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Chapter 9

The Solid State

Solutions Objective Type Questions
(3) Triclinic

SECTION - A

1.

Which of the following crystal is represented by a b c and  90°?

(1) Orthorhombic (2) Monoclinic

(4) Tetragonal

2.

a b c,   90° Is the parameter for crystal triclinic.

Copper belongs to a crystal system represented by the crystal dimensions as

(1)

= = = 90º, a = b = c

(2)

(3)

(4)

, a = b = c

 = = 90º, 90º, a = b = c

= = = 90º, a b c

3.

Cu belongs to cubic crystal which has dimensions a = b = c and = = = 90°

What is the relation between diamond and graphite?

(1) Polymorphous (2) Isomer

(3) Isotope

(4) Isomorphous

Diamond and graphite are polymorphous because both have similar chemical composition but different arrangement of constituent particles i.e., carbon.

4. Maximum possible numbers of two dimensional and three dimensional lattices are respectively

5 and 13

(1)

5 and 14

(2)

7 and 14

(3)

14 and 4

(4)

Two dimensional lattices are = 5 [Square, Rectangle, Rhombus, Parallelogram, Hexagonal]

Three dimensional lattices are = 14 [Bravais lattices]

2

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

5.

A compound formed by element A and B crystallizes in the cubic structure, where A atoms are at the corners

of a cube and B atoms are at the centre of the body. The formula of the compounds is

 (1) AB (2) AB 2 (3) A 2 B 3 (4) AB 3 Sol. Answer (1) A corners of cube Total 8 atoms at corner, which have contribution at corner 1
So 
8

8

 1 number of atoms of A per unit cell.

1

8

B centre of body at centre of body one atom contributed completely.

So, 1 × 1 = 1 i.e.,
= AB
A 1 B 1
6.
A
solid with formula ABC 3 would probably have
(1) A at body centre, B at face centres and C at corners of the cube
(2) A at corners of cube, B at body centre, C at face centre
(3) A at corners of hexagon, B at centres of the hexagon and C inside the hexagonal unit cell
(4) A at corner, B at face centre, C at body centre
ABC 3
1
At corners number of atom =
8
1
(contribution at corner)
 A
8
At body centre = 1 × 1 = 1
 B
1
6
3
2
 C
At face centre = (Total face) (Contribution at face)
ABC 3
7. A
solid ABC has A, B and C arranged as below. The formula of solid is
C
B
A

(1) ABC

(2) AB 2 C 2

(3) A 2 BC

A present at body centre in given figure

So, its number = 1 × 1 = 1 (contributed completely)

B present at corners = 8

1

8

(Total atom) (Contribution)

1

1

2

C Present at two opposite face (Total 2 atoms at face) (Contribution at each face)

2

So, formula ABC

1

(4) AB 8 C 2

A

B

C

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

3

8. An alloy of copper, silver and gold is found to have copper constituting the ccp lattice. If silver atoms occupy the edge centres and gold is present at body centre, the alloy has a formula

(1) Cu 4 Ag 2 Au

Cu ccp

⎪ ⎨

(2) Cu 4 Ag 4 Au

1

= 1

Present at corners = 8 ×

8

Present at centres of each face = 6 ×

(3) Cu 4 Ag 3 Au

1 3

2

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎭

Total 4 Cu

(4) CuAgAu

Ag at edge centre

12

1

4

(Total atoms at edge) (contribution)

3

Au at body centre contributed completely = 1 × 1 1

Cu 4 Ag 3 Au 1 (2) AB 3
(3) A 7 B 24
1
1
8
1
6
3
2
(Total atoms) (contribution)
8
– 1 = 7
(total atoms)
1
7
 A
8
8

9.

In a face centred cubic arrangement of A and B atoms, atoms of A are at the corner of the unit cell and atoms of B are at the face centres. One of the A atom is missing from one corner in unit cell. The simplest formula of compound is

(1) A 7 B 3

(4) A 7/8 B 3

A

8

(Total atoms) (contribution)

B face centre

Now, one atom is missing from one corner

So,

7

(contribution at corner )

AB AB

7

8

3

7 24

10. In any ionic crystal A has formed cubical close packing and B atoms are present at every tetrahedral voids.

If any sample of crystal contain ‘N’ number of B atoms then number of A atoms in that sample is

(1)

N

A ccp total atoms = 4

(2)

N

2

⎢ ⎣

1

1

86   

8

2

4

⎥ ⎦

(3)

2 N

(4) 2 N

B at tetrahedral voids double of number of atoms 2 × 4 = 8

given B 8 N.

