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Elements and

principles of


A line is an identifiable path created by a point moving in space. It is one-

dimensional and can vary in width, direction, and length. Lines often define the edges of
a form. Lines can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, straight or curved, thick or thin.

Shape and form:

The visual components of color, form, line,

shape, space, texture, and value. Line. An element of art defined by a point moving in
space. Line. may be two-or three-dimensional, descriptive, implied, or abstract.


An element of art defined by a point moving in space. Line. may be

two-or three-dimensional, descriptive, implied, or abstract. Shape An element of art that

is two-dimensional, flat, or limited to height and width. Form.


texture is the perceived surface quality of a work of art. It is an

element of two-dimensional and three-dimensional designs and is distinguished by its

perceived visual and physical properties.


Color is the element of art that is produced when light, striking an object,

is reflected back to the eye. There are three properties to color. The first is hue, which
simply means the name we give to a color (red, yellow, blue, green, etc.). The second
property is intensity, which refers to the vividness of the color.



Color primary:

any of a group of colors from

which all other colors can be obtained by mixing.

Color monochromatic:

Monochromatic colors are all

the colors (tints, tones, and shades) of a single hue. Monochromatic color schemes are
derived from a single base hue and extended using its shades, tones and tints. Tints are
achieved by adding white and shades and tones are achieved by adding a darker color,
gray or black.


Value The lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the

lightest value; black is the darkest. The value halfway between these
extremes is called middle gray. Space An element of art by which positive and
negative areas are defined or a sense of depth achieved in a work of art .


in visual design means all parts

of the visual image relate to and complement each other.


is the path the viewers eye takes

through the artwork, often to a focal area. It can be directed along lines, edges,
shapes and color. Movement is closely tied to rhythm.


Repetition refers to one object or shape

repeated; pattern is a combination of elements or shapes repeated in a recurring and

regular arrangement; rhythm--is a combination of elements repeated, but with variations.


Scale and proportion in art are both

concerned with size. Scale refers to the size of an object (a whole) in relationship to
another object (another whole). In art the size relationship between an object and the
human body is significant.


made up of exactly similar parts

facing each other or around an axis; showing symmetry.


having parts that fail to

correspond to one another in shape, size, or arrangement;
lacking symmetry.

Radial: symmetry around a

central axis, as in a starfish or a
tulip flower.


Emphasis is defined as an area or object within the artwork

that draws attention and becomes a focal point. Subordination is defined as minimizing or
toning down other compositional elements in order to bring attention to the focal point.


Contrast is referred to the difference in two related

elements such as color, shape, value, type, texture, alignment, direction and
movement. The more contrast is shown the more a viewer's attention is

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