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IRC:SP:73-2007

MANUAL
OF
STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS

FOR

TWO LANING
OF
STATE HIGHWAYS

ON
B.O.T.

BASIS

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


2007

'

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy2007sp73

IRC:SP:73-2007

MANUAL
OF
STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS

FOR

TWO LANING
OF
STATE HIGHWAYS

ON
BASIS

B.O.T.

Published by

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Kama
Sector

New

6,

Koti Marg,

R.K. Puram,

Delhi

110022
Price Rs. 500.00

2007

(Plus Packing

&

Postage)

IRC:SP:73-2007
First Published

August, 2007

Reprinted

September, 2008

Reprinted

October,

2010

(The Rights of Publication and of Translation are reserved)

(The

official

amendments

in its periodical,

to this

document would be published by

'Indian Highways',

which

shall

the

IRC

be considered as

effective and as part of the code/guidelines/manual, etc.

from the

Date specified therein)

Printed at India Offset Press, A-1, Phase- 1, Ind. Area, Mayapuri,

(500 copies)

New Delhi

11 0064

FOREWORD
There
to ensure

is

an urgent need to improve the existing State Highways,

at least to

2-lane standards,

balanced road network connectivity in the country. Availability of funds, to undertake

this gigantic task,

by the States has remained a serious constraint so

private investment for the

Agreement

Model Concession Agreement prescribes

PWDs

With

view

to attracting

development of State roads, the Planning Commission has recently

brought out a "Model Concession

Standards by State

far.

for compliance

for Public Private Partnership.

for preparation

of a

by the Concessionaire.

It

Schedule-D of the

Manual of

Specifications

was

a Standard

felt that

and

Manual

of Specifications and Standards should be brought out by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) to
ensure uniformity of approach and to facilitate easy implementation by various State Governments.

Accordingly, the Planning Commission, Govt, of India entrusted the

An
the

work

Expert Group comprising the following was constituted by the

to

IRC

IRC.

for preparation of

Manual.

(i)

Shri D.P.

Gupta

(ii)

Shri S.C.

Sharma

(iii)

Shri N.K.

The

first

draft

Sharma

Former Director General (Road Development)

Former Director General (Road Development)


Technical Advisor,

document prepared by

contracts

Preparation,

Management

&

the

IRC

Expert Group was submitted to the Project

Quality Assurance

(G-I)

Committee of

IRC

the

in

September, 2006. The Committee constituted a Sub-Group comprising of S/Shri S.K. Nirmal, K.

Venkata Ramana and Pranavant, General Managers, National Highways Authority of India to

examine the

document

draft

in greater detail.

The Expert Group subsequently modified the

draft

by incorporating the comments of G-1 Committee. The modified draft was approved by G-1

Committee

in its

meeting held on 7th January, 2007. This draft was considered and approved

by the General Specifications and Standards (GSS) Committee with some observations

in its

meeting held on 31st January, 2007. The amended draft was approved by the Executive Committee
of the

IRC on

6th February, 2007 with the direction that the

the Stakeholders.

The

draft

was reviewed by

same should be got reviewed by

the Stakeholders at a

Workshop held

on 12th February, 2007 and a few suggestions were made. Considering the urgency
a Special Council

in the

IRC

in the matter,

Meeting of the IRC was convened on 24th February, 2007 for consideration

of the draft.

The Council discussed


the

comments and

the draft at length

and directed the Secretary General, IRC

get the draft modified by the Expert Group. This modified draft

to

examine

was

further

discussed by a Committee comprising of Shri V.K. Sinha, Secretary General, IRC; Shri G. Sharan,

Additional

Director General,

MOSRTH

(Convenor,

GSS

Committee); Shri Nirmaljit Singh,

IRC:SP:73-2007

Member

NHAI

(Tech.),

NHAI

(Co-Convenor,

GSS

Committee); Shri S.K. Puri, Chief General Manager,

MOSRTH;

(Convenor, G-1 Committee); Shri A.P. Bahadur, Chief Engineer,

Shri R.K. Jain, Shri G.S. Khinda, Shri M.V.B. Rao, Technical Advisors,

IRC and

along with
Shri Sharad

Varshney, Additional Director (Tech.), IRC. After detailed deliberations and number of modifications,
the above draft

IRC

finally

was

expresses

of this

finalisation

acknowledged. The
Secretary General,

Commission

An

finally

thanks to

its

Manual. The

IRC and

efforts

all

who have

made by

taken great pains and contributed in

the

Shri

Gajendra Haldea, Adviser

at the

made
same

to adopt a balanced

to

of

IRC

are

also

Deputy Chairman, Planning

approach to bring

more entrepreneurs.

best judge of the deficiencies,


greatly valued

by IRC

to

keep

if

this

confident that this

in the latest

time, keeping the cost of projects within

document of

this nature

cannot remain

continuous up-gradation of technology over the years. Users of

am

staff

are acknowledged.

and specifications,

and

officers

by Shri D.R Gupta, Shri S.C. Sharma, Shri R.S. Sharma, former

efforts put in

attempt has been

as to attract

approved for publication by IRC.

any, in the document.

this

technology

manageable
static in

Manual

limits so

view of the

are going to be the

Their feedback and suggestions will be

document updated measuring upto the expectations of the

Manual

will

serve

its

Concession Agreement for Public Private Partnership

intended purpose as part of the


in State

users.

Model

Highways.

(V.K. Sinha)
Secretary General,

August, 2007

iv

IRC

Contents
List of the Personnel of

GSS Committee

List of the Personnel of

G-1 Committee

List of

Symbols and Abbreviations

General

Geometric Design and General Features

2.1

General

2.2

Design Speed

2.3

Right-of-Way

2.4

Lane width of Carriageway

2.5

Shoulders

2.6

Roadway Width

2.7

Camber

2.8

Horizontal Alignment

2.9

Sight Distance

2.10

Vertical

2.11

Lateral and Vertical Clearance at Underpasses

2.12

Lateral and Vertical Clearance at Overpasses

2.13

Service Roads

2.14

Grade separated Structures

2.15

Typical Cross Sections

2.16

Capacity of two lane highway

Intersections

or Crossfall

Alignment

and Grade Separators

3.1

Intersections

3.2

At-grade Intersections

3.3

Grade Separated Intersections without ramps

3.4

Interchanges

IRC:SP:73-2007

Road Embankment and Cuttings


4.1

General

27

4.2

Road Embankment

27

4.3

Roadway

31

4.4

Soil

vi

in Cutting

32

Survey Investigations and Design Report

Pavement Design

37

5.1

General

5.2

Method of Design of

5.3

Method of Design of Rigid Pavements

5.4

Design of

5.5

Design Traffic

39

5.6

Subgrade

39

5.7

Pavement Components and Materials

39

5.8

Performance Evaluation

5.9

Widening and Strengthening of Existing Road

Two Lane

27

37

New

Flexible Pavements

37

37

Pavements

37

41

to

with Paved Shoulders

41

43

5.10

Design of Strengthening Treatment (Overlay)

5.11

Construction,

5.12

Premature Distress

44

5.13

Detailed Design Report

45

Workmanship and Quality of Work

44

Roadside Drainage

49

6.1

General

49

6.2

Surface Drainage

49

6.3

Median Drainage

50

6.4

Drainage of High Embankment

50

6.5

Catch Water Drains

50

6.6

Sub-surface Drains

50

6.7

Internal Drainage of

Pavement Structures

52

6.8

Survey, Investigations and Design Report

52

Design of Structures

55

7.1

General

55

7.2

Design Loading and Stresses

55

CONTENTS

55

7.3

Widening/reconstruction of existing structures

7.4

Structure Types

56

7.5

Hydrology

56

7.6

Sub-Surface Investigations

56

7.7

Culverts

56

7.8

Prestressing

57

7.9

Form Work

58

7.10

Foundation and Sub-structures

59

7.11

Approach Slab

60

7.12

Superstructure

60

7.13

Bearings

60

7.14

Expansion Joints

61

7.15

Wearing Coat

61

7.16

Earth Retaining Structures

61

7.17

River Training and Protective Works

7.18

Safety Barriers

7.19

Rail

7.20

Grade Separated Road Structures

63

7.21

Drainage

63

7.22

Structure in Marine Environment

63

7.23

Repairs and Strengthening

63

7.24

Design Report

64

Road Bridges

Materials and Specifications for Structures

62

62
62

69

8.1

General

69

8.2

Structural Concrete

70

8.3

Cement

70

8.4

Coarse Aggregates

70

8.5

Sand/Fine Aggregates

71

8.6

Water

71

8.7

Concrete Admixture

71

8.8

Steel

73

8.9

Storage of Materials

74

8.10

Reports to be submitted

74

vii

IRC:SP:73-2007

10

11

viii

Traffic Control Devices

and Road Safety Works

77
77

9.1

General

9.2

Road Markings

9.3

Road Signs

9.4

Road Side Safety

9.5

Safety during Construction

83

9.6

Design Report

83

77

'

'

77
80

Barriers

93

Toll Plazas

93

10.1

General

10.2

Location of Toll Plaza

10.3

Land

10.4

Layout and Design of Toll Plaza

93

10.5

Tollbooths

94

10.6

Road Works

95

10.7

Traffic Signs

95

10.8

Road Markings

95

10.9

Toll Plaza

93
93

for Toll Plaza

Complex

95

10.10 Check/Barriers Gate

95

10.11 Lighting

95

10.12 Water Supply

96

10.13 Fire Fighting System

96

10.14 Report to be submitted

96

Roadside Furniture

109

11.1

General

109

11.2

Road Boundary Stones (RBS)

109

11.3

Kilometer and

11.4

Roadside railings/Pedestrian Guard

11.5

Overhead

11.6

Traffic Impact Attenuators

111

11.7

Road Delineators

111

200m

109

Stones

Traffic Signs

rails

109
110

CONTENTS

12

13

14

Landscaping and Tree Plantation

115

115

12.1

General

12.2

Design consideration

12.3

Maintenance of Plants

in various locations

115
116

119

Project Facilities
13.1

General

119

13.2

Pedestrian Facilities

119

13.3

Street Lighting

120

13.4

Truck Lay byes

121

13.5

Bus Bays and Bus

13.6

Cattle Crossings

13.7

Traffic

13.8

Medical Aid Posts

Shelters

121

123

Aid Posts

123

123

Special Requirements for Hill

Roads

129

14.1

General

129

14.2

Set back Distance at Horizontal Curves

129

14.3

Grade Compensation

129

14.4

Hairpin Bends

129

14.5

Climbing Lane

130

at

Curves

14.10 Retaining Walls

130

Appendices
Appendix- 1 List of Paras for Preparing Schedules of the
Concession Agreement

Appendix-2

List of

IRC

Publications

133

135

iX

PERSONNEL OF GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS &


STANDARDS COMMITTEE (GSS)
(As on 31t January, 2007)

1.

2.

3.

Sharan, G.

Addl. Director General, Ministry of Shipping,

(Convenor)

Transport

Singh, Nirmal

Jit

Member

&

Highways,

(Tech), National

(Co-convenor)

New

Chief Engineer

Ministry of Shipping,

(R),

S&R

New

New

Road

Delhi

Highways Authority of

India,

Delhi

&

Road Transport

Highways,

Delhi

Members
4.

Balachandaran, K.

Chief Engineer (General), Highways Department, Chepauk,

Chennai

UP PWD, Lucknow

5.

Bansal, K.B.

Chief Engineer (Retd.),

6.

Bahadur, A.R

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

New

Highways,

Delhi

PWD,

7.

Chahal, H.S.

Engineer-in-Chief, Haryana

8.

Chakrabarty, A.

Director General, Central Public

New
9.

Chakraborty, S.S.

Datta,

RK.

Deb, RK.

Works Department,

Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,

New
11.

Panchkula

Delhi

Managing

New
10.

&

Delhi

Delhi

Engineer-in-Chief

&

Ex-officio Secretary to the Govt, of

West Bengal, Kolkata


12.

Dhodapkar, A.N.

New

Highways,

CD.

13.

Fakir,

14.

Gupta,

15.

Jain,

16.

Kandasamy, C.

