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Ericsson AXE


Digital switching
The two principles of digital switching are:
Time switching
Space switching

Time switching is based on time division multiplexing

(TDM) systems for example pulse code modulation
A PCM link can be shared in time by a number of speech
Each channel's share of this time is known as a time
slot, and each time slot carries a speech sample.
Speech samples from subscribers are transmitted in a
fixed order and are received in the same order.
This allows speech connections to be set up between

A simple time switch is made up of:

A speech store for temporary storage of the speech
A control store which controls the reading out from the
speech store
The time switch module (TSM) function block is
implemented in hardware and regional and central
The hardware units in TSM are digital link multiplexer
(DLMUX), time switch module (TSM) and space switch
module (SPM).

The TSM function block performs the following functions

Traffic functions within and towards the hardware
Controls the traffic queues and timeslots in the switch
Functions for supervision of TSM, SPM, SNT and digital
path (DIP)
Functions for test of TSM and SPM hardware
Administrative functions for TSM and SPM

The TSM, the DLMUX and the SPM are duplicated in two
planes, plane A and plane B.
The DLMUX was introduced in BYB501 and its goal is to
put together several 2 Mbit/s PCM connections to the
group switch.
In BYB 202 the 2 Mbit/s PCM connections are directly
connected to the Group switch and more specific to TSM

Space switching is used to switch timeslots from an

incoming PCM system to an outgoing PCM system.
The space switch is composed of a matrix of cross
points (electronic gates).
To connect a timeslot in an incoming PCM system to a
timeslot in an outgoing PCM system an appropriate
cross point of the space switch is operated for a defined
period (an internal timeslot).

In all AXE systems that connect two or more subscribers
to one another, the Group Switch is the dominant
feature, and is generally seen as the core around which
the system is built.
The Group Switching Subsystem, GSS, has the following
basic functions:
Selection, connection and disconnection of speech or
signal paths passing through the Group Switch.
Supervision of hardware in the subsystem by
continuous, periodic and traffic-dependent supervision,
for example through-connection tests.

Supervision of DL, Digital Link, interfaces connected to

the switch.
To maintain a stable and accurate clock frequency for
network synchronization purposes.

Configuration of the group

The group switch can be configured for different capacities.
Each time switch module can connect 16 PCM links carrying 512
One space switch module can handle 32 time switch modules.
That is the structure of a 16 K group switch with a capacity of 16 384
multiple positions (MUPs). 1 K is equal to 1024.
The multiple positions (MUP) are data areas for storage of the speech
samples in the speech stores.
One unique multipleposition is needed for each subscriber in each call.
A 16 K group switch, complete with regional processors, fits in a
single subrack for each plane.

The possible configurations of the AXE group switch are

regarding the capacity of multiple positions
16 K (16 384 MUPs)
32 K (32 768 MUPs)
48 K (49 152 MUPs)
64 K (65 536 MUPs)
128 K (131 072 MUPs)

64 K group switch
The 64 K group switch consists of 128 TSMs and 16
SPMs with a total capacity of 65 536 multiple positions.
A 64 K switch fits in four sub racks for each plan

GEM - Generic Ericsson Magazine

GEM in its basic configuration contains two duplicated
16 kMUPs Group switch units per magazine plus a pair
of regional maintenance processors.
The GEM provides physical space for up to 22 different
devices such as: TRA R7, ET155-1, SCB-RP, XDB, DLEB,
The RP Bus and a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet are connected to
each physical slot of the GEM magazine.

When switch sizes larger than 16 kMUPs are required, or when the number of
devices exceeds 22, additional GEM(s) must be added. The configuration of
additional GEM(s) may be made while the system is processing traffic (no traffic
disturbances will be caused as a result of this action).
GEMs are connected in columns and rows by Highway Vertical (HWV) and Highway
Horizontal (HWH) interfaces. Both HWV and HWH are cable interfaces carrying
8192 payload timeslots and 128 overhead timeslots.
GEM supports DL5 internal switch interface which is intended for connection of a
high order DLMUX, MUX5 or MUXSP to the switch core. Also DL-34 interface is
supported. It is optimized for communication between the GS890 and the various
high-speed devices. DL3 interfaces can be handled using the DLEB boards.
GEM NNRP5 is a special type of GEM magazines where the magazine simply acts
as device magazine for GEM devices. The Group Switch capacity is limited by the
Group Switch in the AXE10 BYB501 node to which the GEM NNRP5 magazine is

Devices Adapted to GEM Type C
TRA R6 (CSPB 1.0)
TRA R6 is a CSPB 1.0 based application.
It supports all codecs used in GSM system, i.e. EFR, FR, HR and Adaptive
MultiRate codec (AMR) HR & FR.
It also supports TFO for EFR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR.
The TRA R6 is built in a DSP ASIC technology developed especially for speech
This results in the ability to handle 192 speech channels per board, small size
and low power consumption.
When TFO is used the channel density is reduced to 128 channels per board for
narrowband codecs.
It is connected to the Group Switch via a DL34 interface and is controlled by the
APZ via an on-board regional processor (RPI).

