Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
Overview
Part 1 Statistical Concpts
Part 2 Modeling Concepts
Part 3 Modeling Methodologies
Part 4 Variograms
Subject: Part 1 Statistical Concepts
Section: Introduction
Chapter: Introduction
Pages:
 Introduction
 Purpose of the Course
 Questions this Course Will Answer
Section: Basic Concepts and Terminology
Chapter: Basic Concepts & Terminology
Pages:
 Basic Concepts & Teriminology
 Some Simple Examples
Chapter: Descriptive & Analytical Tools
Pages:
 Preface
 Histograms
 Typical Uses of Histograms
 Univariate Statistics
 Typical Display & Uses of Univariate Statistics
 Crossplot
 Crossplot Examples
 HScatter Plots
 Variogram Cloud
 Variogram Clous Usage Example
 Variograms
 Why do We Need Variograms?
 Variogram Maps
 Using the Variogram Map
Acknowledgements:
This primer could not have been written without the help of and previous documents
provided by:
Sujit Kumar
Doug Palkowsky
Sanjay Paranji
Leonid Shmaryan
Lothar Schulte
Drew Wharton
Overview:
This subject is too large for a single computerbased training model, and is therefore
subdivided into four major topics Statistical Concepts, Modeling and Geometrical
Concepts, Modeling Methodologies, and Variograms.
While variograms are discussed in general in the first three topics, the last topic provides
an independent summary as well as detailed instructions and workflows which are Petrelspecific.
How?
2. Provide the student with the vocabulary to become quickly productive with the tools in
any geostatistical software, including Modeling Office, Petrel, FloGrid, LPM,
Understand the variety of statistical tools available for data analysis before and
after modeling.
Determine if there is a relationship between a property and a seismic attribute.
Understand the definition of a variogram and its uses in the grand scheme of
things.
Understand the variety of data transforms used in geostatistics and modeling.
Determine if your property values are directionally biased.
Visualize the grid geometries used in modeling from 2D gridding to simulation
Tell the difference between kriging and nonkriging algorithms
Tell the difference between deterministic and probabilistic algorithms
Understand the difference between facies modeling and petrophysical property
modeling
Understand the use of stochastic methods.
Learn how to use seismic attribute grids as secondary input data
Measure the QUALITY of geostatistical models by comparing statistics
3. Provide specific recommendations for modeling lithology and properties under various
conditions
Now that you know what this course is about, well move along to the first topic Basic
Concepts  Good Luck !
He used so many five and tendollar words in his lecture that now
Im completely broke...
 Mathematics student
I must say that words simply cannot describe what happened.
 Hairless caveman upon discovering fire
To make progress, we all need the right words. Here are a few of the more important ones
well need for learning about geostatistics.
values of
Anisotropic
My porosity data set is anisotropic because measurements towards the Northeast vary
much more than in other directions.
Probability
I would like to see those locations in my saturation model where there is a 70 percent
probability that values will be greater than 0.6.
Stationarity
Porosities in the same geological unit, but in different fluvial depositional
components may not exhibit stationarity as a group because the different particle
sorting mechanisms at work may cause the variance of the property in one facies to
behave in an entirely different fashion than in another facies It is for this very reason
that facies should be modeled first, then petrophysical properties modeled within facies.
Histograms
Univariate Statistics
Variograms
Variogram Cloud
Crossplots
Variogram Map
variance
This number represents a measure of how different the data are; in
particular, it measures the probability that a data point will deviate from
the mean in this particular data set. Well learn more about variance in
a spatial context when we get to variograms [q 2]
standard deviation
This number is actually just the square root of the variance, and also is
used when describing how the distribution of data points vary from the
mean.
2. Variance is a measure of how different the data values are. T/F (T)
A typical display of univariate statistics in report format might look like this:
[q 1]
1. It is not uncommon to use the univariate statistics of a data set as its signature.
When voluminous data sets must be managed and manipulated, naming
conventions are sometimes forgotten, but the data signature inherent in these
measurements can be used to identify a particular data set unambiguously. [q 2]
2. In geostatistical modeling, monitoring the univariate statistics of a particular data
set as it goes through this transformation or another lets you determine if the
transformation went according to plan or not
Specifically, it displays the values of two variables measured at the same location
[q 1]
o vertical axis is first variable, horizontal axis is second.
Reveals the degree of correlation between the two variables by the shape of the
data cloud. [q 2]
Look for the cloud of points to form a shape, or even a line to indicate significant
levels of correlation. [q 3]
Strong negative
No correlation
The primary data value at one location can be predicted (calculated) from a
single value of the secondary variable at the same location.
Formulate the relationship
It is the job of the crossplot to show IF a relationship exists, and how strong it is. If a
relationship is found, then the next step is to formulate the mathematics of the correlation.
Essentially, we must know how to calculate a reasonable value of the primary variable at
some location from a value of the secondary variable at the same location what is the
formula? Software typically takes care of this, for example, Petrel or LPM. [q 1]
Variance
Variance cloud
.804
.603
.402
.201
Separation
8.25
16.4
24.6
32.8
The advantage of this display is that it gives a relative weight to each experimental
variogram point by showing you how many point pairs were used in its calculation. In
those cases where only one or two pairs contributed to a final variogram value, then that
value might be ignored when fitting the model to the variogram.