So, number of A atoms is half the number of (B) atoms, i.e., 8 2

4

or

N

⎜ ⎝

2

⎟ ⎠

4

4

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

11. A binary solid A + B has a structure with B ions constituting the lattice and A + ions occupying 25% tetrahedral

holes. Formula of the solid is

(1)

A 2 B

(2) AB

A + B Rock salt type f.c.c. number of atoms = 4

B constituting the lattice i.e., 4

A + 25% of tetrahedral void

(3) AB 2

Tetrahedral void ⎢ ⎣

(4) AB 4



24

2

no. of atoms ⎤ ⎥

8

25

100

8

2

A 2 + B 4 or AB 2 (2) AB 2
(3)
A 2 B
1
1
8

6
8 2
⎣ ⎢
(corners)
(face centred)
⎥ ⎦
double of no. of atoms(2N)
no. of atoms
N
4
8
equal no.
⇒ total = 8

(4) A 2 B 3

given all octahedral voids are occupied

12.

In a crystalline solid anions B are arranged in cubic close packing. Cation A are equally distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral voids. If all the octahedral voids are occupied, the formula for the solid is

(1) AB

B

ccp

4

(N)

Octahedral

Tetrahedral

A

and A - equally distributed between both

voids so,

A

4(octahedral)

4(tetrahedral)

(according to octahedral)

A 8 B 4 A 2 B

13. In a cubic close packed structure of mixed oxides, the lattice is made up of oxide ions, one-eighth of tetrahedral voids are occupied by divalent (X 2+ ) ions, while one-half of the octahedral voids are occupied by trivalent ions (Y 3+ ), then the formula of the oxide is

(1) XY 2 O 4

O

2

ccp

4 ⎢ ⎡ 8

1

 

6

8

(2) X 2 YO 4

1

2

⎥ ⎦

X +2

1

8

(given)

× 8(tetrahedral void) 1

(3) X 4 Y 5 O 10

(4) X 5 Y 4 O 10

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

5

Y +3

1

2

(given)

× 4 (octahedral void) 2

So, formula X 1 Y 2 O 4

14. Titanium crystallizes in a face centred cubic lattice. It reacts with carbon or hydrogen interstitially by allowing atoms of these elements to occupy holes in the host lattice. Hydrogen occupies tetrahedral holes but carbon occupies octahedral holes the formula of titanium carbide and hydride are

(1) TiC 2 , TiH 4

(2) TiC, TiH 2

(3) Ti 3 C, TiH 2

(4) TiC 2 , TiH

4 ⎢ ⎡ 8

1

1

Ti

ccp

fcc  
6
8
2
⎥ ⎦
 double of number of atoms
 2 × 4 = 8
X
1
1
contribution
(2)
Edge with 4
contribution
1
1
contribution
(4)
Tetrahedral void with 8
contribution
1 ⎞
⎝ ⎜
4
⎟ ⎠

(2)

8, 4

(3)

4, 8

given carbon at octahedral holes = equal to no. of atoms 4

So, Ti 4 C 4 TiC

given hydrogen at tetrahedral holes

Ti 4 H 8 TiH 2

The site labelled as ‘X’ in fcc arrangement is

15.

(1)

(3)

Face with 4

Corner with 4

In given figure (X) is present at centre of edge which contributed

16.

A unit cell is obtained by closed packing layers of atoms in ABAB

and octahedral voids in the unit cell are respectively

(1)

pattern. The total number of tetrahedral

(4)

12, 6

6, 12

In

So, tetrahedral voids = 6 × 2 = 12

octahedral voids = 6

ABAB

i.e.,

hexagonal close packing, number of atoms

= 6.

1

 17. In certain solid, the oxide ions are arranged in ccp. Cations A occupy 6 of the tetrahedral voids and cations B occupy one-third of the octahedral voids. The probable formula of the compound is

(1) ABO 3

(2) AB 2 O 3

(3) A 2 BO 3

(4) A 2 B 2 O 3

6

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

O 2 ccp 4 (no. of atoms)

 1 8 A  8  6 (tetrahedral void) 6 given 1 4 B  4  3 (octahedral) 3

given

ABO

84

3

6

4

or ABO 3

 18. A solid has a structure in which A atoms are located at the cube corners of the unit cell, B atoms are located at the cube edges of unit cell and the C atoms at the body centre. Formula of the compound (1) CAB 3
(2) C 2 AB 3
(3) CA 3 B
(4) C 2 A 3 B
1
A  corners 
8
1
 A
1
8
1
B  edges =
12
3
 B
3
4
C
 body centre  1 × 1 = 1 . C 1
AB 3 C
19.
If
‘a’ is the length of unit cell, then which one is correct relationship?
a
(1) For simple cubic lattice, Radius of metal atom =
2
3 a
(2)
For bcc lattice, Radius of metal atom =
4
a
(3) For fcc lattice, Radius of metal atom = 2 2
(4) All of these
r
r
a
2r = a
for S.C.C.,
r 
r = a/2
2
a
3a = Body diagonal
r
2r
4r =
3a
3
for B.C.C.,
r
a
4
r
r =
3a
4