D.R

Vishwas

Delhi

Chief Engineer (PMGSY), Pune

DG(RD)

&

Managing

Member

New
Gumge

AS,

MOST

(Retd.),

New

Delhi

Director, Consulting Engineers

(Technical), National

Group

Ltd, Jaipur

Highway Authority of

India,

Delhi

Chief Engineer (West Zone), Arunachal Pradsh

17.

Kato,

18.

Marathe,

19.

Mukherjee, A.

Managing

20.

Narain, A.D.

DG(RD)

21.

Negi, S.R

Engineer-in-Chief,

22.

Pradhan, B.C.

Chief Engineer (NH), Bhubaneshwar

D.G

&

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

Secretary (Works), Maharashtra


Director,

& AS

PWD,

Lea Associate (SA)

(Retd.)

PWD,

Itanagar

Maharashtra
Pvt. Ltd.,

New

Delhi

MOST, Noida

H.P PWD, Shimla

XI

LRC:SP:73-2007

23.

Chief General Manager, National Highways Authority of

Puri, S.K.

India,

New

Delhi

PWD

New

24.

Rajoria, K.B.

Engineer-in-Chief, Delhi

25.

Ram, Ghasi

Chief Engineer,

26.

Rathore, S.S.

Principal Secretary to the Govt, of Gujarat,

(Retd.),

HQ DGBR, New

Delhi

Delhi

R&B

Department, Gandhinagar (Gujarat)


27.

Chief Engineer (R&B)

Ravindranath, V.

&

Managing

APRDC,

Director,

Hyderbad
28.

Chief Engineer (Mech.), Ministry of Shipping, Road

Sachdeva, V.K.

&

Transport

Highways,

New

Delhi

New

Delhi

Past Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

Delhi

Sharma,G.R

Cheif Engineer, National Highways, Rajasthan

New
PWD,

Jaipur

32.

Singhal, K.B. Lai

E-in-C (Retd.) Haryana

33.

Sinha, V.K.

Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

34.

Sukumar,

Secreetary to the Govt, of Kamataka, Public

Member

A.K.

29.

Sarin,

30.

Sharma,R.S.

31.

T.

(Engg.), Delhi

Development Authority,

PWD,

Panchkula

New

Delhi

Works

Department, Bangalore
35.

Tamhankar, M.G., Dr.

Director-

Grade

Scientist,

(SERC-G)

Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Navi

&

(Retd.)

Former

Mumbai

36.

Tyagi, RS.

Ghaziabad, U.P

37.

Verma, V.C Maj.

Executive Director-Marketing, Oriental Structural Engrs.


Pvt. Ltd.,

38.

Engineer-in-Chief

39.

Engineer-in-Chief

New

Delhi

E-in-C Branch, Kashmir House, P.O.


;

President,

IRC

Delhi

M.P PWD, Bhopal


Ex-Officio

40.

AHQ, New

(Subhash

Member

Patel), Secretary,

R&B

Deptt., Govt, of Gujarat,

Gandhinagar
41.

42.

Director General

Ministry of Shipping,

(Road Development)

New

Secretary General,

IRC

Road Transport

&

Highways,

Delhi

(V.K. Sinha), Indian

Roads Congress,

New

Delhi

Corresponding Members
43.

Das, Ratnakar

E-in-C-cum-Secy. (Retd.), Bhibaneswar

44.

Lauriya, P.K.

Secretary,

45.

Merani, N.V.

Principal Secretary, Maharashtra

46.

Sulochana, V.K. Mrs.

Chief Engineer (Retd.), Trivandrum (Kerala)

PWD,

Raj. (Retd.), Jaipur

PWD

(Retd.),

Mumbai

IRC:SP:73-2007

PERSONNEL OF THE PROJECT PREPARATION, CONTRACT


MANAGEMENT & QUALITY ASSURANCE COMMITTEE (G-1)
(As on

7^*^

January, 2007)

Puri, S.K.

Chief General Manager, National Highways

(Convenor)

Authority of India,

Datta, P.K.

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(Co-Convenror)

Pvt. Ltd.,

Venkata Ramana, G.

General Manager (PC), National Highways

(Member-Secretary)

Authority of India,

4.

Aggarwal, M.K.

Chief Engineer (Retd.), Bangalore

5.

Bahadur, A.P

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

1.

2.

3.

&

New

Highways,

New

Delhi

Delhi

New

New

Delhi

Delhi

Gammon

6.

Bhatia, A.L.

Vice President, Marketing,

7.

Bhasin, A.K.

Group General Manager, RITES

8.

Chakraborti, A.

Director General (Works), C.PW.D.,

9.

Chakraborti, S.P

Consultant,

10.

Ganguh,

Vice President,

11.

Gupta,

12.

Gupta, M.L.

13.

Indoria,

J.

D.R

R.P

New

Jayakodi, U.

India Ltd.,

Ltd.,

Mumbai

Gurgaon,

New

Delhi

Delhi

L&T

Ltd.,

ECC

Constn. Group, Chennai

DG(RD), MOST,

(Retd,.),

New

Delhi

Chief Consultant,

STUP

Consultants Ltd.,

Mumbai

Chief General Manager (T), National Highways


Authority of India,

14.

(I)

New

Delhi

Director (Tech.), M/s. Seenaiah

&

Co. Projects Ltd.,

Hyderabad

New

15.

Mahalaha, R.S.

Chief General Manager,

16.

Nanda, PK. Dr

Director,

CRRI,

17.

Singh, Nirmaljit

Member

(Tech.), National

New
18.

Pahuja, Jitender Singh

New

Delhi

Delhi

Highways Authority of

India,

Delhi.

Dy. Principal Consultant, Tondon Consultants Pvt. Ltd.,

New

Dehi

Madhucon

New

19.

Patwardhan, S.V,

Managing

20.

Roy, B.C.

Executive Director, Consulting Engg. Pvt. Ltd,.

Director,

Projects,

Delhi

New

Delhi

xiii

IRC:SP:73-2007

New

21.

Sinha, V.K.

Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress,

22.

Sinha, N.K.

DG(RD)

23.

Subramaniam, K.

General Manager (Operation) Hindustan Constn. Co. Ltd.,

&

Spl. Secy.,

MORT&H

New

(Retd.),

Delhi
Delhi

Mumbai

DG(RD)

24.

Velayutham,

25.

Singh, Yogender, Lt. Col

GSO-I

&

Spl. Secy.,

President,

IRC

Delhi

(Pav.) Engineer-in-Chief 's Branch,

Ex-Officio

26.

MSRT&H, New

(Subhash

AHQ, New

Delhi

Members

Patel), Secretary,

R&B

Deptt. Govt, of Gujarat,

Gandhinagar
27.

28.

Velayutham) Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

Director General

(V.

(Road Development)

Highways,

Secretary General,

IRC

New

(V.K. Sinha), Indian Roads Congress,

Corresponding
29.

Bhattacyarya, C.C.

DG

(RD)

&

Consultant,

MORTH

Chakraborty, S.

RITES

31.

Kumar, Vijay

Engineer-in-Chief (Retd.)

32.

Reddi, S.A.

Consultant,

xiv

Delhi

(Retd.), Senior

Consultants (P) Ltd., Kolkata

30.

Ltd.,

New

Member

Spl. Secy.

STP

&

Delhi

Gurgaon

Mumbai

U.P PW.D.

Advisory

List of

Symbols and Abbreviations

AASHTO
ADT
ASTM

American Association of

BI

Bump

TO
BIS

Bureau or Indian Standards

CBR
COD
HDPE
HYSD

California Bearing Ratio

IE

Independent Engineer

IRC

Indian Roads Congress

IS

Indian Standards

LCV

Light Commercial Vehicle

LL

Liquid Limit

T~J

x~v rill

Highway and Transportation

Average Daily Trafric

Amencan

Society for Testing and Materials

Integrator

Commercial Operation Date

High Density Polyethylene


High Yield Strength Deformed (Bars)

MCA
* ^V

State

Model Concession Agreement


T

MOSRTH
NBC

Ministry of Shipping,

NHAI

National Highways Authority of India

OMC

Optimum Moisture Content

PCC
PCU
TIT TT*T\
PHPD

Plain

Passenger Car Unit

PPM

Parts per million

PSC

Prestressed Concrete

QAM

Quality Assurance Manual

QAP

Quality Assurance Plan

QS

Quality System

RCC
ROB

Reinforced Cement Concrete

ROW

Right of

RUB
TMT
VDF

Road under Bridge (Road under railway

/"^

National Building

Road Transport

&

Highways

Code

Cement Concrete

Peak Hour Peak Direction

Road over Bridge (Road over railway

Way

Thermo Mechanically Treated


Vehicle

line)

Damage

Factor

line)

Officials

Section 1

General

SECTION

GENERAL
The scope of

1.1

work

the

be as

shall

Two

defined in the Concession Agreement.

Two Laning

Laning/

conditions specified in subsequent para 1.13

may

also be referred

to.

with Paved Shoulders of

Specifications and Standards set forth in this

At least two weeks prior to


commencement of the work, the Concessionaire
shall draw up a Quality Assurance Manual

Manual.

(QAM)

the Project

Highway

be undertaken and

shall

completed by the Concessionaire as per the

1.4

Assurance

Quality

The

Highway and the project


facilities shall conform to the design
requirements set out in this Manual which are
the minimum prescribed. The project report
and other information provided by the
Government shall be used by the
1.2

Project

Concessionaire only for


carrying

for

out

own

its

further

reference and

The

investigations.

System (QS),

covering the Quality

documentation for

all

(QAP)

Plan

and

aspects of the bridge

and road works and send three copies each


the IE for review.
shall not

The

to

class of quality assurance

be less than Q-3.

The Codes, Standards and Technical

1.5

Specifications
project

applicable

components

for

the

design

of

are:

Concessionaire shall be solely responsible for

undertaking

all

necessary

the

and

investigations

surveys,

designs

detailed

Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Codes

(i)

and Standards, as per Appendix-2.

in

accordance with the good industry practice

Road and Bridge


Works, Ministry of Shipping, Road
Transport & Highways hereinafter
Specifications

(ii)

and due diligence, and

Government

against

have no claim

shall

any

for

loss,

damage,

risk, costs, liabilities or obligations arising out

referred to as

of or in relation to the project report and other


information provided by the Government.

(iii)

Any

for

MOSRTH

Specifications.

other standards referred to in the

Manual and any supplement issued


with the bid document.

Alternative designs and Specifications

1.3
for

the

culverts,

road

pavement

and

underpasses,

over/under

structures

subways,

overpasses,

retaining

bridges,

reinforced earth walls etc.)

(bridges,

walls,

may be adopted by

the Concessionaire in accordance with design

requirements set out

Manual and

in this

1.6

Latest version of the Codes, Standards,

Specifications, etc. notified/published at least

60 days before the


shall

The

1.7

Engineer (the "IE") for review and comments,

Transport',

any.

In

particular,

such

comments

shall

specify the conformity, or otherwise, of such

designs

and

requirements

Specifications

specified

in

this

with

date of bid submission

three

copies of each shall be sent to the Independent

if

last

be considered applicable.

the

Manual. The

terms

'Ministry

of

Surface

Road Transport and


Highways' and 'Ministry of Shipping, Road

Transport
substitute

'Ministry of

&

Highways' or any successor or

thereof

shall

be

considered

as

synonymous.

IRC:SP:73-2007

The terms

1.8

used

in

deemed

MOSRTH
to

be

and 'Engineer'

'Inspector'

Specifications

"Independent Engineer"

term

the

extent

the

to

be

shall

by

substituted

it

the

of the

provisions

Codes, Standards or

MOSRTH

Certain paras

or part) in Sections

(full

to 14

of this Manual refer to the Schedules of the

Specifications,

Concession Agreement. While finalizing the

Manual and

the Specifications and standards specified in

Manual

Guidelines for Preparing Schedules

1.12

IRC

applicable

the provisions contained in this

this

the building works.

of the Concession Agreement

In case of any conflict or inconsistency

1.9

with

elements and/or any other works incidental to

Manual.

this

landscape

facilities,

is

consistent with the provisions of the Concession

Agreement and

road furniture, roadside

report

feasibility/project

for

Highway, and the scope of the

each of

project,

these paras should be carefully

shall apply.

