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*Excerpt from ED345 Comprehensive Literacy Plan*

Data Analysis
Throughout the year in third grade these students were assessed multiple
times in many aspects of reading, writing, and language development. I have
carefully studied the data provided to me by their third grade teacher and compiled
it to show what I believe to be the range of reading, writing, and word study
development for this group of students.
Reading Development
WKCE Reading

MAP Reading
Total Rit Score
(by the end of
third grade
students should
be scoring about
Fountas and

Advanced 2
Proficient 13
Basic 3 Students
Minimal 6
199.2 or Higher
16 Students
Lower than 199.2
8 Students

Beginning of Year
Levels I-P
15 students
meeting grade
Middle of Year
Levels K-T
20 students
meeting grade

At the end of the third grade year the

assessment data indicates that the reading
levels of these students range from level L
to level T. According to Fountas and Pinnell
these would mean that the students in this
class are at the Transitional, Self-Extending,
or Advanced level of reading development.
Transitional readers are students who will be
reading books at levels H-M. At this stage in
their reading development students will
know many more words and will be able to
read silently the majority of the time. They
will be able to get more meaning from more
places in the text and self-monitor to make
sure the information they get is correct.

End of Year
Levels L-T
20 students
meeting grade

They will be able to use information such as

letter-sound relationships and language
structure as well. In this stage students will
also stop relying on illustrations but will use
them instead to add meaning. Students will
be able to analyze and solve problems more
effectively and will also read with more
phrasing and fluency.
Self-Extending readers will be reading
books at levels M-R. At this stage in reading
development students will be able to read
silently all the time and read with good
fluency when asked to read aloud. While
reading students will use all sources of
information that they can from the text and
take in all this information very smoothly.
Students will also start reading much longer
texts that will be read over days or weeks
and will be able to keep an interest in the
books for that long. Students will begin to
enjoy illustrations (if present) in these books
and use them to add to the information they
gain. They will also be able to use new
methods of word analysis to make attempts
to figure out new words, including multiple
syllable words. Last students will read many
different kinds of texts and build their skills
by having many systems for learning with
these different texts and will become more
absorbed in books while identifying with
characters and events.
Advanced readers will be reading
books at levels R-Y. They are able to read
very fluently both silently and out loud and
are good at using word knowledge to solve
words. They use reading as a tool to acquire
more vocabulary and learning in content
areas and consistently develop new
knowledge of texts. Students at this stage
also actively look to make connections with
texts and can go beyond the text to add
their own interpretations. They will be able
to sustain interest much longer and notice
and comment on many aspects of the

Fountas and
Pinnell Accuracy

Beginning of Year
Below 95% - 1
95% - 3 Students
96% - 4 Students
97% - 1 Student
98% - 2 Students
99% - 10 Students
100% - 2 Students
Middle of Year
95% - 0 Students
96% - 1 Students
97% - 4 Student
98% - 6 Students
99% - 12 Students
100% - 1 Students
End of Year
95% - 0 Students
96% - 1 Students
97% - 2 Students
98% - 2 Students
99% - 1 Student
100% - 0 Students
(Some Date

Fountas and

Beginning of Year
0-4 2 Students
5-6 18 Students

writers craft while reading (Building an

Effective Reading Process over Time
handout, ED345, February 2015).
The accuracy score is based on the
amount of errors students make during an
oral reading.
More than 12 errors = less than 95%
10-11 errors = 95%
8-9 errors = 96%
6-7 errors = 97%
4-5 errors =98%
1-3 errors = 99%
0 errors = 100%
In relation to instructional level, getting
a very low score (below 90%) could mean
that the text is too hard for a student. This
is referred to as the frustrational level for a
student. If there are so many errors made
then it is possible the student is not read for
a text at the level of the one they are
making the errors with. On the other hand a
student with a very high score, (above 95%)
meaning they have no, or very few, errors
would mean that the book this student is
reading is at an independent reading level
for them. A score in between these (9094%) would be considered a students
instructional level.