for F.C.C.,

r

a 2 2

So, all three options are correct. 2r r

2a = face diagonal 2a
2
a
=
4
2
2

4r =

r = r

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

7

20. For face centered cubic structure edge length ‘a’ can be related with radius ‘r’ as

(1)

a r 2 For f.c.c.
2a  4r
4r
2
4 2r
a 
2
2
2 (2)
 2 2r

a = r

(3) a 2 2 r

(4)

a

4 3

r

21. A crystalline solid AB adopts sodium chloride type structure with edge length of the unit cell as 745 pm and formula mass of 74.5 a.m.u. The density of the crystalline compound is

(1) 2.16 g cm 3 Z M
for NaCl  f.c.c. (Z = 4)
3
 a
A
4 74.5
23
–10 3
M = 74.5 amu
(745 10
)
a = 745 pm
= 745 × 10 –12 m
= 745 × 10 –10 cm
(2)
r = 1.414 R
(3)
r = 0.414 R
(4)
r 

N

(2) 0.99 g cm 3

(3) 1.88 g cm 3

(4) 1.197 g cm 3

(density)

6.022 10



 1.202 g/cm 3

22.

If radius of an octahedral void is r and atomic radius of atoms assuming cubical close packing is R. Then the relation between r and R is

(1)

r = 2R

R 2

For octahedral void

r = 0.414 R

23. Polonium adopts cubic structure with edge length of cube being 0.336 nm. The distance between the polonium atoms which lie at the corners along the body diagonal is

(1) 0.336 nm 3a

(2) 0.291 nm 3a 3
0.336 nm
= 0.581 nm

(3) 0.582 nm

(4) 0.481 nm

8

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

24. CsCl crystallises in a cubic cell that has a Cl at each corner and Cs + at the centre of the unit cell. If radius

of Cs + is 1.69 Å and

r Cl

=1.81 Å, what is the edge length of unit cell?

 (1) 3.50 Å (2) 4.04 Å (3) 2.02 Å (4) 1.01 Å Sol. Answer (2) Distance between Cl – (corner) and Cs + (centre) is half of body diagonal
Cl
r
3a
r
 
r
2
3a
Cs +
+
r
1.69  1.81
2
a
 4.04 Å
25.
Ice crystallises in a hexagonal lattice having the volume of unit cell as 132 × 10 –24 cm 3 . If density is 0.92 g
cm –3 at a given temperature, then number of H 2 O molecules per unit cell is
(1)
1
(2)
2
(3)
3
(4)
4
Z M

M
 18
3
H O
N
a
2
A
Z 18
0.92 
a 3 = volume of unit cell  132 × 10 –24 cm 3
23
–24
6.022 10

132 10
23
–24
0.92 6.022 10

132 10
Z 
18
 4.0
26.
For tetrahedral co-ordination, the radius ratio (r + /r – ) should be
(1) 0.414 – 0.732
(2) 0.732 – 1.0
(3) 0.156 – 0.225
(4) 0.225 – 0.414

For tetrahedral void the radius ratio

r

r

0.225 0.414

27. The radius of the Na + is 95 pm and that of Cl ion is 181 pm. The co-ordination number of Na + will be

(1)

4 r

95

r

181

0.52

(2)

6

(3)

8

(4) Unpredictable

(this value is present in between normal range so, C.N. remain 6) generaly the C.N. of NaCl is 6 when r   0.414  0.732 – r

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

9

28. Lithium metal has a body centred cubic structure. Its density is 0.53 g cm 3 and its molar mass is 6.94 g mol 1 . Calculate the edge length of a unit cell of Lithium metal

(1)

153.6 pm

Z M



N

A

a

3

z = 2 (for B.C.C.)

(2) 351.6 pm

(3) 527.4 pm

3

a

3

a

Z M

N 

A

2 6.94

6.022 10

23

0.53

= 4.34 × 10 23

(4) 263.7 pm

a = (4.34 × 10 23 ) 1/3

N

A

a

3 ~ 351.6 pm
(2)
2 × 10 –22 cm 3
(3)
44 × 10 –22 cm 3
(4)
a 3
= volume of unit cell = V
Z
= 4  for f.c.c.
4 60.23
23 
2
(2)
2 N
(3)
4 N
(4)
N

6.022 10

29.

What is the volume of a face centred cubic unit cell, when its density is 2.0 g cm 3 and the molar mass of the substance is 60.23 g mol 1 ?

