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A 3D Property Modeling Primer

Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
Overview
Part 1 Statistical Concpts
Part 2 Modeling Concepts
Part 3 Modeling Methodologies
Part 4 Variograms
Subject: Part 1 Statistical Concepts
Section: Introduction
Chapter: Introduction
Pages:
- Introduction
- Purpose of the Course
- Questions this Course Will Answer
Section: Basic Concepts and Terminology
Chapter: Basic Concepts & Terminology
Pages:
- Basic Concepts & Teriminology
- Some Simple Examples
Chapter: Descriptive & Analytical Tools
Pages:
- Preface
- Histograms
- Typical Uses of Histograms
- Univariate Statistics
- Typical Display & Uses of Univariate Statistics
- Crossplot
- Crossplot Examples
- H-Scatter Plots
- Variogram Cloud
- Variogram Clous Usage Example
- Variograms
- Why do We Need Variograms?
- Variogram Maps
- Using the Variogram Map

Subject: Part 2 Modeling Concepts


Section: Modeling Geometry
Chapter: 2D Grids
Pages:
- Basic Components
- Grid Nomenclature
- Grid Refinement
- 2D Grid Examples
Chapter: 3D Grids Property Models
Pages:
- Components of a 3D Model
- Example of a 3D Model
Chapter: 3D Grids Reservoir Models
Pages:
- Reservoir Models
- 3D Simulation Grids
- Structured Grids
- Unstructured Grid Geometry (FloGrid)
Section: Data Transformations During Modeling Operations
Chapter: Data Transformations
Pages:
- Thresholding
- Upscaling/Averaging
- Segregation
- Masking
- Removing a Trend
- Normal Score Transforms
- Weighting
Subject: Part 3- Modeling Methodologies
Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Algorithm Classifications
Pages:
- Introduction
- How Are Gridding Algorithms Classified?
- Kriging vs. Non-Kriging Algorithms
- Algorithms for Discrete vs. Continuous Data
- Deterministic Compared with Probabilistic Data
Chapter: Variogram Basics
Pages:
- Variogram Roles in Gridding & Geostatistics
- Facts to Remember About Variograms
Chapter: Terminology Used During Algorithm Descriptions
Pages
- Disclaimer

Chapter: Traditional Estimation Algorithms


Pages:
- Mechanics of 3D Traditional Estimation Algorithms
- A Survery of Traditional Methods
Chapter: Kriging Algorithms
Pages:
- Kriging Workflow
- The Mechanics of 3D Kriging
- Difference Between the Search & Variogram Range
Chapter: Anisotropy
Pages:
- What is Anisotropy?
- An Example of Anisotropy
Chapter: Survey
Pages:
- A Survey of Some Kriging Algorithms
Chapter: Simulation Algorithms
Pages:
- Simulation Algorithms
- Sequential Gaussian Simulation Continuous
- Sequential Indicator Simulation Discrete
- Truncated Gaussian Simulation Discrete
- Object Modeling

Section: Gridding Operations


Chapter: Gridding Guidelines
Pages:
- An Overview of the Property Modeling Workflow
Chapter: Algorithm Selection
Pages:
- How Do I Know Which Algorithms to Use With My
Data?
- Selecting an Algorithm for Discrete or Facies Modeling
- Selecting an Algorithm for Petrophysical Modeling
Chapter: Quality Control Procedures
Pages:
- Quality Control During Modeling
Chapter: Probability Options
Pages:
- How Probable Are My Models & Volumes?
- Selecting a Best Realization
Chapter: Comparative Table of Gridding Algorithms
Pages:
- Table of Gridding Algorithms
Section: Congratulations
Chapter: Congratulations
Pages:
- Congratulations
- Further Study

Subject: Part 4 Variograms


Section: Purpose of This Topic
Section: Review
Chapter: Review
Pages:
Section: The Big Picture

Review of basic facts experimental variogram


Review of basic facts variogram model
Review of Anisotropy
Review of Variogram Directions and Types

Chapter: Generic Workflows


Pages
- How do you make a variogram?
- How do you determine anisotropy?
- How do you use variograms to determine layer distance?

Chapter: Petrel-Specific Variogram Facilities


Pages
- Overview
- Variogram facilities in an objects Settings tab
- Variogram facilities in the modeling dialogs
- Variogram facilities in the Data Analysis tool
Preparing for variogramming discrete data.
Preparing for variogramming continuous
properties
Chapter: Petrel Interactive Tools and Icons for Making Variograms
Pages
- Lag, Azimuth, and Search Angle Icon
- Variogram Display
Chapter: Modeling the Variogram in the Petrel Data Analysis dialog
Pages
- Simple Petrel procedure
- Using the Variogram

Acknowledgements:
This primer could not have been written without the help of and previous documents
provided by:
Sujit Kumar
Doug Palkowsky
Sanjay Paranji
Leonid Shmaryan
Lothar Schulte
Drew Wharton
Overview:
This subject is too large for a single computer-based training model, and is therefore
subdivided into four major topics Statistical Concepts, Modeling and Geometrical
Concepts, Modeling Methodologies, and Variograms.
While variograms are discussed in general in the first three topics, the last topic provides
an independent summary as well as detailed instructions and workflows which are Petrelspecific.

Subject: Part 1 Statistical Concepts


Section: Introduction
Chapter: Introduction
Page title: Introduction

Ever read a book about geostatistics?

Glasses Can Help

Page title: Purpose of the Course


The three primary purposes of this course are:

1. Provide the student with a common sense generic background in geostatistical


concepts

How?

Use simple terminology, not mathematical notation


Use plain language, common sense analogies
Focus on mechanics of how to reach specific goals, not on proving or
demonstrating theorems
Recommend texts for deeper understanding to lead to creativity and true expertise

2. Provide the student with the vocabulary to become quickly productive with the tools in
any geostatistical software, including Modeling Office, Petrel, FloGrid, LPM,

What do we mean by productive?


PRODUCTIVE MEANS BEING ABLE TO DO THESE THINGS:

Understand the variety of statistical tools available for data analysis before and
after modeling.
Determine if there is a relationship between a property and a seismic attribute.
Understand the definition of a variogram and its uses in the grand scheme of
things.
Understand the variety of data transforms used in geostatistics and modeling.
Determine if your property values are directionally biased.
Visualize the grid geometries used in modeling from 2D gridding to simulation
Tell the difference between kriging and non-kriging algorithms
Tell the difference between deterministic and probabilistic algorithms
Understand the difference between facies modeling and petrophysical property
modeling
Understand the use of stochastic methods.
Learn how to use seismic attribute grids as secondary input data
Measure the QUALITY of geostatistical models by comparing statistics

3. Provide specific recommendations for modeling lithology and properties under various
conditions

Choose appropriate kriging and non-kriging estimation algorithms for modeling


based on data and reservoir characteristics.

Page Title: Questions This Course Will Answer


Here are some specific questions youll get answered in this course

Whats the advantage of using GeoStatistics?

Why are there so many kinds of kriging algorithms?

Whats the difference between kriging and non-kriging algorithms?

What are stochastic realizations?

What does a variogram actually show?

Is a variogram actually necessary?

Why do I have to make a vertical and a horizontal variogram?

What is the meaning of anisotropy?

What do I do if my data set has anisotropy?

How do I know if my computed model is OK?

Is there a recommended geostatistical modeling workflow for each property like


lithology, permeability, etc?

How can geostatistical algorithms help in the determination of probabilities?

Now that you know what this course is about, well move along to the first topic Basic
Concepts - Good Luck !

Subject: Part 1 Statistical Concepts


Section: Basic Concepts and Terminology
Chapter: Basic Concepts and Terminology
Page Title: Basic Concepts and Terminology

He used so many five and ten-dollar words in his lecture that now
Im completely broke...
- Mathematics student
I must say that words simply cannot describe what happened.
- Hairless caveman upon discovering fire
To make progress, we all need the right words. Here are a few of the more important ones
well need for learning about geostatistics.

Some simple concepts used in geostatistics

Variance - a measurement of how different the members of a collection are from


each other. (Measured in units of the collection). [Q 1]

Correlation - a way to measure whether two separate collections are related.


(Measured in percent). [Q 2]

Anisotropy - a way to measure whether variance within a collection of data is


determined by direction. (Measured in azimuth and percent eccentricity). [Q 3]

Probability a measurement of the likelihood of an event. (Measured in percent).


[Q 4]

A complicated concept used in geostatistics

Stationarity is simply an ASSUMPTION which is made regarding the rules for


behavior of the properties which we analyze, study, or model with geostatistical
tools.
The rule is simply that the property must behave consistently within the volume
chosen for analysis, study, or modeling. If it does not, then the geostatistical tools
which we use will not work properly. Stationarity assumes that a property behaves
the same way in all locations of the chosen volume; i.e., that the samples have no
inherent trend. If a trend exists, it must be removed before using certain algorithms.

Questions for review:


1. Which concept is used to quantify whether an event has any chance of happening?
[probability]
2. Which concept is concerned with simple differences between samples?
[variance]
3. Which concept gives a way of comparing two different attributes?
[correlation]
4. Which concept is concerned with direction?
[anisotropy]

Page Title: Some Simple Examples


Consider these simple examples:
Variance
Samples of porosity in a simple sandstone unit will show much less variance
than samples measured in a unit containing several sands and a shale.
Correlation
Values of some seismic attributes can show a strong correlation with
certain petrophysical properties.

values of

Anisotropic
My porosity data set is anisotropic because measurements towards the Northeast vary
much more than in other directions.
Probability
I would like to see those locations in my saturation model where there is a 70 percent
probability that values will be greater than 0.6.

Stationarity
Porosities in the same geological unit, but in different fluvial depositional
components may not exhibit stationarity as a group because the different particle
sorting mechanisms at work may cause the variance of the property in one facies to
behave in an entirely different fashion than in another facies It is for this very reason
that facies should be modeled first, then petrophysical properties modeled within facies.

Subject: Part 1 Statistical Concepts


Section: Basic Concepts and Terminology
Chapter: Descriptive and Analytical Tools
Page Title: Preface
Geostatistical data analysis tools rely on the traditional definitions of statistics, and give
us a way to measure, describe, and compare certain characteristics of our raw data and
the resulting models. Below you can see a display of the most common of these tools and
the way in which each presents its measurements to the user. We will discuss each of
these tools in more detail.

Histograms

Univariate Statistics

Variograms

Variogram Cloud

Crossplots

Variogram Map

Page Title: Histograms


Below, you see an example of a histogram. This histogram depicts the distribution of all
Porosity values of all well logs which fall in the Ness geological unit. What does this
histogram tell us?
[Q 1]

Note the components of a histogram

1. Each red-colored column represents a class (a range of values).


Example: Class 1 has a range of 0.0 to 0.04, Class 2 has a range of 0.04 to
0.08, etc. [X axis] [q 2]
2. The height of each column shows the number of points whose values fall in the
range of the class [Y-axis] [q 3]
3. The overall shape of the histogram shows how the data may be grouped
Example: The group of points in the first class are smaller and appear to be
independent of the rest of the data, suggesting that they could be excluded from
the higher, more useful values of this attribute.

Questions for review:


1. A histogram shows us a __________________ _________________ of the data.
[frequency distribution]
2. Each red column in the histogram example represents a _____________
of data. [range] or [class]
3. The height of each red column in the histogram example shows
4. [how many points fall in the class]

Page Title: Typical Uses of Histograms


[q 1]
1. For cleaning up of log data
a. look at the histogram of the original log data
b. if you note any clumping of data at either end of the histogram, as in the
very low values in the one above, you might want to remove and treat this
portion of the data differently, since it could represent a different facies.

2. For quality control after lumping or up-scaling of well logs.


a. look at the histogram of well logs for the property you will be mapping,
such as porosity
b. lump the data or upscale the logs
c. look at the histogram of the lumped or upscaled logs; it should have the
same characteristics as the original data. If not, the lumping or upscaling
operation did not preserve the character of the data
3. For quality control after modeling
a. using the histogram of the lumped, or upscaled data as the criteria, make
sure that the histogram of the model (3d grid) maintains the same
character
b. if not, a different algorithm might need to be chosen

Questions for review:


1. Name one good use of histograms.
[clean up of log data], [qc after upscaling], [qc after modeling]

Page Title: Univariate Statistics


This set of measurements is simply a way of describing a particular data set with a series
of measurements which is unique to a single set of data which is assumed to represent
values for one variable; hence- univariate. Measurements include:

Measures of Size and Location such as


o Number of points, number of null values
o Minimum value, maximum value, mean value, median value, etc.

Measures of Distribution Spread such as


o IQR (inner quartile range)
This number shows the range of the middle 50% of the values.

variance
This number represents a measure of how different the data are; in
particular, it measures the probability that a data point will deviate from
the mean in this particular data set. Well learn more about variance in
a spatial context when we get to variograms [q 2]

standard deviation
This number is actually just the square root of the variance, and also is
used when describing how the distribution of data points vary from the
mean.

Measures of Distribution Shape such as


skew which measures how much data distribution deviates to the right or
left of a normal distribution: [q 1]

Questions for Review:


1. Skew is a measurement of Size and Location T/F (F)

2. Variance is a measure of how different the data values are. T/F (T)

Page Title: Typical Display and Uses of Univariate


Statistics

A typical display of univariate statistics in report format might look like this:
[q 1]

Typical uses of univariate Statistics

1. It is not uncommon to use the univariate statistics of a data set as its signature.
When voluminous data sets must be managed and manipulated, naming
conventions are sometimes forgotten, but the data signature inherent in these
measurements can be used to identify a particular data set unambiguously. [q 2]
2. In geostatistical modeling, monitoring the univariate statistics of a particular data
set as it goes through this transformation or another lets you determine if the
transformation went according to plan or not

Questions for review:


1. Univariate statistics are usually presented in what format?
(graphic)
2. Taken in combination, univariate statistics can be a unique ____ of a data set.
(signature)

Page Title: Crossplot


What does a Crossplot show?

Specifically, it displays the values of two variables measured at the same location
[q 1]
o vertical axis is first variable, horizontal axis is second.

