a k1 ) |b|2 = volk (a 1 , . . . , a k ) .
.
.
.


(a k1 , a 1 ) . . . (a k1 , a k1 )


3.7.6. a1 , . . . , ak ,
det G(a1 , . . . , ak ) = 0.
. , , a 1 , . . . , a k . , a k a 1 , . . . , a k1 .

3.8.

57

orta 1 ,...,a k1 a k = 0 , ,
(
)2 (
)2
det G = volk (a 1 , . . . , a k ) = volk1 (a 1 , . . . , a k1 ) | orta 1 ,...,a k1 a k |2 = 0.
, det G = (volk (a 1 , . . . , a k ))2 = 0. ,
, voli (a 1 , . . . , a i ) = 0, voli1 (a 1 , . . . , a i1 ) = 0
i. voli (a 1 , . . . , a i ) = voli1 (a 1 , . . . , a i1 ) orta 1 ,...,a i1 a i ,
, orta 1 ,...,a i1 a i = 0, .. a i a 1 , . . . , a i1 . 
3.7.7. dim V = n A = (aij ) a1 , . . . , an .
voln (a1 , . . . , an ) = | det A|.
. 3.7.2
(
)2
voln (a 1 , . . . , a n ) = det G = det(At A) = (det A)2 .

3.8.
-
, . , , b
a1 , . . . , an ,
b = a1 x1 + . . . + an xn ,
.. x1 , . . . , xn (
). b a1 , . . . , an m
( m n),

1 1
1 n
1

a1 x + . . . + an x = b

(3.8)

m 1
n
m
a1 x + . . . + am
nx = b
. , ,
. x1 , . . . , xn ,
bi aij xj = ai1 x1 + . . . + ain xn .
,
ai1 x1 + . . . + ain xn bi .
3.8.1. (3.8) x1 , . . . , xn ,
, ..
(3.9)

(a1j xj b1 )2 + (a2j xj b2 )2 + . . . + (ajm xj bm )2

(x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn . .
A = (aij ) (3.8), a 1 , . . . , a n Rm -
, b Rm .

58

3.

3.8.2. (3.8)

1
n

(a1 , a1 )x + . . . + (a1 , an )x = (a1 , b),

1
n
(an , a1 )x + . . . + (an , an )x = (an , b).
, pra1 ,...,an b a1 , . . . , an ,
orta1 ,...,an b.
. (3.9) x1 , . . . , xn
a j xj b, .. b a j xj a 1 , . . . , a n Am . 3.6.2,
b a j xj a 1 , . . . , a n ,
a j xj b a 1 , . . . , a n .
( 3.5.4), a | orta 1 ,...,a n b|.

, b a1 , . . . , an . , b = x0 + a1 x1 + . . . + an xn x0 , x1 , . . . , xn .
, b a
n- b = x0 + ax1 + a2 x2 + . . . + an xn x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ,
.
3.9. .

3.9.1. V W , A : V
W , , ..
(
)
Au, Av = (u, v )
u, v V.
3.9.2. V W , .
. V W () , , dim V = dim W .
( 1.7.3):
() n e 1 , . . . , e n V f 1 , . . . , f n W .
, A : V W
, .
f i = Ae i (e i , e j ) = (f i , f j ) = ij .
u = ui e i v = v j e j V
n

ui v i = (u, v ),
(Au, Av ) = ui v j (Ae i , Ae j ) = ui v j (f i , f j ) = ui v j ij =
i=1

3.9.

.. A .

59

V V ( ), .
. ,
V V , ..
.
V . u V u = (u, ), u (v ) = (u, v ).
3.9.3. V . u 7 u =
(u, ) A : V V .
. u 7 u
. dim V = dim V ,
, A : V V , , ker A = {0}.
v ker A, .. Av = v = o. , v (w ) = (v , w ) = 0
w V . (v , v ) = 0, v = 0 A .

V V V , u 7 (u, ), V ( , v := v ).

V .


4.1.
A : V V V . 1.11 A : V V
(A )(v ) := (Av )

V , v V.

V V , u u = (u, ) A : V V
A : V V , (
A ), Au = A u
u V . A : V V A : V V ,
Au A u v V :
Au (v ) = (A u, v ),

(A u )(v ) = u (Av ) = (u, Av ).

Au = A u , (A u, v ) = (u, Av ) u, v V .
4.1.1. A : V V
V . A : V V ,
(A u, v ) = (u, Av )
u, v V , A.
(A u, v ) = (u, Av ) A . , (A u, v ) = (u, Av ) A : V V ,
((A A )u, v ) = 0 u, v V . , ((A A )u, (A A )u) = 0,
.. (A A )u = 0 u V . , A = A .
4.1.2. A A : V V () V . t
A : V V At (, A ).
. 1.11.2 (
), . e 1 , . . . , e n , A = (aij ) A : V V ,
e = (e
A
aij ) A : V V .
(Ae j , e k ) = (aij e i , e k ) = aij (e i , e k ) = aij ik = akj ,
ajk .
aik ji = e
aik (e j , e i ) = e
(e j , A e k ) = (e j , e
aik e i ) = e
t
e
(Ae j , e k ) = (e j , A e k ), akj = e
ajk A = A.

4.1.3. :
) (A + B) = A + B , (A) = A ;
61

62

4.

) (AB) = B A .
. ,
4.1.2.

, .
4.1.4. W V A,
W A .
. u W . w W (A u, w ) =
(u, Aw ) = 0 Aw W , u W . , A u W .

4.2. .
4.2.1. A : V V , A = A, ..
(Au, v ) = (u, Av )
u, v V .
4.2.2. A A () (),
t
.. At = A (, A = A).
A (), A .
. 4.1.2:
t
t
A A A = A, A = A.
. e 1 , . . . , e n ,
t
A A , .. A = A. 4.1.2
t
, A A A. ,
A = A A .


, .
.
4.2.3. . , .
, .
4.2.4.
A .
. .
A. C v = 0 ,
.. Av = v .
(v , v ) = (v , v ) = (Av , v ) = (v , Av ) = (v , v ) = (v , v ).


