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ISSN 0024-449X

F O U N D R Y . TECHOLOGY

& EQUIPMENT

1930 .

. .


. .

C O N T E N T S

.
.., ..

Boldyrev D.A., Safronov N.N. Technological features of making compacted graphite iron

.., .., .., ..



Ivanova L.A., Naumov V.I., Chernyshov Y.A., Kuznetsov S.A. Properties of waterglass-bonded
sands when modifying waterglass with surface-active substances

10

.., .., .., .., .., ..



Ivanov V.G., Kuzovov A.F., Maliy A.V., Karginov V.P., Kolos A.A., Doroshenko A.V.
Universal admixture for improving the shaking-out of soluble-glass sand mixture

13
16

.. ?
Gruzman V.M. Why moldable mixture needs gas permeability?

. .
. .

2015

. .

.., .., ..

Vasenin V.I., Bogomjagkov A.V., Sharov K.V. Measurement of head in flow liquid metal in the
collector of the gating system

. .

. .
. .

. .
. .
. .

18
27

- 2015
Proceedings of the international scientific-and-technical conference Metalcasting 2015

30

.., ..

Burtsev D.S., Ponomarev A.A. Sample for determining the castability of foundry alloys
in making jewelry

..
. .
..
.
. .
..

.., .., ..

Kuznetsov R.V., Martynov K.V., Gotsiridze A.V. New silica-alumina covering for receiving
qualitative chill preparations

CAD/CAM

33

.., ..

Marshirov V.V., Marshirov I.V. Simulation of temperature fields during the formation
of bimetallic castings

36

.. Laempe
Fritz Winter
Golenkov Y.V. Core-making technology and equipment by leading iron foundry
Fritz Winter in Germany

( www.foundrymag.ru )

40

. 80-

621.74.02:
669.13

D.A. Boldyrev,
N.N. Safronov




Technological features of making
compacted graphite iron
.. , ..

. ,
50 () 80%
. , 50,
( ), (), , ,
50.

, , , ,
, , .

Summary

By an example of the Iron Foundry at OAO AVTOVAZ the experience of making various
grades of compacted graphite iron has been generalized. It is shown that the production
of grade VCh50 iron with a graphite spheroidization degree of 80% is ensured at
observing the basic chemical composition without alloying and heat treatment. It is
shown that iron with mixed graphite shapes (spheroidal and vermicular) corresponding
to the basic chemical composition of VCh50, by its mechanical properties, is close to
malleable iron, and in some cases is not inferior to high-strength VCh50.
Key words
High-strength cast iron, inoculation, microalloying, microstructure, mechanical
properties, annealing, normalization.

50.

. .
50

,
, , .
, C Si.
: Mn 0,3%, P
0,010% S 0,012%.
, : 80%, - 2

8/2015

.
75% :
500 , 7%.
50
.


() (), ().
50
,
80%.


35 ( 22%), 40
( 15%) 60...100.
50


-.


, . 1, ....
,
50 [1].



(. 1, , ) [2]
-


.
, ,
35 40.

. 1. (...), ()
()

,

90%.
35 40
( 15%) .

.
(. 2, )
(. 2, )
40, : 750C,
2 ,

, - 1 (PSK).
,


(5%) 2

10C.

60...100,
, , ,

. 2. : ,

8/2015

.
.
(. 4, ), .
,
, 50,

. :
, ,
;

, Mg- (, );
,
.
50 .

(. . 3). Cu-Si-Mg-Ca-
0,64%.
, 1-
, , :
195...211 187...211; 56 55 /2; 6,8
6,0%. ,
- 7293-85.
1215-79
55-4, . ,
,
,

.

. 3.

, , Mn Cu, , . 60 70.
80 100 .
[2],

(NiMg, CuMg, CuNiMg) (CuSiMg, FeCuSiMg) .
(FeSiMg) ,
.


(.
4, ) 60
70. , 50 Mn Cu [3].

(. 3) 50.

Mn Cu
=
860C
, 75.
Cu-Si-Mg-Ca-
80,
= 900C 100 [5].

, 80%
,
. () , .
, , ,
, , ,

. 4. : ,

8/2015

,
50,

,
(35, 40), , (60...100).

.
( )
, 50, ,
.

2. .., ..
// . 2008. 10. . 13-18.
3. ..

// .
2013. 4. . 24-29.