(1)

4 × 10 22 cm 3

22 × 10 22 cm 3





V

Z M

N

A

Z M

A

V

Z M

N 

2 × 10 22 g/cm 3

20 × 10 23

30.

The number of octahedral sites in a cubical close pack array of N spheres is

(1) N/2

Number of octahedral sites number of spheres = N

31. For a solid with the following structure, the coordination number of the point B is

(1)

3

(2)

4 (A)
(B)
(3)
5

(4)

6

(B) is located at edge centre which shown C.N. = 6

10

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

32. The empty space between the shaded balls and hollow balls as shown in the diagram is called (1) Hexagonal void

(2) Octahedral void

(3) Tetrahedral void

(4) Double triangular void

The empty space in figure is octahedral void because it is surrounded by six spheres. (2)
4, 4
(3)
8, 8
(4)
(2)
268.8 pm
(3) 2688 pm
a
(r  
r – )  interionic distance.
2

8, 4

A mineral having formula AB 2 crystallises in the cubic close packed lattice, with the A atoms occupying the

lattice points. Hence coordination number of A and B atoms are

(1)

4, 8

33.

AB 2 CaF 2 type of crystal which has C.N. = 8 : 4.

KF has NaCl type of structure. The edge length of its unit cell has been found to be 537.6 pm. The distance

between K + F in KF is

(1) 26.88 pm

(4) Unpredictable

34.

For NaCl (fcc) and KF

537.6

2

268.8 pm

35. Which of the following features is false regarding the structure of CsCl?

 (1) It has bcc arrangements (2) For each ion coordination number is 8 (3) For each ion coordination number is 6 (4) The radius ratio (r + /r – ) is 0.93 It has B.C.C. arrangement
For CsCl,
C.N. = 8
r
 0.93

r

So, third option is incorrect because C.N. of CsCl is 8 not 6.

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

11

36. Which type of solids will have the highest melting point?

(1) Ionic crystals

(3) Molecular solids

(2) Network covalent solid

(4) Metallic crystals

Network covalent solids have highest melting point due to network structure in which bonds are tightly held like SiO 2 . Si
O
Si
O
Si
O
OO
Si
O
Si
O
Si
Layered structure so, it require very high temperature to melt it.
37.
The mass of unit cell of Na 2 O is
(1)
Twice the formula mass of Na 2 O (2)
Four times the formula mass of Na 2 O
(3)
Six times the formula mass of Na 2 O
(4)
Thrice the formula mass of Na 2 O
Na 2 O  Has 4 atoms per unit cell
So, the mass of unit cell is
4 × formula mass of Na 2 O
38.
In normal spinel structure there is a closed packed array of O 2– ions. The trivalent cations are present in
(1)
75% of octahedral voids
(2)
50% of octahedral voids
(3)
12.5% of tetrahedral voids
(4)
25% of octahedral voids
In normal spinel structure
1
T.V
8
1
+2 
1
+2
+3
–2
8
⎪ ⎪
1A
occupy 8 of T.V.
A
B
O
4
2
4
1
(12.5%)
 6
3
2
1
+3
2B
i.e.,
O.V. will be occupied
2
(50%)

T.V. = tetrahedral void

O.V. = octahedral void

39. The C–C and Si–C interatomic distances are 154 pm and 188 pm. The atomic radius of Si is

(1)

77 pm

(2)

94 pm

(3) 114 pm

(4)

111 pm

12

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

Diameter = 154 pm (internuclear distance)

so, radius of one carbon atom

154

2

77 pm

Diameter (internuclear distance) 188

Radius of Si + 77 = 188

r Si = 188 – 77 111 pm C C
154 pm
Si C

188 pm

40. What is the coordination number of Rb + in RbBr unit cell if ionic radii of Rb + and Br ions being 148 and 195 respectively? (2)
4
(3)
8
(4)
12
(2)
Q + = (radius = 56 pm)
(4)
S + = (radius = 150 pm)
0.414  0.732
 
r

(1)

6

r

Rb

148

r

Br

195

0.75

This ratio (0.75) is more than 0.732 so, it is cubic structure which has C.N. = 8

41.

A crystalline solid AB has NaCl type structure with radius of B ion is 250 pm. Which of the following cation can be made to slip into tetrahedral site of crystals of A + B ?

(1)

(3)

P + (radius = 180 pm)

R + = (radius = 200 pm)

For NaCl type r

r

0.414

250

r + = 0.414 × 250

r + = 103.5

This is radius of void so, the cation which has equal to this radius or smaller to this radius can easily fit into it that is option (2) Q + = 56 pm which is smaller than radius of void thats why it can fit into it.

