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Unit 6 FIBN

Name_____________________Period___
I. IONIC COMPOUNDS

-Electrons are ___________________ from a ___________________ to a ___________________


(or sometimes, polyatomic ions may be present)
-Elements participating in ionic Bonds are called ___________________ or formula
units.
Examples: (all salts)
aluminum chloride
copper (II) nitrate
sodium chloride

Oxidation Numbers

An oxidation number is the _______________ an atom would have if


it became an ________.
Group 1A makes a +1 & Group 2A
makes a +2 charge
AND
Silver = +1
Zinc = +2
Cadmium = +2

Writing Formulas and Names of Ionic Compounds

-Name the metal first (the cation) then you name the nonmetal (the
___________________) and
change the ending of the nonmetal to ide.
-Metal names dont change while nonmetals end in -ide.
-___________________ ion names dont change when you name them either.
-Polyatomic ions are written inside parenthesis
*Remember: Many ___________________ metals require a roman numeral to
indicate their oxidation number when you name them. (Use a roman numeral when
we did NOT label the charge on our periodic table. If we always know the
charge, it does NOT get a roman numeral.)
Examples:
NaCl ___________________
ZnBr2___________________
CuO ___________________

FeF3___________________

Cu3P ___________________

UP2 ___________________

Writing Formulas and Names of Ionic Compounds


Formula Writing Example: Aluminum Oxide
STEP 1: write the _________________, metal first, then
nonmetal.
Al O
STEP 2: above each symbol, write the _________________,
number
Al+3 O-2
STEP 3: Write subscripts so that the overall charge of the compound is _______.
(criss-cross)
Step 4: _____________ & Erase the oxidation numbers. Charges are NOT part of
WHEN Oxidation
the formula, they just help us get the correct subscripts!)
numbers are
The answer: Al2O3
[ Al2O3 and Al+2O-3 are
WRONG! ]
matched,
use 1 atom of

Oxidation numbers (___________________) are used to determine subscripts.


each in the
Examples:
aluminum chloride ________________
tin (IV) oxide ___________________
__________________
sodium sulfate

___________________

___________________

barium chlorate

___________________
___________________

___________________

II. COVALENT COMPOUNDS


-Electrons are ___________________between two or more
nonmetals
(we include ___________________as a nonmetal)
-Elements participating in covalent bonds are called
___________________.
Examples:
water (H2O)
carbon dioxide (CO2)
hydrogen (H2)

STEPS for Writing Names of Covalent


Compounds

1) Write the name of the first element


-IF there is MORE THAN ONE atom of the first element, use a prefix!)
2) Identify the number of ___________________ of the second element. Write the prefix
that
*You only use
indicates how many atoms there are of that element.
if -ide
the last
3) Write the name of the second element and change itsmonoending to
PREFIXES for steps 1 & 2
*1 =

__________

element (never
the first) in the
6 = __________molecule has only
one atom:
Example:

2 = __________

7 = __________

3 = __________

8 = __________

4 = __________

9 = __________

5 = __________

10 = __________

EXAMPLES:
SiO2

= ______________________________
(one silicon on first name.NO Prefix)

P4O10

= ______________________________
(drop the prefixs a when using oxygen)

N2F5

= ______________________________
(the first names ending doesnt change)

SiS

= ______________________________

Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds


- Use the ___________________ to find how many atoms of the element
- Do NOT reduce the formula, even if the ___________________ could be reduced!
*We use ___________________ formulas for covalent molecules
*We use ___________________ formulas for ionic compounds.
EXAMPLES:
Phosphorus difluoride
__________
Trinitrogen pentasulfide
__________
Hexahydrogen decoxide
__________

III. COMPARING PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS /


COMPOUNDS
Ionic Bonds / Compounds

Made of _________________& nonmetal generally


Electrons _________________ (e- lost by one, gained by the other)
HIGH _________________ point
HIGH melting point (cant melt it in the kitchen; its solid)
CONDUCT electricity (when melted or as a solid)
Crystalline structure Ex. stalactites and stalagmites in caves
Often is a _________________
Nearly always _________________in water (Electrolyte)
1 particle is called a _________________ ______________

Covalent Bonds / Compounds

Made of 2 or more _________________


Electrons are _________________
LOW boiling point
(turns to gas easily or IS a gas)
LOW melting point

IV.

Do NOT conduct _________________


Many do NOT dissolve in water (nonelectrolyte)
1 particle is called a _________________

COVALENT

BONDS

>Why do they form?


-Nonmetals try to get 8 _______________ electrons like the noble gases have.
(____________ Rule)
Exceptions:
Hydrogen tries to get 2 valence electrons, not 8.
Beryllium tries to get 4 valence electrons, not 8.
Boron tries to get 6 valence electrons, not 8.
-2 nonmetals cant both gain electrons, so they ___________
1
2
electrons instead
-As a _____________, the elements have less energy and,
3
therefore, are more stable.
6

5
8

4 7

Get ready to learn how to predict the shapes of molecules:


Lewis Dot Structures of Elements--- dots represent only the _________________
______________

Li

Be

Ne

Types of Covalent Bonds that can form


Polar = _______________ sharing of electrons
One element has a stronger pull on the electrons (more pull on e- = more
electronegative)
Nonpolar = equal sharing of _______________
The elements making the bond have equal (or very nearly equal) pull on the
electrons

Covalent Bonds can be:


-A single bond is when 2 _______________ are
shared.
-A double bond is when 4 electrons are
shared
-A triple bond is when 6 _______________ are
shared

H-H
V. Molecular Models
-Models help us demonstrate the _______________ of a compound
-Even though the atom is too small to see, we can predict its molecular
_______________ (shape).

Polarity:
- Covalent bonds dont have atoms with
_______________ _______________ like they did
in ionic bonds (example: ______).
- However, atoms in covalent bonds can,
and do, form ______________charges, which
are very important!
-Whether or not a molecule is polar or not
greatly effects how it interacts with other
molecules.

Linear

2 or 3 bonded atoms
No lone electrons
_______________ shape
Example: CO2, H2

MOLECULE POLARITY:
IF both outside atoms are the same = NONPOLAR (same atoms pull
electrons the same)
If the outside atoms are ____________ = POLAR (electrons are pulled
unevenly to one side)

Bent
3 bonded atoms
1 or 2 lone pairs of _______________
Though not visible in the model, a lone ________of
electrons takes up more space than a single atom
(Electrons repel each other!)
_______________ shape
Examples: SO2 (left picture--not common!),

H2O (right picture 2 lone pairs = more common)


MOLECULE POLARITY:
Bent molecules are _______________ POLAR.

Trigonal Planar

4 bonded atoms
No lone _______________
_______________ shape
Example: BCl3
MOLECULE POLARITY:
IF the outside atoms are the same = ______________ (same atoms pull
electrons the same)
But, if the outside atoms are different = POLAR (electrons are pulled
unevenly to one side)

Trigonal Pyramidal (or Triangular


Pyramidal)

4 bonded atoms
1 lone pair of _______________
Asymmetrical shape
Example: ____
MOLECULE POLARITY:
Trigonal Pyramidal molecules are _______________ POLAR. (Electrons are
pulled _______________ to one side)

Tetrahedral

5 bonded atoms
No lone _______________
Symmetrical _______________
Example: CH4

MOLECULE POLARITY:
IF the outside atoms are the same = NONPOLAR (same atoms pull
electrons the same)
But, if the outside atoms are different = POLAR (electrons are pulled
unevenly to one side)

Polar or Nonpolar

A molecule is polar if one OR both of these apply


- Lone pair of electrons on center
- If different types of atoms attached to center