[q 2]
The histogram is useful, but being able to see the results of the specific pairs of points is
even more useful, especially if there is any facility for identifying actual well names,
which might even lead to the correction of errant logs.
.
How is a variogram computed?
First, find all point pairs in all distance classes (lags). For example, find all those
pairs of points which are 10 meters apart, put them in a bin, then find all pairs of
points which are 50 meters apart, put them in another bin, etc
For each bin, compute the variance for each pair of points in the bin (class).
Now, average all the variance values into one number for each bin.
Plot the average variance for each class as depicted by the black points below.
These points make up what is called the experimental variogram.
Let the user fit a curve thru the experimental variogram to create variogram
shape, as depicted by the simple curve in the diagram below.
Range
Sill
[q 1]
[q 2]
Nugget = yintercept, if any
The range, sill, and nugget are the three most revealing characteristics of the variogram.
The Range shows the distance where spatial relationships between data points cease. In
other words, two data points which are further apart than the Range have only a random
relationship.
The Sill is the variance at the Range.
A nonzero Nugget indicates that there are very close data points which are not very
similar.
Top
Layering is Vertical cell
size in the 3D model
Base
Tools are available during the creation of the horizontal variogram which allow you to
establish if anisotropy exists and the measure it.
Review Questions
1. Is the variogram map a more automated or less automated way to discover
anisotropy?
[more]
2. If available, a variogram map should be the Initial or Final operation in making
the horizontal variogram?
[Initial]
[q 1]
The interpolator is a gridbased algorithm which can compute the value of the grid at
any arbitrary location. It is this software interpolator which allows you to think of the
grid as continuous and existing between the grid nodes, even in the interpolator zone.
Singlevalued grid
nodes
Extrapolation zone
Fault Face
Downthrown
horizon block
Review Questions
1. What are the 2 real components of a 2D model? (Grid and Faults)
2. Where are the grid values located in a 2D model? (Grid nodes)
3. The number of grid nodes across any fault face in the 2D grid is determined by?
(Width of fault zone)
4. The geometry of 2D grids is everywhere _____________? (Perpendicular)
4.....
[q 3,4]
Ymax
2
One grid cell
[q 5]
3
.
.
.
Fault Trace [q 1]
Used to segregate data points
Data Points
Ymin
Xmin
Once the grid node values are computed, the data points are redundant.
The 2D model consists of the grid and the faults.
The 2D grid is a collection of X, Y, and Z (elevation) points, but only one Z can be stored
for one X, Y location. [q 2]
Row/column numbering is shown with respect to CPS3 conventions.
Xmax
1
1
Likewise, in this traditional manifestation of the 2D grid through contouring, we see that
the lateral variation of 2D grids can be broken into many levels by the use of refinement,
which, in many 3D systems is not available.
Below is another figure which shows how the light blue lattice of the 2D grid cells are
typically refined for purposes of contouring, in contrast to the geocellular 3D grid below
it, whose cells are typically not refined during display. They are not refined since the
concept is that only a single geocellular value exists at the center of each cell, whereas
the values in the 2D grid are assumed to exist at the corners.
Cell value
in center
Layers
Unit or
Zone
Block 1
Block 2
Review Questions
1. The initial geometry for 3D grids is typically provided by __________. (2D
structure grid)
2. 3D grids are partitioned by __________ and _________. (fault block and zone)
3. 3D grid zones are subdivided into _______. (layers)
4. Values for 3D grids are typically located at __________________. (the center of
the cells).
5. Why are fault traces not needed for 3D models? (fault blocks are predefined)
No refinement
3D
Flow
Vector
Layers
Review Questions
1. The purpose of the simulation grid is to model ________. (flow)
2. One major difference between simulation grids and property grids is the
______________________ and ____________________ of cells. (orientation and
shape)
3. Faces of cells in a simulation grid are ideally oriented _____________ to the fluid
flow. (perpendicular or normal)
4. Today, an average sized simulation grid has about _____________cells.
(200,000).
1. Block Center
[q 1]
2. Corner Point
[q2]
Review Questions
1. When viewed in plan view, an unstructured grid cells may not be
________________ in shape. (homogeneous, consistent)
[q 1]
Workflow
Define number of layers in unit (correlation scheme)
Load boreholes
Pick best averaging technique for the original or thresholded data
Upscale the data, specifying the averaging method.
Each cell contains one averaged value, while there may be hundreds of values
along the borehole.
Determine if
a trend exists
in the data
Remove the
trend
Make the final
variogram
Krig the data
Add the trend
back into the
result
Trend removal is also discussed more in detail in the section which describes Kriging
algorithms.
Do not confuse the removal of a trend from a data set with various Kriging algorithms
such as Kriging with an External Trend. They are separate concepts. [q 3]
Questions for Review:
1. Removing a trend from a data set ensures that ______________ is maintained
(stationarity).
2. You can use either a _____________or a ______________ to determine if a data
set has an inherent trend.
3. Kriging with an External Trend is the best way to remove a trend from a data set.
(T/F) (F)
0 lbs.
