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BeyondtheGatesofHell:

LiberationNaziConcentrationCamps

LisaLy
SeniorIndividualWebsite
NationalHistoryDay

Bibliography

PrimarySources
AliceLevCollection.(n.d).
Schoolatzeilsheim.
https://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/gallery2/89575.HTM
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedduringthetimeinZeilsheimdisplacedpersons
camp.From19451952,displacedpersonscampinEuropewereestablishedfor
survivorswithnohometoreturnto.Inthisphotograph,ateacherisseenteachingher
studentsatanelementaryschoolinZeilsheim.
Alllenall.(1945).
Onthisday,apr29,1945dachauliberated.
http://alllenall.com/onthisdayapr291945dachauliberated/
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayDachauconcentrationcampliberated
bytheU.S.SeventhArmys45thInfantryDivisiononApril29,1945.Dachauwasoneof
thefirstofmanyconcentrationcampsthattheU.Sliberated.Inthisphotograph,survivors
areseencelebratingtheendoftheirimprisonmentandhanginguptheAmericanflag.
BenGurionD.,FishmanY.L.,ZislingA.,ShertokM.(1948).
Israelideclarationof
independence
.http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Dec_of_Indep.html
Thetitleis
IsraeliDeclarationofIndependence,
itisadeclarationwrittenbyDavid
BenGurion,YehudaLeibFishman,AharonZisling,andMosheShertokandwas
translatedthusmakingitaprimarysource.TheDeclarationtalksabouttheexiledofthe
JewsfromtheirhomelandandthehorrortheJewishpeoplewentthroughduringthewar.

ItmentionedthatthecallfortheestablishmentofaJewishStatewasbroughtupbythe
UnitedNationsGeneralAssemblyonNovember29,1947.ToconcludetheDeclaration,
thewritersproclaimedtheEstablishmentofIsraelonMay15,1948.Thiswebsite
providesthetranslationoftheoriginalIsraeliDeclarationofIndependence.
BenGurionD.,FishmanY.L.,ZislingA.,ShertokM.(1948).
Israelideclarationof
independence
.http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Dec_of_Indep.html
Thetitleis
IsraeliDeclarationofIndependence,
itisadeclarationbyDavidBenGurion,
YehudaLeibFishman,AharonZisling,andMosheShertok.Thisisapictureofthe
originalIsraeliDeclarationofIndependence.ItiswritteninHebrewandwasaddressed
byDavidBenGurionattheTelAvivMuseumonMay14,1948.Itwasalsothedaythat
theBritishmandateoverPalestineexpired.Fourhoursaftertheformaldeclaration,Egypt
bombedTelAviv.
Burr,W.(1973).
Thedaythatdachauwasliberated.
http://www.globalresearch.ca/statedepartmentintelligenceandresearchpredicted1973
arabisraeliwar/5325635
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedduringtheArabIsraeliWarin1973.When
PalestinewaspartitionedintoanArabandJewishstate,theconflictsincreasedeven
more.ThewarendedupwithIsraelwinningthewar..Inthisphotograph,soldiersare
seensettingupaflag.
ClaimsConference.(2013).
Personalstatementsfromvictims.
http://www.claimscon.org/about/history/closedprograms/medicalexperiments/personals

tatementsfromvictims/
ThesequotesarefromHolocaustsurvivorswhounderwentmedicalexperimentsfromthe
Nazismakingitaprimarysource.ThesurvivorswereeitherfromAuschwitz,Melk,or
otherplaceswheretheNazisconductedmedicalexperiments.Withoutthepermissions,
theGermanphysiciansexperimentedonthemwithoutthinkingouttheirpainnortheir
survival.Thesedescriptionofwhattheywentthroughonlydrawndisgusttowardsthe
Nazis.
Dailymail.(1945).Notjust'followingorders':naziprisoncampbosses'tookprideinwhatthey
weredoing'newstudyclaims.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article2236916/NotjustfollowingordersNazi
prisoncampbossestookpridedoingnewstudyclaimed.html
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayDachauconcentrationcampliberated
bytheU.S.SeventhArmys45thInfantryDivisiononApril29,1945.Dachauwasoneof
thefirstofmanyconcentrationcampsthattheU.Sliberated.Inthisphotograph,survivors
areseencelebratingtheendoftheirimprisonment.
DisplacedPersons.(n.d.).
Hamburgfishbeckdpcampingermany,page2.
http://www.dpcamps.org/hamburg2.html
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedinfrontHamburgFishbeckDPCampinGermany.
HamburgFischbeckwasoneofthemanyDPcampsinGermanysetupbytheAllied
nations.SomeoftheDPcampswereinfactformerconcentrationcampsandGerman

