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2013

ElectricalLoadEstimationCourse

AliHassan
CertifiedEnergyManagerAEEUSA

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AboutAuthor

Hi,I'mAliHassanelAshmawy,Ibeganmycareerfrom1999
asasiteelectricalengineerthenasareamanagerfrom2001
thenaselectricaldesignerfrom2003thenassenior
electricaldesignerfrom2006anduptodate.
Inmypastexperience,Idesignedandconstructabout100
projectsindifferentcountrieslikeEgypt,Kuwait,Indonesia,KSA,GabonandIraq.
MydesignswereapprovedbymanyinternationalauthoritieslikeUSAcorpsof
engineersandUSAministryofexteriorOBOOffice.
I'mcertifiedenergymangerCEMfromAEEUSAsince2006andIhopetobecomea
wellknowndesignerinthefieldofelectricaldesign.

TocontactmepleaseemailtoAli1973hassan@yahoo.com

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CourseDescription:
Thiscourseisintendedtopreparethetargetpersonswiththeabilitytorecognize,
understand,andperformpreliminaryelectricalloadcalculation/estimationforany
buildingtypebymanycalculationmethods.

ThetargetPersons:
Designengineers,newgraduateengineers,undergraduateengineeringstudents.

SkillsDevelopment:
Oncompletionofthiscoursethetargetpersonwillbeableto:

Recognizedifferentcalculationmethodforelectricalloadestimation.

Understandtheproceduresandlogicofeachmethodforelectricalload
estimation.

Performthecalculationsstepsofeachmethodforelectricalloadestimation.

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TableofContents

S/N
1
2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7.1
3.8
4
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3

5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4

5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2

5.6

Item

Introduction
ImportanceofElectricalLoadEstimation(PreliminaryLoad
Calculations)
DefinitionofImportanttermsinLoadEstimation
Connectedload
Demandload
DemandInterval
Maximumdemand
Demandfactor(inIEC,Factorofmaximumutilizationku)
Coincidencefactor(inIEC,Factorofsimultaneityks)
Diversityfactor
Differencebetweendemandanddiversityfactor
Loadfactor
MethodsofElectricalloadestimation
PreliminaryElectricalLoadestimate
Differencebetweenpreliminaryandfinalloadestimate
Preliminaryloadcalculationssubmethods
SpacebySpaceMethod(functionalareamethod)
UsageconditionsofSpacebySpaceMethod
AreaMeasurementinspacebyspacemethod
MethodofestimationbyusingSpacebySpaceMethod
FirstCase
Secondcase
TheBuildingMethod
Comparisonbetweenspacebyspaceandbuildingmethods
UsageconditionsofBuildingMethod
AreaMeasurementinBuildingMethod
Methodofestimationbyusing BuildingMethod
FirstCase
Secondcase
Areamethod
UsageconditionsofAreaMethod
MethodofestimationbyusingAreaMethod
First:basicmethod
Second:OptionalMethod(Loadcentersmethod)
Generalnotesforallmethodsofelectricalloadestimations

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20
21
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29
29
29
29
29
30
31
35
35
36
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1Introduction

Atthebeginningoftheproject,inthedraftdesign(earlydesign)stage,theelectrical
designprofessionalshoulddothefollowing:

MakeAnalysisofloadcharacteristics,

ReviewTheavailablevoltagesystemtypes/classesandlevels,

Reviewtheutilitysratestructure,

Makeroughlyakeysinglelinediagramandasetofsubsidiarysingleline
diagrams.Thekeysinglelinediagramshouldshowthesourcesofpowere.g.
generators,utilityintakes,themainswitchboardandtheinterconnectionsto
thesubsidiaryorsecondaryswitchboards.

DevelopDemandfactorrelationshipbetweenconnectedloadsandtheactual
demandimposedonthesystem.

2ImportanceofElectricalLoadEstimation(PreliminaryLoadCalculations)

ElectricalLoadEstimationisveryimportantinthedraftdesign(earlydesign)stage
becauseithelpto:

PlantheconnectiontoupstreamnetworkandMVcircuitconfigurations.

Planthetransformerssubstation(s)(ifany)andthemainswitchgearroom.

ApplytoPowerCompanyforsupply.

Calculateinitialbudgetfortheelectricalworks.

