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AISC Night School

November 23, 2015

Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

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AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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AISC Night School


November 23, 2015

Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

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AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

AISC is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects


Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of
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This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education.
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November 23, 2015

Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution,
display and use of the presentation without written permission of AISC is prohibited.

The American Institute of Steel Construction 2015


The information presented herein is based on recognized engineering principles and is for general
information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be applied to any
specific application without competent professional examination and verification by a licensed
professional engineer. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from
such use.

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

Course Description
Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames and Quality Requirements
November 23, 2015

This session will define buckling-restrained braced frames and


provide an overview of the design and test requirements per the AISC
Seismic Provisions. A design example will be presented as part of the
lecture. The session will then discuss Quality Control and Quality
Assurance requirements per the Seismic Provisions.

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November 23, 2015

Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Learning Objectives
Become familiar with the basis of buckling restrained brace frame(BRBF) design.
Gain an understanding of the differences between BRBF and typical concentrically
braced frames.
Gain an understanding of the BRBF system and connection requirements per the
AISC Seismic Provisions.
Become familiar with the Quality Control and Quality Assurance requirements per
chapter J of the AISC Seismic Provisions.

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Braced Frames and Quality
Requirements
Presented by
Thomas A. Sabol, Ph.D., S.E.
Principal at Englekirk Institutional
Los Angeles, CA

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Chapter E

Application of the
AISC Seismic Design Manual

Session 8
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

Last Session
Special Concentrically Braced Frames
Examples from the Seismic Design Manual

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

F4 Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF)


Basis of Design
Specially fabricated braces connected concentrically
to beams and columns
Eccentricities less than beam depth OK if considered
in design and do not change source of inelastic
deformation

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Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


BRBF are expected to withstand significant inelastic
deformation (R = 8) in the links when subjected to
the design earthquake.
Bracing members shall be composed of a structural
core and a system that retrains steel core from
buckling

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


Braces shall be designed, tested and detailed to
accommodate expected deformations
Expected deformations are minimum 2% story drift
or 2 x (design story drift), whichever is larger, in
addition to brace deformations
BRBF to be designed so that inelastic deformations
under design earthquake occur as brace yielding
in compression or tension
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F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


Typical brace behavior
is asymmetric with
respect to tension and
compression and is
subject to strength
and stiffness
degradation

P
Ry Ag Fy

Pcr

Tension

Compression

Conventional brace
behavior

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


P

Compression buckling of
limited capacity tension
member is resisted by
sleeve

Ag
Fy

Sleeve

Compression and tension


performance are nearly
identical

Ag Fy

Balanced Hysteresis
(Performance Definition)

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


Advantages of BRBF
Balanced Hysteresis
Slightly Stronger in Compression

Ag Fy

Hysteretic Energy Dissipation


Hysteretic Stability
Strength
Stiffness

Long Fracture Life

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

Ag Fy

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


Performance Advantages of BRBF
Story Mechanisms Uncommon
Fine-Tuning of Sizes
No Story Degradation
Distributed Yielding

Reduced Drift
No Chevron Problems

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Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design


Steel core shall be designed to resist entire axial
force in the brace
Core
+

Sleeve
=
Buckling-Restrained Brace
Assembly
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design

Encasing
mortar

Yielding steel
core
Decoupling

Unbonding material
between steel core
and mortar
Steel
tube

Unbonded Brace
Type

Buckling
Restraint

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design Brace Design


Adjusted brace strength in compression: RyPysc
Where:

= compression adjustment factor


= strain hardening adjustment factor
Pysc = axial yield strength of steel core

Adjusted brace strength in tension: RyPysc


Note: Ry need not be applied if Pysc established using
coupon tests
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design Brace Design


Compression stress adjustment factor, , shall be
calculated as ratio of maximum compression
force to maximum tension force of test specimen
per Section K3.4c
In no case shall < 1.0

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Chapter F

F4.2 BRBF Basis of Design Brace Design


Strain hardening adjustment factor, , shall be
calculated as ratio of maximum tension force per
Section K3.4c (for expected deformations) to
measured yield force RyPysc
Where core material does not match prototype,
shall be based on coupon test

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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and Quality Requirements