armybases.Inthisphotograph,theDPsareseenlinedupinfrontofthewelcomingsign
infrontofHamburgFischbeckDPcamp.
FloridaCenterforInstructionalTechnology.(1945).
Liberation.
https://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/resource/gallery/L1945B.htm
Thesephotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThesephotographwerecapturedrightaftertheliberationofBergenBelsen.
WhentheBritishliberatedBergenBelsen,theyfoundpeopledyingfromstarvationand
disease.ThesephotographsprovidedmoreinsightsofliberationatBergenBelsen.
Furtherglory.(1945).
Thedaythatdachauwasliberated.
https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2012/04/
Thisphotographwastakenbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayDachauconcentrationcampliberated
bytheU.S.SeventhArmys45thInfantryDivisiononApril29,1945.Dachauwasoneof
thefirstofmanyconcentrationcampsthattheU.Sliberated.Inthisphotograph,survivors
areseencelebratingtheendoftheirimprisonment.
HerderJr,H.J.(2015).
Liberatorstestimonies
.http://remember.org/liberators.html
ThisquoteisfromHarryJ.HerderJr.,aUSliberator,in2015makingitaprimarysource.
WewerefullyexpectingafirefightwithGermantroops,whosecampwehadjust
stormedandtaken..ItturnedouttherewerenoGermantroopspresent.

WhentheUS
liberatedBuchenwald,HerderJr.wasoneoftheliberatorsthatliberatedtheprisoners.
Originally,Herderandhistroopsthoughttheywouldbeunderattackbuttheyended
witnessingsomethingthatwasbeyondtheirimagination.

Historyplace.(1945).
Mauthausenliberatedmay5,1945.
http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/holocaust/hmautlib.htm
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayMauthausenconcentrationcamp
liberatedbytheU.S.onMay5,1945.Mauthausenwasoneofthemanyconcentration
campsthattheU.Sliberated.Inthisphotograph,thesurvivorsandAmericanliberators
areseengatheringonthestreetafterliberation.
Jaeger,H.(1937).
Thedaythatdachauwasliberated.
http://time.com/3490218/abrutalpageantrythethirdreichsmythmakingmachineryin
color/
ThisphotographwascapturedbyHugoJaegeranditservesasaprimarysource.This
photographwascapturedin1937oftheNazirallyinGermany.BeforeWWII,Adolf
HitlerwasappointedChancellorofGermanyandhesoonbecameofonethemost
powerfulpersonintheworld.HispartywascalledthatNazipartythatbecamethemain
partyinGermanyafterWWI.Inthisphotograph,Germanisseentohavegottenoutofits
politicalandeconomichardshipsasHitlerdictatedoverGermany.
JeffriesS.,MoxonK.H.(2010).
Memoriesoftheholocaust:kittyhartmoxon
.
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jan/27/holocaustmemorialdaykittyhartmoxo
n
Thetitleis
MemoriesoftheHolocaust:KittyHartMoxon,
itiswrittenbyStuartJeffries
andpublishedasanonlinearticlethatincludedaninterviewwithoneoftheHolocaust
survivorwhichmakesitaprimarysource.HartMoxonrecallstheterrorthathappened