3DefinitionofImportanttermsinLoadEstimation:

Therearemanyimportanttermswhichmustbeunderstoodbeforeperformingthe
loadestimation,thesetermsare:

3.1Connectedload

ItistheSumofalltheloadsconnectedtotheelectricalsystem,usuallyexpressedin
watts.

3.2Demandload

Itistheelectricloadatthereceivingterminalsaveragedoveraspecifieddemand
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intervaloftime,usually15min.,30min.,or1hourbasedupontheparticularutilitys
demandinterval.Demandmaybeexpressedinamperes,kiloamperes,kilowatts,
kilovars,orkilovoltamperes.

3.3DemandInterval

Itistheperiodoverwhichtheloadisaveraged,usually15min.,30min.,or1hour.

3.4Maximumdemand

Itisthegreatestofalldemandsthathaveoccurredduringaspecifiedperiodoftime
suchas5minutes,15minutes,30minutesoronehour.Forutilitybillingpurposes
theperiodoftimeisgenerallyonemonth.

3.5Demandfactor(inIEC,Factorofmaximumutilizationku)

Innormaloperatingconditionsthepowerconsumptionofaloadissometimesless
thanthatindicatedasitsnominalpowerrating.

Thedemandfactoristheratioofthemaximumdemandonasystemtothetotal
connectedloadofthesystem.

Demandfactor=Maximumdemandload/Totalloadconnected

Notes:

Thisfactormustbeappliedtoeachindividualload,withparticularattention
toelectricmotors,whichareveryrarelyoperatedatfullload.

Demandfactorsforbuildingstypicallyrangebetween50and80percentof
theconnectedload.Formostbuildingtypes,thedemandfactorattheservice
wherethemaximumdiversityisexperiencedisusually60to75percentof
theconnectedload.Specificportionsofthesystemmayhavemuchhigher
demandfactors,evenapproaching100percent.

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3.6Coincidencefactor(inIEC,Factorofsimultaneityks)

Itisamatterofcommonexperiencethatthesimultaneousoperationofallinstalled
loadsofagiveninstallationneveroccursinpractice,i.e.thereisalwayssomedegree
ofdiversityandthisfactistakenintoaccountforestimatingpurposesbytheuseofa
simultaneityfactor(ks).

Thecoincidencefactoristheratioofthemaximumdemandofasystem,orpart
underconsideration,tothesumoftheindividualmaximumdemandsofthe
subdivisions.

Coincidencefactor=Maximumsystemdemand/Sumofindividualmaximum
demands

Notes:

Thefactorksisappliedtoeachgroupofloads(e.g.beingsuppliedfroma
distributionorsubdistributionboard).

Example#1(seeFig.1):

5storeysapartmentbuildingwith25consumers,eachhaving6kVAofinstalled
load.

Calculatethefollowing:

1. Thetotalinstalledload,
2. Theapparentpowersupply,
3. Themainservicesize,
4. Thethirdlevelservicesize.

Solution:

1CalculationofThetotalinstalledload,

FromFig.1,Thetotalinstalledloadforthebuildingwillbethesumoftheinstalled
loadsinthe(5)storeyswhichwillbeasfollows:

Groundfloor:

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Thereare(4)consumers,theinstalledloadsinthisstorey=4consumersx6KVA
installedloadperconsumer=24KVA

FirstFloor:
Thereare(6)consumers,theinstalledloadsinthisstorey=6x6=36KVA

SecondFloor:
Thereare(5)consumers,theinstalledloadsinthisstorey=5x6=30KVA

ThirdFloor:
Thereare(4)consumers,theinstalledloadsinthisstorey=4x6=24KVA

ForthFloor:
Thereare(6)consumers,theinstalledloadsinthisstorey=6x6=36KVA

So,thetotalinstalledloadforthebuilding=24+36+30+24+36=150kVA

Fig(1)

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Table#1:Factorofsimultaneity(ks)forApartmentsBlock

FromTable#1inabove,itispossibletodeterminethemagnitudeofcurrentsin
differentsectionsofthecommonmainfeedersupplyingallfloors.
Forverticalrisingmainsfedatgroundlevel,thecrosssectionalareaofthe
conductorscanevidentlybeprogressivelyreducedfromthelowerfloorstowardsthe
upperfloors.Thesechangesofconductorsizeareconventionallyspacedbyatleast
3floorintervals.