Project

the

examined and

addressed by the Government with a view to


In the absence of any specific provision

1.10

on any particular issue

in the aforesaid

Codes

making appropriate provisions

Schedules

in the

of the Concession Agreement. (A

of the

list

or Specifications read in conjunction with the

paras that refer to such Schedules has been

Specifications and Standards contained in this

provided

Manual, the following Standards

at

Appendix- 1 for ready reference).

shall apply in

order of priority:

and

Standards

Alternative

1.13

Specifications

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

(i)

The requirements
(ii)

American
Highway and

Standards,

British

Association

of

State

Transportation
Standards,

or American

design

of

be

Society

alternative

for

(ASTM)

Materials

the

Highway

Project

minimum. The Concessionaire

(AASHTO)

Officials

and

Testing

or

Manual

stated in the

free

to

adopt

will,

international

for the

are

however,
practices,

and

materials

specifications,

the

standards to bring in innovation in the design

and construction provided they are comparable

Standards

with the standards prescribed in the Manual.


(iii)

Any

other specifications

standards

The

Specifications and techniques

proposed by the Concessionaire and

not included in the

reviewed by the IE.

IRC
shall

All

1.11

conform
(State

items

of

building

(CPWD)

State

shall

Public

Building

Code (NBC). To

provisions for building

IRC/MOSRTH/
shall

State

prevail

in

and Specifications
British

Standards

Such a proposal

like

AASHTO,

Euro Codes,

and Australian Code


shall

etc.

be submitted by the

the

National

for review

the extent, specific

works are made

in

specifications, the

over

the

toll

be supported with authentic standards

Concessionaire to the Independent Engineer

PWD

be deemed to include

Specifications

building

CPWD/NBC

provisions. For this purpose, building works


shall

PWD

Specifications/State

Specifications/

Specifications for Class

works and standards given

same

works

Works Department
PWD)/Central Public Works Department
to

MOSRTH

which are

plaza complex,

and comments,

Independent Engineer

is

if

any. In case, the

of the opinion that

by the Concessionaire
conformity with any of the

the proposal submitted


is

not

in

international standards or codes, then he will

record his reasons and convey the

Concessionaire for compliance.

same

to the

record shall

GENERAL

be kept by the Independent Engineer, of the

(ii)

non-compHance by

of bidding

minimum

and

Specifications

Manual and

specified in the
in

the Concessionaire of the

Standards

be dealt with

shall

terms of the provisions of the Concession

The Concessionaire

Agreement.

be

shall

responsible for adverse consequences,

if any,

arising

from any such non-compliance.

1.14

Design

In case the average daily traffic at the time

terrain

Volume

and

Carriageway Provision

undertaken

Where

Agreement.

(Two

and

straightaway

lane

may be

specified

in

In case the average daily traffic at the

time of bidding

10,000

PCUs

in the range of 8,000 to

is

in plain terrain or 6,500 to 8,000

in rolling terrain, the

Government

will

may be

opted

augmentation or prescribe Two-laning Plus

Schedule-B of the Concession

straightaway and specify the same accordingly

the

In

and further widening

to

carriageway

Schedule-B

stage,

Two-laning

in

may be

undertaken

Agreement.

first

(without paved shoulders)

lane

Plus

terrain,

decide as to whether adopt two-stage capacity

two-stage capacity augmentation


in

rolling

comparatively low,

initial traffic is

and specified

in

laning

in plain

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.

PCUs
(i)

PCUs

Two

to

carriageway with paved shoulders)

(iii)

Service

8,000

or

widening

more than 10,000 PCUs

is

of

Concession

the

Two-laning Plus (Two-

paved

with

shoulders)

undertaken in the second stage on the basis of

The design service volume of a 2-lane


highway is given in Table 2.8.
(iv)

the following criteria:

1.15
(a)

maintenance

operations

like

8,000

strengthening,

resurfacing,

repairs

PCUs

Concessionaire shall

In case, the average daily traffic at the

of bidding

time

PCUs

less

than

in plain terrain or

6,500

rolling

in

wide

is

terrain,

carriageway

shoulders

may be

2-lane

initially

with

Before taking up any construction or

first

widening,

work out

the

etc.,

a plan to

ensure the following:

granular

provided as per Para

(i)

Safety of traffic during the period of

construction

2.5.2(ii).

and

reduction

the

of

potential delays to road users.


(b)

The carriageway may be widened by


providing 1.5

on

either side

traffic

wide paved shoulders

when

the average daily

exceeds 10,000

terrain or

8,000

(ii)

PCUs

PCUs

Safety

of

(iii)

The arrangement
construction

average in an accounting year. The

requirements

paved

MOSRTH

be

provided

within six months from the close of


the accounting year in

in

in plain

in rolling terrain

shall

engaged

construction.

on the basis of the twelve months'


shoulders

workers

the

which average

for

shall

of

traffic

during

conform to the
Clause 112 of

Specifications.

The

Concessionaire shall furnish and erect


the

barricades,

traffic

signs

and

daily traffic exceeds the specified value.

markings, arrangements for adequate

The

lighting,

the

crust thickness

and composition

in

widened portions (paved shoulders)

shall

be

the

same

as

in

the

main

as

equipment and flagman

required

in

accordance

etc.

with

IRC:SP:55.

carriageway. (Refer to para 5.9.9).

IRC:SP:73-2007

The Concessionaire

shall

proposal

of

communicate

and Interpretation

1.18

Definitions

during construction to the Independent Engineer

1.18.1

All

for review and comments,

Concessionaire arising out of the provisions of

for

safety

traffic

if

the

and workers

any.

Manual

this

The Concessionaire

1.16

shall

up an

set

adequately equipped field laboratory for testing

conform

obligations

the

be subject

shall

to,

to the provisions of the

of

the

and

shall

Concession

Agreement.

of materials and finished products as prescribed


in

Clause 121 of

shall

make

MOSRTH

necessary

Specifications.

arrangements

It

for

additional/confirmatory testing of any materials/

products for which

1.18.2
in

The

Clause

mutandis

rules of interpretation as specified

1.2

of the

to this

MCA

shall

apply mutatis

Manual.

facilities at site laboratory

1.18.3

are not available.

The

definitions contained in the

Model

Agreement for Public Private


Partnership in State Highways ("the MCA"),
as published by the Planning Commission,
Government of India shall apply to the
Concession

Review

1.17

and

comments

by

Independent Engineer
required

provisions of this Manual unless the context

send any drawings or documents to the

otherwise requires. Terms or words not defined

Independent Engineer for review and


comments, and in the event such comments

herein shall be governed by the definitions

In cases where the Concessionaire


to

are received

is

by the Concessionaire,

it

shall

contained in the

IRC

Standards, unless the

context otherwise requires.

duly consider such comments in accordance


with

the

Concession Agreement and Good

1.19

This Manual

for

Two-laning (with

without paved shoulders) of the Project

Industry Practice for taking appropriate action

or

thereon.

Highway.

is

Section 2

Geometric Design and


General Features

SECTION

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES


Highway

2.1

General

(i)

This Section lays

conform

shall

to the standards set

out in this Section as a

down

the standards for

geometric design and general features for


upgrading the existing
district

state

highways/major

minimum. The

Concessionaire shall ensure that liberal


geometric standards are followed to the extent
feasible within the given Right of

Way.

roads to two-lane with or without paved

shoulders.

(iv)

As

far as possible, uniformity of

design

standards shall be maintained throughout the

passing through built up areas

(a) Stretches

(ii)

shall

normally be provided with 4-lane

length. In case of any change,

it

shall

be

effected in a gradual manner.

divided carriageway (Fig. 2.2). Such


the existing road geometries are

(v)

B of

deficient with respect to

Concession Agreement.

the

Additional land, if any, required for 4-

laning

shall

be

acquired by the

Government and where the land


to

(b)

Where

stretches shall be indicated in Schedule-

is

yet

be acquired, the date of handing over

and

its

improvement

minimum requirements

to the prescribed standards

requires acquisition of additional land, such


stretches shall be specified in

the Concession

required

Schedule-B of

Agreement. Additional land

be

provided

by

the land to the Concessionaire shall be

as

indicated.

Government.

Where

there are constraints of existing

(vi)

ROW

width or difficulty in acquiring

deficient in radius, layout, transition lengths or

land along the existing alignment in

superelevation shall be corrected to the

built

up areas, the Government may

shall

the

Existing horizontal curves, which are found

specified standards.

specify construction of a bypass instead

of 4-laning. The alignment of the

bypass shall be specified by the


Government. The land for the bypass
shall be acquired by the Government
and where the land

is

yet to be acquired,

(vii)

Any

deficiencies in the vertical profile in

respect of grades, layout of vertical curves and


sight distance shall

minimum
2.2

be corrected to meet the

specified requirements.

Design Speed

the date of handing over the land to the

The design speeds given in Table 2.1


adopted for various terrain
classifications (Terrain is classified by the
general slope of the ground across the highway

Concessionaire shall be indicated. The

2.2.1

bypass

shall

shall

be access controlled, unless

specified otherwise.

Government decides

In

to

case,

the

provide two-

lane carriageway for the bypass, the

same

be

alignment).

shall be placed eccentrically with

respect to the

widening

ROW to facilitate proper

to four lanes in future.

2.2.2

Short stretches (say less than

The geometric design of

the Project

km) of

varying terrain met with on the road stretch


shall not

(iii)

be taken into consideration while

deciding the terrain classification for a given

IRC:SP:73-2007

Table 2.1

Design Speed

Cross slope of the ground

Nature of Terrain

Design speed (km/hr)

Ruling

Minimum

Plain

Less than 10 per cent

100

80

Rolling

Between 10 and 25 per cent


Between 25 and 60 per cent
More than 60 per cent

80

65

50

40

40

30

Mountainous
Steep

accommodate

section of Project Highway.

the

roadway (carriageway and

shoulders), side drains, service roads, tree


In general, the ruling design speed shall

2.2.3

be adopted for the various geometric design

Minimum

features of the road.


shall

be adopted where

site

design speed

conditions are

and adequate land width is not


The Concessionaire shall improve the

restrictive
available.

alignment as per the requirement for ruling

when

design speed as and

the

Government

provides land. Such stretches shall be indicated

plantation, utilities, etc.

The

Highway

the Project

ROW available for

shall be as given in

Schedule-A of the Concession Agreement. The

Government should acquire additional land


accordingly. The land to be so acquired shall be
indicated in

Annexure

II

of Schedule-A of the

Concession Agreement. The desirable Right of

Way

for

& Urban areas should be as


IRC:73 & IRC:86 respectively.

Non-urban

prescribed in

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.

in

Land for such stretches shall be provided by


the Government not later than five years from
the date of commercial operation (COD).
Abrupt changes in design speed shall be
avoided.
2.3

Right of

Way

The Right of Way (ROW)


required

for

the

is

the total land width

Project

Highway,
Table 2.2

to

2.4

Lane width of Carriageway

The standard
shall

lane width of the Project

Highway

be 3.5 m.

2.5

Shoulders

2.5.1

Width of Shoulders

The normal shoulder width

shall be as per

table 2.2.

Width of Shoulder
Width of Shoulder (m)

Type of Section

Plain and Rolling

Mountainous and Steep

Terrain

Terrain*

(Either side)

Open country
isolated built

Built

with

Valley side

2.5

1.0

2.0

2.5

l.O

2.0

up area

up area

^exclusive of parapets

10

Hill side

and

side drains

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES

Type of Shoulder

2.5.2

The type of shoulder

be as below:

shall

2.6

Roadway Width

2.6.1

The width of roadway, unless specified

otherwise, shall be as follows:


In the built

(i)

up

section, the shoulder shall be

Plain/Rolling Terrain

12.0

specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

Mountainous and

10.0

Agreement.

Steep Terrain

paved or footpath

fully

shall

be provided where

m
m

(exclusive

of parapets and
drains)

(ii)

open country with isolated

In

and where average daily

PCUs

8,000

traffic

in plain terrain or

up

built

area,

less than

is

6,500

PCUs

in

mm

conforming

horizontal curves with radius

In

Table 2.3

Extra Width of Pavement and

Roadway
open country with isolated

average daily

traffic

is

in plain terrain or

terrain, 1.5

shall

shall

be increased as per Table 2.3.

to the requirements given in para

and having plain or rolling

PCUs

to

thick layer of granular material

5.9.10.