Weight as a
function of
height
above the
earth
199.9 lbs.
200 lbs.
In modeling, individual data points are typically weighted (given more or less
importance) during many calculations.
computed have more weight than far points. Close points are assumed to be more
representative of the attribute being mapped than points which are further away. Attribute
values of none of the points are changed, they are simply given more or less importance,
based on their distance from the node. [q 1, q 2, q 3]
Data points
As you can tell by the shape of the weight curve, most of the weight is given to very close
points, and little weight is given to further points.
HIGH
WEIGHT
Close
Points
Have
Higher
Weights
LOW
WEIGHT
CLOSE POINTS
FAR POINTS
Well Logs
2d grids
3d grids
Constants
Input
Data
algorithm
model
Review Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Kriging algorithms use variograms to guide the weighting of the data points;
nonkriging algorithms do not.
Kriging algorithms will decluster two close data points, providing better
weighting for both; nonkriging algorithms do not. [q 2]
Review Questions:
1. Discrete data values are based on a _________. (classification scheme).
2. Sequential Gaussian Simulation is used for _______ data sets. (continuous).
Use this method when you have sparse data, or very complex facies [q 3]
Probabilistic
These algorithms take the data values literally as well, but what happens in between
the points is a function of more statistical measurement such as frequency and
distribution of zvalues, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the algorithm
uses a random technique in the selection of data for each computed grid node. A
fundamental characteristic of probabilistic grids is that, for any given data set and
its parameters, one output grid is equally probable (stochastic ) as the next. In
fact, it is common to generate multiple realizations (versions) of a property and
then study their differences and distributions to determine global probabilities as
the basis of the final model. [q 2], [q 5]
Advantages/ Disadvantages
Deterministic
Advantages: Many to choose from/ Simple to use/ Intuitive [q 4]
Disadvantages: Tend to smooth out highs and lows/ Inappropriate for flow
simulation/ No probability information/ Tend to require plentiful data for good
models
Probabilistic
Advantages: Works well even with sparse data/ Gives a more realistic model in the
case of sparse or difficult data/ Retains highs and lows/ Provides assessment of global
probability /Retains distribution character of the original data.
Disadvantages: More difficult to use/ Time consuming
Review Questions:
1. Deterministic algorithms typically create only _____grid, while probabilistic
algorithms create ____________grids. (one, multiple)
2. Multiple realizations simple means multiple __________. (versions)
3. Probabilistic algorithms are used when you have _________data (little).
4. One advantage of deterministic algorithms is that they are _________ (plentiful,
simple, intuitive)
5. Probabilistic algorithms typically involve a ________ generator (random number).
At this point in this primer, we will introduce only the most basic facts about variograms.
A separate sections of variograms will be presented later.
Variogram Fact #1
The RANGE of the variogram is that distance where data points in your data
set begin to LOSE AUTOCORRELATION. Stated another way, points in
your data set which are closer together than the RANGE have a spatial
significance in the correlation of their values, but points which are further apart
do not. [q 1]
Variogram Fact #2
That portion of the variogram curve from zero Distance out to the RANGE,
when inverted, becomes the weight function used internally by geostatistical
algorithms when computing grid node values. Data which is further than the
RANGE to the grid node being computed uses a different weighting scheme.
[q 2]
Variogram Fact #3
The variogram RANGE and the SEARCH RANGE which is specified for a
particular gridding operation are two separate concepts. The variogram
RANGE has already been described. The SEARCH RANGE specifies how
far away from a grid node data will be collected for use in the gridding. The
user sets this value. Data further than the SEARCH RANGE will not be used.
As suggested above, data closer than the RANGE SEARCH, but further than
the variogram RANGE is handled differently. Clearly, the SEARCH RANGE
should be LARGER than or equal to the variogram RANGE. [q 3]
Variogram Fact #4
In 3D geostatistical modeling, three variograms are defined for each data set
to be modeled one in the vertical direction and two in the horizontal
direction. If the data is isotropic (having no natural directional bias), then the
two horizontal variograms are the same. Together, the ranges of these three
variograms define a threedimensional ellipsoidal weight function which is
used by the geostatistical component of the chosen algorithm.
Vertical Range
Disclaimer
Those of you who have attained a good understanding of geostatistics, and maybe even
GSLIB, will recognize that some of the depictions of gridding mechanics appear
oversimplified, especially from a programming or data management point of view. Our
intent here is to present large buildingblock concepts that can be quickly understood and
allow the student to become effective with the tools. We do not presume to trace the
actual structure and organization of gridbuilding computer code, nor the fine details of
internal data manipulations or programming techniques.
Position at a location where a value requires computation (grid node within some
selected zone.
Collect points in the search zone (defined by the user in various ways) [q 1]
In this example, the Search Distance, D, is a Horizontal Search Range. The
search thickness, T, is measured vertically.
Weight the collected points by distance from the grid node. [q 2]
Compute the value of the grid node using the selected algorithm and parameters.
Move to the next node and repeat the process
If a minimum number of points are not found inside the Search Zone, the node
value becomes null.