In assessing comprehension students can

score a 0-3 in each of three categories. The
scores in these categories are then added
up to get a score out of 10. Scoring a 0 in a
category would mean a student shows no

7-8 2 Students
9-10 0 Students
Middle of Year
0-4 1 Student
5-6 17 Students
7-8 5 Students
9-10 1 Student
End of Year
0-4 0 Students
5-6 1 Student
7-8 5 Students
9-10 0 Students
(Some Data
Fountas and
Pinnell Fluency

Beginning of Year
0 2 Students
1 2 Students
2 12 Students
3 6 Students
Middle of Year
0 0 Students
1 3 Students
2 4 Students
3 16 Students
End of Year
0 0 Students
1 1 Student
2 4 Students
3 1 Student

comprehension of the text. Scoring a 1

means they show very limited
understanding of the text. They may be
able to answer a few questions but cannot
express any important ideas. Scoring a 2
means that the student has partial
understanding. They can include important
ideas and understanding but still struggle to
add other key understandings. Last, scoring
a 3 would mean that the student shows
excellent understanding of text and can
discuss almost all important ideas.

Fluency is scored from 0-4. A score of 0

would indicate that a student reads word by
word with inappropriate phrasing. They
have no smoothness or expression and pay
no attention to punctuation. A score of 1
indicates that students read in mostly two
word phrases with very little smoothness
and expression. They pay little attention to
punctuation and read at a slow rate. Scoring
a 2 would mean students read in three to
four word phrases with increasing smooth
reading. Reading is guided by meaning and
punctuation and is at a faster rate. Finally
scoring a 3 would mean that students read
in larger chunks. The reading is smooth and
expressive with pauses at appropriate
times. The reading is guided by punctuation
and at an appropriate rate of speed.

(Some Date
Fountas and
Pinnell Words
Per Minute

Beginning of Year
Range from 29147
Middle of Year
Range from 37164
End of Year
Range from 46-90
(Some Data

A students word per minute score is related

to their instructional level. There are four
levels a student could be working at for
words per minute. Level 1 would mean the
student needs more support. They may
need to be reading easier texts or might
need help with fluency. A level 2 indicates
that students are close to meeting
standards but they still may benefit form
more fluency instruction. A level 3 meets
standards and a level 4 exceeds the
standards. The level that a student is at
depends on their instructional reading level
and their score for words per minute. For
example a student reading at level N would
be at level 1 if they scored 64 WPM or less,
level 2 if they scored 65-79 WPM, level 3 if
they scored 80-110 WPM, and level 4 if they
scored 111 WPM or more. This means that
at the end of the year many of the students
in this class were meeting standards for
their reading level but there were also
students who still needed support.

Writing Development

Beginning of
2 10 Students
2.5 9 Students
3 3 Students
Middle of Year
1 1 Student
1.5 2 Students
2 7 Students

At the end of third grade going into the

beginning of fourth grade students should
be at the Transitional, Self-Extending, or
possibly even the Advanced level of writing
development according to Fountas and
Pinnell. At the transitional stage of
development students spell many words
conventionally and make close to accurate
attempts at more complex spellings. They
will be able to work on writings for several
days and produce writing that has
beginnings, endings, and dialogue. Ideas
will be somewhat developed and students
will use a flexible range of strategies to

2.5 4 Students
3 8 Students
3.5 2 Students
End of Year
1.5 2 Students
2 4 Students
2.5 6 Students
3 5 Students
3.5 3 Students