42. Number of formula units in unit cell of MgO (rock salt), ZnS (zinc blende) and Pt (fcc) respectively

4, 3, 2

(1)

(2)

4, 3, 4

(3)

4, 4, 4

(4)

4, 3, 1

MgO = 4

ZnS = 4

Pt (f.c.c.) = 4

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

13

43. An element crystallises in a ‘bcc’ lattice. Nearest neighbours and next nearest neighbours of the elements are respectively

(1)

8, 8

(2)

8, 6

[4 atoms above and 4 atoms below]

(3)

6, 8

(4)

6, 6  (2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
(6)
(5)
(2)
23
(3)
10
(4)
14

In B.C.C.

Nearest neighbours = 8 Next nearest neighbours = 6 (6 edge atoms at corner)

44.

The total number of elements of symmetry in a cubic crystal is

(1) 9

Total number of elements of symmetry = 23

Rectanglular plane of symmetry = 3 + Diagonal plane of symmetry = 6 + centre of symmetry = 1 + axis of symmetry = 13

[3 fold = 4, 2 - fold = 6, 4 fold = 3] axis of symmetry.

 45. A crystal may have one or more planes of symmetry as well as one or more than one axis of symmetry but it has
 (1) Two centres of symmetry (2) Only one centre of symmetry (3) No centre of symmetry (4) Three centres of symmetry

A crystal may have more than plane of symmetry and axis of symmetry but centre of symmetry is only one.

46. Which of the following statement is correct?

(1) On increasing temperature the coordination number of solid remains unchanged

(2) On increasing pressure the coordination number of solid increases

(3) On increasing temperature the coordination number of solid increases

(4) On increasing pressure the coordination number of solid decreases

14

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

On increasing pressure the C.N. of solid increases because on increasing pressure atoms/particles come closer to each other i.e., C.N. increases [closeness increases] and [K.E. decreases] and on increasing temperature K.E. of particles increases by which particles go far away i.e., C.N. decreases [closeness decreases]

[C.N. closeness of atoms i.e., coordination number]

47. Pyroelectric crystals produce feeble electric current

(1) On deformation

(3) On heating

(2) On dissolving in a solvent

(4) On sublimation (4) It shows metal deficiency defect
1
 2e
O
2
2
(2)
(4)

2

(2) Zinc oxide is a covalent compound

Pyroelectric crystal produce feeble electric current on heating.

Zinc oxide on heating changes to yellow. This is because

(1) Zinc oxide is a stoichiometric compound

(3) Zinc oxide shows metal excessive defect

Zn

48.

ZnO



It causes excess of Zn in the lattice causing metal excess (defect) it changes its colour

F-centres in an ionic crystals are

(1)

(3)

Lattice sites containing electrons

Lattice sites that are vacant

Interstitial sites containing electrons

Interstitial sites containing cations

49.

In some defect, negative ions may be missing from their lattice sites leaving holes in which electrons remain trapped to maintain electrical neutrality. The holes with entrapped electrons are called F-centres.

They impart colour to the crystal lattice e.g., heating crystals of NaCl in vapours of Na

When an element of group 14 is doped with an element of group 15

50.

(1) p-type of semi-conductors are formed

(3) Zeolites are formed

(2) n-type of semi-conductors are formed

(4)

Electrolytes are formed

Group-14 element e.g. Si 4-valence electrons. Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
P

Doped with group-15 element like (P) (phosphorus)

4e s of (P) can form bond with 4e s of Si but one e remain free, so, it n-type of semi conductor due to negative nature of e .

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

15

51. Antiferromagnetic property is given as (1)

(2) (3) (4) If magnetic moments are aligned in compensatory way so that all cancel out each other and net magnetic

moment becomes zero, these are antiferromagnetic substances .

52. Substances which are magnetic but having less magnetic moment than theoretically calculated value are called

(1) Ferromagnetic (2) Ferrimagnetic (3) Antiferromagnetic (4) Diamagnetic equal and opposite. So net magnetic moment = 0.

When magnetic moments of domains are aligned in parallel and antiparallel directions in unequal number, it

results in some net magnetic moment. Ferrimagnetic

theoritically calculated value.

In antiferromagnetism

(1) Alignments of magnetic moments is additive

less magnetic moment than

(2) Alignments of magnetic moments in one direction is compensated by alignments in the opposite directions

(3) Alignments of magnetic moments does not take place

(4) Alignments of magnetic moments varies with the nature of the material

53.

In antiferromagnetism

54.

Which is true about Piezoelectric crystals?

(1) They produce an electric current on heating

(2) They produce an electric current when a mechanical stress is applied

(3) They are insulators

(4) They are magnetic in nature

Piezoelectric crystals produce an electric current when a mechanical stress is applied.

