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12/9/2015

1stPutnam1938

1stPutnam1938

A1.AsolidinEuclidean3spaceextendsfromz=h/2toz=+h/2andtheareaofthe
sectionz=kisapolynomialinkofdegreeatmost3.Showthatthevolumeofthesolidis
h(B+4M+T)/6,whereBistheareaofthebottom(z=h/2),Mistheareaofthemiddle
section(z=0),andTistheareaofthetop(z=h/2).Derivetheformulaeforthevolumes
ofaconeandasphere.
A2.Asolidhasacylindricalmiddlewithaconicalcapateachend.Theheightofeach
capequalsthelengthofthemiddle.Foragivensurfacearea,whatshapemaximizesthe
volume?
A3.AparticlemovesintheEuclideanplane.Attimet(takingallrealvalues)its
coordinatesarex=t3tandy=t4+t.Showthatitsvelocityhasamaximumatt=0,and
thatitspathhasaninflectionatt=0.
A4.Anotchiscutinacylindricalverticaltreetrunk.Thenotchpenetratestotheaxisof
thecylinderandisboundedbytwohalfplanes.Eachhalfplaneisboundedbya
horizontallinepassingthroughtheaxisofthecylinder.Theanglebetweenthetwohalf
planesis.Provethatthevolumeofthenotchisminimized(forgiventreeand)by
takingtheboundingplanesatequalanglestothehorizontalplane.
A5.(1)Findlimx>infx2/ex.
(2)Findlimk>01/k0k(1+sin2x)1/xdx.
A6.Aswimmerisstandingatacornerofasquareswimmingpool.Sheswimsatafixed
speedandrunsatafixedspeed(possiblydifferent).Notimeistakenenteringorleaving
thepool.Whatpathshouldshefollowtoreachtheoppositecornerofthepoolinthe
shortestpossibletime?
A7.Doeither(1)or(2)
(1)SisathinsphericalshellofconstantthicknessanddensitywithtotalmassMand
centerO.PisapointoutsideS.ProvethatthegravitationalattractionofSatPisthesame
asthegravitationalattractionofapointmassMatO.
(2)Kisthesurfacez=xyinEuclidean3space.FindallstraightlineslyinginS.Drawa
diagramtoillustratethem.
B1.Doeither(1)or(2)
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12/9/2015

1stPutnam1938

(1)LetAbematrix(aij),1i,j4.Letd=det(A),andletAijbethecofactorofaij,that
is,thedeterminantofthe3x3matrixformedfromAbydeletingaijandotherelementsin
thesamerowandcolumn.LetBbethe4x4matrix(Aij)andletDbedetB.ProveD=
d3.
(2)LetP(x)bethequadraticAx2+Bx+C.SupposethatP(x)=xhasunequalrealroots.
ShowthattherootsarealsorootsofP(P(x))=x.Findaquadraticequationfortheother
tworootsofthisequation.Hencesolve(y23y+2)23(y23y+2)+2y=0.
B2.Findallsolutionsofthedifferentialequationzz"2z'z'=0whichpassthroughthe
pointx=1,z=1.
B3.Ahorizontaldiskdiameter3inchesrotatesonceevery15seconds.Aninsectstartsat
thesouthernmostpointofthediskfacingduenorth.Alwaysfacingduenorth,itcrawls
overthediskat1inchpersecond.Wheredoesitagainreachtheedgeofthedisk?
B4.TheparabolaPhasfocusadistancemfromthedirectrix.ThechordABisnormalto
PatA.WhatistheminimumlengthforAB?
B5.Findthelocusofthefootoftheperpendicularfromthecenterofarectangular
hyperbolatoatangent.Obtainitsequationinpolarcoordinatesandsketchit.
B6.WhatistheshortestdistancebetweentheplaneAx+By+Cz+1=0andthe
ellipsoidx2/a2+y2/b2+z2/c2=1.Youmayfinditconvenienttousethenotationh=(A2
+B2+C2)1/2,m=(a2A2+b2B2+c2C2)1/2.Whatisthealgebraicconditionforthe
planenottointersecttheellipsoid?

ThePutnamfellowwasIrvingKaplansky.Toavoidpossiblecopyrightproblems,Ihavechangedthe
wording,butnotthesubstance,ofalltheproblems.Theoriginaltextandsolutionsareavailablein:AM
Gleason,REGreenwood&LMKelly,TheWilliamLowellPutnamMathematicalCompetition,
ProblemsandSolutions,19381964,MAA1980.Outofprint,butavailableinsomeuniversitylibraries.
Putnamhome

JohnScholes
jscholes@kalva.demon.co.uk
4Sep1999

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