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2010



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,

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2010

.. . .
: , 2010. 76.

. ,
, ,
, .
.
.
6 2 2010.

2009 ,
12 ,

.


-
, 20092018 .
-
, , 2010
O. ., 2010


1. ...5
1.1. . .
...5
1.2. .9
a. .....9
. .....9
1.3. 10
1.4. ....12
. ....12
. ....14
1.5. ..15
2. .
..18
2.1. ..19
2.2 20
. ....20
. . .
. ....21
. .....26
. 26
. ....28
3. .30
3.1. ..30
3.2. ..31
3.3. .33
3.4.
...35
. ..36
. 38
. ....41
4. ...42
4.1 . ..42
4.2.
..44
4.3. 46

4.4. 47
4.5. .51
4.6. ...55
5. .57
5.1. 57
5.2. ...62
6. ..67
6.1. ..67
6.2. ..70
6.3. .72
........73

1. .
1.1. .
. .
,
,

() .
.
( )
.
, .

,
.

, ,
, . , ,
-
, ..
,

.

,
. ,
, ,

r r r
a1 , a2 , a3 ,

,
. ,

,
r
r
r
r
R = n1a1 + n2a2 + n3a3 , n1 , n2 ,n 3 .

.
,

,
.
,

. 1.1.

, NaCl, KCl,
LiF .
(, Na+)
(, Cl-).

(.1.2 ).

,
.
.1.1.
, , ,

,
.

.


(.1.2 ).

,
.

.1.2.
().

(),

.
, ,
.


. ,
,
.
( ),

,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, (.1.3).

1.3.
[ h, k , l ] .
,
.


,
,

,

h:k :l =

1 1 1
: :
x y z

(1.1)

.1.3.


.
,
, .
(, ,
),
. 1.4
.
, (.1.4),
,
(.1.4, ), (.1.4),
(.1.4), (.1.4)
(.1.4,,). 14
,
32 .

. 32
, ,
.

.1.4. .

(, ,
,
,
,
,
).
. ,
(, , ),
.

,
.

, .
.
,
.
,
12, (4).

. .

1.2. .

.
,


.
a). . : )
,
(.1.5); ) ,

,

(.1.5); )
,
,


.

.1.5. : )
, ) .

, , ,
, ,
.
).
.

,
.

.
(.1.6)
(.1.7) .

.1.6. .

,
.


,
.

,

,

,
.
.1.7. .

. ,
,

,
, .

1.3. .
, .

: ,
.
,
.
,
.
,

( ).

. , ,
(Si, Ge).

.
:
(), ().

10



.
.
,

.
.
- (, NaCl, KCl),
(.1.1).
,
.

,
.

(Si, Ge). ,
,

.

(.1.2.)

,

, .
(Na, Cl)
, III, IV V (In, C, Ge, Si)
.

,
, ,
.
,

, .

.

11

.
, ,
(.1.2 ).

1.4. .
. .

. T = 0 o K

. T > 0o K
.

3 kT .
2
,
:

E = 3N A kT = 3RT

(1.2)

( ,
1) :

R = 8.31

Cv =

dE
= 3R
dT

(1.3)

, ,
.

T 0o K .
. ,

().
.
, .
r
h hk ,
k = , .

kT << h , .. .

12

,
.
, kT > h ,
, (1.3).

, 1912 ,
:

T
C = 9R

3T

e X x 4dx
(e x 1) 2

(1.4)

h D
,
k
, D .
v T / (1.8),

.
.
=

. 1.8. .

(1.4.3).

, T

(1.8) , (1.3)
> , < . ,

13


.

.
.
.

. .
.
.

, .
, ,
, .
,
,
.
Q ,
x :
Q=

dT
dx

(1.5)

,
, ..
, .

, , .
,
.
,
.
, .
,

u l cv
3

(1.6)

14

, l

, cv .

,
, ,

n = (e

h
kT

1) 1

(1.7)

n ~ T . > , , cv
1
, , ~ ,
T
.
< , , T .