duringtheHolocaustatAuschwitzandBergenBelsen.Althoughherexperiencemight
notbesimilartoothers,shetoowasaHolocaustsurvivorthatgaveavoicetothosewho
couldnt.Fromthegaschamberstothediseasesthatplaguedthecampswereall
mentionedinherinterview.Thisarticleprovidesevenmoreinsightsonwhatitwaslike
forprisonerswhotraveledincrampedboxtrainandlivedinunsanitarybarrack.
JewishVirtualLibrary.(1945).
Thenurembergtrials.
https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/nurtrialtoc.html
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydaytheNurembergTrialstookplacein
1945.Afterthewar,22criminalswerecapturedandbroughttointernationalcourt.12
wereexecutedfortheirinvolvementinthemurderoftheprisoners.Inthisphotograph,
thedefendantsareseensittingtogether.Thisphotowasusedinthetimeline.
KeystoneImages.(1945).
Bergenbelsencampliberatedbybritishforcesin1945,inpictures.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/worldwartwo/11611314/TheliberationofBergenB
elsenNazideathcampbyBritishforcesin1945inpictures.html
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedafterBergenBelsenconcentrationcampwas
liberatedbytheBritishin1945.BergenBelsenwasoneofthemanyconcentrationcamps
thattheBritishliberated.Inthisphotograph,survivorsareseenliningupbehindfences.
Lewis,M.(1945).
Liberationofbergenbelsen,germany,april1945.
http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205131578

ThisphotographwascapturedbyMikeLewisanditservesasaprimarysource.This
photographwascapturedtheverydayBergenBelsenconcentrationcampliberatedby
theBritishin1945.BergenBelsenwasoneofthemanyconcentrationcampsthatthe
Britishliberated.Inthisphotograph,asurvivorisseenkissingthehandofaBritish
soldier.
Martynushkin,I.(2015).
Whatasovietsoldiersawwhenhisunitliberatedauschwitz70years
ago
.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/01/27/whatasovietsoldier
sawwhenhisunitliberatedauschwitz70yearsago/
ThisquoteisfromIvanMartynushkin,aWWIIveteran,in2015makingitaprimary
source.Iremembertheirfaces,especiallytheireyeswhichbetrayedtheirordeal.
Martynushkinwasapartofthe322ndRifleDivisionatliberatedAuschwitz.Herecalled
70yearsagoasheenteredthecampbeingafraidoftheNazibutendeduprescuing
inmatesinstead.HisquotewasusedasareferenceundertheUSSRencountermentof
concentrationcamps.
Miepvonsydow.(1944).
Sovietredarmyofficersstandingbesideapileofhumanashesinthe

majdanekconcentrationcamp,1944.
https://miepvonsydow.wordpress.com/tag/concentrationcamps/
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedaftertheUSSRliberatedMajdanek.Majdanekwas
thefirstconcentrationcampliberatedbytheUSSRandthefirstmajorcamptobefound

bytheAllies.Inthisphotograph,theUSSRofficersareseenstandingnexttoapileof
ashesofthosewhoweremurderedbytheNazis.
NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration.(1945).
Liberationofnazicamps.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005131
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayOhrdrufconcentrationcampliberated
bytheUS.onApril12,1945.OhrdrufwasoneofthemanycampsliberatedbytheUS.
GeneralDwightD.EisenhowerandGeneralTroyMiddletonispicturedtouringthe
newlyliberatedcamp.
Robertson,S.(20052014).
Interiorofauschwitzgaschamber.
http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/Tour/Auschwitz1/Auschwitz08C.
html
ThesephotographswascapturedbySimonRobertsonanditservesasaprimarysource.
ThisphotographwascapturedRobertsonstouratAuschwitz.Thousandsofpeople
perishedatAuschwitzduetothegaschambers.OnJanuary27,1945,TheSovietArmy
liberatedAuschwitz.Inthesephotographs,onecanseetheinteriorofthegaschamberat
Auschwitzandthefingernailsscratchonthewall.
Rosenzweig,J.(2015).
Bergenbelsensurvivorrecallsmomentofliberation
.
http://www.thejc.com/news/uknews/134096/bergenbelsensurvivorrecallsmomentlibe
ration
ThisquoteisfromJudyRosenzweig,aHolocaustsurvivor,in2015makingitaprimary
source.Loudspeakersstartedspeaking..Youareliberated.WearetheEnglish