55. When a crystal having rock salt type geometry is heated in the presence of it’s metal vapour then defect in it will be

(1) Stoichiometric defect (2) Metal excess defect (3) Anion excess defect (4) Frenkel defect

Metal excess defect heated in the presence of its metal vapour e.g., heating of NaCl in Na vapour.

16

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

56. The mass percentage of Fe 3+ ion present in Fe 0.93 O 1.00 is

(1) 15% Fe
O
0.93
1.00
Fe +3
(0.93 – x)
Fe +2
Let
x
+2
Fe
+3
Fe
= x = 0.79
= 0.14

(2) 5.5%

(3) 10.0%

(4) 11.5%

according to charge balance

2x + 3[0.93 – x] = 2

x = 0.79

Total mass of Fe 0.93 O = 56 × 0.93 + 16 = 68.08 amu

mass of Fe +3 = 0.14 × 56 = 7.84 amu

mass percentage of

Fe

3

7.84

68.08

 100 11.5%

57.

If 1 mole of NaCl is doped with 10 3 mole of SrCl 2 . What is the number of cationic vacancies per moe of NaCl? (2)
(4)
Objective Type Questions
(2) Angle of symmetry
(3) Centre of symmetry

(1) 10 3 mole 1 (2) 6.02 × 10 18 mole 1 (3) 10 50 mole 1 (4) 6.02 × 10 20 mole 1

1 mole of SrCl 2 creates one mole cation vacancy.

given 10 3 mole of SrCl 2 creates 10 3 × N A number of vacancy.

= 6.02 × 10 20 mol 1

58.

Which of the following is incorrect statement about the Bragg’s equation n= 2d sin?

(1)

(3)

n, represents order of reflection

, represents wavelength of X-rays used

, represents angle of glance

d, represents distance between two parallel planes

n= 2dsin

= incident angle not angle of glance.

SECTION - B

1.

In crystalline solids, which of the following element of symmetry is not present?

(1) Axis of symmetry

(4) Plane of symmetry

In crystalline solid angle of symmetry is not present.

2. Amorphous solids have

 (1) Orderly arrangement of atoms (2) Repeating unit of unit cell (3) Long range of melting point (4) Anisotropy

Amorphous solids have

not ordered arrangement.

not repeating units

long range of melting point

Isotropy

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

17

3. The type of crystal system shown is b
a
a

(1) Cubic

(2) Orthorhombic

(3) Monoclinic

(4) Tetragonal

For tetragonal a = b c

Two sides are equal and one side is unequal.

In a unit cell, atoms A, B, C and D are present at corners, face-centres, body-centre and edge-centre respectively in a cubic unit cell. The total number of atoms present per unit cell is

(1) 4

4. (2)
8
(3)
15
(4)
27
(2) ABCD
(3) AB 6 C 2 D 4

A at corners = 8

B at face centres = 6

C body centre = 1

D edge centre = 12

Total atoms in a cube = 8 + 6 + 1 + 12 = 27

 A = 8  1  1 8 B = 6  1  3 2 C 1 = × 1 = 1 1 D 12 =   3 4

Total = 8 atoms per unit cell

5.

In

third of all edge-centres respectively. Then formula of unit cell is

(1) AB 3 CD 3

a unit cell, atoms A, B, C and D are present at half of total corners, all face-centres, body-centre and one

(4) AB 6 C 2 D 2

 1 1 Corner A 4  8 2 1 Face centre B 63   2 Total C = 1 1 Total D = 4 4   1 formula A B CD 1 3 11

2

AB 6 C 2 D 2

18

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

6. In a unit cell, atoms A, B, C and D are present at corners, face-centres, body-centre and edge-centres respectively. If atoms touching one of the plane passing through two diagonally opposite edges are removed, then formula of compound is

(1) ABCD 2

(2) ABD 2

(3) AB 2 D 2

(4) AB 4 D 5 Given atoms of one diagonal planes are to be removed.
 4 atoms from corner, 2 atom from face centre and 1
atom from body centre will be removed.
1 1
Total
A
 
4
[4 atoms removed from corner]
8 2
1
Total
B

42
[2 atoms are removed from face centre]
2
Total C = 0 [1 atom removed from body centre]
1
5
Total
D
 
10
[2 atom removed from edge]
4
2
A B
CD  ABD
1
2
0
5
14
5
2
2
7.
In a CsCl structure, if edge length is x, then distance between one Cs atom and one Cl atom is
a 3
a 3
a
(1)
(2)
(3)
a 2
(4)
2
4
2
Cl
3a
2 Cs +
3a
 [a = x]
3a
3x
2
2

8. The correct statement about, CCP structure is

 (1) Packing fraction = 26% (2) Coordination number = 6 (3) Unit cell is face centred cubic (4) AB–AB type of packing Sol. Answer (3) ccp packing fraction = 74% C.N. = 12 Unit cell is fcc ABCABC

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

19

9. In a NaCl structure, if positions of Na atoms and Cl atoms are interchanged, then in the new unit cell

 (1) Na atom is present at body centre (2) Cl atom is present at face centre (3) Na atom is present in tetrahedral voids (4) Cl atom is present in octahedral voids

In NaCl structure

Na + present at edge centres [octahedral voids] and as well as body centre.

