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Summary OF The Unit of Translation and Discourse Analysis


Discourse analysis, as the unit of translation (UT) is the smallest
segment of an utterance whose cohesion of signs is such that they must
not be separately translated. In other words, the minimal stretch of
language that has to be translated together, as one unit. In terms of its
coherence, the more cohesive, the more formalized a text, the more
information it, as a unit, affords the translator. But Cohesion always
related to the relations between sentences.
There are two strategies in translating title. The first one is
'descriptive titles, which describe the topic of the text, and the second
is 'allusive titles, which have some kind of referential or figurative
relationship to the topic.
Punctuation is an essential aspect of discourse analysis, since it
gives a semantic indication of the relationship between sentences and
clauses, which may vary according to languages. In terms of soundeffects, even at the level beyond the sentence, should be taken into
account, not only in poetry, but in jingles, or in realistic narrative.
Sentences cohere through the use of referential synonyms, which may
be lexical, pronominal or general. In many cases, all three types of
referential synonym are used to avoid repetition rather than to supply
new information (which, in any event, is incidental, thematic, and not
pan of the sentence's message). Linguistic synonyms are also used as a
cohesive device to avoid repetition, particularly in a reinforcing
sentence.
Functional sentence perspective (FSP) examines the arrangement
of the elements of a sentence in the light of its linguistic, situational and
cultural context, determining its function within the paragraph and the
text. In this field the smallest unit of translation word by word
translation after that move to the sentence then the whole text

translation is used to make the target language is coherence and


cohesive with every aspects that probably influence the meaning.
2. The explanation below are the definition of translation and interpreting bsed
on expert opinion.

a. According to Newmark (1988), translation could be defined as that act of


translation is to transfer the meaning of a text, from one language to another,
taking care mainly of the functional relevant meaning. Translating is used for
written text.
b. Webster (n.d) defines interpreting as a process of interpret. Interpreting is an
explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.
3. Text can be used for both written and spoken language. It usually refers to a stretch, an
extract or complete piece of writing or speech. Texts generally adhere to broad
conventions and rules which determine the language and structure used in particular text
types (Cornbleet and Carter: 2001)
4. dictionary.cambridge.org defines connotation as a feeling or idea that is suggested by a
particular word although it need not be a part of the word's meaning, or something
suggested by an object or situation. For Leech (1974), connotative meaning is the
communicative power of a word by virtue of what it refers to. On the other hand,
denotation is the main meaning of a word, not including the feelings or ideas that people
may connect with the word. Denotative meaning is the objective (dictionary) relationship
between a word and the reality to which it refers (Crystal, 1987).
Connotative meaning poses greater difficulty to the translator than denotative
meaning because it is variable according to historical period and culture. The wider the
gap between the SL and the TL cultures, the more problematic the issue of translatability
becomes. Some words with neutral connotations in the SL may have strong emotional
overtones in the TL if translated literally (Larson, 1984). However, denotative meaning is
easier to translate than connotative meaning since it is often difficult to find denotative
equivalents.
As Newmark said that the greater the quantity of a language's resources (e.g.
polysemy, word-play, sound-effect, metre, rhyme) expended on a text, the more difficult
it is likely to be to translate, and the more worthwhile. A satisfactory restricted translation

of any poem is always possible, though it may work as an introduction to and an


interpretation of rather than as a recreation of the original.
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7. According to Buhler (cited in Newmark: 1998), the three main functions of language are
the expressive, the informative - he called it 'representation' - and the vocative ('appeal')
functions. Jakobson (cited in Newmark: 1998) adds three other functions of language: the
aesthetic, the phatic and the metalingual.
The role of functions of language in translating is as the most convenient way of
looking at a text for translation. It is also useful to divide texts by topic into three broad
categories: (a) literary; (b) institutional; and (c) scientific. Literary texts are distinguished
from the rest in being more important in their mental and imaginative connotations than
their factual denotations.
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