4.2.
.

63

(v , v ) = 0, = , .. R.
. A A V . A . A AC
VC . , A, , .
, AC , A.

4.2.3. V . dim V = 1 . ,
n 1 V n.
A v , .. W = v .
4.1.4 W
A = A. dim W = n 1, W
e 1 , . . . , e n1 A|W . e 1 , . . . , e n1 , |vv |
A.

, A
, , .
.
4.2.5. , A, .
. Au = u Av = v , =
.
(u, v ) = (u, v ) = (Au, v ) = (u, Av ) = (u, v ) = (u, v ),
(u, v ) = 0, = .

A
, . A.
, 4.2.3:
4.2.6. A , A .
. , , ,
4.2.2.

, , , (
). .

64

4.

4.3. .

V V = U W .
(. 2.2), P : V V , v = u + w u ( u U ,
w W ), U W . Im P = U Ker P = W .
4.3.1. P : V V U W , W = U . prU .
: V = U U ,
v V v = prU v + ortU v .
4.3.2. P : V V , .
. P = prU . U V .
prU (
), prU .
P U W . u U = Im P w W = Ker P. u = Pv
v V Pw = 0.
(u, w ) = (Pv , w ) = (v , Pw ) = 0,
W = U P = prU .

4.3.3. u = (u1 , . . . , un )t Rn -
U = u . pru = prU
Rn
)
1 ( 1 2
1 1

u
u u u1 u2 u1 un
u u un
u2
u2 u1 u2 u2 u2 un
1
1
1
t
.
.
uu
=
=
..
..
...
|u|2
|u|2 ..
|u|2 ..
.
.
un
un u1 un u2 un un
, A .
prV V .
4.3.4 ( ). A .

A=
prV ,

. prV
prV A = A prV = prV prV prV = O = .
. prV A = A prV = prV prV prV = O
= ,
A (

). V =
V

4.4.

65

id =
prV .

A A prV = prV ,
.

4.4. . .

4.4.1. A : V V () (, ),
A = A, ..
(Au, v ) = (u, Av )
u, v V .
4.4.2. A () A () t
(), .. At = A (, A = A).
A (), A ().
. , ( 4.2.2).

4.4.3. A , . , , .
. , , 4.1.4. V .
dim V = 1 . ,
n 1 n.
v A, .. W = v . 4.1.4 W
A , A = A .
dim W = n 1, W
e 1 , . . . , e n1 A|W . e 1 , . . . , e n1 , |vv | A.
D A t
. A = A, D = D. , D ( )

= , .. .
, ,
( )
0 a
. , ,

a 0
a .

66

4.

4.4.4. A , -
(
)
0 a
1 2, 1 , 2

a 0
a R.
. 1 2 ,
. ,
n 1
V n ( n > 3).
2.6.3 ) A 1- 2- W V . ,
4.1.4 , W .
, W
A|W . W W W , V ,
A
1 2 A|W . 1 2, .. .

, A , ,
, .
, A , iA .
4.4.3 4.2.3.
4.4.5 ( ). A

A = R + iI,
R I .
. . A = R + iI , A = R iI = R iI.
1
i
R = (A + A),
I = (A A),
2
2
.. R I .
, R I, , (), .

C , R I
.
4.5. . .
On SOn , Un SUn
4.5.1. A : V V :
) A , .. |Av| = |v| v V ;

4.5. .

67

) A , .. (Au, Av) = (u, v)


u, v V ;
) A ,
.. e1 , . . . , en , Ae1 , . . . , Aen
;
) A A (t
), .. At A = E (, A A = E);
) A A = id, .. A .
. ) ) ) ) ) ) ).
) ). (u + v , u + v ) = (u, u)+ 2(u, v )+ (v , v ),

)
1(
(u, v ) = (u + v , u + v ) (u, u) (v , v ) .
2
, A , .. (v , v ),
.
(u + v , u + v ) = (u, u) + (u, v ) + (u, v ) + (v , v ) =
(u, u) + 2 Re(u, v ) + (v , v ),
)
1(
Re(u, v ) = (u + v , u + v ) (u, u) (v , v )
2

)
1(
Im(u, v ) = (u + iv , u + iv ) (u, u) (v , v ) .
2
, A , (u, v ), .
) ). .
) ). (Au, Av ) = (u, v ). e 1 , . . . , e n
, (Ae i , Ae j ) = (e i , e j ) = ij , .. Ae 1 , . . . , Ae n .
) ). A e 1 , . . . , e n Ae 1 , . . . , Ae n A = (aij ) e 1 , . . . ,e n .
ij = (Ae i , Ae j ) = (aki e k , aj e ) = aki aj (e k , e ) = aki aj k = aki k aj .
t

E = A EA A A = E.
) ). 4.1.2.
) ). A A = id. (Au, Av ) = (A Au, v ) = (u, v ), .. A
.

4.5.2. A : V V () , 4.5.1, (, ).
.
,

.
4.5.3. A : V V ,
W V . W
A.

68

4.

. u W . , Au W , ..,
(Au, w ) = 0 w W . , A(W ) W . A
o, A(W ) = W . v W , w = Av ,
(Au, w ) = (Au, Av ) = (u, v ) = 0.

4.5.4. () A
.
. , Av = v v = 0.
(v , v ) = (Av , Av ) = (v , v ) = (v , v ) = ||2 (v , v ),
||2 = 1.

4.5.5. A
, ,
.
. 4.2.3 4.4.3
. , v v
4.5.3.

4.5.6. A , - 1 2,

)
1 (1) (1), 2
(
cos sin
, = k k.
sin cos
. 1
(1)
2
( (1).
)
(
)
cos sin
cos sin

( 1)
sin cos
sin cos
( 1). (
).
2 . :
(cos 2 , sin 2 ) ( ) ( sin 2 , cos 2 ) (, ).
)

(
( )
cos sin
1 0


.
sin cos
0 1
, 4.4.4 . , n 1
V n ( n > 3).
2.6.3 ) A 1- 2- W V . 4.5.3 ,
W .
, W
A|W . W , , W
W , V .