Cl present at corners and centre of each face.

Given if atom are interchanged then

Na + comes at corners and centre of each face.

Cl comes at edge centres (octahedral voids) and at body centre.

10.

If radius of a metal atom (A) is 5 pm and radius of an electronegative atom (B) is 20 pm, then in the unit cell

(1)

(3) (2)
(4)
1
(2)
4
(3)
(4)
16
16
(M, N A = constant)
3
a
B.C.C.
[given, a B.C.C = 2 pm; a F.C.C. = 4 pm]
3
a
F.C.C

0.25

4

Z M

N

A

a

3

Z

F.C.C.

Z B.C.C

3

48

1

A in octahedral voids, B in FCC unit

A in BCC unit, B in cubic void

A in FCC unit, B in tetrahedral void

A in tetrahedral void, B in FCC unit

r

51

r

20

This ratio comes in between 0.225 – 0.414 i.e., tetrahedral void. So, A in tetrahedral void due to cation (small size).

So, B in f.c.c.

11.

A metal can be crystallized in both BCC and FCC unit cells whose edge lengths are 2 pm and 4 pm respectively. Then ratio of densities of FCC and BCC unit cells is

(1)

1

4



F.C.C.

B.C.C.

4 ( 2 )

2 (4)

3

2 64

4

12. In a unit cell containing X 2+ , Y 3+ and Z 2 where X 2+ occupies 1/8th of tetrahedral voids, Y 3+ occupies 1/2 of octahedral voids and Z 2 forms ccp structure. Then formula of compound is

(1) X 2 Y 4 Z

(2) XY 2 Z 4

ccp

(Z

2

)

number atoms per unit cell = 4

Total tetrahedral void = 8

Total octahedral void = 4

8

 1

8

(corners)

(3) XY 3 Z 4

6

1

2

(face centre)

⎥ ⎦

(4) X 4 YZ 2

20

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

Given,

X

Y

2

3

So, formula

1

8

1

2

Z

1

of T.V.

  8

8

1

1

 4

XY Z

24

of O.V. =

2

223



4

1

X

Y

2

2

13. On rising temperature and decreasing pressure in CsCl solid

(1) C.N. of metal ion increases from 6 to 8

(2) Number of formula unit per unit cell (Z) changes from one to four

(3) Density of unit cell is increased

r

r

(4) NaCl
C.N.
6 : 6
(Z
4) due to F.C.C.
r
 decreases
r
due to closeness 
density of unit cell decreases
(2) 46.25%
(3) 63%
1
8 
=1
8

(4) 37%

CsCl

C.N. 8 :8

T ,P



(Z

due to simple cubic

1)no.of atom

On increasing temperature and decreasing pressure closeness of atoms in CsCl crystal decreases because

K.E. increases. So, that

In a ccp type structure, if half of the face-centred atoms are removed, then percentage void in unit cell is approximately

(1) 54%

14.

In ccp, 74% space is occupied by 4 atoms (when all corner and face centre atoms are located)

Given Half of face centred atoms are removed.

So, total face centred atoms = 6 half removed it. becomes = 3

Now contribution for corners remain same i.e.,

for face centred =

1

(3)  

2

3

2

Total

3

 

1

5

2 2

For, 4 - atoms 74% (space occupied)

1 - atom

74%

4

for 5 2 atom 74% 4

5

2

46.25%

i.e.,

% void

= 100 – occupied space

= 100 – 46.25 = 54%

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

21

15. In a BCC unit cell, if half of the atoms per unit cell are removed, then percentage void is

(1) 68%

(2) 32%

(3) 34%

(4) 66%

In B.C.C. 68% space is occupied by 2 atoms. If half of atoms per unit cell is removed then it becomes = 2 – 1 = 1.

So, 2 atom 68%

1 atom

68

2

34% (occupied space)

Now, % void = 100 – occupied space = 100 – 34 = 66%

16.

(1) 9

Number of atoms per unit cell, if atoms are present at the corner of unit cell and 2 atoms at each body diagonal

24 (2)
10
(3)
6
(4)
4
1
1
8
2.5
5.6
(2)
10
23 (3)
10
20 (4)
58.5 
58.5 

one unit cell

5.6

NaCl

 23 35.5

mole

10

58.5

58.5

Given = atoms are present at corners and 2 atoms at each body diagonal.