ET155-1 STM-1
ET155-1 STM-1 is a 155 Mbit/s STM-1 Exchange Terminal that can terminate
up to sixty three 2 Mbit/s PDH tributaries.
It supports ETSI standards. The ET155-1 STM-1 is a single board
implementation (two boards if protection is required) that is mounted in the
GEM magazine.
A maximum of 8 fully utilized ET155-1 and 8 standby (protection) ET155-1
can fit into a GEM magazine when using fully equipped STM-1 frames.
For non-fully utilized STM-1 frames, a maximum of 22 ET-155-1 can be placed
into the GEM magazine.
In any case, the limitation is 16k ports and 22 board positions.
The ET155-1 is connected to the Group Switch via a DL34 interface and is
controlled by the APZ via an on-board regional processor (RPI).

Digital Link MUX for Existing Equipment Board - DLEB

DLEB is a DLMUX that demultiplexes DL34 to DL3.
One DLEB can handle four DL3 cables from GDM magazines and one
DL3 cable from ET155-7 for LOT protection.
(The DL3 cable for LOT protection is not used under normal conditions.
It is connected to the same TS4B used by the other four DL3.
If a fault occurs this DL3 is electrical inserted by a three-state connector.
No manual intervention is needed.)
There is one DLEB for each plane.
The two DLEBs for plane A and B are placed in the slots 11 positions

Clock Generation Board - CGB

CGB generates Clock and Synchronization signal to the
Two CGBs are housed in the same GEM, in case of one
GEM configuration (16 kMUPs).
If the switch size is bigger than 16 kMUPs the CGBs are
housed in different GEMs in order to improve the
reliability of the system.

Clock Distribution Board - CDB

The CDB distributes clock and synchronization to the
switch. It is necessary if the switch is bigger than 16
Incoming Reference Board - IRB
The IRB receives three external synchronization
references that are terminated, converted and
distributed to the CGBs.
Local Reference Board - LRB
The LRB delivers a high quality clock signal to the CGBs.

Maintenance Processor Board - SCB-RP

This board takes in, filters and supervises the -48V.
It also supervises the Maintenance Bus and takes in the control bus
from CP (RPB-S).
It has an Ethernet switch on it, with a 100 Mbit/s and a 1 Gbit/s
Ethernet interface to the front and a 10/100/1000 Mbit/s interface
to each board in the magazine.
It is always part of the GEM.
Distributed Switch Board - XDB
XDB is 16 kMUPs switch board with switching and DLMUX functions.

MUX DL3-DL34 Board - M334B

The M334B board is only NNRP5 specific hardware.
The board is part of the GEM NNRP5 magazine.
It performs the DL3 to DL34 multiplexing giving the possibility to connect
the GEM-based devices to AXE10 BYB501 nodes.
GESB Gigabit Ethernet Switch Board
GESB is a Gigabit Ethernet switch, able to handle inter communication
between GEM magazines as well as communication to GEM-external
GESB provides eight 1000Base-TX ports towards the front.
All Ethernet ports support auto-negotiation and the switch support
operation in unmanaged mode.

PGWB Packet Gateway Board

PGWB is an Inter-Working Unit between the IP Ethernet
interfaces and the GSS.
Two 100Base-TX Ethernet ports are provided to the
The DL34 interface is provided to the backplane.
DL34 is the interface between PGWB and XDB.
The PGWB is used as a platform for the PGW

The Generic Application Resource Processor (GARP-1) is based on Power PC hardware
GARP-1 is used for Signalling Transport (SIGTRAN) application, which secures stable
operation and a secure transition from traditional SS7 to SS7 over IP.
The GARP-1 board, handling the SIGTRAN application, is connected to the CP via the RP bus
When used in the BSC, data packets are transferred to other signalling nodes using the
current IP infrastructure.
The GARP-1 boards are connected using the front ports to the BSC LAN switch and from
there to the Site Router and further towards the MSC and SMPC.
GARP-1 is also used for the Signalling GAN Handler SGH application.
The SGH application is used for the control signalling over the Up interface.
The SGH application uses GARP-1 backplane connectors for communication over Ethernet
and requires a magazine that includes an Ethernet Switch.

The Generic Application Resource Processor ver. 2 (GARP-2) is
equipped with a MPC 8548E processor and 2GB of DDR
GARP-2 has two Gigabit Ethernet interfaces in the backplane
and two on the front.
There is one GARP-2 HW version used for the TRH application
and another GARP-2 version used for the GPH application.
GARP-2 is the successor of RPG3 for the TRH application and
RPP for the GPH application.

The STEB implements signalling terminal (ST)
functionalities of No. 7 signalling using Nb and HSL
protocol in AXE 810 system.
With reference to AXE architecture, STEB is equipped
with a Regional Processor (RP).
The protocol layers implemented on STEB are MTP1 and
MTP2 for Nb and HSL Q.703 Annex A or SAAL for HSL
(ATM based).
STEB supports up to: 4 HSL links or 128 Nb signalling

GDM/GDDM Concept