army..Stayalive.Trytohanginthere.Weareheretohelp.WhentheBritishliberated
BergenBelsen,Rosenzweigwasoneofthesurvivorsthatwererescued.Shemadeupthe
populationthatmadeitoutthecampalive.Herquotewasusedasareferenceunder
GreatBritainencountermentofconcentrationcamps.
Scrapbookpages.(1945).
Liberationofbuchenwaldconcentrationcamp.
http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Buchenwald/Liberation0.html
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedtheverydayBuchenwaldconcentrationcamp
liberatedbytheU.S.onApril,1945.Buchenwaldwasoneofthemanyconcentration
campsthattheU.Sliberated.Inthisphotograph,thesoldiersareseenattheBuchenwald
gatehouse.
Sting,B.(2010).
Theyellowstarofdavid.

http://llphfreedom.blogspot.com/2010/07/speedymediayellowstarofdavid.html
ThisphotowascapturedbyBeeStinganditservesasaprimarysource.Duringthethird
Reich,JewswereforcedtoweartheStarofDavidontheirclothingsothattheybeableto
identifyeasily.TheStarofDavidbecameasymbolofhatredanddisgustamongthe
NazisastheyblametheJewsforlosingthewarinWWI.Inthisphoto,therearedifferent
StarofDavidforadifferentregioninWWII.
TheHolocaustChronicle.(n.d.).
Liberationofmajorconcentrationcamps,19441945.
http://www.holocaustchronicle.org/StaticPages/545.html
Thismapwascreatedbyanunknownartistanditservesasaprimarysource.Thismap
showsthelocationconcentrationcampsandwhichAlliednationliberatedwhich.The

USSRwasthefirsttodiscoveredtheexistenceoftheconcentrationcamps.Thismap
showstheliberationofmajorconcentrationcampsfrom19441945.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(n.d.).
Majorcampsforjewishdisplaced
persons,19451946.
http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10007736&MediaId=377
ThismapwascreatedbytheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseumanditservesas
aprimarysource.From19451952,displacedpersonscampinEuropewereestablished
forsurvivorswithnohometoreturnto.PostSemitismcausedthesurvivorstofeartheir
returnthustheyturnedtotheUnitedNationstohelp.Inthismap,majordisplacedcamps
canbeseenthroughoutEurope.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(19401945).
Nazimedicalexperiments.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/gallery.php?ModuleId=10005168&MediaType=PH
ThisphotogallerywascreatedbytheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseumandit
servesasaprimarysource.Thesephotographswereusedtohelpexplainthemedical
experimentsthattestedontheinmates.Withoutthepermissions,theGermanphysicians
experimentedonthemwithoutthinkingouttheirpainnortheirsurvival.These
photographsonlyproventheNaziscruelty.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(19401961).
EichmannTrial.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/gallery.php?ModuleId=10005179&MediaType=PH
ThisphotogallerywascreatedbytheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseumandit
servesasaprimarysource.Thesephotographswereusedtohelpexplaintheimportance

oftheNurembergafterthewar.AdolfEichmannwasaNaziGeneralwhoimplantedthe
ideaoftheFinalSolution.HewascapturedandsentbacktoIsraelin1961.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(1945).
Liberationofnazicamps.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005131&MediaId=730
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedaftertheliberationofAuschwitzbytheUSSR.
Auschwitzis,perhaps,knownasoneofthemostnotoriousconcentrationcampsbuiltby
theNazis.Approximately1.1millionpeoplewerekilledfrom1940to1945.Inthis
photograph,aphysicianisexamininganemancipatedAuschwitzcampsurvivor.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2007).
Liberationofnazicamps:jamesrose(u.s.
42nddivision).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YL_SWflHM6s
Thetitleofthisvideois
LiberationofNaziCamps:JamesRose(U.S.42ndDivision)
and
waspublishedin2007asaninterviewofJamesRosewhoservedinthe42ndDivision.In
thisinterview,JamesRose,recalledthemomentwhenheenteredthecampsandthe
barracksinDachau.The13secondsthatwastakenfromthevideoincludedpartswhere
Roseexplainedtheconditionsofthesurvivorsandthecampitself.Rosesinterview
helpedprovidedmoreevidenceonthepointofviewoftheAlliesastheyenteredthe
camp.
VeteransToday.(1948).
Itisgoodforthejews.
http://www.veteranstoday.com/2014/06/07/uriavneryisitgoodforthejews/
Thisphotographitwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.ThisphotographwascapturedduringDavidBenGurion'sspeechonMay14,