Fountas and
Pinnell Writing
(Checks for

Beginning of
n Text)
1 4 Students
2 16 Students
3 2 Students
Middle of Year

spell words. Students will write in different

genres and use basic punctuation and
capitalization skills.
Self-Extending writers spell most words
accurately with little conscious attention
and can proofread and correct their own
work. They understand many ways to
organize writing including informational
writing and can also develop and extend
topics over many pages. Self-Extending
writers add voice to their writing and can
use what they know from reading to add to
what they write. They can write for many
purposes and have a growing sense of
audience as well as being able to critique
their own work and the work of others.
Advanced writers have a deeper
understanding of conventional spelling and
produce carefully edited work. They write
words quickly and accurately and can use
resources to assist in organization or word
choice. The writers can demonstrate a
broad range of vocabulary in speaking and
writing and notice many aspects of the
writers craft which they can apply to their
own writing. They also write for many
different functions in various persons and
tenses and can recognize and write for
specific audiences. Last these writers can
write about a wide range of topics such as
present time, past time, personal
experience, etc. (Building an Effective
Writing Process over Time handout, ED345,
February 2015).
This writing assessment is related to
comprehension. The scores are obtained by
having students write about a particular
text after they have read it. Scoring a 1
would mean students have a very limited
understanding of the text. A 2 would mean
they have partial understanding and a 3
would mean they show excellent
understanding of the text.
I believe this data is important to be

1 2 Students
2 11 Students
3 9 Students
End of Year
(No Data)

shared along with other Fountas and Pinnell

assessment data because this assessment
is another measure of comprehension.
Having several different assessments to test
things like this can give teachers a clearer
view of what students need more
instruction on.

Word Study Development

Words Their Way

Beginning of
WWP 14
SA 4 Students
End of Year
SA 15

At the end of the third grade year there

were students in this class in 3 of the
different stages of word study development.
From the given data it is unclear what parts
of the stages (early, middle or late)
students were in. This is due to the fact that
the data collected at the end was based on
the Words Their Way sort number that each
student was working on in their stage. The
stages are Letter Name-Alphabetic (LNA),
Within Word Pattern (WWP), and Syllables
and Affixes (SA). In the Letter NameAlphabetic stage students can represent
phonemes in words and letters. They learn
to use consonant blends and digraphs, the
alphabetic principle, and consonant and
vowel sounds. Next in the Within-Word
pattern stage students learn long vowel
sounds, r-controlled vowels, more complex
consonant patterns, and vowel diphthongs.
They often confuse letter patterns at this
stage. In the Syllables and Affixes Spelling
students spell longer words and break
words into syllables. They add inflectional
endings and use homophones.

From looking across this data as a whole I have identified some relative areas
of strength and need for this group of learners. One strength would be that
consistently throughout the year, more than half of these students were at a very
high instructional level in reading. For example at the beginning of the year 13
students were at level 4 (N or above) instructional levels. In the middle and end of

the year there were 17 students at this level. There were consistently far more
students at this level than any of the others. According to the Teachers College
Reading and Writing Project Benchmark Reading Levels students should be at a
level 2 or 3 (text levels O, P) at the end of third grade. Reaching level 4 means
students are exceeding the expected grade level benchmarks for that point in the
year (Teachers College Reading and Writing Project Benchmark Reading Levels
handout, ED345, February 2015). Another strength of this group of learners is their
accuracy when reading. In both the beginning and middle of the year there were a
high number of students scoring 99-100% on the Fountas and Pinnell accuracy
assessment. These scores indicate that many of the students had only 0-3 errors in
their oral reading when they were assessed. At the beginning of the year there were
12 students at 99 or 100% and in the middle of the year there were 13. A third area
of strength for these learners was the Fountas and Pinnell writing assessment. This
assessment involved students writing in response to their understanding of reading
that they did. A score of one indicates very limited understanding, 2 indicates
partial understanding, and 3 indicates excellent understanding. In the beginning of
the year most students were in the middle of the range for this assessment scoring
a 2, however by the end of the year there were 22 students who scored a 2 and 9
who scored a 3.
There were also several areas of need that I noticed when analyzing this data.
The first and biggest area of need is comprehension. In both the beginning and
middle of their third grade year the majority of students scored a 5 or 6 for
comprehension. This means that most of them had partial or limited understanding
on all parts of the reading. They may have been able to mention of few facts and
may or may not have been able to discuss important information and ideas. Also
they were likely not able to mention key understandings. In the beginning of the
year there were 18 students at this level and in the middle there were 17. Another
area of need that I noticed was word per minute while reading. While there were a
few students who had very high numbers for words per minute (147, 164, etc.)
there were many students who scored very low or somewhere in the middle such as
29, 37, 39, 55, etc. A third area of need that I noticed from looking over this data
was word study knowledge. While there was good evidence of good improvement in
this area from beginning to the end of the year, many students seemed to be pretty