4.5. .

69

, 4.5.5 4.5.6, ,
.
4.5.7. 1.
,
(
)
( )
cos sin
1 0


.
sin cos
0 1
, .
(
)
cos sin
2.

sin cos
.
( i
) , e
0
,
.
0 ei
3.

cos sin 0
sin cos
0
0
0
1
1 1 . (, (1) (1), = k.) ,
( ). , , ..
, .
, , , (
).
4. . , 2:

cos sin
0
0
sin cos
0
0

0
0
cos sin
0
0
sin cos
:

. .
, V GL (V ). O(V ). dim V = n, O(V )
n; On .
, V , U (V ). dim V = n, U (V ) n; Un .

70

4.

, () 1 On (, Un ). (, )
SOn (, SUn ).
4.6. .
4.6.1. A , (Av , v ) > 0 v V .
4.6.2. A
, .
. (Av , v ) > 0 v = 0. v . (v , v ) = (Av , v ) > 0, > 0.
, i . e 1 , . . . , e n
1 , . . . , n . v = v i e i
n

(
)
i
j
i j
(Av , v ) = A(v e i ), v e j = v v (Ae i , e j ) =
i |v i |2 > 0.

i=1

4.6.3. A P, P 2 = A.
. e 1 , . . . , e n A,
1 , . . . , n .
P

1 , . . . , n . , , P 2 = A. , P ( )
4.6.2.

P, , ,

A A.
A , (Av , v ) > 0
v V .
.
4.6.4 ( ).
A
A = PU,
P , U () .
. A = PU, A = U P AA = PUU P = P2 . ,
AA , P = AA .
AA :
(AA v , v ) = (A v , A v ) > 0,

v = 0, A v = 0 A. P = AA
U = P 1 A. UU = P 1 AA P 1 = P 1 P 2 P 1 = id. , U
() A = PU.


4.7.

71

, A A,

A = U P ( P = A A).
. (), .
A A = PU,
P , U
(). .
C , ,
1, .. ei .
z : z = ei , .
4.7.
4.7.1. A , , .. A A = AA .
, ( ) .
4.7.2. v A . v A , .
. A ,
(Av , Av ) = (A Av , v ) = (AA v , v ) = (A v , A v ),
.. |Av | = |A v | v . A
A id, ,
|(A id)v | = |(A id)v |
. , (A id)v = 0, (A id)v = 0.

, :
4.7.3. , .
. A 1 , . . . , n . A 1 , . . . , n .
, A A = AA , .. A .
, A A = AA . V .
dim V = 1 . , n 1 n.
v A, ..
W = v . ,
W A. u W , .. (u, v ) = 0.
(Au, v ) = (u, A v ) = (u, v ) = (u, v ) = 0

72

4.

( 4.7.2). , Au W
W A.
, W A
4.1.4. W A
A , A|W . dim W = n 1,
W e 1 , . . . , e n1 A|W . e 1 , . . . , e n1 , |vv |
A.

:
(
)
a b
, b = 0.
b a
4.2, ,
, .
. ,
,
(
)
a b
1 2, 2
().
b a

( ):

( -
. )

A = A
At = A

()
()
(
)
0 a

t
A = A
A = A
(0)
a 0

(.)
(
)
cos sin

A A = id
AA=E
(1)
sin cos
()
(
)
a b

t
t

A A = AA
A A = AA
(a)
b a
A = A
()

A = A

A A = id

A A = AA

A =A
()
t
A = A
()
t
AA=E
()
t
t
A A = AA



, 1


5.1. , .
.
Hom(V, V )
5.1.1. V k.
B : V V k ,
:
B(1 x 1 + 2 x 2 , y ) = 1 B(x 1 , y ) + 2 B(x 2 , y )
B(x , 1 y 1 + 2 y 2 ) = 1 B(x , y 1 ) + 2 B(x , y 2 )
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 k x , x 1 , x 2 , y , y 1 , y 2 V .
B e 1 , . . . , e n V
B = (bij ) n, bij = B(e i , e j ).
5.1.2. . ,
( V V R , .. ).
.
B = (bij ) ,
B(x , y ) x = xi e i y = y j e j :
B(x , y ) = B(xi e i , y j e j ) = xi y j B(e i , e j ) = bij xi y j = xt By.
B(x, y) = bij xi y j = xt By (,
, , x = (x1 , . . . , xn )t n, xt
n).
2 x1 , . . . , xn y 1 , . . . , y n , x
y y x.
5.1.3 ( ).

B = C t BC,
B B : V V k e1 , . . . , en , B
e1 , . . . , en C e1 , . . . , en
e1 , . . . , en .
. B = (bij ), B = (bij ), C = (cii ).
bij = B(e i , e j ) = B(cii e i , cjj e j ) = cii cjj B(e i , e j ) = cii bij cjj ,
B = C t BC.
73

74

5.

,
. B(x , y )
:
B(x , y ) = B(x, y) = B(x , y ).
x = Cx y = Cy .
(x )t B y = B(x , y ) = B(x, y) = xt By = (x )t C t BCy .
x , y , B = C t BC.

5.1.4. .
. C , rk B = rk(C t BC) = rk B.

5.1.5. B ( rk B) . B
V , rk B = dim V .
B(V ) V
. B B
e 1 , . . . , e n B(V ) Matk (n). Hom(V, V ), , .
B(V ) Hom(V, V )
V V .
5.1.6. : B(V ) Hom(V, V ), B Be : V V ,
e
B(x)
= B(x, ) x V,
. ( B(x, ) V ,
y V B(x, y).)
. , x . , :
1 Be : V V e )(y ). ,
B, B(x , y ) = B(x
. , .