Reveals the degree of correlation between the two variables by the shape of the
data cloud. [q 2]

Look for the cloud of points to form a shape, or even a line to indicate significant
levels of correlation. [q 3]

Very strong postitive


When one variable
increases, the
other increases

Strong negative

No correlation

When one variable


increases, the other
decreases

Questions for Review:


1. How many variables are depicted in a simple 2D crossplot? (2)
2. Specifically, what does the crossplot reveal? (Degree of correlation)
3. What do you look for in the crossplot which indicates a strong relationship is
present between two variables? (Points form a shape)

Page Title: Crossplot Examples


In general, we can use crossplots to see if there is a significant relationship between two
or three variables, especially when the primary variable is under-sampled in some of the
areas where you want to map it.
For example, assume the following:
Saturation logs exist only in the North of the reservoir we wish to map. Through study
of the seismic attributes, we have an idea that the seismic attribute reflection strength is
related to saturation in a particular zone. If, indeed, we can show that saturation and
reflection strength are strongly related, then in those areas of the reservoir where we do
not have any data for saturation, we use reflection strength as a surrogate value,
completing the map in all locations.
Gather the data
A requirement for making a crossplot is that we have a reasonably large set of pairs of
values where both target variables have been measured at the same geographic location.
For example, a grid of saturation values and another grid of reflection strength could
be used, as long as the two grid geometries are identical. Alternatively a well log of
saturation values and another synthetic log of reflection strength from the seismic
volume would work as well.
In making the crossplot, one of the variables is called the primary, and the other is called
the secondary. Typically, the secondary will be the surrogate attribute.
Make the crossplot
When the two attributes are plotted on the crossplot, in Petrel, for example, look for a
significant relationship, as defined by a focusing of points along some narrow shape,
either curved or straight, preferably thin and narrow. We go through this exercise with the
data making the following assumption:

The primary data value at one location can be predicted (calculated) from a
single value of the secondary variable at the same location.
Formulate the relationship
It is the job of the crossplot to show IF a relationship exists, and how strong it is. If a
relationship is found, then the next step is to formulate the mathematics of the correlation.
Essentially, we must know how to calculate a reasonable value of the primary variable at
some location from a value of the secondary variable at the same location what is the
formula? Software typically takes care of this, for example, Petrel or LPM. [q 1]

Use the relationship in modeling


The final step is to make use of both the primary and the secondary data sets and the
relationship between them in a modeling operation which will produce the desired result.
The desired result is that the primary attribute will be defined over its original area as
well as the area covered by the secondary variable. When Petrel is used for the modeling
operation, many of the steps involved are automated. Note that you must choose an
algorithm which actually does allow the input of a second data set. [q 2]

Questions for review:


1. When a relationship is formulated, what kind of function is created? (mathematical)
2. Modeling with correlated data sets requires you to choose an algorithm which
allows __________. (a secondary data set)

Page Title: Variance Cloud

This is actually a first step in the creation of a variogram.


[q 1]
Finds all point pairs for each distance (lag) classification
Computes the variance for each point pair
Shows the variance (how different the points are) for each pair within
each classification to help explain the final variogram shape
The final variogram is simply the average of the variance for each
distance class. [q 2] The distance class ranges are not shown here.

Variance

Variance cloud

.804
.603
.402

.201

Separation
8.25

16.4

24.6

32.8

Questions for Review:

1. What step is the variogram cloud in the sequence of variogram creation?


[first step}
2. The final variogram shows the ___________________ of the variances in each
of the distances classes.
[average]

Page Title: Variance Clouds Usage Example


The variance cloud as depicted above cannot be generated in Schlumberger software at
the moment; however, Petrel offers a variation of this which is very useful. In the
diagram below from Petrel, we see that a histogram of the variance cloud has
been superimposed over the final experimental variogram. [q 1]

The advantage of this display is that it gives a relative weight to each experimental
variogram point by showing you how many point pairs were used in its calculation. In
those cases where only one or two pairs contributed to a final variogram value, then that
value might be ignored when fitting the model to the variogram.
[q 2]
The histogram is useful, but being able to see the results of the specific pairs of points is
even more useful, especially if there is any facility for identifying actual well names,
which might even lead to the correction of errant logs.

Questions for Review:


1. Petrel cannot display a variogram cloud, but can display a____________ based on the
variogram cloud values. [histogram]
2. Does the information displayed by Petrel allow the user to see the number of point
pairs used to compute the final values, or the actual variance value for each pair?
[number]

Page Title: Variograms

The input to a variogram is a set of data points from which a model is to be


computed - for example, a set of porosity well logs. Variograms should be made
from the original or thresholded logs, not the averaged or upscaled logs.
A variogram is a plot of variance (Y) versus distance class (X)
Variance measures how different a set of points are, one from the other.
Based on how far apart two points are, a variogram will show how different they
can be expected to be
[q 3]
A basic assumption in geostatistics is that the closer two points are, the more
similar their values will be
The variogram measures unique characteristics about a data sets variance, such
as its Range, Sill, and Nugget, which are defined below.

.
How is a variogram computed?

First, find all point pairs in all distance classes (lags). For example, find all those
pairs of points which are 10 meters apart, put them in a bin, then find all pairs of
points which are 50 meters apart, put them in another bin, etc
For each bin, compute the variance for each pair of points in the bin (class).
Now, average all the variance values into one number for each bin.
Plot the average variance for each class as depicted by the black points below.
These points make up what is called the experimental variogram.
Let the user fit a curve thru the experimental variogram to create variogram
shape, as depicted by the simple curve in the diagram below.

Range

Sill
[q 1]
[q 2]
Nugget = y-intercept, if any

The range, sill, and nugget are the three most revealing characteristics of the variogram.
The Range shows the distance where spatial relationships between data points cease. In
other words, two data points which are further apart than the Range have only a random
relationship.
The Sill is the variance at the Range.
A non-zero Nugget indicates that there are very close data points which are not very
similar.

Questions for Review:


1. The value on the X-axis of a variogram represent
[distance class or separation distance]
2. The values on the Y-axis of a variogram represent
[variance or semivariance]
3. Variance measures how _____________ points are.
[different]

Page Title: Why do we need variograms?


Reason 1 Variograms are required for many algorithms [q 1]
If you choose a Kriging algorithm, or certain other geostatistical algorithms for modeling,
you must have a variogram. In most cases, a default variogram will be available, making
it unnecessary to actually create and shape the variogram, but still, a variogram is
required for many of the algorithms because the variogram becomes the primary
weight function during modeling.
Reason 2 To determine the natural heterogeneity or inherent granularity of the
data in the vertical direction [q 1]
It turns out that the Range of the Vertical variogram is a good candidate for the layering
increment within a particular zone. We want a layer thickness which will allow
differences in facies to be seen.

Top
Layering is Vertical cell
size in the 3D model
Base

Reason 3 To determine if there is anisotropy in the horizontal direction [q 1]

Tools are available during the creation of the horizontal variogram which allow you to
establish if anisotropy exists and the measure it.

Reason 4 To have another quality control measurement for comparison


before and after modeling operations [q 1]
As you analyze, edit, threshold, and model your data, the variogram just like the
histogram is an excellent tool for making sure that the characteristics of the data are
preserved after each modeling operation. For example, the variogram of the upscaled well
logs and the variogram of the 3D model should be similar, if you are to assume that the
proper algorithm was used.

Questions for Review:


1. Name two reasons to make a variogram.
[Its required
to determine vertical heterogeneity
to determine horizontal anisotropy
to verify QC measurements]

Page Title: Variogram Maps

Uses the same information as computed in a variogram


Reorganizes the point pairs in a geographic 2D sense by E/W and N/S separation
distance
Produces a contour of the 2D variance surface for unambiguous detection of the
direction and extent of anisotropy. If anisotropy exists, then you will see ovalshaped contours whose high or low will be in the center of the map. Think of the
oval contours as sets of small to large-sized ellipses whose major axis shows the
major direction of anisotropy.
The map is symmetrical and reversed on either side of the major axis of
anisotropy as in the example below:
[q 1]

Questions for review:


1. What strong geometric characteristic does a variogram map have?
[Symmetry]

Page Title: Using the Variogram Map


The variogram map provides a highly automated way to determine whether or not a data
set has anisotropy or not.
[q 1]
It performs several single variogram functions at one time. The anisotropic direction, if
present, can be seen quickly and clearly measured. If available, it should be the first thing
done when investigating horizonal variograms, since so much information can be
revealed at once.
[q 2]

Review Questions
1. Is the variogram map a more automated or less automated way to discover
anisotropy?
[more]
2. If available, a variogram map should be the Initial or Final operation in making
the horizontal variogram?
[Initial]

Subject: Part 2- Modeling Concepts


Section: Modeling Geometry
Chapter: 2D Grids
Page Title: What are the components of a 2D Faulted Model?
The components of a 2D Faulted model are:
1. Grid
[q 1]
2. Fault Traces
3. Interpolator

[q 1]

The interpolator is a grid-based algorithm which can compute the value of the grid at
any arbitrary location. It is this software interpolator which allows you to think of the
grid as continuous and existing between the grid nodes, even in the interpolator zone.

2D grids can be refined


Z-values are located at the nodes (intersection of row/columns lines) [q 2]
Grid geometry is everywhere perpendicular
[q 4]
Number of grid nodes across any fault face depends on the width of the fault
zone. [q 3]

Singlevalued grid
nodes

Extrapolation zone

Fault Face

Upthrown fault trace

Downthrown fault trace

Downthrown
horizon block

Review Questions
1. What are the 2 real components of a 2D model? (Grid and Faults)
2. Where are the grid values located in a 2D model? (Grid nodes)
3. The number of grid nodes across any fault face in the 2D grid is determined by?
(Width of fault zone)
4. The geometry of 2D grids is everywhere _____________? (Perpendicular)

Page Title: Grid Nomenclature


R
o
w
Column

4.....

[q 3,4]
Ymax

2
One grid cell

[q 5]

Small cells mean high resolution


Large cells mean low resolution

3
.
.
.

Fault Trace [q 1]
Used to segregate data points

Data Points

One grid node


Nodes area at the intersections of
the lines . Values are computed for
each node, if possible, from
surrounding data points

Ymin
Xmin

Once the grid node values are computed, the data points are redundant.
The 2D model consists of the grid and the faults.
The 2D grid is a collection of X, Y, and Z (elevation) points, but only one Z can be stored
for one X, Y location. [q 2]
Row/column numbering is shown with respect to CPS-3 conventions.

Xmax

Questions for review:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fault traces are used to ___________________ data points. (segregate)


How many Z-values can be stored for one X, Y location in a 2D grid? (only 1)
Columns are numbered from ______ to ______ in CPS-3 convention. (left, right)
Rows are numbered from ______ to ______ in CPS-3 convention (top, bottom)
Smaller grid cells cause a/an ____________in model resolution. (increase)

Page Title: Grid Refinement


Grid refinement is typically a 2D operation, with 3D modeling systems tending towards
cellular models, where only one value per cell is allowed, and cells are unable to be
refined. It is grid refinement which allows a 2D grid-based model to be thought of as
existing everywhere, even though grid values exist only at row/column intersections. As
evidenced by contours, which are traced across all locations of the model, a 2D grid is
always thought of as a continuous surface, rather than a collection of cellular blocks.
Refinement typically occurs in discrete multiples, i.e., refinement by two, by three, etc..
Below is a depiction of an original 5 column by 6 row grid which was refined by three,
i.e. each cell was subdivided into three sub-cells. The new grid is composed of both the
dark lines and the dotted lines and has 13 columns and 16 rows. The extra cells are
computed only from the original cells. Original data is not used. The extra cells give the
model a smoother, and in many cases, a more accurate quality up to a point. [q 1, 2, 3].
R
O
W
COLUMN

1
1

Questions for Review


1. Refinement allows the 2D model to be thought of as existing ___________.
(everywhere)
2. A refined grid is _______________ than its original version (smoother)
3. 3D grids typically cannot be refined (T/F). (T)

Page Title: 2D Grid Examples


In this view of a 2D grid displayed in a 3D volume, the continuity and refinement are still
apparent.

Likewise, in this traditional manifestation of the 2D grid through contouring, we see that
the lateral variation of 2D grids can be broken into many levels by the use of refinement,
which, in many 3D systems is not available.

Below is another figure which shows how the light blue lattice of the 2D grid cells are
typically refined for purposes of contouring, in contrast to the geo-cellular 3D grid below
it, whose cells are typically not refined during display. They are not refined since the
concept is that only a single geo-cellular value exists at the center of each cell, whereas
the values in the 2D grid are assumed to exist at the corners.

Subject: Part 2- Modeling Concepts


Section: Modeling Geometry
Chapter: 3D Grids Property Models
Page Title: Components of a 3D Model
What are the components of a 3D geo-cellular Model?
1. Grid Cells and Values
2. Fault Blocks (Fault Segments in Petrel)
3. Units (Zones in Petrel)
4. Layers
Typically, the cells cannot be refined and so the grid-based interpolator used by the 2D
grid geometries is not needed. Also the fault blocks are pre-defined in 3D models so that
fault traces and grid-based interpolation is not needed for those reasons, too. [q 5]










Grids are geometrically partitioned by Fault Block, as well as by Zones


(Units) [q 2]
Zones are subdivided by Layers [q 3]
Grid has X, Y, Z, A components, where A is the attribute being modeled.
Originating 2D structure grids provide the initial geometry [q 1]
Cells are still basically rectilinear in X,Y, although truncated by the faults
Sides of cells are typically orthogonal except at faults
3D grids do not allow refinement
3D grids do not require fault traces
A single value is positioned at the center of each cell [q 4]

Cell value
in center
Layers

Unit or
Zone

Block 1

Block 2

Review Questions
1. The initial geometry for 3D grids is typically provided by __________. (2D
structure grid)
2. 3D grids are partitioned by __________ and _________. (fault block and zone)
3. 3D grid zones are subdivided into _______. (layers)
4. Values for 3D grids are typically located at __________________. (the center of
the cells).
5. Why are fault traces not needed for 3D models? (fault blocks are predefined)

Page Title: Example of 3D model


An example of a 3D facies grid showing the inherent granularity of 3D grids compared to
2D grids.