Search zone
T
W
D
0.23
Grid node to
be calculated
Data points
Nearest Neighbor
Each grid node takes on the value of the closest collected point. [q 3]
Used for Lithology, Rock Type
Inverse Distance
Each grid node takes the value of a distanceweighted average of all points collected
within the search limit. A variable power parameter determines the weighting at
maximum, the algorithm gives a distanceirrelevant simple average, at minimum, it is
equivalent to the nearest neighbor. Anywhere in between, points closer to the node to
be computed are weighted higher and further points are weighted lower.
1. In the Nearest Neighbor algorithm, each node takes the value of the _________ collected
point. (closest)
Before Kriging any data set, determine if it has a trend by either inspecting its
histogram or variogram for horizontal convergence to a sill, or by some other
means. [q 1]
If a trend is identified, then remove the trend using the appropriate tool within the
software, krig the data, and then add the trend back to the result. The software
will actually do the last step for you automatically, as long as it knows that you
have removed a trend in the first place. [q 2]
Please make sure that you realize that the removal of the inherent trend in the data, as
described above, is an operation totally different from the algorithms described later such
as Kriging with External Drift, or Kriging with an External Trend. In these cases, the
desire is not the remove an internal trend from the data, but the addition of an observed
trend external to the data, which is to make the model more accurate or consistent with a
secondary variable. [q 3]
Requirement for Normal Score Transform
In addition to trend removal, another data transformation, called Normal Score
Transform is required before making the variogram used for modeling when Sequential
Gaussian Simulation or Simple Kriging is to be used. The Normal Score Transform puts
the input data into a normal distribution which simply means that the algorithm can make
its computations is a much simpler and faster way. [q 4]
Search zone
c
0.41
b
a
Weight envelope
and Search zone
Data points
Recall that the weight function used in Kriging is simply the model variogram turned
upside down.
Weight
HIGH
WEIGHT
LOW
WEIGHT
CLOSE POINTS
FAR POINTS
Distance
From
Grid Node
2.
During Kriging, the user specifies the ____________ which defines where data is
collected around each grid node to be computed. (Search range)
3. For Kriging, the Weight Envelope is defined by the three variogram ________.
(weights)
4. The Search Range should be ___________than the Weight Envelope. (as big as or
larger).
If data points exist inside the Weight Envelope, and there are other points between
the Weight Envelope and the Search Range, as shown below, then the variogram
weight function does not apply to those points beyond the Weight Envelope, and
they are assigned a minimal weight.
For the case where the minimum required points do not exist inside the Weight
Envelope, see the next section.
Map
Area
Search
Range
Variogram
Range
At some point, Kriging algorithms will determine when less than the minimum
amount of data exists with which to compute a value using the Kriging weight
function. In these cases, the grid node value is computed with the selected
alternate computational method for the particular type of Kriging involved. This
condition typically occurs in the corners or at the edges of the map. This condition
is similar to the extrapolation condition in nonKriging algorithms. See diagram
below which provides a 2D view. This condition can arise whether there are
points in the Search Zone or not. [q 1, 2]
Map
Area
Search
Range
Variogram
Range
(Weight Envelope)
Data points
It turns out that one of the main differences between many of the different Kriging
algorithms Ordinary Kriging, Simple Kriging, Kriging with an External Drift,
CoKriging, etc., is how extrapolation occurs i.e., how grid values are computed
in the cases of little or no data.
For example, if Simple Kriging were being used in our example, then when no
data is available with which to use the Krig weight function, the node value will
be set equal to the average value of all the points (Global Mean).
If the chosen algorithm had been Ordinary Kriging, then the node value would
be some local average of a subset of the total data. For each type of Kriging we
discuss, you will learn its alternate method of computation in these
extrapolated (little or no data) areas.
Here is a graphic example of a data set where some areas contain dense data and some
contain sparse data. [q 3]
Data in this area are further away
than the variogram range from the
grid node being computed.
DENSE DATA
SPARSE DATA
Review Questions
1. When there is no data in the Weight Envelope, Kriging changes its behavior and makes
use of an __________ algorithm for computing the node value. (alternate)
2. If there is no data in the weight envelope, but data in within the search range for a node,
then the kriging weight function is applied to that data instead.(T/F). (F)
3. Extrapolation is a term used for the method of computing a grid node value when
_____________________. (there is little or no data).
4. One of the main differences between the many Kriging algorithms is the way in which
they handle _____________ (extrapolation, or sparse data)
An example of anisotropy
If you were to measure particulate size in the channel complex shown below, its
variability across the channels will be much higher than along the channels.
If you suspect this kind of directional bias in your property data source, you
should determine its direction and degree by using one of the two methods
available:
1. Finding the direction by trial and error with the horizontal variogram tool
2. Use a variogram map to display the direction and degree
Afterwards, use the variogram you create in the modeling operation for the property.
When you do have anisotropy in your model, then your variogram will have two
horizontal variograms a variogram for the Major direction and one for the Minor
direction. The Major variogram will have a larger Range than the Minor one, and thus the
weight function in the x,y plane will be elliptical.
VERTICAL AXIS
Data points
MAJOR AXIS
MINOR AXIS
Grid node to be
calculated
Horizontal weights will maximize quicker on the shorter axis than on the
longer axis when there is anisotropy, meaning that points which are
further away in the major direction will count for more than closer points
in the minor direction.