- . ,
. .: +79297147877. E-mail:
DA.Boldyrev@vaz.ru
- .
, () . .: +79179113733.
E-mail: safronov-45@mail.ru


1. .. //
. 2006. 12. . 9-13.


1922 .
2015 ().
2123 . 23- -
2015 (, . ).
2730 . 2015 ().
1013 ().
24 . 15- . ().
24 . . 2015 ().
34 . 9 .
().

8/2015

621.74.02:
621.742.48

L.A. Ivanova, V.I. Naumov,


Y.A. Chernyshov,
S.A. Kuznetsov




Properties of waterglass-bonded
sands when modifying waterglass
with surface-active substances
.. , .. , .. , ..

() ()
- . -.
. , - .

, , , , ,
, , .

Summary

Shown is the effect of waterglass modification with surface-active substances on the


strength and process properties of waterglass-bonded sands in wet and dry state. Revealed are the mechanisms of action of modifiers on the strength characteristics of the
waterglass binder. Substantiated is the principle of choosing modifying additives. It is
established that the greatest influence on the strength of waterglass-boned sands in dry
state is exerted by sodium lauryl sulfate and glycerol.
Key words
Waterglass, waterglass-bonded sand, modifiers, sand strength, adhesion, cohesion,
waterglass/quartz sand contact boundary, strengthening mechanism.

, , 2014 ., 240 22

. - ,
, , ,
, .
: , .
, , , - ,

, .
- ,
.

-
,
, .

6

8/2015

s,


(1, . ) 3,5%
( = 2,2; r = 1520 /3). 99%
12303, 1% 2 ( 3226-93). ( 0,5%).

.
1-
180C (
23409.7-78).
2...6.
, , , ,
, , .
1..................................

2..................................

3..................................

4..................................

5..................................

6..................................

. 1.

,
,
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- ,
.

, , .

,
,
,
, , -
, . ,
.
180C 10...15 ,
- . -
. ,

: , .
, , ,

, > 300C,

,
.
,
-
, , ,

. 1 -
1.
,
. ,
(~ 1 ) ,
,
1...15 . t 16
,
(. ).
, ,
, , .

, - .

8/2015



: ( ,
1327COOH), (1733),
(C12H25SO4Na).
,
.
( 40%)
.
.
. 2 , 2...4 1;
, , 2...4,
5, , . ,
2...4 - , , , .
100 ,
~ 3 , , , 3 ,
3 4, , ,
. , 3 , 3 4,
3 .
, 2...4, ,
, ,
2...4.
,

s,

0,1

0,08

0,06

0,04

0,02

0
1

. 2.

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(
),
() .

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.

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I
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, . II

1- 180C,
, (. 3).

s ,

1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1

. 3.

8/2015

.
, , , 1,
, .
. 3
1- - 180C, , (. . 2),
,
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, -, , , .
, , .
, ,
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, ,
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-, .
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. 3 ,
, , 2 ,
OH- -

, ,

.
, ,
> 65C

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,
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1- 180C, ,
, . ,

.

. . .
- . , .,
. . .. .
- . ,
. , . .: 8 (831) 436-03-02. E-mail:
nil_st@nntu.nnov.ru
. . , .
.


/
, 70491 / 47310

,
42306 / 42422

/
80468 /
42207 / 42423



()
/
81292 /
42208 / 42440

.
,
, .

: 111394, , ., .39, . 2, 4.
./: +7 (495) 303-85-81;

e-mail: lp@niit.ru

8/2015

621.742.45:
669.1

V.G. Ivanov, A.F. Kuzovov,


A.V. Maliy, V.P. Karginov,
A.A. Kolos, A.V. Doroshenko




Universal admixture for improving
the shaking-out of soluble-glass
sand mixture
.. , .. (, . ), .. ,
.. , .. ( ), ..
( . .. )
-3
. , ,
- , ,
.

, , .

Summary

Presented are the results of applying CK-3y Destructor admixture for soluble-glass
mixtures. Developed admixture has been proved to be technological and it does not
worsen sanitary and hygienic conditions while mixtures preparations and with this it
significantly decreases labor consumption in shaking-out operations.
Key words
Liquid glass, shaking-out, molding sand.

()
. , ,
,

..


,
.
.. , A.M. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .


[3...5].