V :
5.1.7. V C.
S : V V C ,
( ) :
S(1 x 1 + 2 x 2 , y ) = 1 S(x 1 , y ) + 2 S(x 2 , y )
S(x , 1 y 1 + 2 y 2 ) = 1 S(x , y 1 ) + 2 S(x , y 2 )
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 C x , x 1 , x 2 , y , y 1 , y 2 V .
S e 1 , . . . , e n S =
(sij ), sij = S(e i , e j ).

5.2. ,

75

S(x , y ) S = (sij )
x = xi e i y = y j e j :
S(x , y ) = S(xi e i , y j e j ) = xi y j S(e i , e j ) = sij xi y j = xt Sy.
S(x, y) = sij xi y j = xt Sy .
.
S S S t
S = C SC,
. ,
.
5.2. , .
.
5.2.1. B : V V k , B(y , x ) = B(x , y ), , B(y , x ) = B(x , y ),
x , y V .
S : V V C , S(y , x ) = S(x , y ), , S(y , x ) = S(x , y ).
()
(, ). () (,
). , S
, iS .
, k 2.
5.2.2. k n x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), ..
1

i j

Q(x) = Q(x , . . . , x ) = qij x x =

i=1

qii (xi )2 +

2qij xi xj ,

i<j

qji = qij k. Q = (qij ) n n .


B(x, y) = bij xi y j , B(x, x) = bij xi xj
B. ,
B(x, x) B(x, y),
B(x , y ).
:
)
1(
B(x , y ) = B(x + y , x + y ) B(x , x ) B(y , y ) ,
2
.. B , B . V k, x 7 B(x , x )
.
5.2.3. B , 2, , .

76

5.

, Q(x) x = Cy
Q(y) = r11 (y 1 )2 + . . . + rnn (y n )2 .
.
, .
, , .
( ). Q(x) = qij xi xj . Q(x),
.
, Q(x) =
qij xi xj q11 .

Q(x1 , . . . , xn ) = q11 (x1 )2 + 2q12 x1 x2 + . . . + 2q1n x1 xn +


qij xi xj =
(
= q11

i,j>1

(q
q12 2
q1n n )2
q1n n )2
12 2
1
x +
x + ... +
x
x + ... +
x
q11
+
qij xi xj =
q11
q11
q11
q11
i,j>1
)
(
2
q1n n
q12 2
x + ... +
x
+ Q (x2 , . . . , xn ),
= q11 x1 +
q11
q11

Q (x2 , . . . , xn ) n 1 .

q12 2
q1n n
u1 = x1 +
x + ... +
x ,
q11
q11
u2 = x2 , . . . , un = xn .
Q(x)
Q(u1 , . . . , un ) = q11 (u1 )2 + Q (u2 , . . . , un ).

Q (u2 , . . . , un ) (.. q22


) ,
, ..
, q11 = 0, qii = 0. u1 = xi , ui = x1 ,

= 0.
. q11
,
qii ,
( Q(x) 0 ). qij = 0, i < j.

xi = ui ,

xj = ui + uj ,

xk = uk ,

k = i, j.

Q(x)
Q(x) = 2qij xi xj + . . . = 2qij ui (ui + uj ) + . . . = 2qij (ui )2 + . . . ,
. . . , .
.

5.2. ,

77

( ) , Q(x) .

( ). . , B
, B. .
B = (bij ) B e 1 , . . . , e n .
, b11 = B(e 1 , e 1 ) = 0 ( ,
B , ..
). :
e 1 = e 1 ,
e 2 = e 2
(5.1)

B(e 1 , e 2 )
b12
e1 = e2
e 1,
B(e 1 , e 1 )
b11

e n = e n

b1n
B(e 1 , e n )
e1 = en
e 1.
B(e 1 , e 1 )
b11

B(e 1 , e i ) = 0 i > 1. , B
B

b11 0 0

.
B =
e

..
B
0
e (n1)(n1) B
B
e.
e 2 , . . . , e n . B
, b11 = 0,
bii = 0. , 1- i- .
, bii ,
B , .. bij =
B(e i , e j ) = 0 i < j.
e i = e i + e j ,

e j = e j ,

e k = e k

k = i, j.


bii = B(e i , e i ) = B(e i + e j , e i + e j ) = 2B(e i , e j ) = 2bij = 0.
.
, f 1 , . . . , f n ,
B .

, ,
, . , , , .

78

5.

. ( ) ,
, , (
). ,
.
5.2.4. Z2
(
)
0 1
().
1 0
R :
5.2.5. B R , 1, 1 0 . ,
Q(x) x = Cy
(y 1 )2 + . . . + (y p )2 (y p+1 )2 . . . (y p+q )2 .
. 5.2.3
Q(u) = r11 (u1 )2 + . . . + rnn (un )2 .

rii > 0, y i = rii ui rii (ui )2 (y i )2 .


rii < 0, y i = |rii |ui rii (ui )2 (y i )2 .
1, 1 0.

, 5.2.5, ( ).
, , R.
C :
5.2.6. B
C , 1 0
. , Q(x)
x = Cz
(z 1 )2 + . . . + (z r )2 .
. 5.2.5 (y 1 )2 + . . . + (y p )2 (y p+1 )2 . . . (y p+q )2 .
y k = z k k 6 p y k = iz k k > p.
, r = p + q = rk Q.

, 5.2.6, ( ).

5.3.

79

5.3.
B ( , 2).
B(x, y) = bij xi y j , bji = bij ,

bij (xi y j xj y i ).
B(x, y) =
i<j

5.3.1. B , -
(
) 1
0 1
2, 1 , 2
.
1 0
, B(x, y) x = Cy
(x1 y 2 x2 y 1 ) + (x3 y 4 x4 y 3 ) + . . . + (x2k1 y 2k x2k y 2k1 ).
. V .
dim V = 1 , .
dim V = 2.