(iii)

up

300 m, width of pavement and roadway

rolling terrain, the shoulder shall be covered

with 150

On

2.6.2

built

terrain

and where

greater than

8,000

PCUs

Upto, 40

10,000

41-60

in rolling

in

of this Manual and balance 1.0

covered with 150

61-100

accordance with para 5.9.9

mm

shall

be

m width adjacent to the carriageway

be paved

Extra Width

Radius of Curve

up area

101-300

1.5

1.2

0.9

0.6

thick layer of granular

material.

(iv) In

2.7

Camber

2.7.1

The camber

or Crossfall

open country having mountainous/steep

terrain,

the shoulders shall be of locally

sections of road carriageway

available hard material.

be as per Table

Table 2.4

or crossfall on straight

and shoulders

shall

2.4.

Camber/Crossfall in percentage for different Surface Types

Category of surface

Annual Low
(less

rainfall

than 1500

mm)

Annual High rainfall


(more than 1500 mm)

Bituminous

2.5

2.5

Cement Concrete

2.0

2.0

Metal/Gravel

2.5

3.0

Earth

3.0

4.0

11

IRC:SP:73-2007

2.7.2

with a

The two-lane roads shall be provided


crown in the middle. On horizontal

curves, should be avoided as far as


possible.

curves, the carriageway shall be superelevated.


(vii)

2.7.3

The camber

for earthen shoulders

be

straight portions shall

at least 0.5

per cent.

On

to a

alignment

coordinated

per cent

minimum

distortion in appearance, the

horizontal

on

should be
carefully with the

longitudinal profile.

steeper than the slope of the pavement and

paved shoulder subject

To avoid

of 3.0
(viii)

super elevated sections, the

Hairpin bends on hilly terrain should

be avoided as far as possible.

shoulders shall have the same crossfall as the

carriageway.
All horizontal curves shall consist of

2.8.2

circular portion flanked

2.8

2.8.1

Horizontal Alignment

While

designing

by

spiral transitions at

both ends.

horizontal

the

Superelevation

2.8.3

alignment, the following general principles shall

be kept

in view:

Superelevation shall be provided on

(i)

curves as per details given in IRC: 73


(i)

Alignment should be fluent and

it

corresponding to the design speed

should blend well with the surrounding

adopted.

topography.
Superelevation shall be limited to 7 per

(ii)
(ii)

On new

roads, the curves should be

designed

to

radius, but in

(iii)

have largest practical


no case less than ruling

cent.

(iii)

Superelevation shall not be less than

value corresponding to ruling design

the

speed.

camber.

As

a normal rule, sharp curves should

not be introduced

at the

minimum

specified cross fall/

Radii of Horizontal Curves

2.8.4

end of long

tangent since these can be extremely

hazardous.

The
radii

desirable

minimum and

absolute

minimum

of horizontal curves for various classes

of terrain are given in Table 2.5.


(iv)

The curves should be sufficiently long


and they should have suitable
transitions

to

provide

Table 2.5

Minimum

pleasing

Radii of Horizontal

Curves

appearance.
(v)

Reverse curves
as

possible.

shall

Nature of

Desirable

Absolute

terrain

minimum

minimum

Where unavoidable,

sufficient length
shall

be avoided as far

between two curves

be provided for introduction of

Plain

360

230

Rolling

230

155

requisite transition curves.

(vi)

Curves

by

12

in the

same

short tangents

Mountainous

90

60

Steep

60

30

direction, separated

known

as broken

back

m
m

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES

The

terrain conditions shall not be less than the

The rate of change of superelevation


should be such as not to cause

desirable values given in Table 2.5 except

discomfort to travelers. Further, rate of

where

change should not be steeper than

radius of horizontal curves for various

(ii)

conditions are restrictive and

site

adequate land

is

not available.

Where such

150 for roads

and

restrictions exist, the radius of curve shall not

be less than the specified absolute

minimum

terrain.

60

in

mountainous/steep

The formula

for

minimum

length of transition on this basis

value.

2.8.5

in

is:

Ls = 2.7 V2/R

Transition Curves

Minimum

in

in plain/rolling terrain,

2.9

Sight Distance

2.9.1

Visibility is

length of transition curve shall be

from

determined

following

the

two

an important requirement

on roads. For

considerations and the larger of the two values

for the safety of travel

adopted for design:

necessary that sight distance of adequate length


is

(i)

The

change of centrifugal
should
acceleration
not
cause
discomfort to drivers. From this
rate of

this,

it is

available in different situations, to permit

drivers

enough time and distance

their vehicles so that

to control

chances of accidents are

minimized.

consideration, the length of transition

curve

is

2.9.2

given by:

On

two-lane

roads,

normally

intermediate sight distance should be available

Ls = 0.0215 VVCR,

throughout.

to provide overtaking sight distance in as

Where:

Ls = Length of transition curve

= Speed in km/hr,
= Radius of circular curve

much

length of the road as possible. In stretches


in

where even intermediate sight distance

is

not

^\

metres,

The attempt should, however, be

available, the safe stopping sight distance

should be provided as a

last resort. Traffic

signs

in

depicting "Overtaking Prohibited:" shall be

metres,

C =

80/(75

+ V) (subject

maximum

of 0.8 and

installed at all such locations.

to

minimum

2.9.3

of 0.5)

Table 2.6

The recommended

sight distances for

various speeds are given in Table 2.6.

Sight Distances for Various Speeds

Stopping sight

Intermediate sight

distance (m)

distance (m)

Overtaking sight
distance (m)

100

180

360

640

80

120

240

470

65

90

180

340

50

60

120

235

40

45

90

165

30

30

60

120

Speed (km/hr)

13

IRC:SP:73-2007

2.9.4

The

requisite sight distance shall be

clearances

underpasses shall be as follows:

at

available across the inner side of horizontal


2.11.1

curves.
2.9.5

Where

horizontal and

summit curves

Full

(i)

horizontal direction

in

at the

through

carried

required sight distance, both in the vertical

pavement and

roadway width

including service roads,

overlap, the design shall provide for the

direction, along the

Lateral Clearance

any, shall

made

for future

expansion of the cross road for

on the inner side of curve.

be

underpass.

the

Provision shall also be

the

if

approaches

at least

next 10 years.

Vertical Alignment

2.10

(ii)

Guardrails shall be provided for

2.10.1

protecting vehicles from colliding with

for

the abutments/piers

The vertical alignment should provide


a smooth longitudinal profile. Grade

kinks and visual discontinuities in the profile.

The

ruling

structures.

to cause

changes should not be too frequent as

and limiting gradients are given

and the deck of the

2.11.2

Clearance

Vertical

in

Table 2.7.

Vertical clearance at underpasses shall not be


less than the values given

Table 2.7

below:

Recommended Gradients

Nature of
terrain

Ruling

Limiting

gradient

gradient

(i)

Vehicular underpass

5.5

(ii)

Pedestrian and CatUe

3.0

underpass
Plain and rolling

3.3%

5.0%

Mountainous

5.0%

6.0%

Steep

6.0%

7.0%

Lateral and Vertical Clearance at

2.12

Overpasses

Wherever any

Highway,
2.10.2

Gradients up to the value corresponding

to ruling gradient shall

minimum

the

clearances

at

overpasses shall be as follows:

be adopted, as far as

possible. Limiting gradients shall be adopted

2.12.1

only in very difficult situations and for short


Full
lengths.

2.10.3

structure crosses over the Project

Lateral Clearance

roadway width including service roads,

if

any, shall be carried through the overpass

Long sweeping

provided

at all

vertical curves shall

be

grade changes. These shall be

structure. Provision shall also

future widening of the Project

be made for

Highway. The

abutments and piers shall be provided with

designed as square parabolas.

suitable protection against collision of vehicles.

2.10.4

For design of

vertical curves

and

its

Guardrails shall be provided on abutment side

The

co-ordination with horizontal curves, reference

and on sides of piers for

may be made

ends of guardrails shall be turned away from

to

IRC:SP:23.

this

purpose.

the line of approaching traffic.

2.11

Lateral and Vertical Clearance at

Underpasses
Wherever a cross road

below

14

the

Project

2.12.2
is

proposed

Highway,

to

be taken

minimum

Vertical

A minimum

5.5

provided from

Clearance

all

vertical clearance shall

be

points of the carriageway of

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES

the Project

Highway

pedestrians

to the nearest surface of

the overpass structure.

shall

be provided

at

locations indicated in Schedule-B of the

Concession Agreement.
Service Roads

2.13

(ii)

Service roads wherever required to be

2.13.1

The width of Pedestrian or

Cattle

crossing shall not be less than 5 m.

constructed by the Concessionaire, shall be


specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

(iii)

Agreement.

The pedestrian crossings shall have


provision for movement of disabled
persons.

Service roads shall be constructed and

2.13.2

maintained in accordance with the provisions

2.15

Typical Cross-Sections

2.15.1

Typical cross-sections of Project

of the Concession Agreement. The width of

minimum

service roads shall be

The

2.13.3

shall not

for

crust composition of service roads

be lower than that specified

(one)

m.

5.5

msa

design

in

IRC:37

Highway

are given in Figs. 2.1 to 2.5. These

shall be

adopted for various locations, as

applicable.

traffic.

2.15.2

2.14

Grade separated Structures

2.14.1

The

Where

cross-section changes from two-

lane to four-lane, a transition of

in 15 to

20 must be provided, as prescribed


type, location, length,

number and

&

(CI. 6.6.2)

IRC:86

in

in

IRC:73

(CI. 6.2.7).

the openings required to be provided for various

types of grade separated structures shall be as


specified by the

Government

in

2.16

Capacity of two-lane highway

Schedule-B of

The design

the Concession Agreement.

service

volume of two-lane highway

for different types of terrain shall

2.14.2

Vehicular Underpass/Overpass

The vehicular underpass/overpass


shall

be provided

Project

at

traffic

structures

all

Table 2.8

Design Service Volume of Two-

lane

Highway

The

structure

in

terrain, vertical profile

of

Nature of

PCUs

without

per day

with

minimum

paved

1.5 ni

shoulder

paved shoulder

Plain

15,000

18,000

Rolling

11,000

13,000

Mountainous

7,000

9,000

Terrain

road, availability of adequate right of way, etc.

structure shall be specified in

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.


2.14.3

per day

Design Service Volume

may

be either an underpass or an overpass depending

Type of the

PCUs

in

roads carrying an

of more than 15,000 PCUs,

unless specified otherwise.

upon the nature of

Table 2.8.

the intersection of the

Highway with

average daily

in

be as given

Cattle

and Pedestrian Underpass/

Overpass

and Steep
(i)

In certain stretches, underpasses/

overpasses for crossing of cattle and

15

IRC:SP:73-2007

Right of way

Roadway
7.0

2.5

2.5

Carriageway

Shoulder
1.0

12.0

Shoulder

1.5

Granular

1.0

1.5

Paved

Paved

<

Granular

2.5%

2.5%

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Typical cross section

(Open country-plain/rolling

terrain)

2-lane carriageway (with paved shoulders)

without service road

Fig. 2.1

Right of way

7.5

1.5

Carriageway

Foot

7.5

1.5

Carriageway

Median

path

1.5

i 200 mm

.2

guard

2.5%
200

Foot
path

high pedestrian
rail

2.5%

mm

Note:
All dimensions are in metres

except as shown otherwise.

Typical cross section


(Built-up area)

4-lane divided carriageway with footpath

Fig. 2.2

16

GEOMETRIC DESIGN AND GENERAL FEATURES

Right of way

2.5

7.0

2.5

Carriageway

Shoulderl

Shoulder'

Fence
1.2 high

2.5%

2.5%

Fence

1.2 high'^

Service

1.5

Shoulder
I

Road

min. 5.5

Service

Road

1.5

Carriaseway

Shoulder

8.5

Note:
1.

2.

All dimensions are in metres.

Dimensions of footpath and service


roads are

minimum and

higher

may

be adopted as per requirement.