Simple Kriging
Using the basic mechanism described earlier, Simple Kriging applies the Variogram
weight to the collected points to compute each node.
As the nodes to be computed fall further and further from the data, their values tend
more towards the global mean of the data set. [q 1]
Ordinary Kriging
This is the same algorithm as Simple Krig, except that when the nodes fall further and
further from the data, their values tend more towards the local mean of the data.
CoKriging [q 3]
With this algorithm, standard kriging with the primary data dominates where there is
enough primary data within the variogram range.
Where the primary data is sparse, a secondary, correlated data set can be used
having the following characteristics:
Secondary data may exist at different locations than primary.
A variogram for the secondary data is required as well as the primary.
A cross variogram between the primary and secondary is required.
This method is labor intensive and slow. It is not used extensively.
Collocated CoKriging [q 4]
With this algorithm, standard kriging with the primary data dominates where there is
enough primary data within the variogram range.
This algorithm gives the advantage of having a secondary, correlated data set, but
is much easier to use than Cokriging, and is much faster.
Where the primary data is sparse, the secondary, correlated data set can be used with
the following restrictions:
Secondary data must exist at all primary locations, but if you have a secondary grid
instead of scatter set, the system will automatically resample it at the primary
locations
No secondary data is required at output locations.
Input Data
Simulation
Results
Estimation
Results
2. Stochastic Results
3. Multiple Realization
Multiple realizations
Because simulation algorithms are designed to use different seed primes for each
execution, and meant to create stochastic results, the idea is to let the algorithm create
many realizations (versions) of the output grid and analyze the resulting outputs. By
inspecting differences in the output grids, one can get a sense for the real solution,
which is usually some combination of them. [q 1]
In some cases, an arithmetic average of all realizations of a particular property may be the
best solution.
BEST
may be
average of
realizations
Even though simulation algorithms many not use all the data in all realizations, its results
can still maintain the character of the input data, as the comparison below shows:
Gauss simulation
Kriging
Description [q 2]
Data is normalized with Normal Score Transform; then each output grid value is back
transformed upon calculation. [q 1]
This is a Krigbased algorithm and therefore a variogram is required.
Interpolation is performed and so it is suitable for continuous data.
As with many algorithms, the search radius should be large enough so that
null nodes are minimized.
Like most simulation algorithms, a controlled randomness is introduced so
that multiple realizations can be computed.
Mechanics
For each grid node, assign the data which can be used (data points or other close
grid nodes).
Establish a random path through the grid nodes
At each grid node which is visited during the random walk, use the assigned data to
compute a cumulative distribution function. This function is based on the mean of
the data, the variance, and of course the variogram. This function simply provides a
way to calculate a range of reasonable values for the node.
Pick a random number to select one of the reasonable values. Back transform the
value, and assign it to the current node being computed.
This algorithm is designed for discrete data, but its mechanics is similar to SGS with
only a few exceptions. [q 1]
Unlike SGS, the data needs no normal score transform operation.
A variogram is still required for the cumulative distribution function, but interpolation
per se does not occur, only assignment of grid values via selection within classes. [q
2]
In Median IK (Indicator Kriging) mode, only a single variogram is required,
based on the most representative class data
In Full IK mode, a variogram for each class is needed
SIS is commonly used to compute lithology /facies grids
This algorithm works like SIS, being Krigbased and requiring a variogram.
However, it allows the specification of adjacency rules which define those facies in
contact and those which are not in contact. These rules are specified by the sequential
order of the class specification list. For example, if your data contains several classes,
such as some shales, A and B, and some sands, C and D, then the order in which you
specify these classes determines their adjacency rules. If you specify D, C, B, A, then
in the output grid, no A nodes can be adjacent to C nodes, and no B nodes adjacent to
D nodes, etc. [q 1]
m
m
k
s
e
w
The user picks one of several shape templates (levee, channel, splay, etc.) and
provides enough information regarding length, height, width, shape, density,
orientation, and positioning to populate the selected unit.. A background, or
floodplain object is also provided.
Because of the simple fact that petrophysical properties such as porosity can behave
differently in different facies and depositional environments, different modeling
[q 2]
techniques may be required for the same property in different facies.
TwoStep Mapping Conditioning Petrophysical Properties to the Facies
A welldesigned 3D property modeling system, therefore, will allow and even encourage
the facies to be modeled first. Then, it should provide methods to allow the subsequent
modeling of petrophysical properties to be conditioned to the existing facies model(s).
In essence, during property modeling, the existing facies model is used as a template or
mask which allows the property data within each classification, such as a channel sand,
to be isolated for modeling purposes. [q 3]
This twostep mapping fits exactly into our previous description of two of the major data
types discrete and continuous, as well as our previous categorization of gridding
algorithms in the same way. We note that modeling facies requires discrete algorithms
and modeling of petrophysical properties requires continuous algorithms. [q 4]
In general, modeling of net/gross, porosity, and permeability can be relatively straight
forward, making use of the same 3D layering scheme for all three. Saturation modeling,
however, can become more complicated, requiring accommodation of different layering
schemes due to relevance of the contact location and orientation, as well as the
application of a function.
