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ComputerScience1FinalPaper

CSInterestingLectures

OnelecturethatIlikedwas
AdvancesinComputerArchitecture

byJasonCong.Jason
Congslecturewasparticularlyinterestingforseveralreasons.Firstoff,Ireallylikehowhe
startedwithlogicgatesandexplainedhowhewasabletocreateacomputergiventhosegates.
Heexplainedthattherearefourinstructions,Zero(n),Successor(n),Transfer(m,n)and
Jump(m,n,q)thatcanbeusedtocomputeallcomputablefunctions.[1]Ialsolikedhowhebroke
downtheorganizationwithinacomputer.Softwarerunsonanoperatingsystemthatusesan
instructionsettointeractwithhardware.Aninstructionsetconsistsoffunctionsthatload/store
data,compute,jump/branch,computefloatingpointoperations,managememoryorotherspecial
functions.[1]Instructionsareexecutedinanexecutioncycle,whichconsistsofseveral
operations.Computerarchitectureisthecoordinationofmanylevelsofabstraction.[1]
Ialsoreallylikedhowhetalkedaboutthefutureofcomputerarchitecture.Heexplained
thatMooreslawwasgraduallybecomingfalsebecauseofpowerandheatconstraints.Thisled
totheendofDennardscalingintheearly2000sandamovetoparallelizationwiththeadventof
multicoreprocessors.[1]Healsoexplorecustomizationasthefutureofcomputerarchitecture,
byremovingnoncomputingportionsofthepipelineandinsteadusingapplicationspecific
integratedcircuits(ASICs).Heproposesusingacustomizableheterogeneousplatformdifferent
applicationsrunondifferentacceleratorssothatmostcomputationsaredoneonapplication
specificacceleratorsratherthangeneralpurposeprocessors.[1]Ashifttothisapproachfromthe
genericVonNeumannarchitecturemakessense.Inprevioustimes,transistorswereexpensive,
andtheVonNeumannarchitectureallowedmaximumdevice.However,currentarchitecturesare

notlimitedbythenumberoftransistorsbutratherheatandpoweroutput,andcreatingdedicated
acceleratorslimitspoweroutput.IthoughtthatProfessorCongsparallelbetweenCHPsandthe
humanbrainwasanexceptionalpoint.Thehumanbrainsurviveson2000kilocalories(20W)
andhasdistinctregionsresponsiblefordifferentfunctions.[1]ProfessorCongalsoshowedan
exampleofMRIimagingthatusedfieldprogrammablegatearraysinordertospeedup
rendering,whichIreallyenjoyedbecauseitshowedthatadvancesincomputerarchitecturecould
haveatangiblebenefitontheworld.
AnotherlecturethatIenjoyedwas
ABriefHistoryoftheInternet

byProfessorLeonard
Kleinrock.Ithoughtthathisexplanationofthedevelopmentoftheinternetwasthoroughand
veryinformative.ProfessorKleinrockexploredtheemergingthreadsofinquiryinthe
developmentoftheinternet.TherewereseparateeffortsmadebytheMIT,RAND,andNPLin
mathematicaltheory,structure,andengineeringrespectively.[2]Ireallylikedhowhedescribed
thefirstmessagesentfromUCLAtoStanfordwasLOGIN,butthesystemcrashedafterOwas
sent.[2]Theinternetfrom1969to1988grewrapidlyandbroadly.Healsoexploredthedark
sideoftheinternet,theriseofspam,invasionsofprivacy,andidentityfraud.[2]
However,thiswasnotthepartthatIlikedthemost.Ireallylikehisdescriptionof
networksandhismathematicalmodelsfornetworkdelay.Heexploredtheunderlyingprinciples
oftheinternet,whichconsistsofresourcesharing,economyofscaleinnetworks,anddistributed
control.[2]Ialsoreallylikedhisexplorationofthefutureoftheinternet,andhowwecanpredict
theinfrastructurethatwillpowerthefuture,theinternet,butnottheapplicationsthatwill
leveragethisinfrastructure.[2]Weknowthattherewillalwaysbecarsandroads,butitis
impossibletotellwhatnewexcitingbusinesseswillarisethatusethesetools.Professor

Kleinrocklistssixfuturephasesofinternetinfrastructurenomadiccomputing,ubiquity,
mobility,internetofthings,intelligentsoftwareagents,andinvisibility.[2]

CSInfluence

Myinterestincomputerscienceandengineeringhasincreasedbecauseofthislecture
series.Theselectureseriesgavemetheopportunitytoexploremanydifferentareasofcomputer
science.Althoughthesespecializationsincomputerscienceareprettyadvanced,thelecturersdid
agoodjobofbreakingdowntheinformationsothatitwaseasytounderstand.Atthesametime,
Ifeellikethelecturersdidsometimesglossoverconceptsbecausetheyassumedthatpeople
wouldnotunderstandthem.However,overall,Iwouldstillsaythatmyinterestincomputer
sciencehasincreasedbecauseoftheselectures.Thediscussionssectionswereagoodwaytoget
toknowpeopleincomputerscienceanddiscussthepreviouslectures.
Ialsoreallylikedthereadingsthatweredistributedeveryweek.Theyreallyexploredthe
topicsinmorenuancedwaysandcompletedthelecturesnicely.Thereadingswerealsogood
becausetheyreallymademewanttoexplorethetopicsmore.Theybroughtnewandinteresting
materialtomyknowledgeandgavemeagoodstartingpointsothatIcouldexplorethetopicon
myown.