Typical cross section


2-lane carriageway witli service road

Fig. 2.3

Right of way

Roadway
2.5

Shoulderl

12.0

7.0

Carriageway

2.5

Shoulder

2.5%
j

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Typical cross section


(Plain/rolling terrain)

Eccentrically placed 2-lane bypass

Fig. 2.4

17

IRC:SP:73-2007

Note:
1.

All dimensions are in metres.

2.

Shoulders
available

covered
hard

with

locally

material

(Paved

shoulders in built up area).

Typical cross section

(Mountainous

terrain)

2-lane carriageway

Fig. 2.5

18

Section 3

Intersections

and Grade Separators

SECTION

INTERSECTIONS AND GRADE SEPARATORS


3.1

Introduction

3.1.1

Subject to the provisions of this

(signalized/non-signalized)

control
Necessary

Manual, properly designed intersections


be provided

at all

traffic

etc.

surveys for the design of road

junctions shall be carried out as per IRC:SP: 19.

shall

road crossings/junctions. The

types and locations of Interchanges and Grade-

Normally, the type of intersection shall

(iii)

be:

separated Intersections without ramps shall be


(a)

Three leg intersection.

(b)

Four leg

(c)

Multi leg intersection/rotary.

specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

Agreement. The intersections

to

be provided

intersection.

be one of the following types:

shall

At-grade intersections

(i)

The design of

(iv)

Grade separated

(ii)

intersections without

MOSRTH

subsequent paras.
Interchanges

for Intersection

may
The

3.1.2

existing intersections,

deficient with respect to the

which are

minimum

requirements shall be improved


prescribed standards. Additional land,

to

the

if

any,

required for improving the existing intersections

be provided by the Government.

shall

done as per IRC:SP:41

intersection shall be

including other design criteria given in the

ramps
(iii)

different elements of

Type Designs

on National Highways, 1992

also be referred to,

wherever required,

to

develop suitable lay out and design of At-grade


Intersections.

The design

(v)

shall

aim

at

simplicity and

uniformity in design standards.

designs which

may

Complex

involve complicated

decision making by drivers shall be avoided.

3.2

At-grade Intersections

3.2.1

General

(vi)

(i)

The majority of

the intersections to be

most economical and are provided

at

crossing locations, where the traffic on cross

roads

is

low

to moderate.

These intersections

should be properly designed as per details


below.
(ii)

mean

that traffic

This will

on the minor road must stop

prior to entering the

major road. Where roads

of equal importance intersect, priority will be

given to the
(vii)

At the

traffic

on the

right.

intersection, the alignment should

be as straight and the gradient as

flat

as

practicable. Gradients in excess of 2 per cent

Type of

intersections to be adopted shall

be decided on the basis of parameters

number of

intersection control shall be of 'Stop

Control' unless specified otherwise.

encountered will be of At-grade type. These


are

The

like

intersecting legs, traffic volume/

speed, available right of way, type of traffic

will

(viii)

normally not be allowed

Any

at intersections.

deficiency in the alignment and

grade of intersecting roads shall be corrected


to

improve

traffic

conditions and safety.

21

IRC:SP:73-2007

sight distance to be adopted shall

The

(ix)

normally be intermediate sight distance as


specified in Section
situations

2.

However,

be achieved by a taper of not less than

shall
in 15.

in exceptional

should not be less than

it

Widening of carriageway

be provided.

minimum

stopping sight distance specified in Section

At such locations, cautionary speed

2.

limit

Type and radius of curve of

(v)

The type and radii of curves would depend


upon the types of vehicles turning at the
intersection

signboards shall be displayed.

intersection:

and

shall

be decided based on the

traffic data.

At multi leg

(x)

intersections, the points of

conflict should be studied carefully and


possibilities of realigning

and combining some


reduce the conflicting
be examined. The objective

legs

intersecting

movements
movements

one or more of the

to
shall

Visibility at intersection:

(vi)

stopping sight distance, appropriate for the

approach speeds, shall be available for the


traffic

on the Project Highway.


Devices

Traffic Control

3.2.3

control devices added to ensure

more

efficient

and safe operation.

(i)

Road markings: Typical road markings

road

intersection

as

IRC:SP:4l and IRC:35

Design Standards

3o2.2

Design standards

shall

be as per IRC:SP:41.

given in Section 9 of

Design Speed: The approach speed

shall

be taken as the design speed adopted for the

is

Highway on which

located.

this

60%

The design speed

Reflectors:

for
in the

of the approach speed.

Design Traffic Volume: The

for the design of intersection


at

peak hours

shall

and

volume

traffic
its

distribution

be assessed, up

new development

socio-economic changes,

form of

IRC: 3)

shall

of land,

etc.

be used

The number of

in the

volume

single lane

5.5

is

to

in

3.2.4

Detailed Designs and Data for Review

by IE

The Concessionaire
the

ground surveys,

shall

submit the details of

traffic data, traffic forecast,

all

safety features to the Independent

Engineer for review and comments,

if

any.

design of

by peak hour

each direction of

travel.

3.3

Grade Separated Intersections


Without Ramps

3.3.1

General

For

movements, a minimum width of


be adopted.

For two-lane roads

between kerbs, a minimum 7.5

22

cat's eyes, delineators, etc shall

lanes to be provided at the

intersection shall be governed


traffic

the traffic, reflectors

design and drawings of the intersections

intersections.

(iv)

To guide

to the

Design Vehicle: Semi-trailer combination

(refer

Manual.

be provided, in addition to the road markings,

showing
(iii)

this

especially at the channelising islands.

operation period, taking into consideration the


past trend, likely

be followed. The

Manual.

the

various elements of the intersection shall be

taken as

in

be provided as per IRC: 67 and Section 9 of

(iii)

intersection

given

Signs: Traffic signs at the junctions shall

(ii)

section of Project

shall

for

specifications of road markings shall be as

Salient features are given below:

(ii)

safe

be to simplify the design and appropriate

shall

(i)

A minimum

width shall

Grade separated intersections, without


ramps provide an intermediate solution
(between At-grade Intersections and
(i)

INTERSECTIONS AND GRADE SEPARATORS

Interchanges) for traffic segregation. These are


relatively cheaper as

compared

to Interchanges.

These could preferably, be provided

where

traffic

on cross roads

heavy and segregation though

is

Under

this type,

moderate

essential,

cannot
to cost

Road Under

Bridge or Road Over Bridge) and

movements

to

two cross roads

separate at different grades (as

for transfer of traffic

by IE

at locations

be provided by an Interchange due


constraints.

Detailed Design and Data for Review

3.3.5

all

turning

between the

The Concessionaire

shall

submit the details of

the ground surveys, traffic data, traffic forecast,

design and drawings of the grade separated


intersections and the structures,

showing

all

safety features, to the Independent Engineer


for review

and comments,

3.4

Interchanges

3.4.1

General

any.

if

intersecting roads including merging, diverging,


etc. shall

be either not catered

accomplished

to or shall

be

surface level through parallel

at

service roads

or

through similar other

mechanism.

An

Interchange

grade-separated

intersection with connecting

roadways (ramps)

(i)

for turning traffic

is

between highway approaches.

Such an Interchange

Grade separated intersections without


ramps shall be provided at the locations

crossings of a highway, which

(ii)

indicated in Schedule-B of the Concession

developed

Agreement. The road

to

standards.

under the structures

shall

be carried over or

be specified

in

at

to handle the

All features pertaining to structures for

this type

of grade separator will be same as

provided in Section 2 of
3.3.2

this

Manual.

Geometric Standards for Design of

traffic

elements of

this

be as given

in paras 3.2.1

for various

type of grade separators shall

on cross roads

and diverging

and

fatal

is

fails

heavy volume of turning, merging


traffic

and

leading to excessive delays

major

full

Cost

accidents.

Interchange or grade separated intersection

and

An

(ii)

Interchange

may be

crossing of the Project

highway, and where the

3.2.2.

PCUs

Design of Structures

For design of structures of grade-separated


structures, the details given in Sections 7
shall

be followed.

and

Minimum

(iii)

such

in

justified at the

Highway with another

arms of the intersection

Manual

also be justified

without ramps.

The geometric design standards

8 of this

may

effectiveness will decide whether to provide

Various Elements

3.3.3

to be

heavy and when an At-grade intersection

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.


(iii)

Interchange

where

locations

is

at all

completely access controlled

to

An

be necessary

will

total traffic
is in

on

all

the

excess of 10,000

peak hour.

The decision
locations

to provide Interchange at

shall

Government and

be

taken

by

the

the requirement shall be

various grade separated structures shall be

Schedule-B of the
Concession Agreement, which shall also

Government

indicate specifications and traffic streams to

length of viaduct required to be provided

specified

by

the

in

at

Schedule-B of

the Concession Agreement.

3.3.4

Traffic Control

Devices

clearly

spelt

out in

be grade separated.
(iv)

The

detailed design and layout of the

Interchange shall conform to broad parameters


Details given in paras 3.2.3 and 3.4.6 shall
apply.

and requirements specified by the Government


in

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.

23

IRC:SP:73-2007

^<

skats'

irf-f'*

sfe-*8

investigations,

elements of Interchange including ramps shall

the Concessionaire shall develop appropriate

be assessed up to the end of the Concession

detailed drawings and designs and submit to

Period or twenty years, whichever

the Independent Engineer for review and

taking into consideration the past trends, likely

comments,

new development

Based on detailed survey and

if

any.

changes,

3A.2

more,

of land, socio-economic

etc.

Types of Interchanges

Design of Structure

3.4.5
(i)

is

Interchanges are generally described by

the pattern of the various turning

roadways or

For design of structures of grade-separated

ramps, which determine their geometric


configuration. The common geometric

structures comprising of

main

ramps, the details given

Sections 7 and 8 of

configurations of Interchanges are the trumpet,

this

diamond, cloverleaf, rotary and directional.

of viaduct required to be provided at various

Within each type of Interchange, there can be

grade- separated structures shall be specified by

several variations such as split diamond, partial

the

depending on the ramp

cloverleaf, etc.

Manual

shall

in

be followed.

Government

in

structure

Minimum

Schedule-B

and

length

of the

Concession Agreement.

arrangements.
3.4.6

The type of Interchange, the shape and


pattern of the Interchange ramps and loops and

Trajfic Control

Devices

(ii)

their designs shall

be governed by factors such

as the importance of the intersecting highway,

number of intersecting legs, the design


volumes of through and turning traffic
movements including their composition, the

at suitable

(i)

the

design speeds, available right of

The Interchange

topography.

site

structures

most

be provided

locations to:

Serve

advance notice of the

as

(ii)

Direct drivers into appropriate lanes for

diverging/merging movements;

be

studied in detail and alternative designs made,


to determine the

shall

approaches to the Interchange;

way and
shall

IRC: 67)

Traffic signs (refer

suitable arrangement of

(iii)

Identify routes and directions;

(iv)

Provide

and ramps satisfying the specified

other

information

of

importance to the drivers; and

requirements.
(v)

3.4.3

Show

distances to destinations.

Geometric Design Standards for

Interchange Elements

The

specifications of road markings shall be as

given in IRC: 35 and as prescribed in Section 9

The geometric design standards shall be as per


IRC: 92 appropriate for the design speed
adopted for the Project Highway. The design
speed for ramps shall not be less than 40 km
per hour. The desirable values of various
parameters given in IRC: 92 shall be adopted,
unless there are severe site constraints.
3.4.4

Design

Traffic

of this Manual.
3.4.7

Detailed Design and Data for Review

by IE

The Concessionaire
ground surveys,

shall

traffic

submit details of the

data, traffic forecast,

design and drawings of the Interchange,

showing

all

safety features, to the Independent

Engineer for reyiew and comments,

The

24

traffic

volume

for the design of various

if any.

Section 4

Road Embankment

SECTION

ROAD EMBANKMENT
General

4.1

(b)

In case,

then the bottom of

less,

is

it

subgrade should be raised to ensure a

The design and construction of road


embankment and cuttings shall meet the

of the subgrade from

HFL.

requirements, standards and specifications

of any section

of the Project

given in

Highway

4.1.1

minimum

This Section also covers

this Section.

clearance of the bottom

(s)

required, that shall be

is

specifications for subgrade and earthen

specified

shoulders.