low in the Syllables and Affixes stage at the end of the year. I can tell this by looking
at the number of sort that they were on. Most in this stage were around sort 12-14
at the end of the year meaning that while they had improved significantly since the
beginning of the year when most of them were still in the Within Word Pattern
stage, they are still very early in this next stage and would benefit from more
explicit instruction.
As a teacher I believe that there is some connection between the scores in
the different assessments. Like previously stated, the comprehension scores were
generally low for this group of students. I believe that this could be caused by the
way the students performed in other categories of the benchmark assessment such
as accuracy and fluency. Accuracy seemed to be a strength of this group of
students. It is possible that this is caused by the fact that this is what students were
focusing primarily on while reading. If students focused more on reading each word
correctly and paid less attention to the meaning of what they were reading this
could have affected their comprehension. Fluency could have also played a role. I
noticed that many students had lower fluency scores, especially in the beginning of
the year. Because a lower fluency score would mean a students reading is slower
and choppier, this could also affect comprehension. When reading very slowly, one
or two words at a time, it is very hard to understand what the reading is actually
about. This could also go the other way in regard to the students words per minute
score. I noticed that many students have pretty high scores in this and reading too
fast could also change how much meaning students can get from a text. The levels
of language development that these students were at could also play a role. There
were a few students still in the Letter Name-Alphabetic stage and some students
also in the Within Word Pattern stage which could mean they are still developing
their word solving strategies. A student who struggles to solve words may miss
important information in the text and this would make a difference in regards to
their comprehension. The last thing that I noticed that may be related to the
comprehension score is the fact that students were reading different types of texts
at different assessment points. It seems that students were stronger (and got higher
scores) when reading informational texts than when they read narrative text. This
could also make a difference in what they comprehend.

Studying and analyzing this data has given me a clear view of what the
strengths and needs of this group of learners are. It has shown me that there are
some areas where the students are all very strong, as well as some areas where
they all need more instruction. To effectively teach these students in the areas
where they need further instruction there will be some information that I will still
need to know about them. One thing I would like to know is their learning style. I
would like to find out from their previous teachers what instructional styles worked
for these students and what didnt. I would also like to know on an individual basis
which students learned best in which ways. For example if there are a lot of visual
learners in the class I will want to make sure I have many visual aids in the
classroom to help these students. I will do this because as a teacher I know that all
students are different and learn in different ways. If I choose to teach in only one
way or with one style and it doesnt work for some students they could miss out on
important learning. I need to know how the students learn best in order to give
them the most effective instruction that I can. Another thing I still need to know
about these students is what their background is in regards to learning. What do
they already know? What specific learning that they have already done that will
help them with the new literacy learning that we will be doing in fourth grade? Since
I know that students learn very well when they can connect old knowledge with new
learning I would like to know what they already know so that I can help them make
these connections. Along with this I would like to know what each students Zone of
Proximal Development is. This is the zone between what students have already
learned, and what their potential for learning is. In order to provide effective
instruction it is important to know this because I do not want to be teaching things
that students have already mastered or things that are not within reach of the
students yet. I need to find the area right in the middle if I want my students to do
their best possible learning. A third thing I would like to know about these students
is exactly where they are in their literacy learning at the beginning of fourth grade. I
have seen their assessment data from third grade however in many of the
assessments there was no data for the end of the year. I need to see what students
learned between the middle of the year assessment and now in order to effectively
teach them what they need. Also, students may or may not have been working on
reading and writing over the summer. There is a possibility that students improved
on or possibly lost some of the learning from third grade over the summer and as a

teacher I need to know this. Along with this I would like to know what each students
Zone of Proximal Development is. This is the zone between what students have
already learned, and what their potential for learning is. In order to provide effective
instruction it is important to know this because as a teacher I want to make sure I
am teaching students exactly what they need. Not something that is too easy or too
hard. The last things I would like to know about these students are their attitudes
and interests about reading and writing. I know that students learn much better
when they are interested and engaged in what they are learning. Therefore if I knew
what students liked to read or write about, I as a teacher could find materials and
lessons that cater to these interests. Doing this will help me engage my students
and promote deeper learning.