Subject: Part 2- Modeling Concepts


Section: Modeling Geometry
Chapter: 3D Grids Reservoir Models
Page Title: Reservoir Models
Components are basically the same as for 3D Property grids. The biggest
difference is the orientation and shape of the cells whose purpose now is to
not only honor the structure, but the flow within it. [q 1,2]

Faces of cells oriented along faults, perpendicular to FLOW [q 3]

Faces of cells also oriented radially around wells, when needed.

2D structure grids provide basic geometry

Model is organized by fault blocks

Attribute value in center of cell

Zones or Units are subdivided into layers

Sides of cells may or may not be vertical

No fault traces required

No refinement

3D
Flow
Vector
Layers

Today, a 200,000-cell grid is an average grid for simulation.


A 500,000-cell grid is considered large.
[q 4]
A 200K-cell grid is a cube 60 cells on a side.

Review Questions
1. The purpose of the simulation grid is to model ________. (flow)
2. One major difference between simulation grids and property grids is the
______________________ and ____________________ of cells. (orientation and
shape)
3. Faces of cells in a simulation grid are ideally oriented _____________ to the fluid
flow. (perpendicular or normal)
4. Today, an average sized simulation grid has about _____________cells.
(200,000).

Page Title: 3D Simulation Grids


There are two basic types of simulation grids, structured and unstructured. [q 1]
Structured grids are the most commonly used; unstructured grids are used only
occasionally.
Structured grid geometry (FloGrid):

Cell edges are vertical, but faults can be sloped


Grid is distorted in X,Y to honor faults
Tops and bases follow geological model
Cells are typically 6-sided
Viewed in plan view, grid is relatively homogeneous wrt cell size
Structured grids have a fixed number of rows, columns, and layers. [q 2]

Questions for Review:


1. What are the two basic types of simulator grids? (structured and unstructured)
2. Structured grids have a _________number of rows, columns, and layers. (fixed)

Page Title: Structured Grids

Two types of Structured Grids

1. Block Center

[q 1]

Flow connections are center to center


Cells are always rectilinear and
orthogonal
No information about the geometry of
neighbor cells
FloGrid does not use this.

2. Corner Point

[q2]

Flow connections are face to face


Geometry of neighbor cells are known

Questions for Review:


1. In Block Center grids, flow is assumed to be from ________ to ________. (center
to center)
2. In Corner Point grids, flow is assumed to be from ________ to _______ . (face
to face)

Page Title: Unstructured Grid Geometry (FloGrid)


Unstructured grids can model flow more accurately, especially relative to a particular
object or feature, but are time-consuming to define and use.
Unstructured Grid Geometry (FloGrid):

Cell edges are generally vertical, but faults can be sloped


In plan view, cells may not be homogeneous with respect to shape. (dense in
some places, sparse in others) [q 1]
Honors flow orthogonality not only at faults, but at wells.
Use is not as common as structured grids.

Review Questions
1. When viewed in plan view, an unstructured grid cells may not be
________________ in shape. (homogeneous, consistent)

Subject: Part 2- Modeling Concepts


Section: Data Transformations During Modeling Operations
Chapter: Data Transformations

Page Title: Thresholding


Transform Name THRESHOLDING
Description: Remove/ignore borehole values below specified Min/Max Cutoffs
[q 1]
Workflow:
Load boreholes
Use previously decided cutoffs or verify cutoffs with histogram
Use thresholding tool to reset the Min and Max

Question for review:


1. Thresholding will _________ values along a borehole along some specified limit.
(remove or ignore)

Page Title: Upscaling


Transform Name UPSCALING or AVERAGING by CELL
Description: Average the borehole values falling in the same cell

[q 1]

Workflow
Define number of layers in unit (correlation scheme)
Load boreholes
Pick best averaging technique for the original or thresholded data
Upscale the data, specifying the averaging method.
Each cell contains one averaged value, while there may be hundreds of values
along the borehole.

Red circle represents upscaled data, one point


per cell (horizontal subdivision of a layer)

Upscaled well logs from Petrel

Question for review:


1. Upscaling averages borehole values which fall in the same_______. (cell)

Page Title: Segregation


Transform Name SEGREGATION
Description: For model quality, data is segregated by fault block so that grid values
[q 1]
computed in one block will use data only from that block.
Another example of segregation is during Sequential Gaussian Simulation in Petrel, were
the input data such as porosity logs are optionally segregated by lithology.
Workflow
This is an option selected during Population (gridding)

Questions for Review:


1. Data is segregated by fault block to control the ___________ of the model.
(quality)
2. Porosity data can be segregated by lithology because porosity may behave
differently in different facies T/F. (T)

Page Title: Masking


Transform Name MASKING
Description: Discrete grid values from one grid can define a location template to
determine where to populate an output grid. For example, during Sequential Gaussian
Simulation in Petrel, an existing facies grid can be used as a look-up table, so to speak,
during petrophysical modeling to tell the algorithm when it is gridding at a channel
location, or a fine sandstone location, etc.
Workflow
Create a masking grid with discrete values at those locations where you want an
attribute computed, for example, at particular facies locations. [q 1]
Pick the masking option when specifying output grid during population, or when
performing the grid to grid operation.

Questions for Review:


1. Masking can be used to control the __________ where certain operations are
performed. (location).

Page Title: Removing a Trend


Transform Name REMOVING A TREND
Description: As you will learn, Kriging algorithms make certain assumptions about their
input data sets. In particular, the assumption of stationarity (another expensive word
which, for our purposes can just mean behaving everywhere in the same manner) [q 1]
insists that there be no inherent trend exhibited by a data set if it is to be Kriged properly.
Thus, one of the most common data transforms to perform in 3D modeling is to remove
the trend from data sets before making the final variograms and modeling with a Kriging
algorithm. The workflow is shown below.
Workflow
Before Kriging any data set, determine if it has a trend by either inspecting its
histogram or variogram for horizontal convergence to a sill, or by some other
means. [q 2]
If a trend is identified, then remove the trend using the appropriate tool within the
software, krig the data, and add the trend back into the result. Note that this
operation is not to be confused with attemping to make use of an external trend
during modeling

Determine if
a trend exists
in the data

Remove the
trend
Make the final

variogram
Krig the data
Add the trend
back into the
result

Trend removal is also discussed more in detail in the section which describes Kriging
algorithms.

Do not confuse the removal of a trend from a data set with various Kriging algorithms
such as Kriging with an External Trend. They are separate concepts. [q 3]
Questions for Review:
1. Removing a trend from a data set ensures that ______________ is maintained
(stationarity).
2. You can use either a _____________or a ______________ to determine if a data
set has an inherent trend.
3. Kriging with an External Trend is the best way to remove a trend from a data set.
(T/F) (F)

Page Title: Normal Score Transform


Transform Name NORMAL SCORE TRANSFORM
Description: Some Kriging algorithms require your data to be in a normal distribution
before the algorithm will work properly. An example is Sequential Gaussian Simulation.
Petrel provides a simple way of doing this for you and will automatically perform the
inverse transform on the output. A data set which has been transformed to a normal
distribution will have a mean of 0.0 and a standard deviation of 1.0. It is easy to identify
data such as this with a simple histogram. The first histogram below shows data in its raw
state, the second shows the same data after being transformed to normal score format.
[q 1, q 2, q 3]

Questions for Review:


1. The mean of data which is in Normal Score format is equal to ____. (0.0)
2. An example of a kriging algorithm which requires the data to be in a normal
distribution is __________________(SGS)

Page Title: Weighting


Transform Name WEIGHTING

0 lbs.

Weight as a
function of
height
above the
earth

199.9 lbs.

200 lbs.

In modeling, individual data points are typically weighted (given more or less
importance) during many calculations.

Description: Input data collected during gridding or population operations is typically


weighted by distance before it is used to calculate a value for the grid node. The
weighting scheme ensures that data points which are closer to the grid node being

computed have more weight than far points. Close points are assumed to be more
representative of the attribute being mapped than points which are further away. Attribute
values of none of the points are changed, they are simply given more or less importance,
based on their distance from the node. [q 1, q 2, q 3]

Data points

Distance to data point


determines weight.
Grid node to be
computed

As you can tell by the shape of the weight curve, most of the weight is given to very close
points, and little weight is given to further points.

HIGH
WEIGHT

Close
Points
Have
Higher
Weights

Further points have


Lower weights

LOW
WEIGHT
CLOSE POINTS

FAR POINTS

Questions for Review:


1. Points used in the calculation of grid values are typically weighted as a function
of ____________ (distance).
2. Far points have _______weights, near points are assigned ________weights.
(low, high).
3. When weighting data points, the algorithms raise or lower the original value,
based on the weight assigned. T/F (F).

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Algorithm Classifications
Page Title: Introduction
In this section, well talk about the geostatistical algorithms which compute 3D facies and
property grids. Gridding is sometimes referred to as population.
Gridding, or population is the process by which randomly-spaced data samples
of some property are transformed into a complete model in the form of an organized
3d grid lattice.

Well Logs
2d grids
3d grids
Constants

Input
Data

algorithm

model

Page Title: How Are Gridding Algorithms Classified?

Geostatistical algorithms vs. Traditional algorithms:


Most of the algorithms well be discussing here fall in the category of geostatistical
algorithms, including Kriging and Simulation. These algorithms include standard
statistical techniques in their operation. There are also non-geostatistical
algorithms available such as Nearest Neighbor, Distance To Nearest Neighbor,
Inverse Distance, and Inverse-Distance Cogridding.

Kriging algorithms vs. Non-kriging algorithms


Kriging is one type of geostatistical algorithm which has many variants. The
traditional algorithms listed above are typically non-kriging algorithms. We will
see what this means later. [q 1]

Continuous vs. discrete properties


Some algorithms are designed specifically for discrete, tabular data values, such a
rock type, facies or lithology codes. Other algorithms are designed for continuous
data such as porosity. [q 2]

Estimation (Deterministic) algorithms vs. Simulation (Probabilistic) algorithms


The mechanics of Estimation algorithms are totally different than Simulation
algorithms. Deterministic algorithms try to create a model which follows the data
literally, while the Probabilistic algorithms create a model which if faithful to the
statistical characteristics of your data. One of the biggest decisions to make is to
choose which one to use for a particular property or facies. [q 3]

Single or multiple data set


Many algorithms will allow the specification of a secondary, correlated data set.
This is particularly useful when the primary data set is sparse and correlated data
exists which covers a larger area. An example of this would be the situation where
you have very few wells for your primary data, but you have one or more seismic
attributes which can be correlated with the property you wish to model. [q 4]

Review Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Traditional algorithms are typically non-kriging algorithms. T/F (T).


Facies logs would be considered to be __________data. (discrete)
Probabilistic algorithms are synonymous with _______ algorithms (simulation).
Some algorithms allow you to use more than one _________ . (data set)

Page Title: More About Kriging and Non-Kriging Algorithms


What are the Differences between Kriging and Non-Kriging Algorithms?
The comparison below applies only to the modeling of petrophysical properties, not
structure.

Kriging algorithms use variograms to guide the weighting of the data points;
non-kriging algorithms do not.

Kriging algorithms allow valid statements to me made relative to the


probability of the results of certain calculations; non-kriging algorithms
typically do not. [q 3]

Kriging algorithms produce grids whose variance is minimized; typically


non-kriging algorithms do not. As a result of this characteristic, kriging
algorithms tend to produce grids whose values remain within the range of the
data whereas non-kriging algorithms sometimes tend to project slopes
inherent in the data. [q 1]

Kriging algorithms tend to produce grids which preserve the percentages of


data ranges inherent in the original data.

Kriging algorithms will decluster two close data points, providing better
weighting for both; non-kriging algorithms do not. [q 2]

Kriging always accommodates anisotropic weighting; only a few non-kriging


algorithms will do this.

Kriging allows for a variety of alternative extrapolation algorithms to


cover grid areas having only very sparse data.; in general, non-kriging
algorithms have only one alternative.

Non-kriging algorithms tend to be simpler to use, not requiring the creation of


a variogram.

Kriged maps can appear noisy compared to maps made by non-Kriging


algorithms. This is because many non-Kriging algorithms have built-in
smoothing algorithms which are designed for more aesthetically pleasing
results, and may not take established probabilities into consideration.

Questions for review:


1. Kriging algorithms minimize the _____________ of the error. (variance).
2. Kriging algorithms will __________ close data points. (decluster).
3. When using kriging algorithms, accurate statements can be made about the
___________of certain results. (probability)
4. Non-Kriging algorithms do not use ________________ . (variograms)
5. Kriging algorithms are typically easier to use than non-Kriging
algorithms T/F. (F)

Page Title: More About discrete and continuous data


The most common properties to model with geostatistics are facies and petrophysical
properties. Discrete data is data whose values are based on a classification scheme
(0=floodplain, 1=levee, 2=channel sand), and continuous data is data whose values
represents real numbers, such as porosity, whose value can be in the range of zero to 1.0.
Most geostatistical operations distinguish between these two types of data, providing
separate algorithms for each type. For example, Sequential Indicator Simulation is a
type of simulation algorithm which should be used with discrete data, whereas
Sequential Gaussian Simulation is used for continuous data such as permeability or
porosity.

Review Questions:
1. Discrete data values are based on a _________. (classification scheme).
2. Sequential Gaussian Simulation is used for _______ data sets. (continuous).

Page Title: More about deterministic and probabilistic algorithms

 Deterministic (creates a single grid) [q 1]

 Deterministic algorithms are also called Estimation algorithms




Use this method when you have plenty of data

Examples: Nearest neighbor, inverse distance, kriging,


 Probabilistic (creates single or multiple grids) [q 1]
 Probabilistic algorithms are also called Simulation algorithms

Use this method when you have sparse data, or very complex facies [q 3]

Examples: Sequential Gaussian Simulation, Fluvial Simulation, Truncated


Gaussian Simulation
 Deterministic
These algorithms take the data values literally and assume that computed grid
values between data points have almost a geometric relationship with the points,
based only on z-values, slopes between points, and closeness to the node. No
attempt is made to preserve the distribution characteristics of the input data. This
means that the histogram of the computed grid values may or may not resemble the
histogram of the input data.