Concession Agreement.

4.1.2

Where

improvement

the Project

Highway

involves

roadway width.

plan, profile and the

It

that the final centre line of the

and the road levels are fixed with great

duly considering

all

in

Schedule-B

Highway

In case. Project

of

is

the

passing

through an area not affected by floods

to an existing road, efforts should

be made to remove the inherent deficiencies


be ensured

(c)

If raising

and

in

is

free

from any drainage problem/

shall

water ponding/over-topping situations

road

with water table being quite deep, to


the extent that subgrade

care,

is

not likely to

be affected by the capillary saturation,

the relevant factors

may

covering structural soundness, safety and

then the employer

functional requirements.

in larger stretches to save cost,

avoid raising

even

minimum clearance of 0.6


from existing ground level is

though the
4.1.3
shall

The existing roadway, where deficient,


be widened to the roadway width in

accordance with para

desirable.

2.6.
(ii)

New two

Road Embankment

4.2

(a)

4.2.1
in

The width of

the

embankment

shall

Bottom of subgrade
ponded water
local

based on the

final

(b)

4.2.3

0.6

should

forming

and

Portions

structures provide
is

HFL

fulfil

the

minimum

free

board requirement.

For ImprovementAVidening of the existing

In case,

The

approaches to
structures provide smooth vertical

profile

(a)

level.

observations, enquiries and

Portions

the road level:

road;

above the

studying the past records.

embankment shall be
road levels. The following
the

principles shall be kept in view while fixing

(i)

be decided by intelligent inspections,

specified in Section 2 of this Manual.

The height of

1.0

is

high flood level/highest water table/

be

accordance with the cross-sectional details

4.2.2

lane road;

forming
smooth

approaches

to

vertical profile.

bottom of the existing subgrade

height of

above the HFL, the existing

4.2.4

embankment can be

profile of the road shall

retained.

Deficiencies in the existing vertical

be corrected.

27

IRC:SP:73-2007

OL, 01,

Construction of embankment, subgrade

4.2.5

and earthen shoulders shall conform to the


requirements of Clause 305 of MOSRTH

minimum

requirement.

4.2.6.1 Sourcing of materials for

embankment

and subgrade construction,

as

well

(iv)

Materials in frozen conditions;

(v)

Clay

and borrow areas under

laws

be

shall

the

Liquid

(LL)

Limit

exceeding 45;
(vi)

the

applicable

having

exceeding 70 and Plasticity Index (PI)

as

compliance with environmental requirements


in respect of excavation

Materials susceptible to spontaneous

combustion;

Materials and Physical Requirements

4.2.6

accordance with IS:

in

1498;
(iii)

Specifications as a

OH

Materials with

sole
in the

leaching

salt resulting in

embankment;

responsibility of the Concessionaire.


(vii)

4.2.6.2

Borrow

the right of

305.2.2 of

pits shall not

way

be located within

Expansive clays, 'Free Swelling Index'

50% when

(FSI) exceeding

or along the road. Clause

tested as

per IS: 2720 (Part 40).

MOSRTH Specifications shall apply.


4.2.6.5 Expansive clays/black cotton soil shall

4.2.6.3

The

embankment,

materials used in

subgrade and earthen shoulders shall be

moorum,

not be used for subgrade construction.

soil,

gravel, a mixture of these or any other

material conforming to the requirements of

Clause 305.2 of MOSRTH Specifications. Pond


ash can also be used subject to requirement
indicated in para 4.2.16 of this Section.

4.2.6.6

The following types of

materials shall

be considered unsuitable for embankment


construction and shall not be used:
(i)

clay with acceptable

Free Swelling Index value


material, subgrade
the

embankment

used as a

is

just

fill

mm portion

and top 500

below subgrade

shall

of

be

non-expansive in nature.
4.2.6.7

4.2.6.4

Where expansive

The

size of the coarse material in the

mixture of earth shall not exceed 75


placed in the embankment and 50

mm when
mm when

placed in the subgrade.

Materials from swamps, marshes and


4.2.6.8

Only

the materials satisfying the density

bogs;

requirements given in Table 4.1 shall be


(ii)

Peat,

log,

stump and perishable

material, any soil that

Table 4.1

is

classified as

employed

for

the

embankment and

Density of Materials of

construction

Embankment and Subgrade

Compaction -

Embankment upto

height, not

Density with heavy


IS:

2720 (Part

Not

less than 15.2

kN/cu.

Not

less than 16.0

kN/cu.

Not

less than 17.5

kN/cu.

subjected to extensive flooding.

Embankments exceeding 3 m height


or embankments of any height subject
to long periods of inundation.

Subgrade and earthen shoulders/verges/backfill.

28

the

the subgrade.

Maximum Dry

Type of Work

of

8)

ROAD EMBANKMENT

The

4.2.6.9

Table

4.

density requirements specified in

4.2.6.10

be applicable to

shall not

pond

material e.g.

The

light

weight

4.2.7.4

The type of

retaining structure shall

adjoining structures.

ash.

material to be used, in subgrade

shall satisfy the design

CBR

at the

specified

4.2.7.5

Where

the

embankment

supported on a weak stratum,


to specially design the

be

The embankment and subgrade

compacted

the

satisfy

to

compaction requirements given

Table 4.2

is

it

to

be

shall be

necessary to carry out adequate soil testing and

density and moisture content.

4.2.6.11

be

aesthetically pleasing and compatible with the

in

shall

adopt

appropriate

minimum

improvement measures

Table 4.2.

Independent Engineer.

embankment and also


remedial / ground
in consultation

with the

Compaction of Embankment and Subgrade

Compaction as
percentage of max. laboratory
Relative

Type of Work/Material

dry density

IS:2720 (Part 8)

Subgrade and earthen shoulders

Not

less than

97

Embankment

Not

less than

95

Expansive Clays (of acceptable FSI)


(a)

Subgrade and 500


just

(b)

below

mm

Not allowed

portion

the subgrade.

Remaining portion of Embankment

4.2.7

Not

and Design of

Structural Features

Embankment

90

less than

4.2.7.6

Where

m high

and

the

embankment

Embankment

shall be

designed to

ensure the stability of the roadway and shall

stability shall

more than

material consists of heavy clay

fill

or any problematic soil, the


4.2.7.1

is

embankment

be analysed and ascertained for

safe design.

incorporate only those materials, which are


suitable for

embankment

construction as per

para 4.2.6 of this Section.

4.2.7.7

above)

High embankments (height 6


in

all

soils

or

shall be designed from

stability considerations.

4.2.7.2

The design of

governed by slope

side slopes shall be

stability

and

traffic safety

considerations.

IRC: 75

4.2.7.3 Side slopes shall not be steeper than

2H: IV unless

soil is retained

by suitable

soil

The reinforced earth where


conform to the requirements of

retaining structures.

provided, shall

4.2.7.8

Section 7 of this Manual.

4.2.7.9

For design of high embankments

may be
The

referred to.

side slopes shall be protected

against erosion by providing a suitable


vegetative cover, kerbs channel, chute, stone

pitching/cement concrete block pitching or any


other suitable protection measures, depending

29

IRC:SP:73-2007

on the height of the embankment and

4.2.12

susceptibility of soil to erosion. Drainage

Structures

arrangement

shall be

Embankment and Subgrade around

provided as per Section 6

The work

(i)

of this Manual.

shall be carried out

in

accordance with the requirements of


4.2.7.10 Stone pitching/cement concrete block

Clause

pitching shall conform to Clause 2504 of

Specifications.

MOSRTH

305.4.4

Specifications.

Filling behind abutments, retaining

(ii)

4.2.8

Embankment Construction Operations

4.2.8.1

Embankment, subgrade and earthen

head walls and wing walls for

walls,

structures shall

with Clause 305.3 of

MOSRTH

the

IRC:78.

The filter medium shall conform to the


requirements of Clause 2504 of

unsuitable material occurring in

embankment foundation

shall

and replaced by acceptable

fill

be removed

MOSRTH

Specifications.

Where

subgrade

construction of

Specifications.

Construction of Embankment on
Ground Incapable of Supporting Construction
Equipment
4.2.13

embankment and

required to be carried out under

is

MOSRTH

material in

accordance with Clause 305.3.4 of

4.2.8.3

to the general

Specifications.
(iii)

Any

conform

guidelines given in Appendix 6 of

shoulders shall be constructed in accordance

4.2.8.2

MOSRTH

of

the special conditions such as given in paras

For construction of embankment on ground,

which

not capable of supporting construction

is

4.2.7 to 4.2.13, the earthwork shall be

done in
procedure and

equipment such as marshy land, any of the

accordance

methods given

in

Clause 305.4 of

Specifications

may be

with

the

requirements described

MOSRTH

in

MOSRTH

used.

Specifications.

4.2.14
4.2.9

Clause 305.4.5 of

Earthwork for Widening Existing Road

Where an

existing

be widened and

its

embankment/subgrade

is

to

slopes are steeper than IV:

Embankment Construction Under

Water

Where
to

construction of

embankment

is

required

be done under water, only granular material

4H, continuous horizontal benches each at least


300 mm wide shall be cut into the old slope

or rock consisting of graded hard and durable

for each

mm

of earthwork, for ensuring adequate

lift

bond with

the fresh material to be added.

particles with
shall

maximum

size not

exceeding 75

be used. The material shall be non-

plastic with uniformity coefficient of not less

than 10. For further details refer IRC: 34.

4.2.10

Earthwork for Embankment and

Subgrade

to

be Placed Against Sloping Ground

Requirements of Clause 305.4.2 of

MOSRTH

Specifications shall apply.

4.2.15

Earthwork for High Embankment

Where

stage construction/controlled rate of

filling is

required for high embankments, the

methodology together with


4.2.11

Earthwork over Existing Road Surface

Requirements of Clause 305.4.3 of


Specifications shall apply.

MOSRTH

instrumentation and monitoring plan shall be

communicated by the Concessionaire to the


Independent Engineer for review and
comments,

30

details of necessary

if

any.

ROAD EMBANKMENT

Use of Pond Ash for Embankment

4.2.16

and

Construction

subgrade
to

Where Pond ash

4.2.16.1

embankment

in-situ

is

Forests or otherwise, the

the

may be made

be

shall

side slopes of cuttings shall be

provided in accordance with the nature


of the

soil

encountered.

The slope

be stable for the type of

accordance with

in

Reference

level.

at

IRC:SP:19.

The

(ii)

Environment and

embankment

designed and constructed

conditions

used for

construction in pursuance of the

instructions of the Ministry of

soil

IRC:SP:58.

strata.

shall

Where

required, benching including use of


slope stability measures like pitching,

The thickness of soil cover shall not


1
m for embankments up to 3m
For high embankments, the thickness of

4.2.16.2

breast walls, etc. shall be adopted to

be less than

make

high.

cover shall be increased as per design.

soil

4.2.16.3
shall

The

side slopes of the

(iii)

the slopes stable

and

safe.

In the case of rock cutting, trial pits or

boreholes shall be carried out at


30-50 m intervals to assess the type of

embankment

be protected against erosion by providing

rock.

turfing or stone/cc block pitching.

Excavation for roadway in soil/rock

4.3.4

4.2.17

Surface Finish and Quality Control of

Work

shall

be carried out

in

301, 302 and 303 of

accordance with Clauses

MOSRTH

Specifications,

as relevant.

The surface

finish

and quality control of

materials and works shall conform to the

While

requirements of Clauses 902 and 903 of

precautions against soil erosion, water pollution

MOSRTH

Specifications and Para 5 of

shall

IRC:SP:58

(relevant to

4.3

Roadway

4.3.1

The width of

Pond

ash).

be taken as per Clause 306 of

MOSRTH

Appropriate drainage measures shall be taken


to

shall

adequate

excavation,

Specifications.

in Cutting

the

executing

roadway

in cutting

keep the

site free

with Clause 311 of

of water in accordance

MOSRTH

Specifications.

be in accordance with the cross section

details specified in Section 2 of this

Manual.