As we see, there are many geostatistical algorithms from which to choose, a few with
very specific uses. In this section, well organize some of the common reasons why you
would use one algorithms and not another for your data. In some cases, the choice will be
obvious; in others, it may be up to personal preference.
For the algorithms described in this presentation, the following criteria should be used to
choose your algorithm. It will not take long for you to get a sense of these criteria so that
a logical choice will become second nature.
[q 2]
Inspect the output grid graphically and make sure it honors the input data and looks
reasonable. Based on the algorithm chosen, trends you see in the data may or may not
be repeated in the output grid. If not, this fact should be revealed by the other QC tests.
you intended. Checking the range of zvalues of the input data versus the output grid is
one of the easiest and most useful of QC checks.
Quality Control with Histograms [q 3]
Perform the same comparisons as above, but use the histogram for comparison. Here, you
want to make sure that the condensed data has the same basic shape as the original data,
and that the histogram of the output grid has the same basic shape of the condensed data.
Quality Control with Variograms
Perform the same comparisons as above, but use variograms as the criteria. Variogram
shapes and other characteristics should remain the same to verify that the character of
the output grid reflects that of the input data.
Quality Control for the Secondary Data Set
When a secondary data set is used, verify that those areas devoid of primary data are
reasonably defined by the secondary data. Visual inspection is usually sufficient,
although polygonal statistics may be available in your software.
Quality Control by CrossValidation
With this method of quality control, you may conduct crossvalidation tests in which you
regrid the property after removing one or more data points. Differences between the
grids are calculated, and then analyzed for statistical significance. This is one way to
determine how the chosen algorithm is honoring differences in data point values based on
the distance between them.
Let us return to the concept of Stochastic Simulation. We recall that this is simply
the process of creating several versions of a property model from the same data set,
where each version has just as much probability of being accurate and
reasonable as the next. Typically the data sets are small and while the stochastic
grids will all honor the data at data locations, they may vary significantly between
these locations. For example, using Sequential Gaussian Simulation, we can use a
single saturation data set to create 10 versions, or realizations of the data. Each of
the saturation grids thus created may look quite different, but are said to be equally
probable. Using these different grids of equal probability allows us to study them for
common characteristics, knowing that any characteristic which shows up on a high
percentage of the grids has a high probability of being a valid and very probable
reality.
The Ten, Fifty, and Ninety Percent Uncertainty Distribution of STOIIP Based on
Stochastic Variance of the Fluid Contacts in the Petrel Volumetics Process
Further study
Many texts are available. Make use of the internet search tools for specific topics.
Highly recommended:
Applied Geostatistics, Edward H. Isaaks and R. Mohan Srivastava, Oxford University
Press, 1989
GSLIB Geostatistical Software Library and Users Guide, Clayton V. Deutch and
Andre G. Journell, Oxford University Press, 1992
The first purpose of this final topic in the Property Modeling Primer is to review the basic
concepts of variograms and the assumptions regarding the generic workflow for their
creation. The second purpose is to provide a clear overview of the ways in which
variograms can be created in Petrel.
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Section: Review
Chapter: Review
Page:  Review of Basic Facts
Data values which are close together are more likely to be similar than
values which are far apart [Q 1,2]
[Q 1] [Q 1]
.
[Q 3, 4, 5]
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The variogram is a tool for measuring this spatial relationship of any attribute of a
population of 3D points (X, Y, Z, Attribute). The yaxis shows increasing attribute
variance and the xaxis shows increasing distance. Each point on the variogram shows
the variance of all the points in the same distance group (the same approximate distance
from each other). Those groups of data points which are closer together are represented
on the left of the graph, and those which are farther apart will be on the right. Points
high on the graph are represent groups of points which are quite different, while those
points lower on the graph represent those groups of points whose values are more
similar. As you see, graph points which are low and to the left represent groups of data
points which are close together and similar in values while graph points which are high
and on the right represent groups of data points which are far apart and dissimilar.
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Range that distance beyond which data points no longer exhibit any statistical
similarity [Q 4]
Nugget the Variance where the distance is Zero. A nonzero value indicates close
points in the data set which do not have similar values [Q 3]
Sill that Variance where the summary plot flattens out to random similarity
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Review of Anisotropy
An anisotropic formation is one with directionally dependent properties. The most
common directionally dependent properties are permeability and stress. Most
formations have vertical to horizontal permeability anisotropy with vertical permeability
being much less (often an order of magnitude less) than horizontal permeability. Bedding
plane permeability anisotropy is common in the presence of natural fractures. Stress
anisotropy is frequently greatest between overburden stress and horizontal stress in the
bedding plane. Bedding plane stress contrasts are common in tectonically active regions.
Permeability anisotropy can sometimes be related to stress anisotropy [Q1]
 from the Schlumberger Geological Dictionary
MAJOR AXIS
Property values are most similar
along this direction
Anisotropy is measured only in the
horizontal direction, and is typically
associated with an ellipse, where the
major axis is the long axis and the
minor axis is the short one. Anisotropy
units are direction and eccentricity
(ratio of major/minor axes length)
MINOR AXIS
Property values vary more
in this direction
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0.8
0.4
0.0
0
10
20
30
Distance
Zonal Anisotropy [Q 3]
Range is constant; Sill changes.