Probabilistic

These algorithms take the data values literally as well, but what happens in between
the points is a function of more statistical measurement such as frequency and
distribution of z-values, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the algorithm
uses a random technique in the selection of data for each computed grid node. A
fundamental characteristic of probabilistic grids is that, for any given data set and
its parameters, one output grid is equally probable (stochastic ) as the next. In
fact, it is common to generate multiple realizations (versions) of a property and
then study their differences and distributions to determine global probabilities as
the basis of the final model. [q 2], [q 5]

Advantages/ Disadvantages







 Deterministic
Advantages: Many to choose from/ Simple to use/ Intuitive [q 4]
Disadvantages: Tend to smooth out highs and lows/ Inappropriate for flow
simulation/ No probability information/ Tend to require plentiful data for good
models
 Probabilistic
Advantages: Works well even with sparse data/ Gives a more realistic model in the
case of sparse or difficult data/ Retains highs and lows/ Provides assessment of global
probability /Retains distribution character of the original data.
Disadvantages: More difficult to use/ Time consuming

Review Questions:
1. Deterministic algorithms typically create only _____grid, while probabilistic
algorithms create ____________grids. (one, multiple)
2. Multiple realizations simple means multiple __________. (versions)
3. Probabilistic algorithms are used when you have _________data (little).
4. One advantage of deterministic algorithms is that they are _________ (plentiful,
simple, intuitive)
5. Probabilistic algorithms typically involve a ________ generator (random number).

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Variogram Basics
Page Title: Variogram Roles in Gridding & Geostatistics

At this point in this primer, we will introduce only the most basic facts about variograms.
A separate sections of variograms will be presented later.

This portion of the


variogram curve
becomes the weight
function for
gridding

Above, we see a typical variogarm, a measure of variance with respect to distance


classes. We will not worry for the moment how to create a variogram, only what it is
used for by the gridding algorithms. We will be learning a lot more about variograms, but
for right now, all we need to know is
1. the variogram is created directly from the data to be used to create a model
2. the most important measurements shown by the variogram are
Range which shows that distance between data points where they cease
to have any statistical relationship
Sill which shows that value of the variance associated with the Range
where the variogram curve begins to flatten out.
Nugget which shows how well the data set honors the assumption that
close points will be very similar in value.

What part do variograms play in geostatistics?


It is not possible to discuss geostatistics without variograms. They are the basis of the
geostatistical algorithms and must be present for the algorithms to be useful. We can
summarize the need for variograms as follows:




They are required for geostatistical algorithms [q 1]


They are very useful as a data analysis tool for the following: [q 2]
 Determine layer thickness (using vertical variogram)
 Determine directions/degree of anisotropy (using horizontal variograms)
They are used as quality control tools to judge the quality of your model [q 2]

How are variograms used during gridding?


The mechanism of how to create variograms and how to use their analytical capabilities
will be covered as a separate topic. Here, we simply want to understand how they are
used by the algorithms.themselves. Think of a variogram as a packet of information
which helps assign weights to the data points used in the calculation of individual grid
values. In particular, variograms provide the following information:
1. a weight function for all data to be used in the calculation of grid values. This
weight function is defined in the three primary directions, X, Y, and Z. It can be
thought of as an ellipsoid.
2. the range in each direction (X, Y, and Z) for which the variogram weight
function is valid. These numbers represent the Major, Minor, and Vertical
Ranges. If most data collected to compute a grid values is further away than
these ranges, then the grid value is computed using an alternative method which
does not rely on the variograms weight function. [q 3]
Following will be a few more important facts about variograms which you should know
before we can continue with the comparison of 3D modeling algorithms. You will learn
the mechanics of making variograms in a later section.

Question for Review:


1. We need variograms because they are _________ for geostatistical algorithms
(required).
2. The variogram serves as both _________ and_________ tools during modeling.
(data analysis and quality control)
3. The variogram has a range in each _____________ for which a weight function
is required. (direction)

Page Title: Facts to Remember about Variograms


In order to continue our discussion of geostatistical algorithms before going into a major
discussion of variogramming, it is only necessary to make sure that we remember the
following simple facts about variograms.

This portion of the


variogram curve
becomes the weight
function for
gridding

Variogram Fact #1
The RANGE of the variogram is that distance where data points in your data
set begin to LOSE AUTO-CORRELATION. Stated another way, points in
your data set which are closer together than the RANGE have a spatial
significance in the correlation of their values, but points which are further apart
do not. [q 1]

Variogram Fact #2
That portion of the variogram curve from zero Distance out to the RANGE,
when inverted, becomes the weight function used internally by geostatistical
algorithms when computing grid node values. Data which is further than the
RANGE to the grid node being computed uses a different weighting scheme.
[q 2]

Variogram Fact #3
The variogram RANGE and the SEARCH RANGE which is specified for a
particular gridding operation are two separate concepts. The variogram
RANGE has already been described. The SEARCH RANGE specifies how
far away from a grid node data will be collected for use in the gridding. The
user sets this value. Data further than the SEARCH RANGE will not be used.
As suggested above, data closer than the RANGE SEARCH, but further than
the variogram RANGE is handled differently. Clearly, the SEARCH RANGE
should be LARGER than or equal to the variogram RANGE. [q 3]

Variogram Fact #4
In 3D geostatistical modeling, three variograms are defined for each data set
to be modeled one in the vertical direction and two in the horizontal
direction. If the data is isotropic (having no natural directional bias), then the
two horizontal variograms are the same. Together, the ranges of these three
variograms define a three-dimensional ellipsoidal weight function which is
used by the geostatistical component of the chosen algorithm.

Vertical Range

Minor Horizonal Range


M ajor Horizontal Range

Conceptual ellipsoid formed by the 3 variogram ranges

Review Questions Variogram Basics


1. The variogram range is that distance within your data set where the individual points
begin to lose ___________________ . (autocorrelation)
2. That portion of the variogram curve from zero out to the Range is inverted and then
becomes the ____________________ during gridding. (weight function).
3. The _________range determines how much data is collected to use in gridding a
particular note, but the _____________range determines when the weighting scheme
changes. (search, variogram)

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Terminology and Diagrams Used During Description of
Algorithms
Page Title: Disclaimer

Disclaimer
Those of you who have attained a good understanding of geostatistics, and maybe even
GSLIB, will recognize that some of the depictions of gridding mechanics appear
oversimplified, especially from a programming or data management point of view. Our
intent here is to present large building-block concepts that can be quickly understood and
allow the student to become effective with the tools. We do not presume to trace the
actual structure and organization of grid-building computer code, nor the fine details of
internal data manipulations or programming techniques.

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Traditional Estimation Algorithms
Page Title: Mechanics of 3D Traditional Estimation Algorithms
A simple view of the mechanics of 3D Traditional estimation algorithms is given below:








Position at a location where a value requires computation (grid node within some
selected zone.
Collect points in the search zone (defined by the user in various ways) [q 1]
In this example, the Search Distance, D, is a Horizontal Search Range. The
search thickness, T, is measured vertically.
Weight the collected points by distance from the grid node. [q 2]
Compute the value of the grid node using the selected algorithm and parameters.
Move to the next node and repeat the process
If a minimum number of points are not found inside the Search Zone, the node
value becomes null.

Search zone

T
W

D
0.23

Grid node to
be calculated

Data points

Questions for Review:


1. Points used in the calculation of the node are collected in the _______zone.
(search).
2. Collected points are weighted by their_________from the node to be computed
(distance)..

Page Title: A Survey of Some Traditional Estimation Algorithms

Nearest Neighbor
Each grid node takes on the value of the closest collected point. [q 3]
Used for Lithology, Rock Type





Distance to Nearest Neighbor


Each grid node takes the value of the distance to the closest collected point.
Not really a population algorithm, but used for calculations and analysis




Inverse Distance
Each grid node takes the value of a distance-weighted average of all points collected
within the search limit. A variable power parameter determines the weighting at
maximum, the algorithm gives a distance-irrelevant simple average, at minimum, it is
equivalent to the nearest neighbor. Anywhere in between, points closer to the node to
be computed are weighted higher and further points are weighted lower.




Inverse Distance Cogridding


If the primary data to be gridded is sparse, then the grid of a secondary, correlated
data set can be used to help guide the gridding of the primary data. If the secondary
data, for example has been shown to be correlated to the primary data, then the
system will automatically compute the correlation function and transform the
secondary data to the domain of the primary.
When both primary and secondary data are available within the set of collected points
during gridding, then the secondary data is weighted lower than the primary. Other
than simply providing more data with secondary weighting, this algorithm works the
same as the inverse distance algorithm.




Review Questions Non-Kriging Estimation Algorithms

1. In the Nearest Neighbor algorithm, each node takes the value of the _________ collected
point. (closest)

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Kriging Algorithms
Page Title: Kriging Workflow
In this section, well talk specifically about Kriging algorithms, but before discussing the
actual mechanics of the algorithm, well note that in contrast to non-Kriging algorithms,
more data preparation or transformation may be required. For this reason, well show you
first about two common transformations that are typically performed on the data before
these algorithms are used.
Requirement to remove trends
Kriging algorithms make certain assumptions about their input data sets. In particular, the
assumption of stationarity insists that there be no inherent trend exhibited by a data set
if it is to be Kriged properly. Stationarity is another one of those imposing words which
can usually be replaced with a more natural and understandable word or phrase such as,
in this case, behaving everywhere in the same manner. Because of the likelihood of the
need for data transforms, most 3D modeling software provides a tool to remove the trend
from a data set. To tell if the data has such a trend, histograms or variograms of the raw
data can be displayed for analysis. If the histogram is skewed (mean or median does
not fall in the center), then this can be an indication of an inherent trend. As you will also
learn when studing variograms, any variogram which does not flatten out horizontally
towards the right may also mean that the data probably has a trend in it. Petrel has a Data
Analysis dialog which makes the determination of such trends and their removal in
advance of modeling quite easy. See below.

A typical workflow for Kriging might follow these steps:

Before Kriging any data set, determine if it has a trend by either inspecting its
histogram or variogram for horizontal convergence to a sill, or by some other
means. [q 1]
If a trend is identified, then remove the trend using the appropriate tool within the
software, krig the data, and then add the trend back to the result. The software
will actually do the last step for you automatically, as long as it knows that you
have removed a trend in the first place. [q 2]

Please make sure that you realize that the removal of the inherent trend in the data, as
described above, is an operation totally different from the algorithms described later such
as Kriging with External Drift, or Kriging with an External Trend. In these cases, the
desire is not the remove an internal trend from the data, but the addition of an observed
trend external to the data, which is to make the model more accurate or consistent with a
secondary variable. [q 3]
Requirement for Normal Score Transform
In addition to trend removal, another data transformation, called Normal Score
Transform is required before making the variogram used for modeling when Sequential
Gaussian Simulation or Simple Kriging is to be used. The Normal Score Transform puts
the input data into a normal distribution which simply means that the algorithm can make
its computations is a much simpler and faster way. [q 4]

Review Questions Kriging workflow


1. Before Kriging a data set, any internal_________in the data should be removed. (trend)
2. After removing a trend from the data, most software system ____ it back ___________to
the output. (add, automatically)
3.
with an
External Trend is one way to remove a trend in the data T/F. (F)
 How Kriging
does Kriging
work?
4. Another transformation required on the data by the Sequential Gaussian Simulation
algorithm is called __________________. (Normal Score Transform)

Page Title: The Mechanics of 3D Kriging


After the data has been transformed as needed, the algorithm computes the grid as
follows:






Position at a grid node location (origin of three pink arrows)


Collect points in the search zone. The shape and size of this data collection area
is specified by the user. Note that the search zone should be as large or larger than
the weight ellipsoid depicted below. [q 2] [q 4]
Weight the collected points by distance according to the variogram weight
scheme. This scheme is graphically represented below by the Weight Envelope, a
3D ellipsoid. The three axes of the ellipsoid represent the Major horizontal Range
(a below), Minor Horizontal Range (b below), and the Vertical Range (c below).
The vertical range is typically much smaller than the two horizontal ranges. The
value of these three ranges are specified by the user during the creation of each of
the variograms. Each axis of the ellipsoid has its own weight function. The major
axis of the ellipsoid is shown oriented East/West, but in reality may point in any
direction. In the absence of horizontal anisotropy, the Major Horizontal Range
and Minor Range are the same. [q 1], [q 3]
Compute the grid node value, based on the weights of the collected data points.
Move to the next node and repeat the process

Search zone

c
0.41

b
a

Weight envelope
and Search zone
Data points

Recall that the weight function used in Kriging is simply the model variogram turned
upside down.

Weight
HIGH
WEIGHT

Typical Weight Function Based on


Distance

Closer points have high weights

Further points have low weights

LOW
WEIGHT
CLOSE POINTS

FAR POINTS

Distance
From
Grid Node

Questions for Review:


1. During Kriging, data points are weighted with a function which is derived from
the _______. (variogram).

2.

During Kriging, the user specifies the ____________ which defines where data is
collected around each grid node to be computed. (Search range)

3. For Kriging, the Weight Envelope is defined by the three variogram ________.
(weights)
4. The Search Range should be ___________than the Weight Envelope. (as big as or
larger).

Page Title: Difference Between Search & Variogram Range


What is the relationship between the search range and the variogram range (weight
envelope)?


If data points exist inside the Weight Envelope, and there are other points between
the Weight Envelope and the Search Range, as shown below, then the variogram
weight function does not apply to those points beyond the Weight Envelope, and
they are assigned a minimal weight.
For the case where the minimum required points do not exist inside the Weight
Envelope, see the next section.

Points between circles


are assigned a minimal
weight

Points outside the Search


Range are NOT used for
the node value
Points inside this circle
are weighted using the
variogram

Map
Area

Search
Range
Variogram
Range

Shown in 2D rather than 3D for simplicity

The Condition For Extrapolation


What happens if there are no points as close as the variogram Range for a grid node being
computed?