1948.HetalkedabouttheexiledoftheJewsfromtheirhomelandandthehorrorthe
Jewishpeoplewentthroughduringthewar.BenGurionmentionedthatthecallforthe
establishmentofaJewishStatewasbroughtupbytheUnitedNationsGeneralAssembly
onNovember29,1947.
Weir,A.(2012).
Historyoftheisraelipalestinianconflict.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9Q_8ZrYku4
ThismapshowingthelandmassofIsraelovertimewascreatedbyAlisonWeirandit
servesasaprimarysource.WhenIsraelwasfirstestablished,itwasaverysmallstate
thateventuallywonalotoflandoverthecourseoftime.TheestablishmentofIsraelwas
firstdeclaredin1948inPalestine.IthappenedwhentheBritishmandateoverPalestine
ended.ThismapsprovidehowmuchIsraelhaschangedovertime.
Wikipedia.(1946).
Displacedpersonscamp.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Displaced_persons_camp
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.Thisphotographwascapturedin1946.Afterliberation,manysurvivorswereleft
withoutahomeandseektemporaryshelterindisplacedpersoncamps.Inthis
photograph,survivorsareseenliningupinfrontoftheDPcamp.Thisphotographwas
usedintheExchangetimeline.
Wordpress.(1945).
Liberationofauschwitz:theheroicdeedsofrussiasredarmy.
https://libya360.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/liberationofauschwitztheheroicdeedsofr
ussiasredarmy/

Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.

ThisphotographwascapturedwhentheUSSRliberatedAuschwitz.Auschwitz
wasoneoftheworstconcentrationcamps.In1945,Auschwitzbecameofonethefirst
majorcampsthatwereliberatedbytheAlliesforce.Inthisphotograph,thesurvivorsare
seeninteractingwiththeUSSRsoldiers.
WorldWarsChannel.(2014).
Nurembergtrialshistorychanneldocumentary.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1GIWa4ncMY
Thetitleofthisvideois
NurembergTrialsHistoryChannelDocumentary
andwas
publishedin2015withrealfootageoftheNurembergTrialswithcommentaryoverit.In
thisdocumentary,therewasinterviewwithlawyersastheyfollowedthetrials.The41
secondsthatwastakenfromthevideoincludedfootagefromtheNurembergTrials.
YIVOInstituteforJewishResearch.(1945).
Displacedpersons.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005462&MediaId=2222
Thisphotographwascapturedbyanunknownphotographeranditservesasaprimary
source.Thisphotographwascapturedafterthewarinadisplacedpersonscamp.
SurvivorswhowerelivingintheDPcamps,ralliedforopenimmigrationtoPalestine.In
thisphotograph,protestorsareseenputtingupsigndemandingforimmigration.
Youtube.(2012).
Holocausttheliberationofauschwitz.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcOqDyuzk9U
Thetitleofthisvideois
HolocausttheLiberationofAuschwitz
andwaspublishedin
2012asaninterviewanddocumentaryoftheUSSRliberationofAuschwitz.Inthis
documentary,therewasinterviewofaformerSovietsoldierwhorecalledwhathesawat

Auschwitz.The39secondsthatwastakenfromthevideoincludedfootagefilmedbythe
USSRofAuschwitzbetweenJanuarytoFebruaryof1945.Thisdocumentarythat
includedlivefootageofAuschwitzandaninterviewhelpedprovidedmoreevidenceon
thepointofviewoftheAlliesastheyenteredthecamp.