[1, 2], ( , ,
..) ( ..).
.
,
, , , , -10

8/2015


. , ,
( 6%) ,
.
[1, 2],
500...600C ,
800C, , ,
Na2O-SiO2. , ,
800C . , ,
,
. , 500...600C,
.
,
, , -.
,

. , (-3), Al2O3, SiO2,
CaO MgO,
.
-
, ,
.
-, (-3), , ..,
.
100% , ,
( = 2,6).

, ,
.
500, 600 800C
. .
1 / 2 / 3 / 4,
-

/2//

(-3).......................

//2/4

......................................................

6 / 6,1 / 6,1 / 6,2

99 / 60 / 60 / 35

600C.................

87 / 44 / 25 / 18

800C.................

282 / 96 / 48 / 17

, 4% , , .
500...600C,
, . 800C
, , 220C.
.

(-3) , 2...4% .

, ,
, ,
, . .. .


. .. 20. ,
- CO2-,
.
.
( , , , ) . -3 3,2%
.

1 / 2 / 3 / 4
.....................

500C.................

. 100 ..


1 200...220C, 1
500, 600 800C, .
1,5...2,0 . -

8/2015

, ()
()

11


. 2004. 1. .18.
4. .., .., ..

// .
2010. 2. . 811.
5. ..
// . 2000. 9. .38.

,
. ,
(, ),
, .

, (-3)


-
, .


. . ,
,
, . . .: +038 (061) 769-82-93. E-mail: ivanov@zntu.edu.ua
. . , . .:: +038 (061) 769-82-93.
.
, . . .: +38 (056) 231-42-89.
. ,
. .: +38 (061) 787-53-77.
. ,
.
-
. .. . .: 0542-250539.

1. : ,


: / ..,
.., ..
. .: ,
2006. 507 .
2. .. : .
. .: , 1997. 140 .
3. .. // -


1922 .
2015 ().
2123 . 23- -
2015 (, ).
2730 . 2015 ().
1013 - ().
24 . 15- . ().
24 . .
2015 ().
34 . 9 . ().

12

8/2015

, , /: +7/495/357-25-50 E-mail: info@intema.su


* ;

www.intema.su

621.74.041:
669.1

V.M. Gruzman


?
Why moldable mixture needs
gas permeability?
..


.
.
, , .

, , , , , .

Summary

With the help of original experiments was shown the direction of the movement of gases
towards melt at the first moments of filling even at the maximum gas permeability of
a form. It set the valid percent of the moisture content in the wet sandy-clay form to
prevent ejection of the melt. It projected the using in the industrial production of raw
sandy-clay forms with a high content of refractory clay and, consequently, of water.
Key words
Gas permeability, leak, melt, direction, humidity, distribution, continuity, discretion,
water saturation, porosity.


: , , .
. . . :


. ,

,

. 1.

8/2015

13

, [1].
. . . ,

[2], , ,
, ,
,

.
, ,
,
, ,
. ,

. 1 ,

.
, 1 (. 1)
,
,
. , ,
. 1
, 3 4.
, , .
, 128 22 ,
.
, .
.
.
, 3
, 6
,
, ,
. ,

, .
?
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
1,6 /2 [4].
2760...1360
25...30 .
, , .
, .

, ,
, , -

. 2. 3 () 6
()


.
.
,
[3],
, ,
. (. 1), ( 50
, 50 ). -.
, .

. 3. , 8, 10, 14 20% ...,

14

8/2015


, , . ,
, .

w = 8...20% (. 3).
20%- .
( w = 14%), 20% . 15%
: ,
20%.
, , ,
.


1. .. . .: , 1971.
2. .. . .: ,1980.
3. .. . : , 2001.
4. .. . : , 2004.

.. - . , .
() ,
. . .

30-
INPEX-2015
(. , . )
- .

-
,

-
,
.

WIPO.
. ..
64- IENA-2012

(. , )
...
.
.
2-2011, 3-2012.
2015 .
8/2015

15

21.74.041:
621.744.3

V.I. Vasenin,
A.V. Bogomiagkov,
K.V. Sharov




Measurement of head
in flow liquid metal in the collector
of the gating system
.. , .. , ..

-
() .
Al-,
.
.
,
, .

, , , , , .

Summary

The description of laboratory ringshaped gating system is provided. Results of


experimental determination of head in moving in collector liquid aluminium alloy
depending on the quantity of at the same time working feeders are stated. A good
agreement between the calculated and experimental data is presented. It is confirmed
possibility use equation Bernoulli to section flow with different expenses, or else for the
multiple-gate runner system.
Key words
Sprue, collector, feeder, head, stream speed, consumption of liquid.