T .
.

:

= +

(1.8)


,
, .
.
, ,

,
.
, < .

1.5. .

,

15

( 10 8 ).

10 50 . 1913. .. ,


,
d (.1.8).
,
,

2d sin = m
(1.9)
, m = 1,2,3... .

(.1.1)
.

,

[h, k , l ] , ,
,
..
,

.1.8.


.
.

,

.1.9.

.
.

r
(.1.9). k 0
, [0,0,0]

16

. r
, k1
r
, k 0 , ,
r
( ) k 0 .
r
r
. 1.9. , k 0 G
:
r r
G = k 0 2 sin
(1.10)
r
k 0 ,
. (1.10)
:
r r
rr
r2
rr
G = k 0 2 cos(Gk 0 )
G = 2 (Gk 0 )
(1.10)
r
( k 0 )
r
G
r
G
.

2
r
k 0 , .
r
k 0 , , ,

.
. ,
, .
: ,
, .

,
.

17

2. .
.

, ,
.

.

(r ) =

2m
(E V (r ) ) (r )
h2

(2.0)

(r ) .


V (r ) ,
.
1023,
,

. , ,
,
,
.

. ,
, .



.

.

18

2.1. .
,
(
).
,
,

.

(.2.1).

N
,

,
2N .

.



.

.2.1.
.
,


.
2N.
,


, .
.
E C
EV (.2.2).

, ,
,
.

( G . 2.2).

19


- .

( R . 2.2).
,
,

.2.2.

.


E g = EC EV . ,
.
.

, .
E g > 2 3 , .

. ,
,
, E g 0 ,

.
. ,
E g < 2 ,
.

2.2. .
. .


,
.

20


.

() .
()
,
.

. ,

.
,
p = m = hk .
(2.1)

= h m

(2.1)


h2k 2
E (k ) =
2m

(2.2)


,
( ).
.
. ,

, ,
.

. . .
-. .

,
.
,
, V (r )
, ..
:
V (r ) = V (r + ai )
(2.3)

21

r - , ai (i = 1,2,3) - .
(2.0)
k (r )
k (r ) = u k (r ) e ikr
(2.4)
u k (r ) , k
. , V (r ) = 0
(2.0)
k (r ) = A e ikr
(2.4)
A . (2.4)
(2.1) (2.2).

,

Lx , L y , Lz x, y , z .
a
L x = aN x , L y = aN y , Lz = aN z
(2.5)
N x , N y , N z .



( x + Lx , y + Ly , z + Lz ) = ( x, y , z )
(2.6)
(2.4)
ik L
( x + Lx , y + Ly , z + Lz ) = uk ( r )eikr eik L e eik L
x x

y y

z z

(2.7)

(2.6) (2.7) ,
ik L
e ik L = e
= e ik L = 1
x x

z z

k x Lx = 2n1 ; k y Ly = 2n2 ; k z Lz = 2n3

(2.8)

n1 , n2 , n3 .
,

kx =

2
2
2
n3
n1 ; k y =
n2 ; k z =
Lz
Lx
Ly

(2.9)

22

r
, k
,
,
r
r
p = hk ,
.
r
(2.5), (2.9) k

kx <

ky <

kz <

(2.10)

(2.11)

(2.12)

k x , k y , k z N x , N y , N z .
N = N x N y N z
r
, k , ..
. ,
2 N ,
.
( x, y , z )
( k x , k y , k z )

( p x , p y , p z ), (2.10) (2.12) ,
.
() ,
(2.10) (2.12)
() ,
.
.
1.1. 1.3
.
() :
a
2
2 .
a
a
a
.
. ,

23

,

(. 2.3).

,

.
E (k )
(.
2.4),

.2.3.
E (k )


.
(2.0) .2.4.
E (k )

E (k x ) ,


k = 0.
. 2.5. ,
V (r ) (2.0)
.
.

. .

c,
r
r
r
G , k 0 = k1 .