2Calculationofapparentpower

FromTable#1,sincethenumberofdownstreamconsumers=25,theFactorof
simultaneityks=0.46
So,theapparentpowersupplyrequiredforthebuilding=150KVAx0.46=69kVA

3CalculationofThemainservicesize

Thecurrententeringtherisingmainatgroundlevel(mainservicesize)=(150x0.46
x1000)/(400x3)=100A

4CalculationofThethirdlevelservicesize

Thecurrententeringthethirdfloor(thethirdlevelservicesize)=sumofcurrents
deliveredtothirdandfourthfloors
Thenumberofconsumersinthethirdandfourthfloors=4+6=10consumers

FromTable#1,fornumberofdownstreamconsumers=10,theFactorof
simultaneityks=0.63
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So,thecurrententeringthethirdfloor(thethirdlevelservicesize)=(36+24)x0.63
x1000/(400x3)=55A

3.7Diversityfactor

thediversityfactoristhereciprocalofthecoincidencefactor.

Diversityfactor=Sumofindividualmaximumdemands/Maximumsystem
demand

Notes:

TheDiversityFactorisappliedtoeachgroupofloads(e.g.beingsupplied
fromadistributionorsubdistributionboard).

Example#2:

Considerthatafeedersuppliesfiveuserswiththefollowingloadconditions:

OnMonday,useronereachesamaximumdemandof100amps;
OnTuesday,tworeaches95amps;
OnWednesday,threereaches85amps;
OnThursday,fourreaches75amps;
OnFriday,fivereaches65amps.
Thefeedersmaximumdemandis250amps.

CalculatetheDiversityFactorforthisfeeder?

Solution:

Thediversityfactorcanbedeterminedasfollows:

Sumoftotaldemands=100+95+85+75+65=420A

Diversityfactor=SumoftotaldemandsMaximumdemandonfeeder=420A
250A=1.68

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Example#3:

Calculatethesizeofamainfeederfromsubstationswitchgearthatissupplyingfive
feederswithconnectedloadsof400,350,300,250and200kilovoltamperes(kVA)
withdemandfactorsof95,90,85,80and75percentrespectively.Useadiversity
factorof1.5.

Solution:

1Calculatedemandforeachfeeder:

Feeder#1demand=400kVA95%=380kVA
Feeder#2demand=350kVA90%=315kVA
Feeder#3demand=300kVA85%=255kVA
Feeder#4demand=250kVA80%=200kVA
Feeder#5demand=200kVA75%=150kVA

2Sumalloftheindividualdemands=380+315+255+200+150=1,300kVA

3Ifthefeederweresizedatunitydiversity,thenthesizeofthemainfeeder=1,300
kVA1.00=1,300kVA

However,usingthediversityfactorof1.5,thesizeofthemainfeeder=1,300kVA
1.5=866kVA.

3.7.1Differencebetweendemandanddiversityfactor:

Mostoftheelectricalengineersconfusebetweenthedemandanddiversityfactors,
tosolvethisconfusion,don'tforgetthat:

TheDemandfactormustbeappliedtoeachindividualload,withparticular
attentiontoelectricmotors,whichareveryrarelyoperatedatfullload.

TheDiversityFactorisappliedtoeachgroupofloads(e.g.beingsupplied
fromadistributionorsubdistributionboard).

Example#4:

Anindustrialbuildingconsistsof(3)nos.workshopsA,B&C,eachworkshopwill
includethefollowingloads:
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WorkshopA:

4nos.lathewith5KVAeach,
2nos.pedestaldrillwith2KVAeach,
5nos.socketsoutlets10/16Aononecircuitwith18KVAtotal,
30nos.fluorescentlampsononecircuitwith3KVAtotal.

WorkshopB:

Onenos.Compressorwith15KVA,
3nos.socketsoutlets10/16Aononecircuitwith10.6KVAtotal,
10nos.fluorescentlampsononecircuitwith1KVAtotal.

WorkshopC:
2nos.ventilationfanswith2.5KVAeach,
2nos.Ovenwith15KVAeach,
5nos.socketsoutlets10/16Aononecircuitwith18KVAtotal,
20nos.fluorescentlampsononecircuitwith2KVAtotal.