No

back

be resorted to obtain the

filling shall

required slopes.
4.3.2
in

The road

level shall

be fixed, keeping

view the following requirement:-

Adequate precautions

shall

be taken to ensure

that during construction, the slopes are not

The

difference between the bottom of subgrade

and the highest water table

m. Exceptionally, where
satisfied, drain shall

is

this

not less than

requirement

be provided to lower

is

.0

rendered unstable or give rise to recurrent slides


after construction.

not

down

the water table.

In cut sections in hilly terrain, the

seepage flow

is

problem of

common. Where such

conditions exist, necessary measures including


4.3.3

Soil Investigations for Cut Sections

provision of deep side drains to intercept the

seepage flow and to avoid any damage to road


(i)

Soil investigations shall be carried out

and cut slopes

shall

be provided.

to ascertain the type of cutting involved

31

IRC:SP:73-2007

4.3.5

Excavation of Road Shoulders for


Widening of Pavement

4.4

For widening of existing pavements or


providing paved shoulders, the existing
shoulders shall be removed to their full width

The Concessionaire
soil surveys and

and

pits,

to the requisite depth.

to see that

Care

shall

be taken

no portion of the existing pavement

designated for retention

is

loosened or

Survey Investigations and Design


Report
Soil

and

field

laboratory

borrow

investigations for selecting appropriate

if

identifying problematic ground locations

any, requiring treatment

structural

features

embankment and

disturbed.

shall carry out necessary

and for finalizing

and

design

cut sections.

The

of

soil

survey

and investigations report and design report


4.3.6

(i)

Preparation of Cut Formation

The

cut formation, which serves as a

301.6

MOSRTH

of

Specifications.

(ii)

Where

review,

if any.

Soil Survey

4.4.1

The

the material in the subgrade has

shall

be submitted to the Independent Engineer for

subgrade, shall be prepared as per

Clause

the

and Investigations Report

report shall include:

Road Embankment

(i)

a density less than that specified in

Table 4.1, the same shall be loosened

(a)

500 mm and compacted


in layers in accordance with the
requirements of Clause 305 of
to a depth of

MOSRTH

The

report

include

shall

investigations and tests in accordance

with the requirements specified in

IRC:SP:19 and

Proforma

Specifications.

shall

given

be reported in the

Table

in

IRC:SP:19. In addition to
(iii)

Any

unsuitable material encountered in

the subgrade shall be

soil

of

this, all tests

as per the requirements of

removed and

MOSRTH

Specifications shall be reported.

replaced with suitable material and

compacted
305 of

43.7
(i)

in

accordance with Clause

MOSRTH

(b)

Specifications.

In respect of high

report

shall

embankment,

include

the

additional

investigations and soil tests as per

Finishing Operations

IRC:75 and Appendix 10 of IRC:SP:19.

All excavated surfaces shall be properly


(c)

shaped and dressed.

Information regarding the topography,

high flood level, natural drainage


(ii)

point on the completed slopes shall

conditions, highest sub-soil water level,

vary from the designated slopes by

and the nature and extent of inundation,

more than 150 mm (in case of soils)


and 300 mm (in case of rocks)
measured at right angle to the line of

if

No

(d)

any.

The

characteristics of

foundation including the presence of

slope.

any unsuitable/weak
(iii)

The

embankment

areas, water

finished cut formation shall satisfy

strata,

logged areas,

marshy

etc.

the surface tolerances specified in

Clause

902

Specifications.

32

of

MOSRTH

(e)

Along

the alignment of the road,

where

unstable strata, soft material or poor

ROAD EMBANKMENT

subsoil conditions have been

met with

at the

foundation level, the

shall

be drawn after determining

soil profile

through borings, the type of


different levels.

The boring

200

shall

of

intervals
to a

depth of 2

comments,

be

00

at
at

(a)

to

below the

existing ground. In the case of high

embankments, the borings


taken

down

shall

if

for

review

and

any.

Road Embankment

(i)

soil

Engineer

Independent

The detailed design of the embankment,


remedial/ground
improvement
treatment where required,
and
construction methodology for high

be

embankments.

to a depth equal to twice

the height of the

embankment.

(b)

Design of retaining walls/reinforced


earth structures.

Any

(f)

particular construction problems

of the area or other important features.

(c)

Geotechnical properties of Pond ash,

(g)

Design of protection measures for


embankment slope and drainage
arrangement.

covering parameters specified in Table


1

of IRC:SP:58 and

OMC-dry

density

(d)

case use of

relationship for heavy compaction. This

information shall be furnished, in case


(e)

Pond ash

used

is

in

Design of Pond ash embankment

embankment

Any

Pond ash

is

in

proposed.

additional information relevant to

the design report.

construction.
(ii)

(a)

The

Cut Section

Cut Sections

(ii)

report shall include soil investigations and

tests

in

Type of cutting involved and proposed


cut slopes.

accordance with the requirements

specified in IRC:SP:19 and information

(b)

Design and

details of erosion control,

slope protection measures, etc.

regarding depth of water table, seepage flow,

presence of any weak, unstable or problematic


(c)

Design

and

details

of

drainage

strata.

arrangement for sub-soil and surface


4.4.2

The Concessionaire
report

water.

Design Report

including

shall furnish the design

the

following

to

the

(d)

Any

other additional information

relevant to the design of cut slopes.

33

Section 5

Pavement Design

SECTION

PAVEMENT DESIGN
5.1

General

5.1.6

5.1.1

The

poor drainage,

Where problematic conditions such as


expansive soils, swamps or marshes, flooding,

existing roads in the States are

generally flexible pavements and their capacity

augmentation by way of widening and


strengthening would therefore generally be by
provision of flexible pavements only.

measures

etc. are

shall

found

to exist,

adequate

be adopted to deal with such

conditions.

site

Method

5.2

Design

of

Flexible

of

Pavement
5.1.2

Situations may, however, also arise

where the Government may require provision


of cement concrete pavement depending upon
specific site conditions.

shall

Such a requirement

be specified in Schedule-B of the

Concession Agreement and indicated as a


deviation in Schedule-D of the Concession

The

Agreement.

minimum

and

design

maintenance requirements for cement concrete

pavement

shall

be specified by the Government

and Schedule-K of the Concession Agreement


shall

5.1.3

be modified accordingly.

widening and strengthening of existing


shall take into

account

all

specified

in

New

pavements

shall

be designed

accordance with the method prescribed

in

IRC:37 or any other international standard


method/guideline for pavement design, subject
to the condition

pavement

that the overall

composition shall not be

less than the

minimum

requirement specified in IRC:37. Strengthening

basis of the procedure outlined in IRC:81,

except where specified otherwise.

relevant

factors for assuring reliable performance that


satisfies the

pavements.

of existing pavements shall be designed on the

Design of new pavement sections or

pavements

The design of flexible pavement is covered in


two parts namely, new pavements, and
widening and strengthening of existing

Method

5.3

of Design of Rigid

Pavement

minimum performance
Rigid pavement shall be designed for a period

requirements.

of not less than 30 years, in accordance with

The pavement condition and other data


furnished by the Government are based on
preliminary investigations. The Concessionaire
5.1.4

shall

soil,

material and

traffic

volume and

undertake the necessary

pavement investigations and

axle load studies in accordance with the

good

the

method prescribed

5.4

Design of

5.4.1

Flexible

in

IRC:58.

New Pavements

Pavement

Design Period and

Strategy

industry practice for preparing detailed designs.


(i)

5.1.5

The

materials,

practice shall

herein and

mixes and construction

meet the requirements prescribed

MOSRTH

Specifications

IRC

Pavement

shall

be designed for a

minimum

design period of 15 years. Stage construction


shall

be permissible subject

specified in para

(ii)

to the

requirement

below.

Specifications, unless specified otherwise.

37

IRC:SP:73-2007

Alternative strategies or combination of

(ii)

initial

design, strengthening and maintenance

can be developed by the Concessionaire

to

The drainage

layer shall be properly designed

so that a drainage coefficient of 20


is

per day

obtained.

provide the specified level of pavement


performance over the operation period, subject
to satisfying the following

minimum

design

(v)

The construction of

pavement should

normally be done by Slip-form Paver. Stringent


quality control

requirements;

rigid

is

absolutely essential for long

term performance of the rigid pavement and


(a)

The thickness of sub-base and base of


pavement section is designed for a

therefore, the

minimum

laid

design period of 15 years and

same should be executed with

utmost quality control and as per procedure

down

in

IRC:

15.

the initial bituminous surfacing for a

minimum

(vi)

design period of 8 years.

The

details of axle load surveys, for trucks

only, shall be used in

The pavement shall be strengthened by


bituminous overlay, as and when
required, to extend the pavement life

(b)

stress ratios

as per IRC:58.

5.4.3

to full operation period. Strengthening


i)

in stages for not less than five years at

a time can be done.

computing

Pavement Performance Requirements

The pavement

structure shall be capable

of giving the specified performance

The thickness of

over the entire operation period.

bituminous overlay shall be detemiined

on the basis of IRC:81.

ii)

The new pavement

surface shall satisfy

the following standards:

Design Period and

Rigid Pavement

5.4.2

Strategy

Roughness

Not more than


2000 mm/km for

In each lane

The stage construction

(i)

permitted

pavement

(7

in

shall

not be

measured by

case of rigid pavement. The

shall

be constructed

in

10

carriageway plus 2X1.5

m
m

calibrated

BI

each lane

width

in a

km

length

rigid

shoulders).

Rutting, cracking

Nil

or any other
(ii)

The Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC)

shall

distress

be designed as per para 5.3.1, based on a


flexural strength of 4.5

of 150

mm

The

(iii)

PQC

shall

thickness.

DLC

will

strength)

IRC:SP:49.

PQC
on

MPa. The

over Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) sub-base

rest

DLC

will

prescribed

in

Agreement.

values
of

Any

the

specified

in

Concession

treatment in the form

of renewal/overlay carried out or

Im

required to restore/correct/improve the

(including that in shoulder,

if

any) by

either side.

riding quality or any distress shall be

of such thickness and specification that

A properly

mm

38

exceed the
Schedule-K

be extending beyond the

designed drainage layer (GSB)


of thickness 150-200
shall be provided.
(iv)

During the operation period, the


pavement surface roughness or any
structural/functional distress shall not

be of Ml 0 concrete (7 days'

as

(iii)

will restore the riding quality to

2000 mm/km.

PAVEMENT DESIGN

Design Traffic

5.5

Lane distribution factors given

5.5.6

IRC:37
5.5.1

The design

shall

in

be adopted.

be estimated in

traffic shall

(8160 kg) to be carried by the pavement during

pavements Equivalent
Damage Ratio (EDR) shall be adopted as given

the design period.

in

terms of cumulative number of standard axles

Estimate of the

5.5.2
traffic

daily average

initial

For

5.5.7

IRC:58.

Subgrade

5.6

flow shall be based on atleast 7 days',

24 hour classified

traffic counts.

IRC: 9 may be

used as guidance for carrying out the

traffic

The subgrade, whether

(i)

Any

likely

change

in traffic

proposed improvement of the

due

facility

fill,

meet

shall

conform

Subgrade material

shall

requirements laid

down

to the

in Section 4.

to

Expansive clays and other unsuitable

and/or

soils

future development plans, land use, shall be

duly considered in estimating the design

in cut or

the following requirements:

census.

5.5.3

rigid

be used for subgrade

shall not

construction.

The material used

in

traffic.

subgrade shall have dry density of not


5.5.4

Traffic

growth

for each category of

rate shall

less than 17.5

be established

commercial vehicles

considered for design of pavement. For

to

be
(ii)

The thickness of subgrade


less than 500 mm.

(iii)

The subgrade

traffic

projections, the procedure outlined in IRC: 108

may be

followed. The Concessionaire shall

adopt a realisdc value of the rate of

traffic

Axle load surveys

shall

be

be compacted to

of the

maximum

dry

achieved
with
heavy
compaction in accordance with IS:'
2720 (Part 8).

less than 5 per cent.