At some point, Kriging algorithms will determine when less than the minimum
amount of data exists with which to compute a value using the Kriging weight
function. In these cases, the grid node value is computed with the selected
alternate computational method for the particular type of Kriging involved. This
condition typically occurs in the corners or at the edges of the map. This condition
is similar to the extrapolation condition in non-Kriging algorithms. See diagram
below which provides a 2D view. This condition can arise whether there are
points in the Search Zone or not. [q 1, 2]

Map
Area
Search
Range
Variogram
Range
(Weight Envelope)

Data points

Shown in 2D rather than 3D for simplicity

It turns out that one of the main differences between many of the different Kriging
algorithms Ordinary Kriging, Simple Kriging, Kriging with an External Drift,
Co-Kriging, etc., is how extrapolation occurs i.e., how grid values are computed
in the cases of little or no data.


For example, if Simple Kriging were being used in our example, then when no
data is available with which to use the Krig weight function, the node value will
be set equal to the average value of all the points (Global Mean).

If the chosen algorithm had been Ordinary Kriging, then the node value would
be some local average of a subset of the total data. For each type of Kriging we
discuss, you will learn its alternate method of computation in these
extrapolated (little or no data) areas.

Here is a graphic example of a data set where some areas contain dense data and some
contain sparse data. [q 3]
Data in this area are further away
than the variogram range from the
grid node being computed.

Data in this area are as close as the


variogram range to the grid node being
computed.

What happens here depends on


which Kriging algorithm you use

Here, data is weighted according to


the variogram.

DENSE DATA

SPARSE DATA

Review Questions
1. When there is no data in the Weight Envelope, Kriging changes its behavior and makes
use of an __________ algorithm for computing the node value. (alternate)
2. If there is no data in the weight envelope, but data in within the search range for a node,
then the kriging weight function is applied to that data instead.(T/F). (F)
3. Extrapolation is a term used for the method of computing a grid node value when
_____________________. (there is little or no data).
4. One of the main differences between the many Kriging algorithms is the way in which
they handle _____________ (extrapolation, or sparse data)

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Anisotropy
Page Title: What is Anisotropy?
First well define anisotropy as a characteristic of data sets. It measures the direction
and the degree to which attribute values (porosity, rock type, whatever, ) differ. For
example, if saturation values do not vary at all when looking towards the East, but vary
significantly over short distances when looking towards the North, then this is a clear
indication of anisotropy which gives information about how the property is distributed in
a particular facies. This information is useful in the gridding step, and allows the system
to give preferential weighting to data in a certain direction. Variograms are used to let the
system know that a data set is anisotropic. When you create a variogram for your data,
you establish the direction and degree of anisotropy using the variogram parameters.
With most geostatistical variogramming tools, anisotropy will be defined only
horizontally, by defining two horizontal variograms - one for the major direction and
one for the minor direction. The ranges of each of these variograms will differ to define
the degree of anisotropy. [q 1] , [q 4]
The major and minor directions of anisotropy are specified by an azimuth (in degrees),
with the minor axis perpendicular to the major. A horizontal variogram for each direction
is required.
The degree of anisotropy is defined by the ratio of variogram ranges or sills between
the major and minor directions. Sometimes, the degree of anisotropy is also referred to as
the eccentricity of the ellipse which is formed according to the major and minor ranges
for the two directions (axes). When there is no anisotropy, then variograms for the two
directions are the identical. We will show more about defining anisotropy with
variograms in the next section. [q 2], [q 3]

An example of anisotropy

If you were to measure particulate size in the channel complex shown below, its
variability across the channels will be much higher than along the channels.

In geostatistics, we define anisotropy as a characteristic of a set of data values. If


there is a clear difference in how data values change in one direction versus how
they change in another direction, then the data set is said to be anisotropic.

If you suspect this kind of directional bias in your property data source, you
should determine its direction and degree by using one of the two methods
available:

1. Finding the direction by trial and error with the horizontal variogram tool
2. Use a variogram map to display the direction and degree
Afterwards, use the variogram you create in the modeling operation for the property.
When you do have anisotropy in your model, then your variogram will have two
horizontal variograms a variogram for the Major direction and one for the Minor
direction. The Major variogram will have a larger Range than the Minor one, and thus the
weight function in the x,y plane will be elliptical.

The Geostatistical 3D ellipsoidal weight function


The three variogram RANGES Major Horizontal, Minor Horizontal, and Vertical are
combined into a single weight function for Kriging operations. When there is no
anisotropy, then the two horizontal ranges are the same and data in all directions has the
same weight.

VERTICAL AXIS

Data points

MAJOR AXIS

MINOR AXIS

Grid node to be
calculated


In the example shown here, we assume a major and minor direction of


horizontal anisotropy, each with a different Range. This has no effect on
the data searching, but results in an elliptical weight function. The system
incorporates weights along the major and minor directions as well as
vertically.
[q 1]

Horizontal weights will maximize quicker on the shorter axis than on the
longer axis when there is anisotropy, meaning that points which are
further away in the major direction will count for more than closer points
in the minor direction.

Review Questions Anisotropy


1. Anisotropy indicates that a collection of data shows different characteristics in different
__________ (directions).
2. The direction of anisotropy is measured by an _________ (azimuth).
3. The degree of anisotropy is a ratio of the Major and Minor _________. (ranges).
4. Anisotropy typically shows up in the _________ direction (horizontal).

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Survey
Page Title: A Survey of Some Kriging Algorithms

Simple Kriging
Using the basic mechanism described earlier, Simple Kriging applies the Variogram
weight to the collected points to compute each node.
 As the nodes to be computed fall further and further from the data, their values tend
more towards the global mean of the data set. [q 1]


Ordinary Kriging
This is the same algorithm as Simple Krig, except that when the nodes fall further and
further from the data, their values tend more towards the local mean of the data.

Kriging With Trend


 This is the same algorithm as Simple Krig, except that as the nodes fall further and
further from the data, their values tend more towards a trend which is provided by
the user in the form of parameters, a simple plane, or other surface. [q 2]
Kriging With External Drift
With this algorithm, standard kriging with the primary data dominates where there is
enough primary data within the variogram range.
 Where the primary data is sparse, a secondary, correlated data set can be used
having the following restrictions:
 Secondary data must exist at all primary data locations
 Secondary data must exist at all output locations
 Secondary data, U, is assumed to be linearly related to the primary data, Z, as Z = a0
+ a1*U
 Secondary data should be smoothly varying.


Co-Kriging [q 3]
With this algorithm, standard kriging with the primary data dominates where there is
enough primary data within the variogram range.
 Where the primary data is sparse, a secondary, correlated data set can be used
having the following characteristics:
 Secondary data may exist at different locations than primary.
 A variogram for the secondary data is required as well as the primary.
 A cross variogram between the primary and secondary is required.
 This method is labor intensive and slow. It is not used extensively.


Collocated Co-Kriging [q 4]
 With this algorithm, standard kriging with the primary data dominates where there is
enough primary data within the variogram range.
 This algorithm gives the advantage of having a secondary, correlated data set, but
is much easier to use than Cokriging, and is much faster.
 Where the primary data is sparse, the secondary, correlated data set can be used with
the following restrictions:
 Secondary data must exist at all primary locations, but if you have a secondary grid
instead of scatter set, the system will automatically resample it at the primary
locations
 No secondary data is required at output locations.

Review Questions Survey of Kriging Algorithms


1. As data becomes sparser and sparser in the Simple Kriging algorithm, grid values
approach the _______ (global mean).
2. As data becomes sparser and sparser in the Kriging with a trend, grid values approach the
user-specified ________ values. (trend)
3. Co-Kriging requires _____ variograms (three)
4. Co-located Co-Kriging works well when you have a another __________ data set.
(correlated).

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Methods
Chapter: Simulation Algorithms
Page Title: Simulation Algorithms vs Other Algorithms

Input Data

Simulation
Results

Estimation
Results

Whats the difference between simulation algorithms and other algorithms?


Besides the traditional and Kriging algorithms which we have discussed, geostatistics
makes use of Simulation algorithms. Like the Kriging algorithms, this class of
population algorithm is well-grounded in statistical mathematics, and offers results which
are based on solid probability relationships. For example, all the simulation algorithms
we will discuss here can be classified as stochastic, that is, able to create output grids
with the same probability. We will see that Simulation algorithms differ from other types
of algorithms in three major ways: [q 2]
1. Random data selection

2. Stochastic Results

3. Multiple Realization

Random data selection


One dramatic characteristic of simulation algorithms is that they may not always use all
of the available data. When data is collected to compute the value of any grid node, a
prime seed number is used to generate random numbers which determine which of the
collected data is actually used in the computation. If the same seed prime is used for two
executions of a simulation, the results of the two simulations will be identical. If not, they
will be different since different data is used in each case. [q 3], [q 4]
Stochastic results
When different seed primes are used for two different executions of a simulation
algorithms, two different grids almost certainly will result, however, these grids have a
very important statistical property they are said to be stochastic, meaning equally
probable in a statistical sense. Neither is more correct than the other.
In the example below, N versions of a model of the property data have been created
from the same data. Each output grid (realization) has the same probability of being
accurate and reasonable as the next grid, even though they will be different.

Each output grid is just as


accurate as the next.

Multiple realizations
Because simulation algorithms are designed to use different seed primes for each
execution, and meant to create stochastic results, the idea is to let the algorithm create
many realizations (versions) of the output grid and analyze the resulting outputs. By
inspecting differences in the output grids, one can get a sense for the real solution,
which is usually some combination of them. [q 1]

In some cases, an arithmetic average of all realizations of a particular property may be the
best solution.

BEST
may be
average of
realizations

Even though simulation algorithms many not use all the data in all realizations, its results
can still maintain the character of the input data, as the comparison below shows:

The ability of Simulation to Maintain Data Character


Histogram of input

Gauss simulation

Kriging

Review Questions Simulation Algorithms


1. Simulation algorithms can create many versions of a model from the same set of input
data. T/F. (T)
2. Models (grids) created by simulation algorithms are said to be __________ because they
all have the same probability of being correct and valid. (stochastic)
3. Different versions of grids are created from the same data set by randomly selecting which
_______ is used to calculate the node value. (data).
4. If the same seed number is used to calculate two grids from the same set of data, then the
1.0 Pa
grids
will be ________. (the same)
1.1
1.2

Page Title: Survey of Simulation Algorithms Sequential Gaussian Simulation for


Continuous Data

Description [q 2]
Data is normalized with Normal Score Transform; then each output grid value is back
transformed upon calculation. [q 1]
This is a Krig-based algorithm and therefore a variogram is required.
Interpolation is performed and so it is suitable for continuous data.
As with many algorithms, the search radius should be large enough so that
null nodes are minimized.
Like most simulation algorithms, a controlled randomness is introduced so
that multiple realizations can be computed.







Mechanics




For each grid node, assign the data which can be used (data points or other close
grid nodes).
Establish a random path through the grid nodes
At each grid node which is visited during the random walk, use the assigned data to
compute a cumulative distribution function. This function is based on the mean of
the data, the variance, and of course the variogram. This function simply provides a
way to calculate a range of reasonable values for the node.
Pick a random number to select one of the reasonable values. Back transform the
value, and assign it to the current node being computed.

Questions for review:


1. Sequential Gaussian Simulation requires your data to be ____________ before the
operation begins (normalized).
2. SGS is meant to be used for continuous data T/F (T).

Page Title: Sequential Indicator Simulation for Discrete Data


Description




This algorithm is designed for discrete data, but its mechanics is similar to SGS with
only a few exceptions. [q 1]
Unlike SGS, the data needs no normal score transform operation.
A variogram is still required for the cumulative distribution function, but interpolation
per se does not occur, only assignment of grid values via selection within classes. [q
2]
 In Median IK (Indicator Kriging) mode, only a single variogram is required,
based on the most representative class data
 In Full IK mode, a variogram for each class is needed
SIS is commonly used to compute lithology /facies grids

Questions for Review:


1. Sequential Indicator Simulation is similar to SGS, but is meant to for ___________
data. (discrete).
2. Depending on the mode chosen, SIS may require one ___________for each facies
classification to be modeled. (variogram)

Page Title: Truncated Gaussian Simulation for Discrete Data


Description


This algorithm works like SIS, being Krig-based and requiring a variogram.
However, it allows the specification of adjacency rules which define those facies in
contact and those which are not in contact. These rules are specified by the sequential
order of the class specification list. For example, if your data contains several classes,
such as some shales, A and B, and some sands, C and D, then the order in which you
specify these classes determines their adjacency rules. If you specify D, C, B, A, then
in the output grid, no A nodes can be adjacent to C nodes, and no B nodes adjacent to
D nodes, etc. [q 1]

Questions for Review:


1. Truncated Gaussian Simulation is designed to accommodate ____________rules in
discrete models such as facies. (adjacency)

Page Title: Object Modeling for Facies


Description


This algorithm is a departure from the previous simulation algorithms since it


provides dimensioning and orientation parameters to describe the size, position,
and shape of geologic objects which are the result of fluvial deposition. The input
data are well logs of lithology and facies which guide the simulation and whose
values and percentages of facies distribution are honored. Typical dimensioning
parameters are shown below. [q 1]

m
m
k

s
e
w

Amplitude and Wavelength

The user picks one of several shape templates (levee, channel, splay, etc.) and
provides enough information regarding length, height, width, shape, density,
orientation, and positioning to populate the selected unit.. A background, or
floodplain object is also provided.

Review Questions Survey of Simulation Algorithms


1. Object Modeling differs from SGS and SIS because it provides dimensioning and
orientation ____________ to establish size, position, and shapes of geological objects to
be modeled. (parameters)

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Operation
Chapter: Gridding Guidelines
Page Title: Overview of the property modeling procedure
The property modeling procedure
Before property modeling can begin, the following tasks must be assumed to be
complete:

Structural modeling (both horizons and faults) [q 1]

Definition of a 3D grid geometry (including and boundary and vertical


components such as horizons, zones, and layers)

Preparation of input data for facies and petrophysical properties, including


editing and upscaling.