Chapter F

F4.3 BRBF Analysis


BRBF braces shall not be considered to resist
gravity forces
Required strength of columns based on load
combinations including amplified seismic load
For amplified seismic load: effect of horizontal
forces including overstrength Emh shall assume all
braces achieve adjusted tension or compression
strength

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Chapter F

F4.3 BRBF Analysis


Braces shall be classified as in either tension or
compression ignoring gravity loads
Analyses shall consider both directions of seismic
loading

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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and Quality Requirements

F4.3 BRBF Analysis


Exceptions:
May neglect flexural forces from seismic drift,
but moment from load applied to the column
between points of lateral support must be
considered
Required strength of columns need not exceed
lesser of
Forces from foundation uplift
Forces from nonlinear analysis per Section C3.
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Chapter F

F4.4 BRBF System Requirements


V- and Inverted V-Braced Frames
Required strength of beams, connections and
supporting members shall be determined
assuming braces support no gravity loads
Vertical load effect on beam shall be
determined using adjusted brace strength

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and Quality Requirements

Chapter F

F4.4 BRBF System Requirements


V- and Inverted V-Braced Frames
Beams shall be continuous between columns
and braced per moderately ductile
requirements in Section D1.2(a)
See discussion of SCBF bracing requirements
For purposes of brace design, calculated
maximum deformation of braces shall be
increased to account for beam vertical
deflection
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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Chapter F

F4.4 BRBF System Requirements


K-Braced Frames
Not permitted

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Chapter F

F4.5 BRBF Members Basic Requirements


Diagonal Braces
Steel Core
Plates used in steel core 2 in. thick or greater shall
satisfy minimum CVN requirements of Section A3.3
Splices in steel core are not permitted
Buckling-restraining system shall consist of casing of
steel core
In stability calculations, beams, columns and gussets
connecting the core shall be considered parts of the
system
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F4.5 BRBF Members Basic Requirements


Available Strength
Steel core designed to resist entire axial force in the brace
The brace design axial force, Pysc, and brace allowable
axial strength, Pysc/, in tension and compression,
according to limit state of yielding shall be:
Pysc = Fysc Asc
= 0.9 (LRFD)

= 1.67

where

(ASD)

Typically, Fysc (min)


= 38 ksi

Asc = cross-sectional area of yielding segment of steel core


Fysc = specified minimum yield strength of steel core or actual
yield stress of core as determined by coupon test
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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

F4.5 BRBF Members Basic Requirements


Protected Zones
Protected zones include steel core of braces and
elements connecting core to beams and columns.

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F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Demand Critical Welds
Groove welds at column splices
Welds at the column-to-base plate connection
unless column hinging at base can be shown to
be precluded by conditions of restraint and
absence of net tension (including amplified
seismic loads)
Welds at beam-to-column connections per
Section F4.6b(b)
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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Beam-to-Column Connections
Where brace or gusset connects to both members at
beam-to-column connection:
Connection shall be simple per
Specification Section B3.6a with required
rotation of 0.025 rador

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F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Beam-to-Column Connections
Where brace or gusset connects to both members at
beam-to-column connection:
orDesigned for moment to resist lesser of:

1.1 x (beam expected flexural strength =


RyMp)

Sum of 1.1 x (column expected flexural


strength = (RyFyZ)

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Diagonal Brace Connections
Required strength of brace connections in tension
and compression (including beam-to-column
connections, if part of braced frame) shall be 1.1 x
(adjusted brace strength in compression)
When oversized holes are used, required strength
for bolt slip limit state need not exceed that from
required load combinations, including amplified
seismic load
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Diagonal Brace Connections
Connection design shall consider local and overall
buckling. Provide lateral bracing consistent with
applicable testing.

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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F4.6 BRBF Members Connections


Column Splices
Comply with Section D2.5
When groove welds are used, they shall be CJP
Column splice shall develop at least 50% of the
flexural strength of smaller member
Required shear strength shall be Mpc/Hc where
Mpc = FycZc of spliced columns and Hc is clear
height of column (including slab)
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

37

SDM Example 5.5.1

Example 5.5.1: BRBF Brace Design

This example shows


the information
needed by and
produced by the
engineer of record
working with a brace
manufacturer

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

SDM Example 5.5.1


Given:
Refer to Brace BRB-1 in Figure 5-70. Design a
buckling-restrained brace to resist the resulting
axial loading, PQE = 113 kips.
Note: There are
two of these
frames in the
direction under
consideration