SecondarySources
DiscoveryHistoryChannel.(2015).
Auschwitztheforgottenevidence.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BrUvmOoCa3A
Thetitleofthisvideois
AuschwitzTheForgottenEvidence
andwaspublishedin2015as
aninterviewanddocumentaryofAuschwitz.Inthisdocumentary,therewereinterviews
fromexpertsandpeoplewhostudytheHolocaust.The1minuteand9secondsthatwas
takenfromthevideoincludedfootagefilmedbytheUSSRofAuschwitzbetween
JanuarytoFebruaryof1945.ThisdocumentarythatincludedlivefootageofAuschwitz
andaninterviewhelpedprovidedmoreevidenceonthepointofviewoftheAlliesas
theyenteredthecamp.
FaiolaA.,EglashR.,BoorsteinM.(2015).
ThevoicesofAuschwitz
.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/world/2015/01/23/withfewervoicesauschwitzsurvi
vorsspeak/
Thetitleis
TheVoicesofAuschwitz,
itiswrittenbyAnthonyFaiola,RuthEglash,and
MichelleBoorsteinandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.At
thehandsoftheThirdReich,morethanonemillionpeopleperished.Themajorityofthe
victimswereJewsandtherestwereEthnicRoma,Gays,JehovahsWitnesses,andPolish
prisonersofwar.

OnJanuary27,1945,TheSovietArmyliberatedAuschwitz.This

articleincludesinterviewfromsurvivorswhocametoAuschwitztocelebratethe70th
anniversaryofliberation.
FloridaCenterforInstructionalTechnology.(2005).
Holocausttimeline:aftermath
.

https://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/after.htm
Thetitleis
HolocaustTimeline:Aftermath,
itiswrittenbyFloridaCenterfor
InstructionalTechnologyandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.
Thistimelinecoversalltheeventsthathappenedfrom1945to2001thathastodowith
theHolocaustandtheestablishmentoftheStateofIsrael.Twolargeongoingproblems
thatemergedafterWWIIwastheretributionforperpetratorsandtheresettlementofthe
survivors.WarcriminalsincludingHitlersdeputyministertoconcentrationcampswere
broughttointernationalandnationalcourtsinGermany,Austria,France,Italy,theSoviet
Union,andtheotherEuropeancountries.Thisarticleprovidesatimelineofeventsthat
happenedaftertheliberationofconcentrationcamps.

Gutmann.E.(2015).
Thedeclarationoftheestablishmentof
thestateofisrael
.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Dec_of_Indep.html
Thetitleis
TheDeclarationoftheEstablishmentoftheStateofIsrael,
itiswrittenbyE.
Gutmannandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Afterthe
BritishMandateofPalestineexpiredin1948,theJewishPeoplesCouncildecidedto
declaretheestablishmentofIsrael.OnMay14,1948,DavidBenGurionformally
declaredtheStateofIsraelandbecamethefirstPrimeMinisterofIsrael.

Thisarticle

providesthealltheeventsthathappenedthatleaduptotheEstablishmentoftheStateof
IsraelandthemigrationofHolocaustsurvivorstoIsrael.
Hart,S.A.(2011).
Liberationofconcentrationcamps
.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/liberation_camps_01.shtml
Thetitleis
LiberationofConcentrationCamps,
itiswrittenbyStephenHartand
publishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Duringthelastmonthsofthe
war,theGermansslowlyevacuatedconcentrationcampsandforcingprisonerstogoon
deathmarchesastheAlliedadvancedtowardsthesecamps.TheAmericansfirst
discoveredthesecampsonApril4,1945whentheyliberatedaslavelaborcampat
Ohrdruf.AtBergenBelsen,theBritishliberatedapproximately9,000inmatesmany
sufferingfromtyphusandstarvation.Diseasesliketyphus,dysentery,andtuberculosis
werefoundamonginmatesalloverNaziconcentrationcamps
.
Thisarticleprovidesan
insightonthepublicperceptionandtherealityafterthewar.ItalsoprovidedtheAllied
encounterwiththeinmatesatconcentrationcamps.
HolocaustTeacherResourceCenter.(2015).
Oh,no,itcantbe
.
http://www.holocausttrc.org/theholocausteducationprogramresourceguide/ohnoitc
antbe/
Thetitleis
Oh,No,ItCantBe,
itiswrittenbyHolocaustTeacherResourceCenter
andpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Thetruecrueltyand
brutalityoftheNaziwereonlyrevealedwhentheAlliesinvadedGermanyattheendof
thewar.ThesurvivorsofthecampsonlyfurtherrevealthetruefaceoftheNazis.
Soldiersbrokedownandweptatthehorrorstheyhadwitnessedanditwasonlythe