Drawakeysinglelinediagramforthisbuilding?

Determineboththedemand(utilization)factorandsimultaneityfactorwith
thehelpoftables#2&3inbelow?

Calculatethedemandloadforeachlevelinthekeysinglelinediagram?

Table#2:Factorofsimultaneityfordistributionboards(IEC60439)

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table#3:Factorofsimultaneityaccordingtocircuitfunction

solution:

Followthesolutionstepsinbelowandinfig.2.

fig.2
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Step#1:Listalltheloadsineachworkshopandwritetheapparentpowerofeach
loadinKVAbesideit.
Step#2:writetheutilizationfactorforeachload,IECgivesKuestimationvaluesfor
theseloadsasfollows:

FormotorKu=0.8
ForsocketoutletsKu=1(dependonthetypeofappliancesbeingsupplied
fromthesocketsconcerned)
ForlightcircuitsKu=1

TheTableofCalculationforSteps#1&2willbeasfollows:

Workshop
Name

Workshop
A:

Workshop
B:

Apparent
Power
Demand
Max.KVA

LoadType

LoadNo.

lathe

No.1

0.8

No.2

0.8

No.3

0.8

No.4
pedestaldrill
No.1
No.2
5nos.socketsoutlets10/16A
30nos.fluorescentlamps
Compressor
3nos.sockets
outlets10/16A

10nos.fluorescent
lamps

ventilationfan
No.1

5
2
2
18
3
15

0.8
0.8
0.8
1
1
0.8

4
1.6
1.6
18
3
12

10.6

10.6

2.5
2.5
15
15
18
2

2.5

2.5

15

15

18

No.2

Workshop
C:

Utilization
Factor
Max.

Apparent
Power
(KVA)

Oven

No.1
No.2

5nos.socketsoutlets10/16A
20nos.fluorescentlamps

Step#3:calculatetheMax.DemandapparentpowerinKVAforeachload=apparent
powerXKuforeachload.

Step#4:groupsametypeofloadsononedistributionpanel/boxandthiswillbethe
firstLevelofdistribution(LEVEL1).
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Step#5:inlevel1andfromtable#2,writethesimultaneityfactorforeach
distributionpanel/boxandfromtable#3writethesimultaneityfactorforeachfor
eachseparateload.

Step#6:calculatetheMax.DemandapparentpowerinKVAforeachdistribution
panel/box=sumofallbranchloadsMax.DemandapparentpowerinKVAX
simultaneityfactorforeachdistributionpanel/box.

TheTableofCalculationwillbeasfollows:

Worksho
pName

Worksho
pA:

Worksho
pB:

LoadType

Load
No.

lathe

No.1

0.8

No.2

0.8

No.3

0.8

No.4
pedestaldrill
No.1
No.2
5nos.socketsoutlets10/16A
30nos.fluorescentlamps
Compressor
3nos.sockets
outlets10/16A

10nos.fluorescent
lamps

ventilationfan
No.1

5
2
2
18
3
15

0.8
0.8
0.8
1
1
0.8

4
1.6
1.6
18
3
12

10.6

1
2.5
2.5
15
15
18
2

No.2

Worksho
pC:

Appar Utilizat
ent
ion
Power Factor
(KVA) Max.

Level1
Appar
ent
Appar
Power
ent
Dema simultan Power
nd
Dema
eity
Max.K
nd
factor
VA
Max.K
VA
4

Oven

No.1
No.2

5nos.socketsoutlets10/16A
20nos.fluorescentlamps

0.75

14.4

0.2
1
1

3.6
3
12

10.6

0.4

4.3

2.5

2.5

15

35

15

18

0.28

Step#7:groupthedistributionpanel/boxineachworkshopinonemaindistribution
panel/box.So,wewillhave(3)maindistributionpanel/boxforthe(3)workshops
andthiswillbethesecondlevelofdistribution(LEVEL2).

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Step#8:inlevel2andfromtable#2,writethesimultaneityfactorforeachmain
distributionpanel/box.

Step#9:calculatetheMax.DemandapparentpowerinKVAforeachmain
distributionpanel/box=sumofallbranchdistributionboxesMax.Demand
apparentpowerinKVAXsimultaneityfactorforeachmaindistributionpanel/box.