(
)
0 b
e 1 , e 2
, b = b12 = B(e 1 , e 2 ). b = 0 (
b 0
). e 1 = e 1 e 2 = 1b e 2
1
1
b12 = B(e 1 , e 2 ) = B(e 1 , e 2 ) = B(e 1 , e 2 ) = 1,
b
b
(
)
0 1
..
.
1 0
, n, n. , B
( ). b12 = B(e 1 , e 2 ) = 0
e 1 , . . . , e n . ,
e 1 , . . . , e n
(5.2)

B(e 1 , e 2 ) = 1,

B(e 1 , e i ) = B(e 2 , e i ) = 0 i > 3.


e 1 = e 1 ,

e 2 = ce 2 ,

e i = e i + c1i e 1 + c2i e 2

(5.2), c =

1
b12

i > 3.

0 = B(e 1 , e i ) = B(e 1 , e i + c1i e 1 + c2i e 2 ) = b1i + c2i b12 ,


1i
c2i = bb12
. ,

0 = B(e 2 , e i ) = B(ce 2 , e i + c1i e 1 + c2i e 2 ) = c(b2i c1i b12 ),


c1i =

b2i
.
b12

e 1 = e 1 ,

e 2 =

1
e 2,
b12

e i = e i +

b2i
b1i
e1
e2
b12
b12

i > 3.

80

5.

(5.2), B

0 1
0 0
1 0
0 0

B =
0. 0.

e
.. ..

B
0 0
e B e 3 , . . . , e n .
B
n 2, e 3 , . . . , e n . e 1 , e 2 , e 3 , . . . , e n
V B . 
, 5.3.1, .
5.3.2.
) ;
) .
.
5.3.3. S , 1, 1 0 .
. 5.2.3
: . .
S = (sij ) S .
,
sii = S(e i , e i ) . s11 = 0.
(5.1), (
bij sij B S ).
, s11 = 0, sii = 0, 1- i- .
, sii = S(e i , e i ) .
s12 = S(e 1 , e 2 ) = 0. : Re s12 = 0 Re s12 = 0.
,
:
e 1 = e 1 + e 2 , e 2 = e 2 , . . . , e n = e n .

s11 = S(e 1 , e 1 ) = S(e 1 + e 2 , e 1 + e 2 ) = S(e 1 , e 2 ) + S(e 2 , e 1 ) = 2 Re s12 = 0.
.
Re s12 = 0, Im s12 = 0 ( s12 = 0 ).

e 1 = e 1 + ie 2 ,

e 2 = e 2 ,

...,

e n = e n .

5.4. .

81


s11 = S(e 1 , e 1 ) = S(e 1 + ie 2 , e 1 + ie 2 ) = iS(e 1 , e 2 ) iS(e 2 , e 1 ) = 2 Im s12 = 0,
.
, f 1 , . . . , f n ,
S . S(f i , f i ) =
rii . .
, .

,
,
x1 y 1 + . . . + xp y p xp+1 y p+1 . . . xp+q y p+q .
.
5.4. .
C
, :
5.4.1.
( )
, .
, ( ) , :
5.4.2.
,
.

:
, 1 1 .
,
:
5.4.3 ( ). 1, 1 0 B
.
, Q(x) x = Cy
(y 1 )2 + . . . + (y p )2 (y p+1 )2 . . . (y p+q )2 ,
x = Cz

(z 1 )2 + . . . + (z p )2 (z p +1 )2 . . . (z p +q )2 ,
p = p q = q .

82

5.

. (x1 , . . . , xn ) e 1 , . . . , e n
V , (y 1 , . . . , y n ) f 1 , . . . , f n , (z 1 , . . . , z n ) g 1 , . . . , g n .
U+ = f 1 , . . . , f p ,

U = f p+1 , . . . , f p+q ,

U0 = f p+q+1 , . . . , f n ,

W+ = g 1 , . . . , g p ,

W = g p +1 , . . . , g p +q ,

W0 = g p +q +1 , . . . , g n .

x U+ x = y 1 f 1 +. . .+y p f p B(x , x ) =
(y 1 )2 + . . . + (y p )2 > 0. , x U U0 , B(x , x ) 6 0.
x W+ B(x , x ) > 0, x W W0 B(x , x ) 6 0.
, p > p .
dim U+ + dim(W W0 ) = p + (n p ) > n = dim V,
, U+ (W W0 ) = {0}. x .
x U+ , B(x , x ) > 0. , x W W0 ,
B(x , x ) 6 0. .
, p = p . , p + q = p + q = rk B, q = q .

,
:
5.4.4. 1, 1 0 .
5.4.5. pq ( ).
5.4.3 , , , ( ), .. .
5.4.6.
, .
:

.
5.5. .
( )
.
, k ( ), k k .
5.5.1 (). , Q
r = rk Q.
,
|Qr | r 2
|Q2 | 2 2
(x ) + . . . +
(x ) ,
|Q1 |(x1 )2 +
|Q1 |
|Qr1 |

5.5. .

83

|Qi | i.
. ,
,
.
5.5.2. Q(x)
, Q
r = rk Q.
. r .
q11 = |Q1 | 1, .
, .
, k-

0
q11
...

qkk
(5.3)
Q = 0

qk+1,k+1
...

..
..
.
0
.
,

q1n
1 qq12

q11
11
0
1

C = .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0

1
(. (5.1)). Qk Qk = Ckt Qk Ck , Ck
C. det Ck = 1, |Qk | = |Qk |, ..
.

(5.3), |Qk+1 | = |Qk+1 | = q11


qkk
qk+1,k+1
=

0 k < r . , qk+1,k+1
= 0,
.
r- (5.3), k = r . ,
, .
, ..

, . . . , qrr
q11
. ,

qkk
= 0 k 6 r.

, |Qk | = |Qk | = q11
. ,

(ur )2
(u1 )2 + . . . + qrr
q11

84

5.

. |Qk | = |Qk | =

k|
q11
qkk
k 6 r, .. qkk
= |Q|Qk1
, .

|
5.5.3. B , B(x , x ) > 0 x = 0. Q(x) Q(x) > 0 x = 0
.
V , .. V .
5.5.4 ( ).
( ) ,
.
. |Qk | Q(x) .

k|
= |Q|Qk1
> 0.
Q(u) = q11
(u1 )2 + . . . + qnn
(un )2 , n = rk Q = dim V , qkk
|
, Q(u) > 0 u = 0.
, Q(x) . qii = B(e i , e i ) > 0, . ,

Q(u) = q11
(u1 )2 + . . . + qnn
(un )2 , qii > 0. ,

|Qk | = |Qk | = q11 qkk > 0 k.