beginning.TheAlliesofferedsurvivorsallthesupportandfoodthattheycouldprovide.
ThisarticleprovidedhowtheAlliesfeltwhentheyenteredthecamps.
JewishGen.(2015).
Frequentlyaskedquestions.
http://www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/General/FaqEng.html
Thetitleis
FrequentlyAskedQuestions,
itiswrittenbyJewishgen.organdpublishedas
anonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Thefirstpersonwhodecidedtocreate
concentrationcampswasHermanGoeringwhenhewastheMinisterofPrussiawiththe
approvalofHitler.TheAlliesfirstdiscoveredtheexistenceoftheconcentrationcampsin
1942whenagroupofPolishresistantssentthemphotographsofcorpsebeingburnedat
Auschwitz.Thisarticleprovidestheanswerstofrequentlyaskedquestionsandit
answeredmyquestions.
LondonJewishCulturalCentre.(2011).
Whatdidthealliesfind?
.
http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/survivalandlegacy/liberationthesurvivors/w
hatdidthealliesfind/#.VkPRntrSt8
Thetitleis
WhatDidtheAlliesfind?,
itiswrittenbyLondonJewishCulturalCentreand
publishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.AstheAlliesliberatedthe
concentrationcamps,theyfoundthousandsofprisonersonthevergeofdeath.
Widespreadstarvationanddiseaseswereduetotheovercrowdingofthesecampsandthe
inabilityoftheNazistohandletogrowingpopulation.AstheAlliesarrived,theyfound
prisonersdyingandbodieslayunburied.Despitetheireffort,14,000peoplediedinthe
firstweeksofliberation.Thisarticleprovidesmoreinformationaboutthehorriblethings
thattheAllieswereforcedtowitnesswhentheyarrivedattheconcentrationcamps.

Ochayon,C.S.(2015).
Liberationandsurvival
.
http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/education/lesson_plans/liberation_and_survival.asp#4
Thetitleis
LiberationandSurvival,
itiswrittenbyCherylOchayonandpublishedasan
onlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Formostsurvivors,theliberationofthe
concentrationcampscameratherlate.76%ofthesurvivorslosttheirimmediatefamily
andrelativesintheaftermathofthewar.TheJewishpopulationinEasternEuropewere
entirelywipedoutby1945.

Inmanycases,familieswerewipedoutandonlyonewas
save.

Thisarticleprovidedtheinsightoftheaftermathoftheliberation.
TheGaleGroup.(2008).
U.s.policyduringwwii:u.s.army&theholocaust
.
https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/usarmy_holo.html
Thetitleis
U.S.PolicyDuringWWII:U.S.Army&theHolocaust,
itiswrittenbyThe
GaleGroupandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Thefirst
AmericanstodiscoveracampwithprisonersandcorpseswereunitsfromtheAmerican
FourthArmoredDivisionoftheThirdArmyonApril5,1945.Byaccident,The
Americansfoundthecampbyaccident,theyfoundstarved,frailbodiesofhundredsof
prisonerswhohadmanagedtosurviveaswellasunburiedcorpses.Whattheysawwere
reportedbacktoAmericaandthatwaswhenthewholeworldfoundoutabouttheNazis
cruelty.ThisarticleprovidetheencounteroftheAmericanstroopswiththeprisonersof
theconcentrationcamps.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2015).
Displacedpersons
.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005462