TheTableofCalculationwillbeasfollows:
Worksh
op
Name

Works
hopA:

Works
hopB:

Works
hopC:

LoadType

Load App
No. aren
t
Pow
er
(KVA
)

Utiliz App
ation aren
t
Facto
Pow
r
er
Max.
Dem
and
Max.
KVA

Level2

simult App
aneity aren
t
factor

simult App
aneity aren
factor t

0.75

Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA
14.4

1.6
1.6
18

0.2

3.6

15

0.8

12

12

10.6

10.6

0.4

4.3

No.1

0.8

No.2

0.8

No.3

0.8

No.4

0.8

pedestaldrill
No.1

No.2
5nos.socketsoutlets
10/16A
30nos.fluorescent
lamps
Compressor

2
2
18

0.8
0.8
1

lathe

Level1

3nos.sockets
outlets10/16A
10nos.
fluorescent
lamps
ventilationfan

No.1

2.5

35

No.2

2.5

Oven

No.1

15

No.2

2.5
2.5
15
15
18

15

18

0.28

5nos.socketsoutlets
10/16A
20nos.fluorescent
lamps

0.9

Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA
18.9

0.9

15.6

0.9

37.8

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Step#10:groupthe(3)maindistributionpanel/boxinonemaingeneraldistribution
boardMGDBandthiswillbethethirdlevelofdistribution(LEVEL3).

Step#11:inlevel3andfromtable#2,writethemaingeneraldistributionboard
MGDB.

Step#12:calculatetheMax.DemandapparentpowerinKVAformaingeneral
distributionboardMGDB=sumofthe(3)workshopmaindistributionboxesMax.
DemandapparentpowerinKVAXsimultaneityfactorformaingeneraldistribution
boardMGDB.

TheTableofCalculationwillbeasfollows:

Workshop
Name

Works
hopA:

Works
hopB:

Works

LoadType

Load
No.

No.
1
No.

2
No.

3
No.

4
pedestaldrill
No.
1

No.
2
5nos.socketsoutlets
10/16A
30nos.fluorescent
lamps

Compressor

lathe

3nos.sockets
outlets10/16A

10nos.
fluorescent
lamps

ventilationfan

Level1

Level2

App
aren
t
Pow
er
(KVA
)

Utiliz
ation
Facto
r
Max.

App
aren
t
Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.6

0.8

1.6

18

18

0.2

3.6

simult
aneity
factor

App
aren
t
Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA

0.75 14.
4

15

0.8

12

12

10.
6
1

10.
6

0.4

4.3

simult
aneity
factor

App
aren
t
Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA

simult
aneity
factor

App
aren
t
Pow
er
Dem
and
Max.
KVA

0.9

18.
9

0.9

65

0.9

No.

Level3

15.
6

2.5

2.5

35

0.9

37.

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1

hopC:

No.
2
Oven
No.
1

No.
2
5nos.socketsoutlets
10/16A
20nos.fluorescent
lamps

2.5

2.5

15

15

15

15

18

18

0.28

3.8Loadfactor

Theloadfactoristheratiooftheaverageloadoveradesignatedperiodoftime,
usually1year,tothemaximumloadoccurringinthatperiod.

Loadfactor=Averageload/Maximumload

Freedownload

Youcandownloadtablesfordifferentfactorslistedabovebyclickingthefollowing
links:

IEEEDemandFactorValues

UnifiedFacilitiesCriteriaUFCDemandFactorValues

NECDemandFactorValues

DemandFactorValuesFromOtherRegulations

DiversityFactorValues

UnifiedFacilitiesCriteriaUFCLoadFactorValues

IECFactorofSimultaneityValues

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4MethodsofElectricalloadestimation

Thereare(5)methodsforElectricalLoadEstimation,whichare:

APreliminaryloadcalculation

Thismethodissubdividedinto(3)submethodsasfollows:

1. Spacebyspace(functionalareamethod),
2. Buildingmethod.
3. Areamethod.

BNECloadcalculations.

CFinalloadcalculations.

Note:

Inthiscourse,Iwillexplainthepreliminaryloadestimationmethods,andthetwo
othermethods;NECloadcalculationsandFinalloadcalculationswillbeexplained
laterincourse"EE3:BasicElectricaldesigncourseLevelII,becausethe
preliminaryloadestimationmethodsareusedintheearlydesignphasewhilethe
othertwomethodsareappliedinthefinalstagesofdesign.