In normal total 4 – body diagonal are present in a simple cube.

So, Total no. of atoms on body diagonal = 4 × 2 = 8

for corners =

8

Body diagonal = 4 × 2 = 8

Total = 9

Number of unit cells in 10 g NaCl

(1)

1.5

58.5

10

17.

58.5

10

21

In NaCl, 4 atoms per unit cell

i.e.,

4 atoms in

 1 or 1 atom in 4 unit cell

or N A atoms = (1 mole)

1

4

N

A

unit cell

or

10

58.5 mole

1

4

N

A

10

58.5

unit cell

1.5

58.5

10

24

unit cell

22

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

18. Some of the molecular solids upon heating produces small amount of electricity, hence solid is

(1) Piezoelectric (2) Pyroelectric (3) Ferrielectric (4) Ferroelectric

Pyroelectric are the molecular solids which produces small amount of electricity upon heating.

19. NaCl becomes paramagnetic at high temperature due to

 (1) Formation of F-centre (2) Molten state (3) Change in oxidation state (4) Conversion of Na + to Na

NaCl becomes paramagnetic at high temperature in the presence of Na - vapour due to migration of Cl ion to the surface from lattice by which vacancy is produced known as F-centre in which e is trapped from outer Na vapour i.e., some free electrons comes in lattice that’s why it becomes paramagnetic. (2)
6
(3)
16
(4)
10
(2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
(6)
(5)
Cs +
(2)
3 :
1
(3)
2 : 3
(4)

3 : 4

Second nearest neighbour in CsCl solid

In CsCl first nearest neighbours is (8) due to four atoms above at corners and four atoms below at corners.

Second nearest neighbours is 6 due to six edge corner atoms of second unit cell.

The ratio of number of rectangular plane and diagonal plane in a cubic unit cell

(1)

1

:

2

20.

(1) 8

21.

Total number of rectangular plane = 3.

Number of diagonal plane = 6.

ratio = 3 : 6 = 1 : 2

22. In a calcium fluoride structure, the co-ordination number of cation and anion is respectively.

(1)

6, 6

(2)

8, 4

(3)

4, 4

(4)

4, 8

CaF 2 AB 2 type C.N. = 8 : 4

because Ca +2 ions form ccp structure and F ions in all tetrahedral holes.

for ccp atoms = 4

Tetrahedral holes = 8

Solution of Assignment

The Solid State

23

23. In which of the following defect density increases?

(1) Schottky defect (2) Frenkel defect (3) F-centre (4) Impurity defect

In impurity defect density increases because some impurities will come from outside which increases mass. So, density increases. impurity Impurity

Normal crystal

mass increases = density increases

24. Glass is a

(1) Micro-crystalline solid (2) Super cooled liquid (3) Gel (4) Polymeric mixture Previous Year Questions
(2) 32%
(3) 26%

Glass is a super cooled liquid or amorphous solid because on heating its arrangement of atoms become improper i.e., become slightly liquid nature.

SECTION - C

1.

2.

[Re-AIPMT-2015]

[Re-AIPMT-2015]

The vacant space in bcc lattice unit cell is

(1) 23%

(4) 48%

The correct statement regarding defects in crystalline solids is

(1) Frenkel defect is a dislocation defect

(2) Frenkel defect is found in halides of alkaline metals

(3) Schottky defects have no effect on the density of crystalline solids

(4) Frenkel defects decrease the density of crystalline solids

3.

A given metal crystallizes out with a cubic structure having edge length of 361 pm. If there are four metal atoms

[AIPMT-2015]

(1) 108 pm

in one unit cell, what is the radius of one atom?

(2)

40 pm

(3) 127 pm

(4)

80 pm

4. If a is the length of the side of a cube, the distance between the body centered atom and one corner atom in the

[AIPMT-2014]

cube will be (1)
2 3 a

3a 4r (BCC)

(2)

4 a 3

(3) 3 a

4

(4) 3 a

2 3a
2r 
2

24

The Solid State

Solution of Assignment

5.

A metal has a fcc lattice. The edge length of the unit cell is 404 pm. The density of the metal is 2.72 g

molar mass of the metal is (N A Avogadro's constant=6.02×10 23 mol 1 )

(1) 30 g mol 1

cm 3 .The

[NEET-2013]

(2) 27 g mol 1

(3) 20 g mol 1

(4) 40 g mol 1 

Z M

N

A

a

3

 a = 404 × 10 –12 × 100 cm = 404 × 10 –10 cm Z = 4  for f.c.c.

M  N

A

a

3

Z

2.72  6 10

23

( 404 10

–10 3

)

4

= 26.9