BRB-1

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Frame configurations and preliminary loads have


been sent to a BRB manufacturer
Elastic stiffness of the braces have been found to
be 1.28 times higher than the stiffness of the
yielding core area alone, if it were extended
from work-point to work-point (KF = Kactual/Kcore
= 1.28) .
Note: Some printings
of the SDM text
incorrectly have
1.5 on page 5-419

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These stiffness factors may be used to determine


the horizontal load distribution on each story.
The applicable building code specifies the use of
ASCE 7 for calculation of loads. According to
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F4.3, bucklingrestrained braces should not be considered as
resisting gravity forces.

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SDM Example 5.5.1

Allow for material variability of 42 ksi 4 ksi.


Fysc min = 38 ksi Fysc max = 46 ksi
From an elastic analysis, the first-order interstory
drift is H = 0.223 in.
Assume that the ends of the brace are pinned and
braced against translation for both the x-x and
y-y axes.
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Solution:
The governing load combinations in ASCE 7
including seismic effects are:
LRFD
ASD
LRFD Load Combinations 5
and 6 from ASCE 7 Section
12.4.2.3 (including the 0.5
factor on L permitted in
Section 12.4.2.3)

ASD Load Combinations 5


and 8 from ASCE 7 Section
12.4.2.3

( 1.2 + 0.2SDS ) D + Q + 0.5L + 0.2S ( 1.0 + 0.14SDS ) D + H + F + 0.7QE


( 0.6 0.14SDS ) D + 0.7Q + H
( 0.9 0.2SDS ) D + Q + 1.6H
E

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The required compressive and tensile strengths of


the brace are:
LRFD
Pu = Tu
= PQE
= 1.3(113 kips)
= 147 kips

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

ASD
Pa = Ta
= 0.7PQE
= 0.7 ( 1.3 ) (113 kips)
= 103 kips

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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SDM Example 5.5.1

Required Strength

Consider second-order effects


AISC Specification Appendix 8 is used to address
second-order effects. The required second-order
axial strength is:

Pr = Pnt + B2Plt

(Spec. Eq. A-8-2)

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For the calculation of B2:


B2 =

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

(Spec. Eq. A-8-6)

To determine Pstory, use an area of 9,000 ft2 on


each floor and the surface gravity loads given in
the BRBF Design Example Plan and Elevation
section. Use load combinations that include
seismic effects.

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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LRFD
Pstory

ASD

[1.0 + 0.14(1.0) ]

[1.2 + 0.2(1.0) ]

2
68 psf + 3 ( 85 psf ) Pstory = 9,000 ft 68 psf + 3 ( 85 psf )
2
= 9,000 ft

+0 psf + 0.5 ( 3 )( 50 psf )


+0 psf + 0 psf + 0 psf
+0.2 20 psf

(1 kip/1,000 lb)
(
)

[1.0 + 0.14(1.0) ]

(1 kip/1,000 lb)

[1.2 + 0.2(1.0) ]

+ 175 lb/ft ( 4 )( 390 ft )

+ 175 lb/ft ( 4 )( 390 ft )


(1 kip/1,000 lb)

(1
kip/1,000
lb)

= 3,630 kips

= 5,160 kips

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SDM Example 5.5.1

The total story shear, H, with two bays of bracing


in the direction under consideration where each
braced frame is designed to resist the seismic
loads shown in Figure 5-70.
H = 2(54.0 kips + 49.0 kips + 32.0 kips + 16.0 kips)
= 302 kips
L = 14.0 ft
RM = 1.0 for braced frames
Note: There are two of
these frames in the
direction under
consideration
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

54k x 2
49k x 2
32k x 2
16k x 2

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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From an elastic analysis, the first-order interstory


drift is H = 0.223 in.
Pe story = RM
= 1.0

HL
H

(Spec. Eq. A-8-7)

302 kips ( 14.0 ft )

0.223 in. ( 1 ft/12 in. )

= 228,000 kips

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Using AISC Specification Equation A-8-6:


LRFD
ASD
= 1.00

B2 =

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

1
1.00(5,160 kips)
1
228,000 kips
= 1.02
=

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

= 1.60
B2 =

1
1
Pstory
1
Pe story

1
1.60(3,630 kips)
1
228,000 kips
= 1.03
=

50

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Considering second-order effects, the required


compressive and tensile strengths of the brace
are:
Pu = Tu LRFD
Pa = Ta ASD
= 1.02 ( 147 kips )