,
,
.
, ,

,
.
[1], ,
, (http://vestnik.pstu.ru/mj/about/
inf/).
.

,
(), , ,
.
,
.
. .
,
. , , I...
III.
. H
16

8/2015



11
: H = 375 .
24 .
225 .
16,110,815,0
9,46,68,0 . .
. 55, 66, 77, 88
99
16 . Al- 12
720C.
5% 5% .


8...18 ,
.

,
. ( ) .



[2].
, .

, .
L-, , , , ,
,
,
.
,

.



,
[3]
.

(. ),
, ,
2 , 4 .

Al- .

Q, 3/


1. ..,
..
//
. 2010. 8. .
1720.
2. Vasenin V.I., Bogo-miagkov
A.V., Sharov K.V. Investigation into a
ringshaped gating system // European
Applied Sciences. 2014. 9. P.
5566.
3. .. // . 2009. 1. . 2225.

H5 / H6 /H7 /H8 /H9 ,

I.................................... 126,3 (125,0; +1,0%)

340,1 (344,0; 1,1%) / 312,5 (312,0; +0,2%) / 332,4 (335,0; 0,8%) /


360,1 (349,0; +3,2%) / 360,1 (351,0; +2,6%)

II................................... 125,2 (129,5; 3,3%)

340,7 (356,0; 4,3%) / 323,8 (335,5; 3,5%) / 321,7 (332,5; 3,2%) /


321,7 (336,5; 4,4%) / 323,8 (340,5; 4,9%)

I, III............................... 214,2 (206,0; +4,0%)

274,6 (261,5; +5,0%) / 224,9 (213,0; +5,6%) / 239,2 (223,5; +7,0%) /


239,2 (225,0; +6,3%) / 224,9 (211,0; +6,6%)

I, II, III........................... 264,9 (278,1; 4,7%)

221,5 (236,0; 6,1%) / 145,5 (154,0; 5,5%) / 159,6 (170,0; 6,1%) /


159,6 (168,5; 5,3%) / 145,5 (156,0; 6,7%)

. 77 88.

8/2015

17

-
" 2015"*
Proceedings of the international scientific-andtechnical conference "Metalcasting 2015"
,
C, S P.
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( DIN 1629)
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621.714.3: 658.56




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18

8/2015


.
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St 52.0: 150; 500

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621.74.042

621.74.02: 621.74.045



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621.74.02: 621.74.045



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8/2015


.

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.

621.74.02 : 621.74.045


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8/2015

21


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22

8/2015


621.74.043

621.74.02 : 621.74.043

.. , .. ( )

.. , .. , ..
(, . )


- ()

. ,
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,
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.

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.

.

- , 30...40% Al Ti.
( ~ 1400C)
5,410-6 1/.

2SiO2, .
, .
, ,
.

, 2n-1.
, %: 0,2...2,5 0,16...2,5; 0,2...2,5
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2SiO2 3.
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. :
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95; 4,73 ; : 260, 650C;
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, Mg- : 20 2 400 2,
10 ; 4
100 2
. :

8/2015

23


, ;
,
20 ;
;
> 1,5 , > 0,7
(> 10 .);
.
.
, 4 .

C, %:
0,04; 0,1; 0,4; 0,93 1,42.
0,04...2,0% C.
, .

669.131.622: 669.74

.. , .. , ..
(, . )

621.74.043.1: 621.744.3


.
,
, . 40...45%.

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> 6 .
2789-95. , .
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, ) .
, ,
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, > 1070.


> 1673, .. , .
.

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ProCast, AFSolid (SolidCast), Magma, Simulor
(Pamcast), LVMFlow,
, ,
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a/R2 /R2.
a
.

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24

8/2015


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0,15 .


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621.746.043.1




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,
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( +30 -60C),

621.74.024: 621.74.043.1



.. ( , . )
./: (044) 424-12-80, .050-204-10-79,
e-mail: trinoz@mail.ru

.
,
,
, ,
, -

8/2015

25


( Ti
)
AlTi, 0,25
, . Al (6)
AlTi- 1...3
Ti 0,04...0,05; 0,17...0,18 0,23%, . 120...130 . ,
, 15...20-
860C .
20C.
.
. , . 25 50 . 20
.
, 1 2 . a- Al,
,
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(2).
, a(Al): 1 20...30
10...15 , 2 75 50 .
3, 0,23% Ti,
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100...300 (Hm = 15,7 /2), ,
.
, , 30...50
15,8 /2.
,

, ,

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, , , .