5.6. .

V . 3.9.3,
x 7 x = (x , ) V V V
V . Hom(V, V ) Hom(V, V ). , Hom(V, V )
End(V ) , 5.1.6, Hom(V, V )
B(V ). , ,
, :
5.6.1. V . A 7
BA = (A , ) : End(V ) B(V ) . BA = (A , )
, BA (x, y) = (Ax, y).
. End(V ) B(V ) n2 , . (A) = 0,
.. BA . (Ax , y ) = 0 x , y . , (Ax , Ax ) = 0 x , .. Ax = 0 A = O .

: . :

5.7.

85

5.6.2. , . ,
.
. B
A , .. B = BA . B(x , y ) = B(y , x )
(Ax , y ) = (Ay , x ) = (x , Ay ), .. A .
e 1 , . . . , e n A, .. Ae i = i e i .
B = (bij ) B
bij = B(e i , e j ) = (Ae i , e j ) = (i e i , e j ) = i ij ,
.. B ( A).

. , . B
. C B B = C t BC.
C ,
B = C 1 BC. . B ,
.

,
( ) , .
5.6.3.
( ) . .
. Q . Q, ..
det(Q tE) = 0.
Q = C t QC det(Q tE) = 0.
det(Q tE) = det(C t QCtC t C) = det(C t (QtE)C) = det(C t C) det(QtE) =
det(Q tE), Q Q .

, .
5.7. .

5.6.2
, :
5.7.1. Q(x) B(x), Q(x) .
x = Cy, Q(x) (y 1 )2 + . . . + (y n )2 ,
B(x) 1 (y 1 )2 + . . . + n (y n )2 .

86

5.

.
, Q(x), V .
Q. ( Q(x)) . 5.6.2, , B(x) . 
, C
: C t C = E C t QC = E. , C Rn Q.
5.7.1
, : C , Q , .. (C )t QC = E, B
B = (C )t BC ; C , B () , .. (C )t B C = D ;
C = C C C t QC = E C t BC = D.
, , .
:
5.7.2. Q(x) B(x), Q(x) . det(B tQ) = 0
Q(x) B(x).
Q(x) B(x). y, (B Q)y = 0,
, .
5.7.3. , x = Cy Q(x) (y 1 )2 + . . . + (y n )2 ,
B(x) 1 (y 1 )2 + . . . + n (y n )2 . 1 , . . . , n Q(x) B(x), C
, , Q(x).
. C t QC = E, C t BC = D, D
1 , . . . , n . i D i E
, ,
0 = det(D i E) = det(C t BC i C t QC) = det(C t (B i Q)C) = det(C)2 det(B i Q).
C , , det(B i Q) = 0, .. i
.
ci i- C. C t (B i Q)C = D i E
, i- C t (B i Q)C , .. C t (B i Q)ci = 0.
C , , (B i Q)ci = 0, .. ci
, i .
, C t QC = E , C
Q.


, : , ( ), , .
: c ( ) ( ). .
6.1.
V k (
k = R C) V . v V , ,
, V .
6.1.1. (p, q)

T: V
. . V } V
. . V} k
| .{z
| .{z
p

p q , ,
..

T ( 1 , . . . , j + j , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) =

= T ( 1 , . . . , j , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) + T (, 1 , . . . , j , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ).
T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v i + v i , . . . , v q ) =
= T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v i , . . . , v q ) + T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v i , . . . , v q ),
(p, q) ,

(T + S)( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) = T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) + S( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ).
Ppq (V ).
6.1.2. () (0, 1), (0, 2).
(V )
= V (1, 0): v v () := (v ).
,
:
6.1.3. A
TA (1, 1), TA (, v) := (A(v)),

=
End(V ) P11 (V ).
87

88

6.

. , End(V )
P11 (V ) . dim V = n. P11 (V ) n2
,
(. 6.4). End(V ) P11 (V ) ,
, End(V ) P11 (V ) . TA
, .. (A(v )) = 0 v V
V . , A(v ),
.. A(v ) = 0. v , A = O.
A 7 TA , .

6.2. :
e 1 , . . . , e n V . V 1 , . . . , n , i (e j ) = ji . T Ppq (V ) :
(6.1) T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) = T (i11 i1 , . . . , ipp ip , v1j1 e j1 , . . . , vqjq e jq )
= i11 ipp v1j1 vqjq T (i1 , . . . , ip , e j1 , . . . , e jq ).
T Ppq (V ) e 1 , . . . , e n np+q
i ,...,i
T = {Tj11,...,jqp },
i ,...,i

Tj11,...,jqp := T (i1 , . . . , ip , e j1 , . . . , e jq ).

(6.2)

, . C = (cii )
e 1 , . . . , e n e 1 , . . . , e n . e j =

cjj e j , i = cii i
i ,...,i

Tj 1,...,jqp = T (i1 , . . . , ip , e j1 , . . . , e jq ) = T (ci11 i1 , . . . , cipp ip , cjj1 e j1 , . . . , cjqq e jq ) =


1

i ,...,i

= ci11 cipp cjj1 cjqq T (i1 , . . . , ip , e j1 , . . . , e jq ) = ci11 cipp cjj1 cjqq Tj11,...,jqp .
1

6.2.1. (p, q)
V

i ,...,i

np+q T = {Tj11,...,jqp },
i ,...,i

T = {Tj11,...,jqp } T = {Tj 1,...,jqp },


1
e 1 , . . . , e n e 1 , . . . , e n ,
i ,...,i

i ,...,i

i ,...,i

Tj 1,...,jqp = ci11 cipp cjj1 cjqq Tj11,...,jqp .