Preparation of variograms for facies and property data

Because of the simple fact that petrophysical properties such as porosity can behave
differently in different facies and depositional environments, different modeling
[q 2]
techniques may be required for the same property in different facies.
Two-Step Mapping Conditioning Petrophysical Properties to the Facies
A well-designed 3D property modeling system, therefore, will allow and even encourage
the facies to be modeled first. Then, it should provide methods to allow the subsequent
modeling of petrophysical properties to be conditioned to the existing facies model(s).
In essence, during property modeling, the existing facies model is used as a template or
mask which allows the property data within each classification, such as a channel sand,
to be isolated for modeling purposes. [q 3]
This two-step mapping fits exactly into our previous description of two of the major data
types discrete and continuous, as well as our previous categorization of gridding
algorithms in the same way. We note that modeling facies requires discrete algorithms
and modeling of petrophysical properties requires continuous algorithms. [q 4]
In general, modeling of net/gross, porosity, and permeability can be relatively straight
forward, making use of the same 3D layering scheme for all three. Saturation modeling,
however, can become more complicated, requiring accommodation of different layering
schemes due to relevance of the contact location and orientation, as well as the
application of a function.

Review Questions Gridding Guidelines


1. Before starting 3D property modeling, it is assumed that _____________modeling has
been completed. (structural)
2. Different facies may cause properties to behave _____________ .(differently)
3. _________modeling should precede ___________ modeling (Facies, petrophysical
property)
4. Facies modeling requires __________algorithms and petrophysical properties require
___________ algorithms. (discrete, continuous)

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Operation
Chapter: Algorithm Selection
Page Title: Algorithm Selection
How do I know which algorithm to use for my data?
Criteria for Selection of Geostatistical Algorithms

As we see, there are many geostatistical algorithms from which to choose, a few with
very specific uses. In this section, well organize some of the common reasons why you
would use one algorithms and not another for your data. In some cases, the choice will be
obvious; in others, it may be up to personal preference.
For the algorithms described in this presentation, the following criteria should be used to
choose your algorithm. It will not take long for you to get a sense of these criteria so that
a logical choice will become second nature.

Density and Extent of data


How much data do you have?
Does it cover the entire area you want to map? [q 1]
Does the data contain or represent all characteristics of the model
which you know to be true?
Distribution of data
Does your data have unique characteristics? Anisotropy? [q 2]
Type of data (continuous or discrete)
Does your data represent a continuous property value or a lithology
classification?
Type of solution desired (deterministic or probabilistic)
Is there enough data for a deterministic solution?
Would the model benefit by describing it characteristics in addition to
data values?
Is there a need for equally-probable models be generated and studied?
Do I want to condition to facies during modeling?
Alternate Sources of Data [q 3]
Is there an area in my model where data is particularly sparse?
Is there a second data set available which covers an area not covered
by my primary data
Does the secondary data set show that it is correlated to the primary
data?

Review Questions Choosing an Algorithm


1. The amount of __________ which is available has a lot to do with which algorithm you
might choose for gridding. (data)
2. Data which exhibits different characteristics in different directions is said to be
_________, and should be considered when selecting an algorithm (anisotropic).
3. A second source of data can sometimes be used in gridding, but the second data source
should be __________ with the first set (correlated).

Page Title: Selecting an algorithm for discrete or facies modeling


A procedural diagram for the selection of an algorithm for DISCRETE data.

Page Title: Selecting an algorithm for petrophysical modeling

A procedural diagram for selecting an algorithm for CONTINUOUS data.

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Operation
Chapter: Quality Control Procedures
Page Title: Quality Control During Modeling
During the population of all facies and petrophysical property grids, there are clear and
simple methods to ensure at least basic quality control checks for your model. In another
section, we will also look into the ways to determine the probabilities of your model and
the subsequent reservoir volume calculations.
Again assuming that the 3D grid geometry has already been established, a typical
modeling workflow can be specified as follows:

Analyze/understand your data with various geostatistical tools


Univariate statistics
Histogram
Variograms
Etc
Transform input data as required (threshold, lump, upscale )
for your data
Perform quality control checks to make sure that the transformed data has
the same characteristics as the original data.l
Use the selection criteria/choose an algorithm appropriate for the data
Execute the algorithm to populate the grid
Perform quality control checks

The basic quality control checks can be described as follows [q 1]


Quality Control by Visual Inspection

[q 2]

Inspect the output grid graphically and make sure it honors the input data and looks
reasonable. Based on the algorithm chosen, trends you see in the data may or may not
be repeated in the output grid. If not, this fact should be revealed by the other QC tests.

Quality Control with Univariate Statistics [q 4]


Look at the min/max and other statistics of both the original data, the condensed
(upscaled or lumped) data used by the gridding algorithm, and the output grid itself. If the
condensed data statistics deviates from that of the original data, then the condensing step
did not work properly. If the output grid statistics deviates from the condensed data, then
the gridding step did not maintain the characteristics of the data. Small differences are to
be expected, but significant differences indicate that something may have not worked as

you intended. Checking the range of z-values of the input data versus the output grid is
one of the easiest and most useful of QC checks.
Quality Control with Histograms [q 3]
Perform the same comparisons as above, but use the histogram for comparison. Here, you
want to make sure that the condensed data has the same basic shape as the original data,
and that the histogram of the output grid has the same basic shape of the condensed data.
Quality Control with Variograms
Perform the same comparisons as above, but use variograms as the criteria. Variogram
shapes and other characteristics should remain the same to verify that the character of
the output grid reflects that of the input data.
Quality Control for the Secondary Data Set
When a secondary data set is used, verify that those areas devoid of primary data are
reasonably defined by the secondary data. Visual inspection is usually sufficient,
although polygonal statistics may be available in your software.
Quality Control by Cross-Validation
With this method of quality control, you may conduct cross-validation tests in which you
regrid the property after removing one or more data points. Differences between the
grids are calculated, and then analyzed for statistical significance. This is one way to
determine how the chosen algorithm is honoring differences in data point values based on
the distance between them.

Review Questions Quality Control


1. The last procedure in the typical modeling workflow is ____________ (quality control).
2. ___________inspection is one way to ensure that input data is honored by the gridding
algorithm. (Visual)
3. Quality control using histograms involves checking the __________ of the curves of the
input versus the output. (shape)
4. Checking the range of ___________ in the input versus the output is one of the easiest and
most useful QC checks.

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Operation
Chapter: Probability Options
Page Title: How Probable Are My Models & Volumes?
When data is quite plentiful, we can have high confidence in our geological and/or
property models in most cases. This is true regardless of the algorithm used, since almost
all accepted algorithms will produce reasonable results where good data is available.
[q 1]
When data is missing in some areas, or is, in general, quite sparse, then this is a different
situation. If hard decisions are required in the face of sparse data or questionable models,
it is the geostatistical simulation tools which can provide the powerful capabilities for
the quantification of confidence and probability values. [q 2]


Let us return to the concept of Stochastic Simulation. We recall that this is simply
the process of creating several versions of a property model from the same data set,
where each version has just as much probability of being accurate and
reasonable as the next. Typically the data sets are small and while the stochastic
grids will all honor the data at data locations, they may vary significantly between
these locations. For example, using Sequential Gaussian Simulation, we can use a
single saturation data set to create 10 versions, or realizations of the data. Each of
the saturation grids thus created may look quite different, but are said to be equally
probable. Using these different grids of equal probability allows us to study them for
common characteristics, knowing that any characteristic which shows up on a high
percentage of the grids has a high probability of being a valid and very probable
reality.

Questions for Review:


1. When data is quite plentiful, then __________ algorithms may not be needed.
(simulation)
2. Geostatistical tools and algorithms make it easy to ____________ confidence
and probability values.

Page Title: Selecting a best realization or scenario


It is possible that while analyzing all the realizations of your grids, a single grid was
found to be most representative of your concept of a correct model. This realization can
be reproduced by simply using the same algorithm and seed number associated with the
realization. Each realization uses a different prime seed number for random number
generation on which data selection is based.
Averaging Stochastic Realizations
This is an intuitive process whereby the final solution is taken to be the average of all N
realizations. This can work well for petrophysical properties, but not for discrete
properties, such as facies. Of course, it is also possible to average some best subset of
all realizations as well. [q 3]
Computing Probability Above or Below a Cutoff
In this process, the system allows the computation of a 3D probability grid. This grid is
computed from the N realizations of the stochastic set and provides a percent probability
that the corresponding grid values in the property grid will be above or below some
specified value.
Computing Cumulative Distribution Functions or Probability Histograms
for Volumes
In the simplest form of this procedure, the values of the property grids used in the
volumetrics operation are not changed, but the contacts are allowed to vary according to
chance (Monte Carlo simulation), giving multiple stochastic grids for gross volume, net
pore volume, net pay, or STOIIP, as requested. For each selected output, you can then
display a cumulative histogram depicting the 10, 50, and 90% probability cutoff such as
for STOIIP. In the diagram below, these percentages are respectively indicated by the
left, middle, and right vertical dotted lines. One can directly read off the STOIIP from the
x-axis where, for example, at the rightmost dotted line, there is a 90 percent probability
that the STOIIP will be less than (the STOIIP value at the dotted line). [q 4]
Displays like this do not necessarily determine the best version of some property; but
quickly allow the end user to become comfortable with one or more easily
discernable scenarios, from which major decisions can be made about the reservoir.
Note that displays like the one below can be generated only with many realizations.

The Ten, Fifty, and Ninety Percent Uncertainty Distribution of STOIIP Based on
Stochastic Variance of the Fluid Contacts in the Petrel Volumetics Process

Uncertainty analysis for multiple, simultaneous properties


Other uncertainty tools are being developed to allow all the individual properties, as
well as the contacts, to be stochastically varied in the same operation, giving complex
combinations of possibilities, but tracked by the software and presented in summary form
as cumulative distribution displays.
.

Review Questions Quality Control


1. One technique for finding the best solution for a set of stochastic grids is to __________
all the results. (average)
2. The y-axis of a cumulative distribution function of STOIIP shows the ____________
which yielded STOIIP in the specified range.

Subject: Part 3- Modeling


Section: Gridding Operation
Chapter: Comparative Table of Gridding Algorithms
Page Title: Table of Gridding Algorithms

A Comparative Table of Gridding Algorithms

Further study
 Many texts are available. Make use of the internet search tools for specific topics.




Highly recommended:
Applied Geostatistics, Edward H. Isaaks and R. Mohan Srivastava, Oxford University
Press, 1989
GSLIB Geostatistical Software Library and Users Guide, Clayton V. Deutch and
Andre G. Journell, Oxford University Press, 1992

Subject: Part 4 Variogram Concepts


Section: Purpose of This Topic
A VARIOGRAM Primer

The first purpose of this final topic in the Property Modeling Primer is to review the basic
concepts of variograms and the assumptions regarding the generic workflow for their
creation. The second purpose is to provide a clear overview of the ways in which
variograms can be created in Petrel.

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Purpose of this topic

Section: Review
Chapter: Review
Page: - Review of Basic Facts

Review of Basic Variogram Facts


The basic statistical assumption when modeling properties is

Data values which are close together are more likely to be similar than
values which are far apart [Q 1,2]

[Q 1] [Q 1]
.

[Q 3, 4, 5]

Classic experimental variogram shape

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The variogram is a tool for measuring this spatial relationship of any attribute of a
population of 3D points (X, Y, Z, Attribute). The y-axis shows increasing attribute
variance and the x-axis shows increasing distance. Each point on the variogram shows
the variance of all the points in the same distance group (the same approximate distance
from each other). Those groups of data points which are closer together are represented
on the left of the graph, and those which are farther apart will be on the right. Points
high on the graph are represent groups of points which are quite different, while those
points lower on the graph represent those groups of points whose values are more
similar. As you see, graph points which are low and to the left represent groups of data
points which are close together and similar in values while graph points which are high
and on the right represent groups of data points which are far apart and dissimilar.

Questions for review:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Data values which are similar are likely to be ___________ . (closer)


Data values which are dissimilar are likely to be ____________(further apart)
The Y-axis on the variogram shows ____________(variance)
The X-axis on the variogram show _____________(distance)
Variogram points on the graph which are low and to the left represent groups
of data pairs which are ___________ in value.

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Page: Review of basic facts variogram model


The experimental, or sample variogram points above are calculated by the system. In a
separate operation, the user fits a curve through these points, modeling the variogram, as
below. [Q 1,2]





Range that distance beyond which data points no longer exhibit any statistical
similarity [Q 4]
Nugget the Variance where the distance is Zero. A non-zero value indicates close
points in the data set which do not have similar values [Q 3]
Sill that Variance where the summary plot flattens out to random similarity

Questions for review:


1. The experimental variogram is computed by ______________ (the system).
2. The user ___________(models) the experimental variogram by fitting a
___________(curve) through its points.
3. The nugget shows variance where the distance is ___________(0.)
4. The range shows that ___________ (distance) where data points cease to have
any statistical similarity.

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Critical measurements on the variogram model are:

Page: Review of Anisotropy

Review of Anisotropy
An anisotropic formation is one with directionally dependent properties. The most
common directionally dependent properties are permeability and stress. Most
formations have vertical to horizontal permeability anisotropy with vertical permeability
being much less (often an order of magnitude less) than horizontal permeability. Bedding
plane permeability anisotropy is common in the presence of natural fractures. Stress
anisotropy is frequently greatest between overburden stress and horizontal stress in the
bedding plane. Bedding plane stress contrasts are common in tectonically active regions.
Permeability anisotropy can sometimes be related to stress anisotropy [Q1]
- from the Schlumberger Geological Dictionary

MAJOR AXIS
Property values are most similar
along this direction
Anisotropy is measured only in the
horizontal direction, and is typically
associated with an ellipse, where the
major axis is the long axis and the
minor axis is the short one. Anisotropy
units are direction and eccentricity
(ratio of major/minor axes length)

MINOR AXIS
Property values vary more
in this direction

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In property modeling, a property is said to be anisotropic if its values demonstrate a


strong bias in one direction or another. That direction along which property values are
consistently the same is called the Major axis of anisotropy. Perpendicular to this
direction, property values vary more rapidly, and this is called the Minor axis of
anisotropy.