.
- ( )

.

.


.
, -

,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

669.715:538.12:62-405




.. , .. ( )
-mail: mgd@ptima.kiev.ua

,
,
. ,
.
( 1 ) (), ,
.

26

8/2015

621.74.02:
621.74.043.1

R.V. Kuznetsov,
K.V. Martynov,
A.V. Gotsiridze




New silica-alumina covering
for receiving qualitative
chill preparations
.. , .. , ..

(), .

.
.

, , ,
.

Summary

In article a row of techniques of determination of technological properties the nonstick coating of the coverings intended for plotting on metal forms is described. A row
of natural dependences of change of technological properties of the studied coverings
on concentration of a flameproof filler is revealed. The optimum composition of an
experimental covering on the water binding is offered.
Key words
Non-stick coating, water solutions of silica-sol, zeolite, casting in the chill mold.


. , , , , ,
.


Cu-.

,
.
8/2015

1
.
. 1500C.
,
().
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. .., ..
// . 2015. 2.
1

27


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.
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, .
,

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),

.

DuPont.

.
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2.
,
.


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58...61%


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39...42%

.. . .: , 1977.
2

28

8/2015


, .
,
, , , ,

.
.

- .


. . .: (812) 296-25-41. E-mail:
Spaun1605@rambler.ru

, -
, , .

8/2015

. .
, , . .: (812) 542-71-22. E-mail:
martunov@inbox.ru

29

621.739:
621.74.08

D.S. Burtsev,
A.A. Ponomarev




Sample for determining
the castability of foundry alloys
in making jewelry
.. , .. (
)


, , , .

, , , , , , .

Summary

There have been analyzed the existing samples for determining the castability of foundry
alloys in terms of their application in making jewelry, on the basis of which analysis
a sample variant has been designed and produced that is adapted to the modern
processes of making jewelry.
Key words
Castability, mold, foundry properties, process sample, fillability, spiral and ball samples,
pattern compound.


,
,
(3d-, , ) CAD- (Gemvision Matrix 3d,
RhinoGOLD ..).
.
-

, , , ,
, .

: , .


.

30

8/2015

. 2.


.
1, 2 3.
, . , , , (40% ),
(), .
.

.
2 .
I 180C.
.
(. 4).

. 1.

:
,
3,3 .

.
, ,
1, 2 3
0,3; 0,5; 0,7 0,9
. 500 ,
65 (. 1).

Gemvision Matrix 3d
(. 2),

.
-.
0,5 /2 ,
6 (. 3).
( .
3 ).

8/2015

. 3.

31


.
. 5.

.
. .

, x/h...d

. 4.


12, -.
200 . I 900C,

.

10%- (0,2% ).
1100C.

, %

1......

2 / 2 / 2/1...0,7 / 2 / 1/2...0,9 22,2 / 22,2 / 23,3 /22,2/


15,3

2......

2 / 2/3...0,7 / 3 / 3/1...0,5/ 3

22,2 / 22,5 / 33,3 /


33,8/ 33,3

3......

3 / 2/3...0,7 / 3/1...0,5 /
3/2...0,9 / 4/1...0,9

33,3 / 22,5 / 33,8 /


35,5/ 45,5

. 1 1...5. 2. x/h
/ ; d
.


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.

, ,

.


.. . . ,
. ..
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.. . . ,

. 5. ,

32

8/2015

AD/CAM

621.74.01:
621.74.08

V.V. Marshirov,
I.V. Marshirov




Simulation of temperature fields
during the formation
of bimetallic castings
.. , ..

()
() .
.
.
http://e-sim.nn2000.info.

, , .

Summary

The authors have developed and implemented programmatically a model for


calculating the cooling and solidification the alloys during formation of bimetallic
castings. The model covers a wide range of boundary and initial values. The article
considers the influence of temperature and time conditions on the heat transfer in
sequential pouring of two alloys. The model is public and available on the server
http://e-sim.nn2000.info.
Key words
Bimetallic casting, , simulation of solidification.

[1] ,
,
1- . , , 2- .

(), . , , -
[2] . - ,

,
,

-, - , .
: ,
, , .
- . - 8/2015

33

AD/CAM

. 1. -:
1- ,
2- , 1-
1- , 2-
2-

30...80%, Al-, .
,
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,
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34

8/2015

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:

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;
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);

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2-
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AD/CAM


- .