5PreliminaryElectricalLoadestimate

5.1Differencebetweenpreliminaryandfinalloadestimate

beforegoingthroughthecalculationstepsforPreliminaryElectricalLoads,weneed
tohighlightthemaindifferencesbetweentheloadestimationorcalculationbythe
preliminaryandfinalmethods.Thefollowingtableshowsthesedifferencesas
follows:
S/N
1

Preliminaryloadcalculations

Finalloadcalculations

UnitsofLoadswillbein(W/ft2) UnitsofLoadswillbeinKW(kilowatt),
wattspersquarefootor/and
or/andKVA(kilovoltampere),or/andHP
(VA/ft2)voltamperespersquare (horsepower)
foot

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unitsareusedinterchangeably
becauseunitypowerfactoris
assumed

Unitypowerfactorisassumed

Demandandloadfactorsvalues
willbeselectedfromtables
basedonthedesignerestimation
andtheywillbeUsedto
calculatethetransformerand
servicesize.

Theconnectedloadwillbe
estimatedbasedonareaor
population

EasyandFastcalculations

Unitscantusedinterchangeably.So,Hp
willbeconvertedtokVA;andkVAmaybe
multipliedbytheestimatedpowerfactor
toobtainkWifrequired

Differentvaluesofpowerfactors
accordingtoloadtypes.
DemandandloadfactorsvaluesareReal
valuesthatwilldocumentandreflectthe
number,thetype,thedutyrating
(continuous,intermittent,periodic,short
time,andvarying),andthewattageor
voltampereratingofequipmentsupplied
byacommonsourceofpower,andthe
diversityofoperationofequipment
servedbythecommonsource.

Actualdemandloadwillbecalculated
basedonsummationofindividual
buildingconnectedloadsmodifiedby
suitabledemandanddiversityfactors
economical,costeffectivecalculations
insuringthatitemsofequipmentand
materialsareadequatetoserveexisting,
new,andfutureloaddemands

5.2Preliminaryloadcalculationssubmethods:

AsIindicatedbefore,thismethodissubdividedinto(3)submethodsasfollows:

1. Spacebyspace(functionalareamethod),
2. Buildingmethod.
3. Areamethod.

Note:

AparticulardesignmayuseonePreliminaryloadestimatemethodoracombination
fromtwooreventhethreemethods.

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5.3SpacebySpaceMethod(functionalareamethod)

IntheSpacebySpaceMethod,thebuildingwillbedividedintodifferentspace
basedonitsfunctionlikeoffices,conferencehalls,corridorsandlobbies,shops,
parkingareas,workshopsandetc.
TheLoaddensityin(W/ft2)or/and(VA/ft2)isprescribedforthesedifferentspaces,
theseloaddensitiesinadditiontospacesareawillbeusedtoestimatethe
preliminaryelectricalloadofthisbuildingasdescribedinbelow.

5.3.1UsageconditionsofSpacebySpaceMethod

TheSpacebySpaceMethodisusedonlyforindividualspacesinthebuilding.
TheSpacebySpaceMethodmaybeusedforanybuildingorportionofa
building.

5.3.2AreaMeasurementinspacebyspacemethod

Thesquarefootageismeasuredfromtheoutsidesurfaceofexteriorwallstothe
centerlineofwallsbetweeninteriorpartitionsofthespaces.
AndthesumoftheGrossInteriorAreaequalsthetotalGrossAreaofthebuilding.

5.3.3MethodofestimationbyusingSpacebySpaceMethod

inthismethod,wehavetwocasesasfollows:

Firstcase:availabilityofgroupedloaddensity(i.e.onevaluecoveringall
lighting,generalpowerandpowerloads)in(W/ft2)or/and(VA/ft2)foreach
space.
Secondcase:availabilityofindividualloaddensity(i.e.individualvaluesfor
lighting,generalpowerandpowerloads)in(W/ft2)or/and(VA/ft2)foreach
space.

Firstcase:

MethodofestimationbyusingSpacebySpaceMethodwillbeasfollows:

1Dividethebuildingintodifferentspacebasedonitsfunction(forexample,office,
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