Review: Two Kinds of Horizontal Anisotropy


Geometric Anisotropy [Q 2]
Sill is constant; Range changes. Major axis shows one range, minor shows
another.
1.2

0.8

0.4

0.0
0

10

20

30

Distance

Zonal Anisotropy [Q 3]
Range is constant; Sill changes.
1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0.0
0

10

20

30

Distance

In some software, the Sill is always shown to be normalized to 1 and it makes the
identification of zonal anisotropy difficult.

Questions for review:


1. The most common directionally dependent properties in geology are
__________ and ___________ (stress and permeability).
2. In ___________ (geometric) anisotropy, the major and minor axes exhibit
different ranges.
3. In ___________ (zonal) anisotropy, the major and minor axes exhibit different
sills.

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Page: Review of Variogram Directions and Types

Review of Variogram Directions and Types


When modeling a property in 3D, we make three variograms of the input data: one for
the vertical direction and two for the horizontal direction (major and minor) because of
the possibility of anisotropy.



The vertical variogram shows how variance changes with distance vertically, or
along the wellbore
[Q 1]
The horizontal variograms shows how variance changes with distance in the X,Y
direction. [Q 2] When the property is anisotropic in the X, Y plane, the ranges in
these directions (major and minor) are different, which leads to an elliptical weight
function in the X, Y plane. [Q 3]

Note: It is typical that vertical variograms will look better than horizontal variograms,
i.e., exhibit a more classic variogram shape. This is because of larger numbers of data
points vertically than horizontally when well logs are the primary data source.

The shape of the variogram curve is inverted and becomes the WEIGHT FUNCTION
during gridding. Points further than the Range have effectively no weight during
gridding.

Range
[Q 4]

Questions for review:


1. A ____________(vertical) variogram shows how variance changes vertically.
2. A ____________(horizontal) variogram shows how variance changes
horizontally.
3. ____________(horizontal) variograms can have major and minor components.
4. During modeling, data points which are further away than the
_________(range) from the node being computed have effectively no weight.

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During population of a 3D grid, the vertical and horizontal components of the variogram
are blended together into a single variogram for convenience and speed of
computation. Horizontal weights and vertical weights are typically different, but the
system sorts this out automatically.

Section: The Big Picture


Chapter: Generic Workflows
Page: How do you make a variogram?
How do you make a variogram?
Here is a simple outline of a generic workflow for making variograms. Similar mechanics
should be provided by any quality software which offers geostatistical features. Recall
that every data set will ultimately be defined by 3 variograms two horizontal (which
may be the same), and one vertical.
Prepare your data
1. Load your data, then edit it, as desired, clipping away those portions which you
feel are non-representative. [Q 1] Inherent trends in the data should be removed
before variogramming. Use the Data Analysis tools in Petrel. If the variogram will
be used for Sequential Gaussian Simulation or Sequential Indicator Simulation,
also do a normal score transform on your data first. [Q 2] In general, use as
much data as possible when variogramming; and so, in Petrel, select to use the
raw logs, not just the upscaled logs. [Q 3].

2. Perform the process to determine if anisotropy exists in the X/Y directions. This
can be done in two ways. Refer to the section following for the procedure
Compute horizontal experimental variogram

3. Begin the horizontal variogram by working in the major direction first:

If anisotropy was determined in step 2, set the major azimuth to that direction.
If no anisotropy was determined, leave the azimuth at zero.
Find the best experimental variogram shape

Set the lag distance (size of bin for grouping the data) which is relevant to the
distance between data values in the X/Y direction, say, 50-100m, or possibly
larger [Q 4]

Adjust the lag distance and the search cone to obtain the best experimental
variogram shape. The experimental variogram is simply the collection of
variance values for the point pairs in each classification as, for example,
below. As you change the lag distance and search cone, the pattern of points
will change. Look for the classic shape shown earlier in this document.

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Determine presence of anisotropy

Model the horizontal component(s)

5. If the experimental variogram does make a shape that you can follow, then start
the process of modeling the horizontal variogram. Modeling a variogram is the
term used for fitting a specific curve through the experimental variogram points.


Begin by selecting a model type which defines the basic mathematical


characteristic of the curve you will fit through the experimental variogram
points. Experiment with each to see how the curve changes.
Spherical
Exponential
Gaussian

Model the variogram by interactively changing the Range, Sill, or Nugget to


adjust the shape of the variogram curve, fitting it through the experimental
variogram points, as desired. [Q 1] Pay most attention to the points on the
left of the graph which rise from Nugget to Sill. [Q 2]
Range:
Nugget:
Sill:

where does the curve start to flatten?


where does the curve intersect the vertical axis?
whats the value of the flat part of the curve to the right?

When you are satisfied with the curve, move to the next step.

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4. If, by changing all the parameters at your disposal, you are not able to obtain an
experimental variogram which resembles the classic shape, it is possible that there
are no spatial relationships in the data set, and you should simply select some
reasonable defaults to use for the Range, Sill, and Nugget. The experimental
variogarm above is close to a good example of data which has no particular
spatial relationships.

Finish horizontal variogram(s) by modeling minor component


6. If you had determined that anisotropy exists in the horizontal direction, finish the
horizontal variogram(s) by modeling the minor horizontal variogram in the same
way as the major described above. You will not be able to changes the direction
of the minor variogram, since its direction is always normal to the major axis.
You will be able to change only the Range, Sill, and Nugget.
7. As a quality check, you should find that the Range of the Minor horizontal
variogram (m) will be smaller than the Major (M) as depicted below.

8. If there is no anisotropy, you may ignore the minor variogram, since it will, by
default, be the same as the major in the absence of anisotropy.
Model the vertical component

9. Now you can begin to model the vertical variogram - that component of the total
variogram which measures variance upwards along the wellbore. For vertical
variograms, anisotropy is not an issue everything is simply up and down.


Start with a lag distance (size of bin for grouping the data) which is relevant
to the distance between data values in the vertical direction, say, 1 meter, or
maybe even smaller. [Q 4]

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Weighting ellipse in the X/Y plane

Adjust the lag distance and the search cone to obtain the best experimental
variogram shape and continue just as you did to model the major horizontal
variogram

Select the model type and fit the curve through the points just as you did for
the horizontal variograms. Note that it is not uncommon to get better defined
vertical variograms than horizontal variograms because of the large amount of
data. You may also see more events in vertical variograms, such as multiple
sands which show up as a series of sinusoidal curves in the experimental
variogram. Clearly only one feature can be defined with current variogram
analysis, and so ignore all the curves except the leftmost one in these cases.

10. As a quality check, you should find that the range of the vertical variogram
should be much smaller than the range of the two horizontal variograms.

Questions for review:


1. Before making a variogram, data which is _________________(nonrepresentative) should be edited, clipped, or thresholded.
2. A _______________(normal score transform) should usually be done on your
data before you make a variogram, if SGS or SIS will be used.
3. It is typically better to use _____ (raw) logs for variograms.
4. When doing vertical variograms, you should start with a lag size in the
neighborhood of ______ (1. to 2.) feet for typical boreholes.
5. Modeling a variogram means adjusting its critical parameters so that a curve
fits through the ________________ (experimental variogram) points.
6. Besides model type, the most critical parameters which define the shape of the
variogram are ___________, ____________, and ___________(range, sill, and
nugget).

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11. Note that it is irrelevant whether the vertical or the horizontal components of a
variogram is modeled first.

Page: How do you determine anisotropy?


How do you determine anisotropy?
Method 1 - Determine anisotropy by Trial and Error
[Q 2]
Set the horizontal lag distance to some value which is representative of the
horizontal distance between your data points. A good starting point is the
distance between the closer points in your data set.

When searching for anisotropic directions, the horizontal variogramming


tool in your software should allow you to change the Major direction of
your experimental variogram to any compass direction you desire. Start
with the Major direction set to North as a simple convention.

Adjust the lag distance and the search cone or search angle to obtain the
most classic or best variogram shape as possible.

Evaluate experimental variogram shapes in various directions from North


to South in 30 degree increments. Find that direction which gives the best
shape. Focus on the direction giving the best shape and now vary the
direction in 10-degree increments on either side to fine-tune your result,
noting the final angle of the Major direction.

Method 2 - Determine anisotropy by using a Variogram Map or Surface


[Q 3]


If your software allows it, move to that dialog from which a variogram
map can be made. This should be a relatively simple procedure, with a
contour map being automatically generated by your software with few, if
any, parameter selections. Make sure to set the search distance, which
should be large enough so that a fragmented map does not result.

View the variogram map, which will be symmetrical on either side of the
major direction of anisotropy. If anisotropy is present, then the symmetry
of the contours will reveal a distinct oval shape of an ellipse centered in
the middle of the map. Note the azimuth of the longest axis of the ellipse
on the map. This will be the major direction of anisotropy which will be
specified when you return to the horizontal variogram dialog to begin the
actual modeling of the major horizontal component.

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Questions for review:


1. The first step in defining the horizontal component of the variogram is to
determine if __________ (anisotropy) exists.
2. One method to see if a data set exhibits a directional bias is called
______________ (Trial and Error) and involves changing the
___________(search azimuth) every 30 degrees.
3. When a data set exhibits anisotropy, a ____________(variogram map) will show
typically oval contours, revealing the major axis of anisotropy.
4. When a data set is anisotropic, the horizontal component of its variogram has two
_____________(axes), one called ____________(major), the other _______
(minor).

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Page: How do you use variograms to determine layer distance?


How do you use variograms to determine the layer thickness?
In some systems, you are not given access to variogramming tools until you have already
established a layer thickness for your model. This is only an inconvenience since the
model geometry can usually be regenerated quickly with a different layer thickness. Be
sure not to model any facies or property grids, however, as these will have to be redone if
you decide to change the layering in this manner. In other words, if you are going to use
this method to help determine layer thicknesses, be sure to do it early.

In addition to, or alternatively, some systems allow facies thickness analysis and
proportion analysis to be performed. Any of these methods will provide a valid and
rational basis for the specification of layer thickness. [Q 3]

Questions for review:


1. Variogramming can be used to study the natural homogeneity of the data to be
modeled, and thereby help determine the optimum ______________(layer
distance) for the various zones in the model.
2. It is the _________(vertical) variogram which is studied to determine the
natural homogeneity of the data.
3. In addition to variograms, __________________and __________________ in
Petrel can be used to help determine data homogeneity.

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It turns out that the Range of the vertical variogram for any facies or property attribute is
a very good measurement of the natural homogeneity of the data values in the vertical
direction , [Q 2] and, as such, is a good value to use for the layer thickness in one or
several zones. [Q 1] If the system you use allows different layering schemes in different
zones, then by all means make a brief study of the vertical variogram ranges for facies
and properties within these zones. If your system supports only one layer scheme for the
entire model, youll have to settle on some optimum value for all facies and properties,
but if your system allows each zone to be layered independently, youll clearly be better
off.

Chapter: Petrel-Specific Variogram Facilities


Page: - Overview

Making Variograms in Petrel An Overview


This section will be specific to Petrel and provides guidance for the creations of
variograms. We will stick to the original premise of this primer and remind you that we
will cover only the mechanics of these operations, not the analytical interpretation, or
geological meaning of any of the measurements or relationships. Please refer to a more
advanced treatment of variogramming techniques, or specific Petrel modeling courses,
for interpretive techniques other than the ones mentioned here.
There are three locations from which you can create or define variograms in Petrel:
[Q1]
- In the Settings panel for any data or grid object
- From the Facies Modeling and Petrophysical Modeling dialogs
- From the Data Analysis function under Property Modeling in the Process Diagram

The least interactive method involves simply filling in the critical parameters, such as
Range, Sill, and Nugget in the modeling dialogs themselves.
The Settings panel provides a semi-interactive method for creating variograms, but does
have the advantage that several variograms can be seen on the same display at once, [Q2]
and they are retained as graphic entities. Only limited transforms are available from the
Settings panel. In particular, normal score transforms are not available. However,
variogram maps are made in the Settings panel. [Q3]

Questions for review:


1. Name the three locations in Petrel where variograms can be specified or
created. ___________, ___________, ______________. (Objects setting,
Modeling dialogs, Data analysis)
2. The advantage of making variograms in the _____________ (Settings) is that
you can see more than one variogram at once.
3. The advantage of making variograms in the _____________ (Settings) is that
you can also make variogram maps there.
4. The advantage of making variograms in the _____________ (Data Analysis)
is that its the most rigorous and robust way to do so.

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The most interactive and robust methodology resides in the Data Analysis menus, and
this is where most variograms are done. [Q4]

Page: Variogram Facilites in an objects Setting tab

Petrel variogram facilities from an objects Settings tab


With this method, you create an experimental variogram which is subsequently viewed
in a Function window. If you want to model it, you can select a variogram modeling icon
from the Function window to complete a variogram which can be used in modeling.
From the Setting panel, you also have the choice of creating a variogram map which
will automatically reveal the direction and degree of anisotropy. In Petrel, experimental
variograms are called sample variograms. [Q 3] Sample variograms cannot be used
directly in modeling operations. [Q 4]
1.
2.
3.

4.

After the sample variogram has been created, it will show up at the bottom of the
Input folder in the Petrel Explorer under the Variogram folder.

5.

If you then create a new Function window, you can display it as below: [Q 2]

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Highlight the object, and right-click on it, selecting Settings


In Settings, stretch the window to the right until you can see the tab
Variogram, then click on it.
In this tab, look at the Hints tab, then note that you can set a transform type for
the variogram, its orientation parameters, as well as lag and search radius before
the computation begins. [Q 1]

[Q 5]

Make Variogram
Icon

Use the Make Variogram icon to turn the experimental variogram into your own
variogram model by setting the parameters appropriately in the dialog which
appears:

7.

Each variogram model you create will appear in the data hierarchy under
Variograms, as well as graphically in the Function window.

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6.