24


(2.13) (2.14)
k (r ) =u k (r ) e ikr
(2.13)
ikr
k (r ) = u k (r ) e
(2.14)

u k (r ) = u k (r )
(2.15)

:
(2.16)
1 (r ) = 2uk (r ) cos(kr )
(2.16)
2 (r ) = 2iu k (r ) sin( kr )

,
r

.
,

,

. 2.5. E ( k x )
.

(2.16), :
2
1 (r ) = 1 (r ) = 4u k2 (r ) cos 2 (kr )

(2.17)


, E1 .
, (2.16) :
(2.17)

2 (r ) = 2 (r ) = 4u k2 (r ) sin 2 (kr )
2

,
,
.
E2 . 2 E 2 > E1 .
r
, k
, ..
E g = E 2 E1 ,
E g . E1
, E2 .
,
,
, .
, ,

25

,
.

. .
, .

r ,
k ,

k k k k + k

( x, t ) =

k + k

a e
k

i ( kx t )

dk

(2.18)

k k


d
=
, , , .
dk
d
t = 0:
x
dk
x d
=
= =
(2.19)
t dk
,
. ,
(2.4),
k . ,
,
,
.
,
.

. .
F
,

.
,
, .

= hk m
(2.20)

26

(2.2) :
dE dk = kh 2 m

(2.21)

, k (2.21),

1 dE
h dk

(2.22)

,
.
dE = Fdt

(2.23)

F , .
(2.22) (2.23),
F dE
dt
(2.24)
dE =
h dk

dk 1
= F
dt h

(2.25)

(2.22)
d 1 d 2 E dk
=
dt h dk 2 dt

(2.26)

(2.25)
d 1 d 2 E
=
F
dt h 2 dk 2

(2.27)

m * ,
1
m* =
(2.28)
1 d 2E
h 2 dk 2

(2.27) , ,
. (2.28)
(2.2) m * = m .
. 2.4.
d 2 E dk 2 , ,
m * > 0
.
E (k ) , d 2 E dk 2 ,
m * .

27

. ,
( ),
,
. 2.4 ,
E (k ) ,

k = , dE = 0 . ,
dk
a a

(2.22)
.
.


d 2E d 2E
d 2E
,
,
dk x2 dk y dk x dk z dk x
1 d 2E d 2E d 2E
(m ) = 2
,
,
h dk x dk y dk y2 dk z dk y
*

(2.29)

d 2E
d 2E d 2E
,
,
dk x dk z dk y dk z dk z2
,
,

(2.29).


, ,
,

,
.

d. .

,
, .
m ,
(.2.6).
1 2 .
r
r
(2.30)
P = gV

28

r
r
FA = gV
(2.31)
.

P FA = ma

(2.32)

,
P = m*a
(2.33)
(2.32) (2.33)
P
m* = m
P FA

.2.6.
.

(2.34)

(2.30), (2.31)
m* = m

(2.35)

,
FA
. > , , m * > 0 ,
m , , < , m * < 0 .

29

3.



,
.

. :
- -
-

.
3.1. .

C
( dx, dy, dz )
c ( dp x , dp y , dp z )

dxdydzdp x dp y dp z h 3
(3.1)

dx 0 dy 0 dz 0 dp x dp y dp z = h 3
0

(3.2)


- dxdydz dp x dp y dp z ,
.
- dZ :
dZ =

dVdp x dp y dp z

(3.3)
h3
dV = dxdydz .

dz
dZ dp x dp y dp z
dz =
=
(3.4)
dV
h3

30

dz
,

p
p + dp
(.3.1):
dp x dp y dp z = 4p 2 dp
(3.5)
,

,
1

m 2
p = 2mE , dp =
dE .
2E

dz
2

.3.1.

1
2 (2m )
2
dz =
E
dE
(3.6)
3
h
N ( E )


,
:
32
1
dz 2 (2m )
2
N (E) =
=
E
(3.7)
3
dE
h
,
N E
(.3.2).
3.2 ,
dE


E ,

.3.2

()
E .
.
32

3.2.