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0.0
0
10
20
30
Distance
In some software, the Sill is always shown to be normalized to 1 and it makes the
identification of zonal anisotropy difficult.
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The vertical variogram shows how variance changes with distance vertically, or
along the wellbore
[Q 1]
The horizontal variograms shows how variance changes with distance in the X,Y
direction. [Q 2] When the property is anisotropic in the X, Y plane, the ranges in
these directions (major and minor) are different, which leads to an elliptical weight
function in the X, Y plane. [Q 3]
Note: It is typical that vertical variograms will look better than horizontal variograms,
i.e., exhibit a more classic variogram shape. This is because of larger numbers of data
points vertically than horizontally when well logs are the primary data source.
The shape of the variogram curve is inverted and becomes the WEIGHT FUNCTION
during gridding. Points further than the Range have effectively no weight during
gridding.
Range
[Q 4]
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During population of a 3D grid, the vertical and horizontal components of the variogram
are blended together into a single variogram for convenience and speed of
computation. Horizontal weights and vertical weights are typically different, but the
system sorts this out automatically.
2. Perform the process to determine if anisotropy exists in the X/Y directions. This
can be done in two ways. Refer to the section following for the procedure
Compute horizontal experimental variogram
If anisotropy was determined in step 2, set the major azimuth to that direction.
If no anisotropy was determined, leave the azimuth at zero.
Find the best experimental variogram shape
Set the lag distance (size of bin for grouping the data) which is relevant to the
distance between data values in the X/Y direction, say, 50100m, or possibly
larger [Q 4]
Adjust the lag distance and the search cone to obtain the best experimental
variogram shape. The experimental variogram is simply the collection of
variance values for the point pairs in each classification as, for example,
below. As you change the lag distance and search cone, the pattern of points
will change. Look for the classic shape shown earlier in this document.
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5. If the experimental variogram does make a shape that you can follow, then start
the process of modeling the horizontal variogram. Modeling a variogram is the
term used for fitting a specific curve through the experimental variogram points.
When you are satisfied with the curve, move to the next step.
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4. If, by changing all the parameters at your disposal, you are not able to obtain an
experimental variogram which resembles the classic shape, it is possible that there
are no spatial relationships in the data set, and you should simply select some
reasonable defaults to use for the Range, Sill, and Nugget. The experimental
variogarm above is close to a good example of data which has no particular
spatial relationships.
8. If there is no anisotropy, you may ignore the minor variogram, since it will, by
default, be the same as the major in the absence of anisotropy.
Model the vertical component
9. Now you can begin to model the vertical variogram  that component of the total
variogram which measures variance upwards along the wellbore. For vertical
variograms, anisotropy is not an issue everything is simply up and down.
Start with a lag distance (size of bin for grouping the data) which is relevant
to the distance between data values in the vertical direction, say, 1 meter, or
maybe even smaller. [Q 4]
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Adjust the lag distance and the search cone to obtain the best experimental
variogram shape and continue just as you did to model the major horizontal
variogram
Select the model type and fit the curve through the points just as you did for
the horizontal variograms. Note that it is not uncommon to get better defined
vertical variograms than horizontal variograms because of the large amount of
data. You may also see more events in vertical variograms, such as multiple
sands which show up as a series of sinusoidal curves in the experimental
variogram. Clearly only one feature can be defined with current variogram
analysis, and so ignore all the curves except the leftmost one in these cases.
10. As a quality check, you should find that the range of the vertical variogram
should be much smaller than the range of the two horizontal variograms.
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11. Note that it is irrelevant whether the vertical or the horizontal components of a
variogram is modeled first.
Adjust the lag distance and the search cone or search angle to obtain the
most classic or best variogram shape as possible.
If your software allows it, move to that dialog from which a variogram
map can be made. This should be a relatively simple procedure, with a
contour map being automatically generated by your software with few, if
any, parameter selections. Make sure to set the search distance, which
should be large enough so that a fragmented map does not result.
View the variogram map, which will be symmetrical on either side of the
major direction of anisotropy. If anisotropy is present, then the symmetry
of the contours will reveal a distinct oval shape of an ellipse centered in
the middle of the map. Note the azimuth of the longest axis of the ellipse
on the map. This will be the major direction of anisotropy which will be
specified when you return to the horizontal variogram dialog to begin the
actual modeling of the major horizontal component.
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In addition to, or alternatively, some systems allow facies thickness analysis and
proportion analysis to be performed. Any of these methods will provide a valid and
rational basis for the specification of layer thickness. [Q 3]
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It turns out that the Range of the vertical variogram for any facies or property attribute is
a very good measurement of the natural homogeneity of the data values in the vertical
direction , [Q 2] and, as such, is a good value to use for the layer thickness in one or
several zones. [Q 1] If the system you use allows different layering schemes in different
zones, then by all means make a brief study of the vertical variogram ranges for facies
and properties within these zones. If your system supports only one layer scheme for the
entire model, youll have to settle on some optimum value for all facies and properties,
but if your system allows each zone to be layered independently, youll clearly be better
off.