1

i ,...,i

. Tj11,...,jqp T .
(p, q) Tpq (V ) .
T Ppq (V ) T Tpq (V ) (6.2). , (6.1). , Ppq (V )
Tpq (V ). ( ) .


6.3. , ,

89

. , , (1, 1). , ,
, .
6.2.2.
1. k (0, 0):
.

2. (1, 0). v i = cii v i


( 1.6.3).
3. ( ) (0, 1).
i = cii i
(. 1.9).
4. (0, 2). Ti j = cii cjj Tij (
: T = C t T C, . 5.1.3).
5. (1, 1).

Tji = cii cjj Tji ( :


T = C 1 T C, . 2.1.2).
6.3. , ,
.
6.3.1.
p+r
T Ppq (V ) S Prs (V ) T S Pq+s
(V ),
T S( 1 , . . . , p , p+1 , . . . , p+r , v 1 , . . . , v q , v q+1 , . . . , v q+s ) =
= T ( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) S( p+1 , . . . , p+r , v q+1 , . . . , v q+s ).
p+r
(V ),
T S T S Tq+s

i ,...,i ,i

,...,i

i ,...,i

,...,i

p+r
p+r
p+1
(T S)j11 ,...,jpq ,jp+1
= Tj11,...,jqp Sjq+1
,...,jq+s .
q+1 ,...,jq+s

T S T S.
, , (.. (T S) R =
T (SR)) (.. (T +S)R = T R+SR),
( , T S = S T ).
( )
V (, k), T(V ).
6.3.2. , V , .. (0, 1).
(0, 2), .. . ,
( )(u, v ) = (u) (v ).

90

6.
i ,...,i

. T = {Tj11,...,jqp } , .. p > 0 q > 0.


( )
np+q2 :
k,i ,...,i
cT = {Tk,j22,...,jqp },
k .
k,i ,...,i

6.3.3. cT = {Tk,j22,...,jqp } (p 1, q 1).


. .
k ,i ,...,i

i ,...,i

i ,i ,...,i

(cT )j2 ,...,jpq = Tk ,j 2,...,jqp = cki1 ci22 cipp cjk1 cjj2 cjqq Tj11,j22,...,jqp =
2

i ,i ,...,i

i ,i ,...,i

= ci22 cipp cjj2 cjqq cki1 cjk1 Tj11,j22,...,jpq = ci22 cipp cjj2 cjqq ij11 Tj11,j22,...,jqp =
2

k,i ,...,i

i ,...,i

= ci22 cipp cjj2 cjqq Tk,j22,...,jqp = ci22 cipp cjj2 cjqq (cT )j22 ,...,jpq ,
2

.
6.3.4. cT =

k,i ,...,i
{Tk,j22,...,jqp }

T =

i ,i ,...,i
{Tj11,j22,...,jqp }

() . , ,
Tpq (V ) Tp1
q1 (V ).

. (
, ) .
6.3.5.
1. A , .. (1, 1).
(0, 0), .. . aii
A , .. : cA = tr A.

( 2.1.3).
2. B = {bj1 j2 } ( (0, 2)), u = {ui1 },
v = {v i2 } ( (1, 0)). B uv = {bj1 j2 ui1 v i2 }
(2, 2). bkl uk v l = B(u, v)
.
. V .
v 7 (v , ) V V , ..
(1, 0) (0, 1). . G = (gij ) .
, G
(0, 2). V V T T i
Tj = gij T i . , T G (0, 2).
:
6.3.6. Tpq (V )
i1 ,...,ip
Tp1
q+1 (V ) V , T = {Tj1 ,...,jq }
i,i2 ,...,ip
(p, q) {gij Tj1 ,...,j
} (p 1, q + 1).
q

6.4.

91

6.3.7. : End(V ) B(V ) ( 5.6.1), A BA = (A , ).


: A = (aik )
BA = (gij aik ). , BA (0, 2),
A (1, 1).
, , , {g kl },
G = (gij ), .. g kl glj = jk .
6.3.8. {g kl } (2, 0).
. .

g k i gi j = jk . {gij } (0, 2), gi j = cii cjj gij .


, g k i cii cjj gij = jk .

cjk (

j ): g k i cii cjj cjk gij = jk cjk . cjj cjk = kj , g k i cii gik = ckk .


g kl : g k i cii gik g kl = ckk g kl . gik g kl = il , g k i cli =

ckk g kl . , cll : g k i cli cll = ckk cll g kl . cli cll = il ,




g k l = ckk cll g kl .
(2, 0).

6.3.9. Tpq (V )
i1 ,...,ip
Tp+1
q1 (V ) V , T = {Tj1 ,...,jq }
i ,...,i
(p, q) {g ij Tj,j1 2 ,...,jp q } (p + 1, q 1).
( )
{gij } ( {g ij }) .
6.4.
Tpq (V ) .
j1 . . .jq e i1 . . .e ip . ,
q p
(e i1 . . . e ip j1 . . . jq )( 1 , . . . , p , v 1 , . . . , v q ) =
= e i1 ( 1 ) e ip ( p ) j1 (v 1 ) jq (v q ) = i11 ipp v1j1 vqjq ,
(p, q)
k ,...,k

Tl11,...,lq p = (e i1 . . . e ip j1 . . . jq )(k1 , . . . , kp , e l1 , . . . , e lq ) = ik11 ipp lj11 lpq


( , i1 , . . . , ip j1 , . . . , jq , ).
6.4.1. ei1 . . .eip j1 . . .jq ,
i1 , . . . , ip j1 , . . . , jq , Tpq (V ).

92

6.

. i ,...,i
. , j11 ,...,jpq ,
i ,...,i
j11 ,...,jpq e i1 . . .e ip j1 . . .jq .
k1 , . . . , kp , e l1 , . . . , e lq ,
i ,...,i

(6.3) 0 = (j11 ,...,jpq e i1 . . . e ip j1 . . . jq )(k1 , . . . , kp , e l1 , . . . , e lq ) =


i ,...,i

k ,...,k

= j11 ,...,jpq ik11 ipp lj11 lpq = l11,...,lqp ,


.. .
i ,...,i
, T = {Tj11,...,jqp }
. , ,
i ,...,i

T = Tj11,...,jqp e i1 . . . e ip j1 . . . jq ,
.. . ,
.. k1 , . . . , kp , e l1 , . . . , e lq .
k ,...,k
Tl11,...,lq p ,
, (6.3).