( )
.
, .
E
-

31

fF =

(3.8)

E EF
kT

e
+1
E F .
= 0 o
, ,
( f F = 1 ), , ,
( f F = 0 ). > 0 o ()
1
1
< f F < 1 ( f F < ) (.3.3).
2
2

. 3.3 (, ). = 0 o (),
> 0 o ().
3.3 ,

.
-. ,
,
, 0 o .


.
.
( ,
..),
, (
) .
,
, ().

,
,

32

.
, .
,
(3.8),
E EF

e kT >> 1

f F f M B = A * e

A = e

(3.9)

E
kT

(3.10)

EF
kT

E EF
<< 2 3 . . .
kT
, ,

kT ,

)
, .

.

(3.9)

3.3.

N ( )
( ),
.
E .

,
E E + dE
dn = dz 2 f F = N 2 f F dE
(3.11)
.
(3.7)
1
4 (2m )
2
E
f F dE
dn =
3
h
dn

.3.4.
dE
32

33

(3.12)

.3.4 (, ).

dn
= 0 o () 0 o ().
dE

. , = 0 o
.
0 o ,
dn
,

dE

( .3.4).

(3.12)

32
4 (2m ) 12
n=
(3.13)
0 E f F dE
h3
= 0 o
3
8 (2m )
E F 20
(3.14)
n0 =
3
3h
n0 10 28 3 ,
0
E F 0 5 ,
, ( )
.
. (3.13)
(3.12)
2(2mkT ) 3 2

(3.15)
n0 =
h3
n0 10 28 3 ,
T 5 10 4 K . ,
, ,
.
32

34

3.4.
.

.
,
(.3.16 ).
,
. ,
4 (, ),
5 ,
( ),
n .
(.3.16 ). ,
, ,
,
Ed = Ec Ed (.3.16 ). 3
, ,
( p ). .
,
, ,
Ea = Ec E g + Ea (. 3.17).

.3.16. ( ,
, , )

35

.3.17. ( ,
, )

.
). .

n0 = N c e

Ec E F
kT

N c =

(3.16)

2(2mn kT )
h3

(3.17)

- .

p0 = N e

N =

E F E
kT

(3.18)

2(2m p kT )

(3.19)

h3

- .
n0 p0 (3.16) (3.18)
E F .

, :
n0 p 0 = N c N e

EC E
kT

= N c N e

Eg

(3.20)

kT

n0 p0 = ni2
(3.21)
, ni
. ,

ni = N c N e

Eg

(3.22)

2 kT


,
. ni (T )

36

lg ni 10 3 T , ,

E g
(.3.18). , , T = 300 o K Si
ni = 1.5 1010 3 , E g = 1.1 .

( n ),

n0 >> ni >> p 0 ,

( p ),

p0 >> ni >> n0

,

.


.3.18. ni

lg ni 10 3 T .
,

n0 + N a = p 0 + N d
(3.23)
N a , N d
.
p0 n0 , , n0 p0 .
(3.23)

n0 = p 0
(3.24)
, (3.16) (3.18)

Ec E F
kT

E F E
kT

Nce
= N e
(3.25)

Ec = 0 , E = E = E g , ,
12

N
EF =
kT ln
2
Nc
(3.17) (3.19)
Eg

37

(3.26)

mp
EF =
kT ln
2
mn
Eg

34

(3.27)

Eg

m p mn ,
2
,
,

(.3.19). m p > mn ,
T = 0 o K

EF =

= Ei . T 0 o K

E F E g .

.3.19.

m p < mn ,
,
EF
.
,
m p > mn

) .

(3.23),
.

.


(.3.20).



nn = pd .
,

.3.20.


.
(3.25),

38

Ec E F
kT

E d E F
kT

Nce
= Nde
(3.28)

Ec = 0 ,

12
Nd
E d

kT ln
EF =
(3.29)
2
N
c
o
T =0 K
E
EF = d
(3.30)
2
. .