= 1.03 ( 103 kips )

= 150 kips

= 106 kips

Determination of the brace area required to resist


the required brace strength must use the
minimum yield of the core material, Fysc min.
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For the limit state of tensile or compressive


yielding, set the required strength equal to AISC
Seismic Provisions Equation F4-1 and solve for
Asc min:
LRFD
ASD
Pu
Pa
Asc min =
Asc min =
Fysc min
Fysc min
=

150 kips
0.90 ( 38 ksi )

= 4.39 in.2
AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

1.67 ( 106 kips )

38 ksi
= 4.66 in.2
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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

In design practice, either LRFD or ASD design


should be used consistently. The two
methods give slightly different results here.
In order not to show two separate designs, the
LRFD result will be used.
Try a BRB with a core area, Asc, of 4.50 in.2

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SDM Example 5.5.1


Note that while BRB manufacturers can fabricate a BRB
with the accuracy to which the core can be cut
(generally 1/8 in. in width) it is common to round the
required core area up to standard increments.
Generally, it is good practice to specify core areas in:
0.25 in. increments for 0 in. < Asc 5.00 in.
0.50 in. increments for 5.00 in. < Asc 10.0 in.
1.00 in. increments for 10.0 in. < Asc 20.0 in.,
2.00 in. increments for Asc > 20.0 in.
(or maintaining increment amounts in the range of
5% to 10% of the total amount).
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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

When specifying BRB area greater than required,


the EOR must account for the increased
demand that the specified area will place on the
structure, because the beams and columns are
designed to be stronger than the adjusted brace
strength.

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For LRFD, the available axial strength for the limit


state of tensile or compression yielding is:
Pn min = Fysc min Asc

(Spec. Eq. D2-1)

= 0.90 ( 38 ksi ) ( 4.50 in.2 )


= 154 kips >150 kips o.k.

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Verify with the brace manufacturer that the


stiffness factor KF = 1.28 is acceptable for a 4.50
in.2 brace of this length.
The remainder of the brace design is performed by
the BRB manufacturer.
Overstrength factors, and , along with
available stroke, the maximum deformation
capability of the brace, must be provided by the
brace manufacturer in order to design the
columns and beams of the BRBF and to
determine the BRB applicability to the design.
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The final part of the brace design is establishing


the expected deformation of the brace and using
this deformation to determine forces that the
brace imposes on the columns, beams and
connections.
AISC Seismic Provisions Section F4.2 requires
consideration of deformations at the greater of
2% drift or two times the design story drift.

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

The design story drift is defined in the AISC


Seismic Provisions Glossary as the calculated
story drift including the effect of expected
inelastic action.
As given, the first-order interstory drift is H =
0.223 in. This drift does not include the
redundancy factor, .
Note that ASCE 7 Section 12.3.4.1 permits to be
taken equal to 1 for drift calculations.

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The design story drift including inelastic action is:


Cd H
(ASCE 7 Eq. 12.8-15)
=
Ie

5.0 ( 0.223 in. )


1.0
= 1.12 in.
=

Twice the story drift including inelastic action is:


2 = 2 ( 1.12 in. )
= 2.24 in.
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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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2% drift corresponds to a deflection of:


= 0.02H
= 0.02(14.0 ft)
= 0.280 ft
= 0.280 ft ( 12 in./1 ft )
= 3.36 in.

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In this case, 2% drift governs. The brace spans


14.0 ft vertically and 12.5 ft horizontally. The
brace deformation can be calculated to be:

br =

( 14.0 ft ) + ( 12.5 ft + 0.280 ft )


2

( 14.0 ft ) + ( 12.5 ft )
2

( 12 in./1 ft )

= 2.25 in.

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Consulting with the brace manufacturer, the yield


length for this brace is determined to be 70% of
the work-point length.
The yield length is the length over which the core
is expected to yield, and is typically equal to the
length of casing.
Ly 0.7L
= 0.7

( 14.0 ft ) + ( 12.5 ft ) ( 12 in./1 ft )


2

=158 in.
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The strain is therefore:


br 2.25 in.
=
=
158 in.
Ly
= 1.42%

Determination of the strain and the yield length is


typically performed by the brace manufacturer
and is shown here for illustrative purposes only.