6.4.2. Tpq (V ) np+q .
6.5. ,

. q 1, . . . , q. (1)
q .
6.5.1. T P0q (V ) ,
T (v (1) , . . . , v (q) ) = T (v 1 , . . . , v q ),
,
T (v (1) , . . . , v (q) ) = (1) T (v 1 , . . . , v q ),
v 1 , . . . , v q q .
T T0q (V ), ,
Tj1 ,...,jq = Tj(1) ,...,j(q) ,
, ,
Tj1 ,...,jq = (1) Tj(1) ,...,j(q) .
, , . ,
Tj1 ,...,jq , .

T0q (V ), Sq (V ) q (V ) .

6.6. ,

93

q = 2
.
. Sq (V ) q (V )
T0q (V ), q > 2 T0q (V ) = Sq (V ) q (V ) ,
.
6.5.2.
Sym : T0q (V ) T0q (V ),
T T0q (V ) Sym T
1
(Sym T )j1 ,...,jq :=
Tj ,...,j .
q! (1) (q)
q

Alt : T0q (V ) T0q (V ),


T T0q (V ) Alt T
1
(Alt T )j1 ,...,jq :=
(1) Tj(1) ,...,j(q) .
q!
q

, Sym T , Alt T T T0q (V ).


6.5.3. Sym Alt Sq (V ) q (V ) .
. . . 2.2.2, , Alt T = T T .
1
1
(Alt T )j1 ,...,jq :=
(1) Tj(1) ,...,j(q) =
Tj ,...,j = Tj1 ,...,jq ,
q!
q! 1 q
q

T .

6.6. ,

:
6.6.1.
P p (V ) Q q (V )
P Q :=

(p + q)!
Alt(P Q)
p! q!

( ).
6.6.2.
: P p (V ), Q q (V ), R r (V ) , k
) (P + Q) R = P R + Q R (, p = q);
) Q P = (1)pq P Q ();
) (P Q) R = P (Q R) ().

94

6.

. ) Alt.
) ,
Alt(Q P ) = (1)pq Alt(P Q).
(
)
1
...
p
p + 1 ... p + q
=
.
q + 1 ... q + p
1
...
q
(1) = (1)pq , pq .

1
Alt(Q P )i1 ,...,ip+q =
(1) Qi(1) ,...,i(q) Pi(q+1) ,...,i(q+p) =
(p + q)!
=
= (1)

1
(p + q)!

(1) (1) Pi (1) ,...,i (p) Qi (p+1) ,...,i (p+q) =

p+q

1
(p + q)!

p+q

(1) Pi(1) ,...,i(p) Qi(p+1) ,...,i(p+q) = (1)pq Alt(P Q)i1 ,...,ip+q .

p+q

) .
. p P T0p (V )
P (P )i1 ,...,ip := Pi(1) ,...,i(p) .

, Alt P = p!1 p (1) P ,


(Alt P ) = Alt(P ) = (1) Alt P.
) :
6.6.3. P T0p (V ) Q T0q (V )
Alt((Alt P ) Q) = Alt(P Q) = Alt(P Alt(Q)).
. ( ). , Alt ,
(( 1
)
)
1
Alt((Alt P ) Q) = Alt
(1) P Q =
(1) Alt(P Q).
p!
p!
p

p
e p+q ,
p , , ..
(
)
1
...
p
p + 1 ... p + q

e=
.
(1) . . . (p) p + 1 . . . p + q
, , (1)e = (1) P Q =
e(P Q).
Alt((Alt P ) Q) =

1
(1) Alt(e
(P Q)) =
p!
p

1
1
=
(1) (1)e Alt(P Q) =
Alt(P Q) = Alt(P Q).
p!
p!
p

6.6. ,

95

6.6.2 ).
(
)
(p + q + r)!
Alt (P Q) R =
(p + q)! r!
( (p + q)!
) (p + q + r)!
(p + q + r)!
=
Alt
Alt(P Q) R =
Alt(P Q R),
(p + q)! r!
p! q!
p! q! r!
.
Alt(P Q R).

, P (Q R) = (p+q+r)!
p! q! r!
(P Q) R =

e 1 , . . . , e n V , 1 , . . . , n
V = T01 (V ) = 1 (V ).

(6.4)
i1 . . . ip = p! Alt(i1 . . . ip ) =
(1) i(1) . . . i(p) .
p

6.6.2 ) . . . = (1) i(1) . . . i(p) p .


i1

ip

. , (p+q)!
p! q!
i1
ip
, . . . i(1) . . . i(p) . ,
i1 . . . ip (, ) , .
6.6.4. {i1 . . . ip , i1 < . . . < ip } p (V ). , dim p (V ) = Cnp .
. ,
T T0p (V ) . T i1 . . . ip :
T = Ti1 ,...,ip i1 . . . ip .
Alt. T
, Alt T = T . , Alt(i1 . . .ip ) = p!1 i1 . . .ip
i1 . . . ip . ,

1
Ti1 ,...,ip i1 . . . ip =
Ti1 ,...,ip i1 . . . ip ,
T =
p! i ,...,i
i <...<i
1

.
, {i1 . . . ip , i1 < . . . < ip } , ..

i1 ,...,ip i1 . . . ip = 0.
i1 <...<ip

(6.4)

i1 <...<ip

i1 ,...,ip

(1) i(1) . . . i(p) = 0.

i(1) . . . i(p) ,
. , i1 ,...,ip = 0.


96

6.

i1
ip
6.6.5. T =
(i1 <...<ip Ti1 ,...,ip . . .
T p (V )
{i1 . . . ip , i1 < . . . < ip }) p-.
n . , 1 , . . . , n , .. i j = j i ( , i i = 0).

.