(.3.20). , N c < N d ,
,
, N c > N d ,
,

ni
(.3.18).
nn = pd , n = nn p d , (3.28)


:

Ed
2 kT

n = (Nc Nd ) e
( N c N d )1 2 ,


.
3.21 ,

lg n0 i 1 T

E d
n .
,

ni << N d ,

12

39

(3.31)

.3.21. n0

lg n0 1 T

,
n
N d ,
( .3.21).

.

(
.3.18).
,
. ,

(
),
.

,

, p = na .

12
E g E a
Na

kT ln
EF =
(3.32)
2
N

o
T = 0 K
E g E a
EF =
(3.33)
2
. .

(.3.22).

N < N a ,

.
.3.22.

40

. , N > N a ,
- ,

.


p0 = ( N N a ) e
12

E a
2 kT

(3.34)

p0 lg p 0 1 T


3.21
. ,

lg p 0 1 T E a
p .
). .

,
,

. ,
(
, ),
.
,
.
. ,

10 20 10 22 3 , 10 24 10 26 3 .

41

4. .
4.1 .

> 0 o

. E
, ,
.

r
r
r
n ( p ) E ,

r
r qE
n = n
(4.1)
mn
r
r qE
p = p
(4.2)
mp
n , p
.

n =
p =

ln

(4.3)

n
lp

(4.4)

p
ln , l p ;
n , p
. n p (4.1)
(4.2), :
ql

un = n = n
E mn n

ql p
up = p =
E m p p
u n , u p .

(4.5)
(4.6)

u n u p

,

42

.

:
1)
;
2) ( );
3) ( );
4) (, , ,
, .);
5) .


.
1. (Ge,
Si, .). ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
, , ,

1
(4.7)
l ~
T

,
:
(4.8)
~ T
(4.5), (4.6), (4.7) (4.8)

(4.9)
u ~ T 3 2
. . ,
, .

,
.
2. .

,

43


.
: l ~ 4 ,
u ~ v 3 .

(4.10)
u ~ T32

.

,

(4.9) (4.10)
3
1
3
= aT 2 + bT 2
(4.11)
u
a b .

, (4.11)
. ,

, , ,
, .
4.2.

( n, p ) ( u n , p )
n = qnu n
(4.12)
p = qpu p
(4.13)


,
= n + p
(4.14)

(. (3.16) (4.9)),
i

i = cT

Eg

(4.15)

2 kT

44

Eg
2 kT

cT

E g >> kT .

0i cT

i = 0i e

Eg

(4.15)

2 kT


,
.

(3.31), (3.34) (
)

n = 0n e

Eg

(4.16)

2 kT

Eg

p = 0 pe
(4.17)
(4.16), (4.17) ,
T

, ()
N d ( N a ),
,
3.21. 3.21 ,

( tg ) E g ,
10 3

lg
T
( tg d ) ( tg a )
p

n
.


.

,
.
,
.
2 kT

45

,

1
R=
(4.18)


Eg

Ri = R0 i e
n

(4.19)

2 kT

Rn = R0 n e

Ed
2 kT

(4.20)

p
R p = R0 p e

Ea
2 kT

(4.21)


, (4.19)
E g , (4.20) (4.21)
E d E a .
4.3.


, ,
,
(, , ).
.

(.4.1):
1) 1

( ),

.4.1.

,
(

);
:1 -
2) 2
- ; 2, 3

.

46

(),
,
;
3) 3 ,
()
,
.
-
,
, . . .

ch ch
(4.22)
=
i =
E E g

ch
d =
(4.23)
E d
ch
a =
(4.24)
E a
4.4.
- ,
, ,
,
,
() .
,

. ,
,
.
,

(
)
. ,
,
rp ~ h
(4.25)
r ,

47


.
(.4.2).

.
r
,
,
I (.4.4); ,

. ,


,
r
B
( ).