, on-line
. http://e-sim.nn2000.info.


-.

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.., .. .



// . 2007. 1. . 1113.
2. .., .., ..
.
// . 2012.
8. . 56.
3. .., ..
// . 2013. . XVI. 4. .
111120.
4. .. // . 2013. 5. . 3639.

. (. 1) 40 ; 1- , 20
, 2- , 20 , 2 .
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8/2015


. . ,

,
. . . .: +7-908-160-53-16. E-mail:
vmarshirov@hse.ru
. . ,
. ..
, . . .: +7-960-944-86-90.
E-mail: mtio.astu@mail.ru

35

621.74.02:
621.743.06

Y.V. Golenkov


Laempe

Fritz Winter
Core-making technology
and equipment by leading iron
foundry Fritz Winter in Germany
.. ( )
(, ,
),
Fritz Winter Laempe
.

, Cold box amin-, .

Summary

The article provides an overview of casting production in Germany (volume,


characteristics, equipment level), and shows the cooperation experience of one of the
biggest foundries worldwide Fritz Winter and Laempe in delivering of modern coremaking equipment.
Key words
Modern technologies of core-making, Cold box amin-process, efficiency factors.

, ,
.

2015...2020 . ,
75...85%,
1...3%.
Made in Germany .
60%


(5,2 ) 2012 . V ,
, , 44,5;
12,3; 9,8 5,5 , .
, (100...130
, , 130...320 . ). Made in Germany 2012 . 12 .

36

8/2015

75%
, , Al-. ,
, , , .
Laempe

25 Laempe > 3000 . ,
.
,


Laempe, , ~ 3000 . .
Laempe .
, 2003 . ABB
ABB
. Laempe
.
.
2001 . Laempe , 2003 . 2004
.
GIFA
Beach Box Laempe.
Laempe
.
VW BMW.

. 1. - Fritz Winter

() 1 3000 (. 1).
, , , .
Fritz Winter ,
, VW, Daimler, BMW, Renault, Volvo, Ford, Fiat,
Peugeot, Citroen, Toyota, Kia, Isuzu, GM. Fritz Winter

() .

. Bosch Rexroth,
Parker, Hydac. > 50%.

,
,
.
Fritz Winter > 380 .

50 , ( ).

Fritz Winter .
:
1959 . ;
1975 . ;
1990 . ;
1994 .
.
2003 . Verifer - ;

Fritz Winter
Fritz Winter Eisengieerei,
, 1951 . .
( , ).
Fritz Winter ~ 600 .
. 3700 2800
. Fritz
Winter 700 ( 754 505 . 3570
2011 .). 141,5
212 . ,
.

,

8/2015

37

. 2.

. 3.

2007 .
.


( ) 15 .

LHL.
,


.
.


.

.

.
.
,
LHL .

Laempe
Fritz Winter

Fritz Winter Laempe 2000...2014 .
25 (),
, ,
( 2...4).
2015 . Laempe
LHL
. LHL ( 50 ) 15 .
,
480

415 .
2010 . Laempe LHL
. LHL
GIFA 2011 .
Laempe
LHL.
(max)
() 16002000950 .
(max) 10 .
40...300 .
() 13501600 .
(max) ,

( ) 100 .

. 4. V8

38

8/2015



, .
Fritz Winter
. ,
HWS-Sinto, , -
( 850850220/400 400/220 , 220 /;
11201080350/250 , 250 /;

).
2003 .
G7
HWS-Sinto -, EFA-SD: : 11201080350/250 ,
250 /. ,
,
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. .

,
/
.
.

.
,
.
LHL, Fritz Winter, LGi Cold box amin-
Laempe.
,
Lgi, 2,5
.
, ,

2014 ., : 536 .
./, Daimler AG 371 . . (
) , , VW-Group. ..
Laempe

.

.

8/2015

39

.
80-

30 2015 . 80 , ,
.
1958 .
, , 1977 1993 .
. 1993 .
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40

8/2015

..

..
C..
..
:

111394, ,
. , 39, . 2,
4
/

+7 (495) 303-85-81
e-mail: lp@niit.ru
www.foundrymag.ru
, ,
,

01.07.2015
01.08.2015
10.08.2015
6080 1/8
,
-,
115551 , ,
. 43, . 2, . 135

ISSN 0024-449X. . 2015. 8. 1-40. 70491