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Grade 3, Module 9

Core Focus
Working with the sixes multiplication and division facts, as well as facts involving
3 or 7, and square numbers
Exploring the associative property of multiplication
Solving multiplication word problems
Using the order of operations
Numbers in Base-10
By this time in the school year, students are able to remember many multiplication
facts automatically. When students do not yet automatically recall facts, these facts
can often be gured out from known facts using number sense and reasoning
practiced within the strategies.
In this module, students work with the multiplication facts involving 6, by building up
from the more familiar x5 facts. E.g. we can gure out 6 7 =? by thinking 5 7 is 35
so 6 7 is 35 + 7, which is 42.
An array that has 5 rows with 3 columns in each row equals 15.
When one row is uncovered or folded down (see below) it creates 6 rows of 3.
The folded-down array shows or 15 + 3 = 18, so 6 3 = 18. Making these connections
builds number sense and reasoning.

so

6 rows of 3 =

5 rows of 3 =

5 3 is 15
so
6 3 = 18 and 3 6 = 18

Another way to think about 6 facts is to break an array apart into a familiar 5
array and a 1 array, mulitply the parts, and then add them back together.
9.2

Reinforcing the Sixes Multiplication Facts

Ideas for Home


Encourage your child to
explain how knowing the
5 fact makes the 6 facts
easier to solve. I know that
5 7 is 35, and 35 + 7 is 42,
so 6 7 is 42.
Create arrays with pennies to
illustrate 5 __ and then add
one row to illustrate 6 __ .
Glossary
Associative property of
multiplication allows three or
more factors to be multiplied
in any order. E.g. 6 x 3 x 4 can
thought of as 18 x 4 or 6 x 12 or
24 x 3. 6 x 12, may be the most
ecient combination for mental
math because it is the same as
60 + 12.
This array models the build-up
strategy for x6 facts:
E.g. 5 x 8 + 8 = 48

What multiplication fact does this whole array show?


How could you gure out the total number of dots?
Complete these facts to help you.
57=

1 7=
There are 42 dots in total because 35 + 7 is 42.

ORIGO Education.

What multiplication fact does this whole array show?

In Lesson 2,What
students
reinforcefacts
the 6
multiplication
facts by coninuing to build up from
two multiplication
could
you write
to help gure
out the total number of dots?
the 5 mulitplication
facts.

The Last Facts


to learn are four involving 3 and=7: 3 3, 7 7, 3 7, and 7 3.
What is the total number of dots?
To gure out facts
involving
How do
you know? 3, students might think about two facts that they know, then

=
build up (e.g. to gure out 3 7 =?, think 2 7 = 14, plus one more 7 = 21 ). The strategies
used for the other numbers can be accessed when 7 is involved.
Step Up

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1. Complete the rst two multiplication facts to help you gure


out the total number of dots. Then complete the sixes fact.

On the left, 5 rows of 8 are


40. When one row is foldeddown, the array shows that 6
rows of 8 are 48.

Grade 3, Module 9

Students will use what they know about multiplication facts involving sixes and the Last
Facts to work with division.
Introducing the Sixes and Last Division Facts

9.8

Look at this array.


What is an easy way to gure out the total number of dots?

42 dots
in total

How could you gure out the number of dots in each row?

But it is easier to think


multiplication. 6 x ? = 42

How could you use multiplication to gure out 30 6?


1.use
Complete
the multiplication
fact that multiplication
you could use to and
gure division along with
In Lesson 8,
students
the relationship
between
Step
Up
out the division fact. Then complete the division fact.
sixes and last multiplication facts to gure out the sixes and last division facts.
a.

b.

Order of Operations

12 dots

= 12

60 dots

10

= 60

in totalof operations so there


Mathematicians havein total
established
a rule for order
12 2 =
60 10 =
is no confusion about how to write or gure out a number sentence involving more
than one operation
(addition, subtraction,d.multiplication or division). This is important
c.
preparation for the study of algebra.
6 = 36

36 dots

6 = 18

18 dots

9.10

ORIGO Education.

in total
in total always work from left
The rule says we should
to right. If there is more than one
36 6 =
18 6 =
type of operation, work left to right in the order listed in the information box below:

214

Investigating Order with Multiple Operations

ORIGO Stepping Stones 3 9.8

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Look at these comic books.


A
B

$9

$7

an issu
e

an issu
e

$6

an issu
e

What number sentences show your thinking?

These are the


rules for the order
of operations.

Order of operations states that


if there is one type of operation
in a sentence, work left to
right. If more than one type of
operation is present, work left
to right in this order:

If there is one type of operation in


a sentence, work left to right.
If there is more than one type of
operation, work left to right in this
order.
1. perform any operation inside
parentheses
2. multiply or divide pairs of numb
ers
3. add or subtract pairs of numb
ers

Imagine you buy three issues of C and two issues of D .

What do you notice?

Perform any operation


inside parenthesis

2.

Multiply or divide pairs


of numbers

3.

Add or subtract pairs


of numbers.

36+28=
18 + 16

1. Use the comic book prices above. Write an equation to show


how you would gure out the total cost for each purchase.
Then write the total.

a. Buy ve C and one A


b. Buy two B and one D

218

1.

ORIGO Education.

ORIGO Education.

Step Up

Practice order of operations


by telling stories that match
equations involving more than
one operation. E.g. 4 + 2 3 = 10
could match this story:
I bought a $4 notebook
and 2 books for $3 each.
Also this story: My friend has
4 dogs and 2 of the dogs had
3 puppies each. What other
story could match?
Glossary

In Lesson 10, students discuss everyday situations that involve more than one operation.
Working left to right, what is the total cost?
Using the order of multiple operations,
what total do you get?

Practice the facts and make


connections to the division
facts. Encourage your child to
think multiplication. E.g. for
42 6, think 6 ? = 42.

$8

an issu
e

Imagine you want to buy one issue of A and three issues of B .


What steps would you use to gure
out the total cost?

Practice the strategies for all


of the multiplication facts. Use
doubles (2, 4, 8), use ten
(5), build up (6), build down
(9), and the last facts (3 7,
7 3, 7 7, 3 3).
If your child knows their
facts by memory, ask them
to prove it periodically by
explaining a strategy.

Look at this picture.

I could use division.


42 6 = ?

Ideas for Home

ORIGO Stepping Stones 3 9.10

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