.4.2.
,
,
.

r
r
r
F = q[ ]

(4.26)

r
F


, , ,
,
,
.
, p
,
,
r
qE , . n
( ) ,
, .
, (
), .
,

. ,
, ,

,
, ( ).

48


,
,
r
F
r
qE :
F = qE
(4.27)

q = qE
(4.28)
(4.28)
, ,
. (4.28)
n , n
nq = qEn n
(4.28)

I
(4.29)
S
S = ab , a b (.4.2),
jn = nq cp =

(4.28)
1 InB 1

=
jn B
qn ab qn

) Vn = En b
En =

Vn =

(4.30)
(

1 InB
1

=
jn Bb
qn a
qn

(4.31)

(4.31)

, .
,
,
(4.27),
.

(4.31)

A InB A
(4.32)

=
j n Bb
Vn =
qn a
qn
A
.

49

, , InSb
3
, A =
= 1.18 .
8
,
A = 1.93 .
,
,
A = 1 .
(4.32)

I B
(4.33)
Vn = Rn n
a

A
(4.34)
qn
( )
,
IpB
(4.35)
Vp = Rp
a

A
(4.36)
Rp =
qp
p .
Rn =

(4.33) (4.36) , Vn ,V p ,
, Rn , R p
.
Vn (V p ), , I n ( I p ), a ,
(4.33) (4.35), (4.34) (4.36)
n p
.

n p , u n p ,

.


50



2
2
A pu p nu n
R=
(4.37)
q ( pu p + nu n ) 2
n = p ( ) un = u p ,
. n = p
u n u p ,
A u p un

(4.38)
qn u p + u n
,
, ,
. (4.37) ,


.
R=

4.5. .


,
.
1985 ,
.

,
.


,

(.4.3).

- (
.4.3.
- .
).
,
, SiO2 ( ).
,
.

51

. .
, ,
,
, , ( ),
,
.
.

.


.

m

2
r

= q B

(4.39)

m, q , , B
.

qB
= =
(4.40)
r m

.

,

E ,

:
1

E = h k + , k = 0,1,2...
(4.41)
2


,

l . ,
(4.25) r ~ r l , (4.40)

h
l=
(4.42)
qB

52

,
(),
- .
n . ,
, ,

1
qB
n= 2 =
(4.43)
l
h
B = 102 (4.43) ,
1012
.

1

s = :
2

1
qB qB
n= 2 =
=
(4.43)
l
2h
h

.
. 4.2.
(4.40), (4.41) E = h << E F ~ B ,
..
. ,
, ,
. E F
i ,

qB
n=i
(4.43)
h
,
(4.34),

h
(4.44)
RH = RB = 2 , i = 1,2,3...
iq
, RH(B)
, ,
.

53

(15 ) (
). 1K ,
,
,
,

(4.44).
4.4.
.
,
. ,
,
.

,
,
. h 2 25 .
q

.4.4.
.



( ),

.
1982 ( 1998.),
. , ,

54

( 0.1 ) 15
20 ,

(i = 1/3, i = 2/3). ,
,

,
. ,

. ,
.
4.6. .


1911
. -, ,
4,15 ,
Tk ,
(.4.5).
:
, , , ,
. ,


1957 .
, .4.5.

.
T
1958. .. .


( ).
,
,
,
, .
.
(.4.6.).
= 0 ,
.. .
.

55

,
,
.
()
,
,

.4.6.


: )

T > Tk , ) T < Tk
10 4 ,
, ) T < Tk

.

, , ,
, ,
( 105 1011) , ,
. ,
( , ,
), ,
.
,

,
, .. .
T > 0 o K .
.
T Tk , . T = Tk
,
.

56

5. .
5.1. - .

.
, ,
.
T = 0 o K
. (),
,
, ,
() ( ),
() (.5.1).

.5.1. n - ( A > A ):
, n -
.

T > 0 o K ,
. , E F ,

.
, E F , , ,

.
,
.
M

57

, , ,
,
, .
,
.

.