Thetitleis
DisplacedPersons,
itiswrittenbytheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorial
Museumandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Morethan
200,000displacedpersonslivedinformerconcentrationsandGermanarmybaseafterthe
warfrom194552.Afterthewar,somehadtowheretogowhileotherswereafraidofthe
AntiSemitisminEasternEurope.Inthesedisplacedcamps,theJewishcommunity
slowlyrebuilttheirfoundation.Thisarticleprovidesinsightstowhathappenedtoformer
inmatesandhowtheystruggledtomoveonafterthewar.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2015).
Liberationofnazicamps
.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005131
Thetitleis
LiberationofNaziCamps,
itiswrittenbytheUnitedStatesHolocaust
MemorialMuseumandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.
AcrossEurope,Alliedtroopsbeganencounteringtensofthousandsofconcentration
campprisoners.TheseprisonersweresurvivorsofdeathmarchesfromcampsinPoland.
TheSoviets,American,andBritishliberatedmanycampsacrossEuropeafterthe
Germanpleadthescenes.Atthesecamps,thereareevidenceofmassmurderasthereare
remainingpersonalbelongingsofthevictims.Thisarticleprovidesinsightstowhatthe
AlliedtroopssawastheyenteredtheconcentrationcampsacrossEurope.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2015).
Postwarrefugeecrisisandthe
establishmentofthestateofisrael
.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005459
Thetitleis
PostwarRefugeeCrisisandtheEstablishmentoftheStateofIsrael,
itis
writtenbyUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseumandpublishedasanonlinearticle

makingitasecondarysource
.
WhentheAlliesliberatedNaziconcentrationcamps,there
weremorethansixmillionpeoplewhowerenowwithoutaplacetoreturnhome.
Postwarantisemitismandthedestructionoftheircommunitieswerethatreasonswhy
mostHolocaustsurvivorsrefusedtoreturntoEasternEurope.AsmoreandmoreJews
beganmigratingtoPalestine,theBritishwithdrewtheirforcesfromPalestineandthe
StateofIsraelwasestablished.Thisarticleprovidesabasictimestructureofeventsthat
happenedafterthewar.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2015).
Theaftermathoftheholocaust
.
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005129
Thetitleis
TheAftermathoftheHolocaust,
itiswrittenbyUnitedStatesHolocaust
MemorialMuseumandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.After
thewar,manysurvivorsfearedreturningtotheirhomeduetheantisemitismandthe
traumathattheywentthrough.ThousandsofhomelessHolocaustsurvivorsmigratedto
thewesternAlliesterritoriesthathadbeenliberated.

In1948,theStateofIsraelwas
establishedandby1953therewere170,000Jewslivingthere.

Thisarticleprovidesan
informationandfactsaboutthemajoreventsthathappenedafterthewarandthe
liberationofthecamps.
UnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum.(2015).
Thenurembergtrials
.

http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007722
Thetitleis
TheNurembergTrials,
itiswrittenbytheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorial
Museumandpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Afterthewar,
oneoftheproblemswasthepunishmentsofthewarcriminal.From194546,22war

criminalswerebroughttotheinternationalcourtinNuremberg,Germanywherethey
weretried.JudgesfromtheAlliednationswerepresent.12outofthe22wereexecuted
fortheirinvolvementinmurderingtheprisoners.

Thisarticleprovidesinsightstowhat
happenedafterthewarasthewarcriminalswerenowbroughttojustice.
YadVashem.(2015).
Thefinalstagesofthewarandtheaftermath
.
http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/about/10/introduction.asp
Thetitleis
TheFinalStagesoftheWarandtheAftermath,
itiswrittenbyYad
Vashem.organdpublishedasanonlinearticlemakingitasecondarysource.Survivors
whoreturnedhomewerefacedwithantisemiticproblems.

Monthsafterliberation,an
estimateof1,500Jewsweremurderedbyantisemiticgroup.

Therefore,manyHolocaust
survivorfledwestwardtowardsGermany,Austria,andItaly.Therewasalsoagreater
numberofmigrationaftertheestablishmentoftheStateofIsrael.Thisarticleprovides
thecauseandeffectoftheestablishmentoftheStateofIsraelandmigrationofJewish
survivorstootherstatesafterthewar.