FuturePrediction

Ipredictthatin2025wewillhaveacompletelymeshnetbasednetworkingsystem.
Governmentcensorshipoftheinternetisalargeproblemthatwefacetodayincountrieslike
ChinaorRussia.Ameshnetbasednetworkingsystemcouldhelpalleviatesomeofthestressin
thesecountriesandprovideafreeandopeninternetforall.Becauseofthedistributednatureofa

meshnetsystem,itwouldbeimpossibletohaveacentralagencymonitoringalltransactions.
Furthermore,ameshnetsystemthatusesPANlikeBluetoothallowspeertopeerhopsthat
completelycircumventacentralserver.Thisallowspeopletodisseminateinformationeasilyand
withoutcensorship.Todayweseethebeginningsofsuchasystem.PreviouslyinHongKong,a
meshnetmessagingappcalledFireChatwasusedtoorganizeprotestsandrallies.[3]Even
thoughthecentralChinesegovernmentshutdownservers,protesterswerestillabletoorganize
becauseofthemeshnetworkestablishedbynumerousshortdistanceBluetoothandNFC
connectionsbetweenphones.Messagescouldhopfromonephonetoanother,sothat
informationcouldstillbespreadinanorganizedmanner.
Furthermore,ameshnetsystemcouldhelpbringmorecompletecoveragetoareas
withoutinternet.InternetaccesshasbeendeclaredahumanrightbytheUnitedNations.[4]In
thirdworldcountries,ameshnetsystemcouldbeusedtobringcompleteinternetcoverageto
smallvillages.Ameshnetworkcouldallowasingleconnectiontobesharedacrossanentire
villageandevenouttothesurroundingfields.Individualswithinthevillagewouldusemany
shorthopstotransfertheirquerytoaconnectedserver,whichwouldthenfetchthewebpageand
thentransferitbackusinganotherseriesofsmallhops.Thiswouldexpandtheareathatasingle
servercouldcover,reducingthecostofbringinginternettosmallvillages.Forexample,
Guifi.net,createdin2004,broughtinternettoruralCatalonia.[5]
Acombinationofseveraltechnologieswillleadtothismeshnetrevolution.Firstly,
mobilephonesaregrowingmoreandmorepervasiveintheworld.Thelowcostofmobile
phonesmaketheirgrowthmuchhigherinthirdworldcountries.Thiswillhelpthedevelopment
ofameshnetworkbecausemanymobilephonescomewithBluetooth,WiFi,andNFCby

default.Also,meshnetworksandmobilephonescomplementeachotherwell.Meshnetworks
arerobustandselfhealing,whichworkswellwithmanydifferentmobilephonenodesentering
andleavingthepersonalareanetworkingradiusbetweenphones.Furthermore,theNSAhas
backdoorsinmanyinternetserviceproviders,whichdecreasesthetrustintheinternet.Themesh
networkingofthefuturecouldprovidefree,openinternettoall.

References

1. Cong,J.IntroductiontoComputerArchitecture.RetrievedDecember04,2015,from
UniversityofCaliforniaLosAngeles:
https://ccle.ucla.edu/pluginfile.php/1120802/mod_resource/content/0/cs1slidescong.pdf
2. Kleinrock,L.ABriefHistoryoftheInternet.RetrievedDecember04,2015,from
UniversityofCaliforniaLosAngeles:
https://ccle.ucla.edu/pluginfile.php/1113413/mod_resource/content/0/A%20Brief%20His
tory%20of%20the%20Internet%20Web%20for%20CS1%20UCLA%202015%20pdf%20
version.ppt.pdf
3. Shadbolt,P.FirechatinHongKong:Howanapptappeditswayintotheprotests.
RetrievedDecember04,2015:
http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/16/tech/mobile/tomorrowtransformedfirechat/
4. Kravets,D.U.N.reportdeclaresinternetaccessahumanright.RetrievedDecember04,
2015:
http://www.wired.com/2011/06/internetahumanright/
5. Finch,F.SpainswidelysuccessfulDIYWirelessNetwor.RetrievedDecember04,2015:
https://rising.globalvoices.org/blog/2013/12/11/guifinetspainswildlysuccessfuldiywir
elessnetwork/