As a teacher the beginning of the year is when I need to find out the answers
to the questions I still have about my students. According to Fountas and Pinnell
effective teaching begins with what we know about our learners (Chapter 28) and
I need to quickly find out all this information about them so I can get started on
effective instruction as soon as possible. To answer these questions I will use a few
specific assessments that will give me updated and accurate information about the
needs of these students in regards to literacy learning. In the beginning of the year
when I am just trying to figure out what students know and what level of
development they are at in literacy learning I will likely use more performance
assessments. In performance assessments students perform a task and results are
then compared to specifically designed standards for that task. They compare
student performance with accepted levels to determine levels of development and
whether or not students are performing where they should at this stage. The rubrics
used to score these assessments are either holistic, meaning they measure
performance along a continuum from low to high, or trait based, meaning they
compare performance along a continuum of specific traits. One thing I would do in
the beginning of the year to assess students is have them create a writing sample
that I can analyze. I can give students a prompt and have them write using all
strategies and skills that they know. After the writing I will be able to use a rubric to

determine scores, give feedback, and decide what each student needs to continue
developing in terms of writing. This writing sample can also help me assess word
knowledge. I can look at which words students use, how they use them, and how
they spell them to get a good idea of what stage of development they are in for
word knowledge. Along with this I can also assess word knowledge by giving
students a spelling inventory. Since students are in fourth grade I would give them
the Words Their Way elementary spelling inventory. In this assessment the teacher
simply reads a word and students must spell it on their papers. The teacher then
analyzes the inventory based on which parts of each word a student got correct
such as initial and final consonants, digraphs, blends, vowels, inflicted endings,
syllable junctions, bases and roots, and so on. Based on how many of each of these
parts a student gets correct teachers can determine what stage of word knowledge
a student is in (Bear). Last I would like to give students an interest inventory. This
will help me as a teacher understand what students are interested in in regards to
reading. I know that students are more likely to perform at higher levels if they are
interested in their learning so this will help me plan instruction throughout the year.
After I have gathered the initial assessment data from these students and
decided what I need to teach them, I will also need to plan assessments that will be
ongoing throughout the year to monitor students growth as literacy learners and
see if they are meeting the goals I have set for them. These assessments will take
place often, in some cases every day, and will help me see learning and growth in
my literacy learners. There are many things I can do as a teacher in the classroom
to assess students on a day to day basis. One thing is observation. While students
are doing anything from working independently to discussing with partners I will
need to watch them. I will be looking to see that they are able to do certain things
such as engage in discussion with a partner for example or using certain strategies
in their work. To record my observations I could take notes on a chart or checklist
that I will keep and add to throughout the school year. I will also assess by
conferencing with students. While students work independently or with partners I
need to talk with and conference one on one with them. I will do this by choosing a
few students each day to sit with and discuss their learning and their work. During
these conferences I will assess more in depth by asking the students questions and
listening to how they respond. I can also listen to them read and look at their writing