,
,
(.5.1).

,
, .
,
. ,
,
(.5.1).
(
).
(). 5.1 ,

,
V .

qV =
(5.1.)
,
, ,
.
.
> A n ,
(.5.1).
d n ,
n .

, , n ,
.
( )

58

d 2V
( z)
=
(5.2)
2
dz
0 sc
0 , sc
, (z ) ,
z ,


2V 0
(5.3)
dn =
qN d
n
,

(.5.2).

.5.2. : n
( A < A ), - p - ( A < A ), - p - ( A > A )
,
n
. ,

( ).
p
, A < A .


( ).

59

,
,

, .
,
.
, .
V n
( A > A ). V > 0 (
, + )
qV ,
(.5.3).
, ( V < 0 )
, (.5.3).

.5.3. n ( A < A ) , V < 0 ,


V > 0 .

. (5.3)
V > 0
2(V V ) 0
(5.3)
d n V >0 =
qN d
V < 0
2(V + V ) 0
(5.3)
d n V <0 =
qN d

60

(5.3) ,
V < V . (5.3)
(5.3) , V > 0
, V < 0 . ,
(5.3),
.
: ,
.
,
,

n
14
-3
4
= 16,V = 0.3, N d = 10 V = 0 d n = 2.3 10 .
,
,
.
:
.
(
),


.
, ,
.
(Ge, Si, InSb .).


(
)
qV

j = j s e kT 1
(5.4)

js
j s = AT e
2

A
kT

(5.5)

(5.5) A ,
4m * 2 e
A
5
A=
=
12

10
.
h3
2 2
+ (5.4) ()
, ().
, V > 0 , V < 0
, (5.4)

61

qV

j = j s e kT 1

(5.4)
,
,
5.3.

.5.3.

d n
,
,

, ,
,
,
.

qV

j = qu n En0 e kT 1
(5.6)

E . (5.5) ,
.
.5.4.
5.2.



,
n ,
p .
.5.4.

,
.

n
p . ( p n )
,

62

n p ,
. (
n N d p
N a )
p n
N d = n0 , N a = p 0
(5.7)
, .
( n
nn p p p )
nn >> p n , p p >> p n ,

dn

dx

dp
n .
dx

dn
(5.8)
I nD = qDn S
dx
dp
(5.9)
I pD = qD p S
dx
Dn D p , S
p n .
n
d n
, , p

, p .
p n
E , .

p n
(5.10)
I nE = qn p Eu n S
n p
(5.10)
I pE = qp n Eu p S
,
n p

p ,

63

, p n

I pD I nE + I nD I pE = 0
(5.11)
p EC
,
n
p ,
p n V (.5.5).
5.5 ,
qV = Eip Ein =

(5.12)
= ( Eip E F ) + ( E F Ein )
,
,

n0 = ni e

E F Ein
kT

(5.13)
.5.5. p n

E F Eip

p0 = ni e kT
(5.14)
-
.
(5.7)
N
qV = kT ln a
(5.15)
Nd
, ,
,
n p .
p n V < 0 , .
. n , p
(.5.6), ,
n p , qV .
,
qV .
(5.13), (5.14) .
*
*
( E Fn
E Fp
n p
),
, .

64

.5.6. ()
.

() p n

pn
V < 0
.
p n , n
p , .. ,
, ,
, . ,
,

,
, .
. ,
, n (.5.6),
, ,
.
p n V > 0 , .
. p , n ,
qV
.
qV (.5.6).
n p ,
p , , , n .
p n (
) ,
.
n p ,
,

65

(
). (, ),
,
.

p n :
) ,
(l >> d ) , p n
, p n
,
. p n
,
(5.4).
, - p n
(.5.3);
) , p n
(l << d ) .


,

pn

(.5.7).

,

p n , ,
5.7,
.5.7. : 1
p n - ), 2 p n

.
,
.

, , .

, , (.5.7).
p n

66

6.
.

, .

6.1. .