The least interactive method involves simply filling in the critical parameters, such as
Range, Sill, and Nugget in the modeling dialogs themselves.
The Settings panel provides a semiinteractive method for creating variograms, but does
have the advantage that several variograms can be seen on the same display at once, [Q2]
and they are retained as graphic entities. Only limited transforms are available from the
Settings panel. In particular, normal score transforms are not available. However,
variogram maps are made in the Settings panel. [Q3]
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The most interactive and robust methodology resides in the Data Analysis menus, and
this is where most variograms are done. [Q4]
4.
After the sample variogram has been created, it will show up at the bottom of the
Input folder in the Petrel Explorer under the Variogram folder.
5.
If you then create a new Function window, you can display it as below: [Q 2]
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[Q 5]
Make Variogram
Icon
Use the Make Variogram icon to turn the experimental variogram into your own
variogram model by setting the parameters appropriately in the dialog which
appears:
7.
Each variogram model you create will appear in the data hierarchy under
Variograms, as well as graphically in the Function window.
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6.
1. Is it possible to set the lag and the search radius before making a variogram in
the Objects Setting location?  Y or N (Y)
2. Variograms made in the Objects Setting location can be viewed using a
__________ (Function) window.
3. Variograms made in the Objects Setting location are called ____________
(Sample) variograms
4. Can variograms made in the Objects Setting location be used in modeling
operations just as they are?
5. When viewing variograms from the function window, there is an icon on the
lower right which will let you convert the ____________ (sample or
experimental) variogram into a _____________ (variogram model).
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It is, however, possible, in most modeling dialogs, to refer to and use variograms created
in Data Analysis. See the Use the Variograms Made in Data Analysis icon, typically on
the same dialog row as the algorithm choice. If you use this icon, the modeling will
automatically assign the appropriate values for the variogram, although you will not be
able to see them from here.
Questions for review:
1. In the modeling dialog, can you create a variogram graphically? Y or N (N)
2. In the modeling dialog, variograms can be specified by simply typing in the
________(critical) values for the variogram.
Page: Variogram facilites in the Data Analysis tool preparing for discrete data
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7.
Click on Data Analysis in the Property Modeling section of the Process Diagram
Click on the Variograms tab.
Select an upscaled facies grid whose variogram you wish to compute.
Select the Zone you want (data outside of this zone will not be seen). [Q 2]
Unlock the parameters so they are visible
Click on Use the Raw Logs (we want a bigger sample than only the upscaled
logs). Note that variograms can also be made of the grid models for QC. [Q 3]
If you have chosen facies as your property, select which classification you want to
make the variogram for.
The next step is to simply follow the generic instructions for creating variograms, either
from the workflows outlined in the previous section, or below in the section called
Modeling the Variogram in Data Analysis.
Note on variograms for DISCRETE data
Even though all the raw data for one discrete facies class will have the same value, the
resulting variogram will provide valuable spatial information about its spatial distribution
in 3 dimensions for algorithms such as Sequential Indicator Simulation. These
variograms which are computed for discrete data are actually different than those for
continuous data.
1. Although the Data Analysis dialog gives the most robust tool for making
variograms, there is no way to point this tool to arbitrary grids and data sets in
your input folder T or F (T)
2. Can variograms be computed across zones? Y or N (N).
3. Can variograms of grids be created as well as from raw logs Y or N (Y).
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If you have gone to the trouble of making a facies model, and you have at least a
reasonable number of wells, then conditioning to facies, makes sense as an option
during the modeling step. Selection of this option causes the petrophysical data falling in
each facies to be treated independently during modeling. For example, if porosity were
the property being conditioned, and if the cell being evaluated had been classified as a
fine sandstone in the facies model, then only those porosity values associated with fine
sandstone would be used in the computation of porosity for that cell. This is called
segregation of data values by facies. If the modeling algorithm we choose requires a
variogram, then we must address the creation of variograms with respect to the facies
distribution as discussed below.
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[Q 1]
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In some cases, the points cannot be seen clearly until you drag the blue
curve all the way to the bottom.
Once you have the best experimental shape you can get, then
 Decide on the model Type (Exponential, Spherical, ...)
 Interactively drag the Nugget Point where you think it should be
 Interactively drag the Range Point where you think it should be
 Click Apply to save the major component.
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Compute experimental variogram for the minor direction and model it, if
anisotropic

This step is unnecessary if the major azimuth is 0.0; that is, when the
variogram is to be omnidirectional, or isotropic. Otherwise, click on
the Minor tab, then follow the same shapeoptimization and
modeling steps as for the major variogram, but note that youll not be
able to change the minor azimuth; it will always be normal to the
major azimuth.
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[Q 1]
as we discussed earlier. Recall that even though these variograms are available to the
modeling algorithms, neither the variogram, nor its parameters can be seen from there.
You must return to the Data Analysis dialogs to be able to see the variograms and their
parameters. [Q 2]
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The variograms you see in the Property and Facies Modeling dialogs are the default
variograms for modeling. When you click on the icon mentioned above, they have no
relation to the variogram which will be used in the modeling. [Q 3]