to see if they are able to put the strategies being learned to use. This will give me a
more detailed look at each students strengths and weaknesses as the year
progresses and I will be able to track student learning and growth. Another informal
assessment technique I could use would be questioning. Asking students questions
is a good way to assess what they know. This can happen at any time during any
day. When asking questions I will be sure to ask things in ways that make students
think about their learning. For example when students answer a question I should
ask them how do you know? This extends the students thinking and helps them
begin to think about their own thinking (metacognition). This would help me as a
teacher see how deep a childs understanding of a literacy concept is. This could be
done with any literacy strategy. While talking to students and asking these
questions I can also be taking notes to look back at when I am deciding what future
teaching needs to be done. These informal assessment strategies can be used
across the literacy framework. They can help me as a teacher assess students
knowledge and growth in reading, writing and word study.
There are also informal assessments that that will not happen every day but
will occur at several points throughout the year. One thing I could do every so often
during the year to informally assess student growth and development would be
looking at writing samples. A writing sample can show me many things about a
students writing development as well as their word knowledge such as their
phonemic awareness, spelling development, understanding of conventions and
knowledge of strategies. As a teacher I can get work samples at any point in the
year and analyze or score them using methods such as checklists or rubrics. I could
use this information to guide me as a teacher so that I know what students
understand and what they still need. Along with this I could also assess the reading
notebooks that students will be writing in throughout the year as they read. I could
use these to look at spelling development, word knowledge, or use of reading
strategies. A more specific assessment that I will use is the running record to
assess many aspects of reading. A running record is a tool that can be used to
record and analyze a students reading development. Running Records are done by
sitting with one child at a time and listening to them read a short passage. While
students read teachers record in a copy of the text which words the student reads
correctly by placing a check by them, and mark errors with several types of

notations. Errors could come from the student substituting a word, reading a word
incorrectly, skipping words, or adding words (Fountas and Pinnell). The reason
running records are such a good assessment for the beginning of the year is that it
can measure a number of different things. From running record teachers can
calculate a students accuracy and fluency when reading. Also, running records can
often be followed by a benchmark assessment where, through conversation with a
teacher students have to demonstrate their key understandings about the text both
within the text and beyond the text. From this teachers can score the students
comprehension on a scale of 0-10. I would like to assess both narrative and
expository reading at the beginning of the year because from the data I can see
that students perform differently between them. This will give me a better idea of
what students really need to learn. Similar to the running record, I could also an
informal reading inventory to regularly assess reading. In this assessment students
read a passage from text while a teacher sits behind the student and records errors
on a copy of the text. This inventory can be used to measure accuracy, reading rate
and fluency (Fountas and Pinnell). Along with this I will use is miscue analysis. In this
assessment I as the teacher will record students reading and retelling part of a text.
I can later listen to the tape and record miscues while coding whether the miscues
are semantic, syntactic, or graphical errors. This assessment will help me determine
what kind of information students use to read the text (Fountas and Pinnell). I would
not need to use both this and the running record but would be prepared to do one
or the other based on what I think would be most beneficial to me students based
on their needs. I will also need to regularly assess writing. One way I can do this is
by using work that students have already produced in class. I can look at samples
from writers notebooks and see how students are collecting and using ideas taught
in class, as well as how they use language, literacy techniques and creative ideas in
their writing. Writers notebooks can also give me a general idea of how much
writing students are producing. I can also use writing projects for assessment. In
these projects students create several drafts of a piece of writing and finally end up
with a final draft after editing and revising. I can assess many things using the final
piece of writing, as well as the drafts that were created. In doing this revising and
self-editing techniques can also be assessed. Last, I can use writing checklists for
assessment. I can create checklists to guide discussion during writing conferences
and quickly mark what students did or didnt do in a piece of writing. I can also

regularly assess the amount of writing that a student produces. In student writing
folders a list can be placed and used to record writing projects throughout the year. I
can look at this form and see the amount and types of writing that students are
doing. Another form in the writing folder can be used to assess students attitudes
and interests about writing. On this form students record what they have learned
from doing a piece of writing which provides insights to how students feel about
writing and what they like/dislike about writing. Next I will need to assess language
and word knowledge regularly throughout the year. One way I can do this is by
using a developmental spelling analysis. Another way to assess spelling is by using
a developmental spelling analysis. This makes it possible to find out more in depth
what students know about words. The DSA helps teachers see areas of strength and
weakness and begin to determine levels of development. It involves 3 spelling
inventories. The first is a screening inventory that helps determine a childs likely
stage of spelling development. When giving these inventories a teacher reads words
in groups of five that increase in difficulty as they progress, and students write the
words. After screening students can be given two feature inventories to gather more
information about what specific knowledge students have about words. According to
Fountas and Pinnell the DSA allows teachers to discover what spelling features
students are aware of and can use and this information can then be used to plan
lessons and instruction.