,
.
n ,
dT

(T2 > T1 ) .
dx

, ,
. ,

.
,
, , . ,
,
.
.

(),
.
(T2 = T1 ) ,
.
.
,

.
dT
(T2 > T1 ) , Vk
dx
.
dV
dV
- = k + T
(6.1)
dT
dT
V ,
.

67



dn


dx
dn
Dn
( Dn ): Dn
dx
dD
: n n .
dx
Dn
ET ,

r +1 2
Dn = CET , ET = (r + 2)kT
(6.2)
r , ;
.

()
dD
dn
Dn
+ n n = Eu n n
(6.3)
dx
dx
E , .
Dn = const (6.3)
dn dT
dn
Dn
= Dn
= Eu n n
(6.4)
dx
dT dx

kT
(6.5)
D=
u
q
(6.4) -
Edx k ln n
(6.6)
n =
= T
dT
q T
n = const (6.3)
dD
D E
n n = n n T = Eu n n
(6.7)
dx
ET x
(6.2)
1
Edx k
D =
(6.8)
= r +
2
dT
q
n D .

68

E F E Fn
(6.9)
=
q
q

V
1 E Fn
(6.10)
= =
T
q T
(3.16), (3.17)
ln n
k 3 E
= + Fn + T
(6.11)

T
q 2 kT
n
N
k
1 = n + D + = 2 + r + ln c
(6.12)
q
n

N
k
2 = p + D + = 2 + r + ln
(6.13)
q
p
,
( n = N d , p = N a ), 1 2
:
N
k
1 = n + D + = 2 + r + ln c
(6.12)
q
Nd
V =

2 = p + D + = 2 + r + ln
q
N

(6.13)

,

N a N d .

:
u p 1u n n
= 2 p
(6.14)
u p p + un n
,
,
, , . .


.

.
, (T )
.

69




- = T
(6.15)


= ( 1 + 2 )T = 12 T
(6.16)

,
12
.

;
,
.

.
,
.

,
. , ,
,

.

6.2. .


.
Q

(6.17)
Q = It
.
,

, (
) ,
,
. (
) (

70

),
.

> (.6.1).
.
, , ,
,
E F
Q
Q = E T E Fn
(6.18)
( ,
)


,
.

(6.18)
,
.6.1.
.
n -

> .
(6.2)

Q ET E Fn [(r + 2)kT E Fn ]
=
(6.19)
=
=
q
q
q
, (6.12),
(6.20)
= 1T

( p n )
,
:
n
p (.6.2).
p n
( p , n )
(.6.2), n
p ,

71

,
.
p n
(.6.2)
p n ,
, ,
, .

.6.2. , () ()
.

:
,
, .

,
.

6.3. .



.
q
dT


dx

72

dT
dT
(6.21)
= q
dx
dx

,
.
.


, . . ()
.
, . . .

.


d
=T
(6.22)
dT
d
dT , T .
.

, , .
dT
,

12
(6.23)
dTdI + ( 1 2 )dTdI = 12 dTdI
T
12 , 12 , 1 , 2

12
+ ( 1 2 ) = 12
(6.24)
T
Q = It

.
1. . . ., , 1978.
2. .. . .,
, 1977.
3. ..-, ... .
., , 1990.
4. ... . ., ,
1978.
5. .. . .1,2. , 1979.

73

2009 ,
12 ,

.


-
, 20092018 .


.
.. , ..
, .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. ,
.. .. .. .
,
,
. 7 ,
; 20 , ; 2 , ; 1
4 .

,
.

, ,
.
,
,
, -
RUNNET INTERNET.
.
.

74

. 1957-1973

. 1973
, , . 1979

, 1987 ,
, 1994 -
, , ,
1999 .
,
.
1993 03.05.33
. , 2003
07.19.00 .
- - ,
.
,
, ,
, -, (ISSEP, SPIE
.).

75

..

- -
,

.
..
00408 05.11.09
16.03.10

76

-
-
,

197101, -, ., 49

77

78

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