1. Is it possible to set the lag and the search radius before making a variogram in
the Objects Setting location? - Y or N (Y)
2. Variograms made in the Objects Setting location can be viewed using a
__________ (Function) window.
3. Variograms made in the Objects Setting location are called ____________
(Sample) variograms
4. Can variograms made in the Objects Setting location be used in modeling
operations just as they are?
5. When viewing variograms from the function window, there is an icon on the
lower right which will let you convert the ____________ (sample or
experimental) variogram into a _____________ (variogram model).

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Questions for review:

Page: Variogram facilities in the modeling dialogs

Petrel variogram facilties in the Modeling dialogs.


To be precise, it is not really possible to create a variogram, in the graphic sense, in the
modeling dialogs.
Below is the dialog for Petrophysical Modeling. The dialog for Facies Modeling looks
pretty much the same. In this mode of providing a variogram for the modeling operation,
we cannot see the data, the experimental variogram, nor the variogram model. We can
only fill in the critical variogram values in this Variogram tab. [Q 1,2]
Use the Variograms Made in Data Analysis icon

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It is, however, possible, in most modeling dialogs, to refer to and use variograms created
in Data Analysis. See the Use the Variograms Made in Data Analysis icon, typically on
the same dialog row as the algorithm choice. If you use this icon, the modeling will
automatically assign the appropriate values for the variogram, although you will not be
able to see them from here.
Questions for review:
1. In the modeling dialog, can you create a variogram graphically? Y or N (N)
2. In the modeling dialog, variograms can be specified by simply typing in the
________(critical) values for the variogram.

Page: Variogram facilites in the Data Analysis tool preparing for discrete data

Petrel variogram facilities in the Data Analysis tool


Here, we have the best control over our variogram, although, at present, there is no way
to point this tool to arbitrary data such as scatter points or grids as was possible using the
Settings tab earlier. This method addresses only 3D model grids and their associated
zones, upscaled well logs, and raw well logs. [Q 1]

Preparing to Make Variograms for Facies Models


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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7.

Click on Data Analysis in the Property Modeling section of the Process Diagram
Click on the Variograms tab.
Select an upscaled facies grid whose variogram you wish to compute.
Select the Zone you want (data outside of this zone will not be seen). [Q 2]
Unlock the parameters so they are visible
Click on Use the Raw Logs (we want a bigger sample than only the upscaled
logs). Note that variograms can also be made of the grid models for QC. [Q 3]
If you have chosen facies as your property, select which classification you want to
make the variogram for.

The next step is to simply follow the generic instructions for creating variograms, either
from the workflows outlined in the previous section, or below in the section called
Modeling the Variogram in Data Analysis.
Note on variograms for DISCRETE data
Even though all the raw data for one discrete facies class will have the same value, the
resulting variogram will provide valuable spatial information about its spatial distribution
in 3 dimensions for algorithms such as Sequential Indicator Simulation. These
variograms which are computed for discrete data are actually different than those for
continuous data.

1. Although the Data Analysis dialog gives the most robust tool for making
variograms, there is no way to point this tool to arbitrary grids and data sets in
your input folder T or F (T)
2. Can variograms be computed across zones? Y or N (N).
3. Can variograms of grids be created as well as from raw logs Y or N (Y).

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Questions for review:

Page: Preparing for Variogramming continuous properties

Preparing to Make Variograms for Continuous Properties


If you have chosen a continuous property for which to compute a variogram, you must
first decide if you are going to condition those property values to a specific facies
distribution. If you have no facies model, you will not have this choice. [Q 1]
Conditioning petrophysical properties to a facies model

A property variogram for each facies represented in the data


Because properties behave differently in different faces, if you choose the condition to
facies option, you will need to make a separate variogram for the continuous property in
each facies. For example, make a separate variogram of porosity as it exists within the
channel, and others as it exists within, say, the levee and the plain. For each facies class,
only the data which is located there will be used in the variogram, and during the
modeling. [Q 3] While making a conditioned variogram for one facies, you have an
option to copy it and associate it with another. That is, you can copy variogram
definitions from one facies to another. [Q 2]
Below, you can see the mechanics of preparing to create variograms for continuous
properties in the Petrel Data Analysis dialogs, with or without conditioning.

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If you have gone to the trouble of making a facies model, and you have at least a
reasonable number of wells, then conditioning to facies, makes sense as an option
during the modeling step. Selection of this option causes the petrophysical data falling in
each facies to be treated independently during modeling. For example, if porosity were
the property being conditioned, and if the cell being evaluated had been classified as a
fine sandstone in the facies model, then only those porosity values associated with fine
sandstone would be used in the computation of porosity for that cell. This is called
segregation of data values by facies. If the modeling algorithm we choose requires a
variogram, then we must address the creation of variograms with respect to the facies
distribution as discussed below.

The mechanics for preparing for variogramming of continuous


properties in the Petrel Data Analysis dialog

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1 6. To prepare for a continuous property, perform the same steps 1 through 6 as


for discrete, but pick a property in step 3. After selecting the Zone and the unlocking
the parameters, you can proceed to the Variogram tab. If you do not wish to condition
the variogram(s) of the property to the facies, then do not click on the Facies button,
and simply proceed to make the vertical and horizontal components of a single
variogram as described in the generic section earlier or in the section below called
Modeling the Variogram in Data Analysis. Otherwise, to condition to facies,
continue to the next step.
7. Click the Facies button under Zones to condition to the facies, if you have them.
Select the facies model you wish to use. It may contain more than one facies
classification. If you do not select Facies, data for the entire property will be used
and you can skip step 9.
[Q 4]
8. Pick the facies classification whose variogram you want to compute.
9. Follow the generic variogram outline in the previous section or the one below.

Questions for review:


1. An option available when making variograms in Data Analysis for
petrophysical properties is the ability to ___________ (condition) the
variogram of petrophysical properties to a ___________ (facies) model.
2. When creating variograms for discrete data classes, is it possible to copy a
variogram from one facies classification to another? Y or N (Y).
3. When conditioning a property variogram to a particular facies in a model, the
data used for the variogram must reside only within the selected _________
(facies).
4. If, when making variograms for a petrophysical property and you want to
condition the variogram to a facies model, you must click on the
________(facies) button.

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Chapter: Petrel Interactive Tools and Icons for Making Variograms


Pages: - Lag, Azimuth, and Search Angle Icon
- Variogram Display
Interactive tools and icons for variogramming in Petrel
Below, you see the interactive tools which are provided in Petrel for the manipulation of
the experimental variogram and the model variogram.

Lag, Azimuth, and Search Angle Icon in Petrel

Click/drag here to change LAG


Click/drag here to change AZIMUTH
Click/drag here to change SEARCH ANGLE

Petrel variogram display, showing cloud histogram [Q 2,3]


-

As yet undefined variogram model, to be dragged by user (blue line)


Histogram showing how many variogram cloud pairs were averaged
to compute each experimental variogram point
Experimental variogram points
Default variogram model

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[Q 1]

Questions for review:


1. By using the 3-dot icon in the Data Analysis variogram tool, you can modify
which three parameters during variogramming? _____________,
______________, ______________ (Lag Distance, Search Angle, Search
Azimuth)
2. The histogram superimposed on the Petrel variogramming tool shows how
many variogram cloud __________ (pairs) were averaged to compute the
experimental variogram point.
3. The blue line on the Petrel variogramming tool can be _______________
(dragged) by the user to model the variogram.

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Chapter: Modeling the Variogram in the Data Analysis dialog in Petrel


Page: Simple Petrel procedure
In the previous two sections, you learned how to prepare for variogramming in the Petrel
Data Analysis dialogs for two cases discrete and continuous data. Now, well show you
how to create the variogram so it can be used. For both types of data, the creation of the
variogram proceeds in the same manner.
Previously, the variogramming mechanics were described generically. Here, we show how it
works specifically in Petrel, using Petrel terminology and dialogs. Most of the procedure is
quite similar to the generic mechanics, to which we will refer..

Determine if anisotropy exists

Determine anisotropy by using the Settings method for computing a


variogram map as we do here, or alternatively use the previously described
Trial and Error method. [Q 1]

Right click Settings on the upscaled property you want to variogram


[Q 2]
Stretch the window open so you can see and click the Variogram tab
Choose Variogram Map and Execute.
Open a map window and display the variogram to see if anisotropy is
revealed. In the left example, there does not seem to be any. If there
were, you would see a symmetrical display with the axis of symmetry
being the major azimuth of anisotropy, as in the map on the right.
Another problem with the left map are the holes which are due to the
search range being specified too small. [Q 3] If anisotropy is revealed
as on the right by the oval shape of the contours, make a note of the
azimuth, in this case about 25 degrees. [Q 4,5]

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Regardless of the method used to determine anisotropy, be sure to set


the correct azimuth for the Major direction before computing its
experimental variogram. Verify your choice of azimuth by using the 3button icon to alter it in small increments, making sure that the shape
of the variogram is optimized.

Further optimize the shape of the experimental variogram point


distribution by interactive movement of the lag icon and search icon.
With sparse data, increase search range and search angle.

Experiment with lag distance, seeing if one size produces a clearer or


more classic variogram shape

Note the histogram in the background of the variogram. Use it to


decide if a particular variogram point is relevant and should be
included in the model. The higher the column for a point, the more
observations contributed to its presence.

In some cases, the points cannot be seen clearly until you drag the blue
curve all the way to the bottom.

Model the variogram for the major direction

Once you have the best experimental shape you can get, then
- Decide on the model Type (Exponential, Spherical, ...)
- Interactively drag the Nugget Point where you think it should be
- Interactively drag the Range Point where you think it should be
- Click Apply to save the major component.

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Optimize experimental major variogram shape click the Major tab

Compute experimental variogram for the minor direction and model it, if
anisotropic
-

This step is unnecessary if the major azimuth is 0.0; that is, when the
variogram is to be omnidirectional, or isotropic. Otherwise, click on
the Minor tab, then follow the same shape-optimization and
modeling steps as for the major variogram, but note that youll not be
able to change the minor azimuth; it will always be normal to the
major azimuth.

Click Apply to save the minor component.

Create the Vertical Component of the Variogram


After you click on the Vertical tab, the procedure is basically the same for
vertical variograms as for the major component above, except that you should
start with a small lag distance which relates to the sample spacing along the
borehole (1ft. 2ft.).
[q 1]

Click Apply to save the vertical component.

The Power of Variogram Analysis


As we mentioned before, there are many relationships, analysis techniques, and
interpretive procedures which can be brought to bear during data analysis using
variograms. Important facts about the geometry, size, and even composition of a
reservoir can be inferred and indeed discovered by simply making a thorough inspection
of the available data and grids with variograms. This kind of information is invaluable
during modeling and uncertainty studies, but such topics and techniques is not in the
scope of this training course. Instead, we recommend perusal of the resources of the
Internet, or advanced courses offered by Petrel and others.

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Questions for review:


1. Before the horizontal component can be modeled, it must be established if
_____________ (anisotropy) exists in the data set.
2. To create a variogram map, go to the ________________ (Variogram) tab of
an objects ____________ (Settings).
3. If a variogram map exhibits holes, then the _______________ (Search Range)
is probably too small.
4. In a variogram map, circular contours centered around the middle of the map
suggest that the data set is _______________ (isotropic).
5. The major axis of anisotropy can be measured by the ____________(azimuth)
of the long side of the oval shapes defined by the contours on a variogram
map.
6. When creating a vertical variogram, the lag should be initially set to a
_________ (smaller) number than you would set for horizontal variograms

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Page: Using the variogram

Using the Variogram


Once the variogram is saved, you can always return to Data Analysis and modify it if you
like. Variograms made in this way are available for use during property population. As
you begin to model your facies or property, make sure that you click on the icon in the
modeling dialog named
Use Variograms Created in Data Analysis.

[Q 1]

as we discussed earlier. Recall that even though these variograms are available to the
modeling algorithms, neither the variogram, nor its parameters can be seen from there.
You must return to the Data Analysis dialogs to be able to see the variograms and their
parameters. [Q 2]

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The variograms you see in the Property and Facies Modeling dialogs are the default
variograms for modeling. When you click on the icon mentioned above, they have no
relation to the variogram which will be used in the modeling. [Q 3]

Questions for review:


1. To use a variogram created in Data Analysis, you should click on the Use
Variograms in Data Analysis icon in the _____________ (Modeling) dialogs.
2. When modeling, the variograms created in Data Analysis can be edited
directly. T or F (F).
3. When the Use Variograms in Data Analysis icon is turned on, the variogram
shown in the modeling dialog takes on the values of the one created in Data
Analysis T or F (F).

Self-Study Questions for the Geostatistical Primer


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

What statistical concept does a crossplot display?


Wells are typically stretched and squeezed horizontally. T/F
What units are used to describe anisotropy?
Which is created first, the variogram model or the experimental variogram?
What does a histogram measure?
Give a simple example of how data is segregated during gridding.
The vertical axis of a variogram shows which statistical measurement?
Lumping usually decreases the amount of data points used in gridding. T/F
How many variables are typically represented in a crossplot?
What does the width of each measured column in a histogram represent?
What does variance measure?
Name and briefly describe the three main characteristics which you measure on
a variogram plot.
13. Give two reasons for making a variogram.
14. A vertical variogram primarily analyzes the relationship among well bore data
in the X/Y direction. T/F
15. The variogram model type determines the overall shape of the variogram curve.
T/F
16. What are the three main differences between Kriging and non-Kriging
algorithms?
17. In 3D estimation gridding, how are the collected points weighted?
18. Name three typical input data types for property modeling.
19. If you have a secondary data set for use in gridding, name a Kriging
algorithm which you might use.
20. Give an example of when you might use a Deterministic algorithm instead of
a Probabilistic algorithm.
21. In Simple Kriging, computed values outside the range of the data will become
closer in value to the local mean. T/F.
22. Name two ways in which simulation (stochastic) algorithms differ from other
types of gridding algorithms.
23. The Table of Gridding Algorithms at the end of the Primer can help determine which gridding
algorithm to use for facies modeling. T/F.
24. What is the single most necessary analytical tool for geostatistical algorithms?

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