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
and Quality Requirements

Consulting with the brace manufacturer, the and


factors corresponding to this level of strain are
determined to be: = 1.36 and = 1.1
Alternatively, according to AISC Seismic
Provisions Section F4.3 and ASCE 7 Chapter 16,
brace deformation is permitted to be determined
from a nonlinear analysis in lieu of the expected
deformation requirements in AISC Seismic
Provisions Section F4.2 illustrated here.

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End of SDM Example 5.5.1

Example 5.5.1: BRBF Brace Design

End of Example
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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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J1 Scope
Quality Control and Quality Assurance
AISC emphasizes reliance on visual inspection
rather than an over-reliance on nondestructive
testing (NDT)
There are no QA/QC
examples in the SDM, but if
the built structure doesnt
follow the design
requirements, all the examples
in the world wont make any
difference

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J1 Scope
Quality Control
Provided by the fabricator/erector
Quality assurance
Provided by others (e.g., third-party deputy
inspectors)
NDT shall be provided by QA agency except as
permitted by Specification Section N7.

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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J1 Scope
Specification Chapter N (new for AISC 360-10)
contains universal QA/QC requirements
Seismic Provisions Chapter J contains seismic
only QA/QC requirements
The expectation is that will result in more
appropriate inspection programs (e.g., engineers
wont invoke Seismic Provisions Chapter J
requirements for gravity systems)

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J5 Inspection Tasks
Tasks identified as:
Observe (O): observe on a random, daily basis
Perform (P): inspection shall be performed
prior to final acceptance of the item
Document (D): prepare reports indicating work
has been performed in accordance with
contract documents

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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J6 (J7) Welding (Bolting) Inspection and NDT


Seismic Provisions Chapter J contains tables listing
inspection/NDT tasks for welding and bolting for
different stages of construction:
Prior to welding (bolting)
During welding (bolting)
After welding (bolting)
Distinguishes inspection work by QA and QC
personnel
Also has a list of other inspection tasks (e.g., contour
and finish on the RBS cut)
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J6 (J7) Welding (Bolting) Inspection and NDT

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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J6 (J7) Welding (Bolting) Inspection and NDT

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J6 (J7) Welding (Bolting) Inspection and NDT

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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Questions?

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Individual Webinar Registrants


CEU/PDH Certificates
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You will receive an email on how to report attendance from:


registration@aisc.org.
Be on the lookout: Check your spam filter! Check your junk
folder!
Completely fill out online form. Dont forget to check the boxes
next to each attendees name!

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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Individual Webinar Registrants


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Within 2 business days

New reporting site (URL will be provided in the forthcoming email).


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Password: Same as AISC website password.

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

8-Session Registrants
CEU/PDH Certificates
One certificate will be issued at the conclusion of
all 8 sessions.

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Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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8-Session Registrants
FINAL EXAM
The final exam will be issued on Tuesday, December 1. Final exam
must be submitted by December 11.

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

8-Session Registrants
Quizzes
Access to the quiz: Information for accessing the quiz will be emailed to you by
Thursday. It will contain a link to access the quiz. EMAIL COMES FROM
NIGHTSCHOOL@AISC.ORG
Quiz and Attendance records: Posted Tuesday mornings. www.aisc.org/nightschool click on Current Course Details.
Reasons for quiz:
EEU must take all quizzes and final to receive EEU
CEUs/PDHS If you watch a recorded session you must take quiz for CEUs/PDHs.
REINFORCEMENT Reinforce what you learned tonight. Get more out of the course.
NOTE: If you attend the live presentation, you do not have to take the quizzes to
receive CEUs/PDHs.

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Application of the AISC Seismic Design Manual


Session 8: Buckling Restrained Braced Frames
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8-Session Registrants
Recording
Access to the recording: Information for accessing the recording will
be emailed to you by this Wednesday. The recording will be available for two
weeks. For 8-session registrants only. EMAIL COMES FROM
NIGHTSCHOOL@AISC.ORG.
CEUs/PDHS If you watch a recorded session you must take AND
PASS the quiz for CEUs/PDHs.

AISC Night School Seismic Design Manual

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