5.5.5

shall

shall not

density

be assumed as

shall not

97%

atleast

growth, provided that annual rate of growth of

commercial vehicles

kN/cu.m.

be carried out

(iv)

The soaked

CBR

value of remoulded

(VDF)
for each category of commercial vehicles. The
axle load equivalency factors recommended in
Annexure-2 of IRC:37 shall be used for

dry density and moisture content shall

converting different axle road repetitions into

otherwise.

to estimate the vehicle

damage

factor

equivalent standard axle load repetitions.

subgrade

samples

not be less than


3

7%

specimens),

at the

specified

(average of adeast

unless

specified

VDF
Pavement

values so determined shall be used for

5.7

estimating design traffic in standard axles.

Materials

Provided

soil

Components

and

that if the Concessionaire envisages

the possibility of controlling the severity and

incidence

of

overloading

with

better

(i)

The pavement construction materials

for sub-base, base

conform

enforcement of legal load limits as also of

shall

increase in the proportion of Multi Axle

herein and the

may,

Vehicles over the years,

it

and cost adopt a lower

VDF

at

it

own

risk

to the requirements prescribed

MOSRTH / IRC

Specifications,

unless specified otherwise.

value than that

determined on the basis of the Axle load


spectrum survey.

and bituminous surfacing

(ii)

Where several materials will adequately


component within the pavement

serve as

39

IRC:SP:73-2007

considered necessary to

Structure, such as a sub-base or a base course,

Specifications

the Concessionaire shall have the option of

improve

using any of the materials/specifications.

Compaction and Strength

It is

is

drainage properties, the PI,

its

criteria shall

be fully

important that good engineering practice and

satisfied,

product quality requirements are not abandoned

where required, depending upon the gradation

for the sake of effecting cost reduction.

of the sub-base material and subgrade

besides drainage efficacy. Further

appropriate
If

any material which

included

is

not specified here or

MOSRTH

in

Specifications

is

IRC

proposed

to

PWD

be used, the

proposal supported with authentic standards and

practice

be communicated to the

shall

Engineer

Independent
comments,

if

for

review

an

layer of soil/aggregate or geo-

be incorporated between the sub-

textile shall

base and the subgrade to prevent clogging of


sub-base.
to the

The proposal

be communicated

shall

Independent Engineer for review and

comments,

if

any.

and

any.

5.7.2

Sub-base

5.7.1

filter

soil,

Base Course

Base course material and construction

(i)

conform

shall

any of the following types:

to

Sub-base shall be of any of the following

(i)

types:

(a)

conforming
(a)

Granular sub-base conforming

401 of

MOSRTH

soaked
(b)

CBR

Cement
conforming

to

IRC:

for base course

19.

to clause

Specifications. Sub-

(b)

minimum

base material shall have

Macadam

Water Bound

Wet Mix Macadam


conforming

for base course

IRC: 109.

to

value of 30%.

treated
to clause

(c)

Crusher
Run Macadam Base
conforming to the requirements of
Clause 410 of MOSRTH Specifications.

(d)

Any

sub-base

soil

403 of

MOSRTH

Specifications.

(c)

Water Bound Macadam conforming

to

IRC:19.
(d)

Macadam conforming

Wet Mix Macadam conforming

can be used

to

to

MOSRTH Specifications

Clause 504 of

in

combination with the

granular base.

IRC: 109.
(ii)

other superior base material like

Bituminous

Frost susceptible materials shall not be used

(ii)

The granular base

shall

be primed with a

prime coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous

in the sub-base.

material of appropriate type conforming to


(iii)

From pavement

drainage considerations,

the granular sub-base should be extended over


the entire formation width.

The granular sub-

MOSRTH

Specifications/BIS specifications,

preparatory

to

the

superimposition

of

bituminous treatment or mix.

base shall be of proper design and grading to

perform

satisfactorily as the drainage layer. In

cuttings, granular sub-base shall

mm

above

be

at least

5.7.3

Bituminous Surfacing

300

the invert level of the drain.

(i)

The bituminous surfacing

shall

be either

a wearing course or a binder course


(iv)

Where

modification of granular sub-base

grading given in Clause 401 of

40

MOSRTH

with a wearing course depending upon


the design traffic.

PAVEMENT DESIGN

(ii)

Bituminous surfacing materials and


thicknesses
shall
satisfy
the

(overlay thickness) for the existing

requirements of the IRC:37. The

in

suggested surfacing materials and

widened portion

thickness are desirable

minimum from

functional and structural requirements.

shall

be assessed as per the procedure laid

IRC: 81. The pavement thickness

The

specifications for the bituminous

materials and mixes shall satisfy the


specified

minimum

the relevant

requirements, as per

MOSRTH

The design of mixes

Specifications.

shall

be done by

Marshall method.
(iv)

For the design of mixes, use of refusal

pavement plus the

thickness of the existing

thickness of the overlay as assessed above,

be selected by the Concessionaire

keeping

in

be uniform
shall

view the

traffic, rainfall

and

in thickness

the

shall

and composition.

It

be ensured that the thickness of the

bituminous surfacing
shall not

in the

widened portion

be less than the equivalent thickness

pavement.

The pavement

be

shall

one side only depending on the placement of


the existing road within the right of way. This

may

be decided in consultation with the

Independent Engineer,

in case not specified in

the relevant schedule of the

Performance Evaluation

widened

symmetrical to the existing centerline or on

aspect

other environmental conditions.

5.8

The overlay on

pavement and widened portion

existing

5.9.2

The grade of bitumen/modified bitumen


shall

in the

of bituminous surfacing over the existing

density criterion can be adopted.


(v)

down

be kept equal to the

shall

unless specified otherwise.


(iii)

pavement

Concession

Agreement.
(i)

Pavement performance evaluation

shall

be done by the Independent Engineer


in

accordance with

tests

based on good

The earthwork
and shoulders
of the

industry practice.

Roughness
shall

in

each lane for

full

subgrade in widened portions

shall

maximum

compaction
(ii)

in

(IS:

be compacted to atleast

97%

dry density obtained by heavy

2720, Part

8).

length

be measured by calibrated BI

5.9.3

Before strengthening treatment

prescribed, a detailed

periodically.

is

pavement condition

survey and evaluation shall be carried out in


(ill)

The

structural

pavement

evaluation

shall be

made by

of the

deflection measurements every 5 years,


in
in

accordance with IRC: 81 to determine:

taking
(i)

distress

and nature of

deficiency in the existing pavement

accordance with the procedure given

IRC: 81, unless needed

The extent of
structure,

earlier for

and

stretches exhibiting severe distress

during the operation and maintenance

(ii)

Whether any

provision for remedying reflection

period.

cracking,

5.9

Existing Pavement to

Lane

Plus

Two Lane

(with

pavement

internal drainage,

subgrade improvement/ reconstruction,

Widening and Strengthening of

Two

special treatments e.g.

or rectification of any other deficiencies

are warranted.

Paved

Shoulders)
5.9.4
5.9.1

The requirement of strengthening

Before implementing the strengthening

treatment, the existing

pavement surface

profile

41

IRC:SP:73-2007

be checked and

shall

if

found

deficient, shall

be corrected by providing a suitable profile

specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

Agreement.

corrective course or by milling and recycling.

The

profile corrective course shall

meet the

it

The

granular layer shall be provided

over an existing bituminous surfacing.

following requirements:

(i)

No

5.9.8

profile corrective course shall not

is

Where

envisaged to strengthen grossly deficient

existing road with a granular base layer in

addition to the bituminous overlay, the

form part of the overlay thickness.

requirements specified in paras 5.10.6 and


(ii)

Where

the

maximum

profile corrective course

than 40

mm,

it

shall

thickness of
is

not

5.10.7 shall apply.

more

be constructed as

5.9.9

Paved Shoulders

an integral part of the overlay course.


In other cases, the profile corrective

(i)

where

course shall be constructed as a separate


layer.

Paved shoulders

(ii)

Where

it is

to

shall

be

unless specified otherwise.

be laid as integral part of

the overlay/strengthening course, the

5.9.5

specified.

The width of paved shoulders


1.5

(iii)

be constructed,

shall

(iii)

The

paved

shoulders

shall

be

profile corrective course material shall

constructed in layers, each matching the

be of the same specifications as

thickness of the adjoining pavement

that of

the overlay /strengthening course.

layer.

Necessary corrective measures

MOSRTH

The work shall be carried out in


accordance with Clause 407 of

to treat

Specifications.

the identified deficiency vide paras 5.9.3 and

5.9.4 above, shall be taken along with

(iv)

strengthening of the pavement.

Where the existing pavement is to be


widened to two lanes with paved
shoulders, the

5.9.6
is

Any

stretches in

damaged/deteriorated to such an extent that

compacted

the use of

(v)

If the

together.

thickness of the existing paved

shoulders,

stretches shall be designed using the design

if

any,

paved shoulders

Where an

existing

pavement

to the

built

is

over an untreated expansive/black cotton

soil

(vi)

subgrade,

widening

its

improvement/strengthening/

shall be treated separately.

Such

stretches shall require reconstruction with

provision of adequate measures such as


replacement or treatment of expansive subgrade

and

shall be designed as

new pavement

accordance with the procedure specified

is

less

than the

thickness of the adjacent pavement, the

procedure for new pavements.


5.9.7

in the

main carriageway and in the paved


shoulder width shall be laid and

which the pavement

Benkelman Beam method may not


result in a realistic assessment of the
strengthening treatment, pavement in such

pavement layers

shall

new pavement

be re-constructed
thickness.

The overlay on the main carriageway


pavement and on the paved shoulders
shall be uniform in thickness and
composition.

5.9.10

Granular Shoulders

in

para

Material for granular layer on shoulders shall

5.4 and IRC:37. Such stretches shall be

be well graded natural sand, moorum, gravel,

42

in

PAVEMENT DESIGN

crushed

combination thereof,
Clause 401 of MOSRTH

stone

conforming

or

to

Specifications and having soaked

CBR

(a)

at least

98%

of the

value

Subsequent overlay

(b)

maximum

initial

design period, or earlier,

the

(Overlay)

overlay shall be designed to extend the

IRC:81

shall

be followed for design of

strengthening treatment.

method

the

if

Design of Strengthening Treatment

specified

(Part 8).

pavement
5.10.1

end of the

Schedule-K of the
Concession Agreement or if any
structural distress is observed. The

2720

5.10

at the

surface roughness exceeds the value

dry density for the material determined as per


IS:

strengthening for a design period

of not less than eight years.

of not less than 30%. The granular layer shall

be compacted to

Initial

life for at least five

years at

a time.

The guidelines provide

for determining the characteristic

deflection using

in

The

(c)

Benkelman Beam and then

riding quality of the

pavement

be measured periodically and

shall

if

the

working out the overlay thickness for the design

roughness exceeds the specified value,

traffic.

the

pavement

strength

shall

be

evaluated based on current deflection


5.10.2

The

characteristic deflection for design

measurements and

purpose shall be determined by the following

traffic

for the next five years, at least. In case

formula:

any strengthening treatment

Where,

same

is

required,

implemented,
otherwise the wearing course be
be

+ 2 o

the

D^,,

Characteristic

renewed by providing a minimum 25

Deflection

projections

Mean

mm

(mm)

Deflection

shall

thick

conforming

(mm)

bituminous

surfacing

to the existing

wearing

course specifications.

(determined on the basis

of individual deflection

Design

5.10.4

Traffic

corrected for temperature

and seasonal variation)

The design

Design

Period

Minimum

and

Requirements
(i)

shall

be done for a

design period of 10 years or equal to the

operation

period,

whichever

is

number of standard axles


be earned by the pavement during

more.

to

the design period as per the procedure described


in

Pavement strengthening

be estimated in terms

of the cumulative

Standard Deviation

(8160 kg)
5.10.3

traffic shall

para 5.5 of this Section.

5.10.5
shall

The thickness of bituminous overlay


be determined on the basis of the

characteristic deflection

and the design

traffic

Strengthening in stages shall be permissible

as

subject to the requirements given in para

IRC:81. The guidelines give the thickness of

(ii)

below.

(ii)

The Concessionaire

per

the

procedure

outlined

in

overlay required in terms of bituminous


shall

following requirements as a

ensure the

minimum

for

macadam. The thickness of bituminous overlay


for pavement strengthening shall not be less
than 50

mm.

design of strengthening measures:

43

IRC:SP:73-2007

The

overlay, so determined for the

for the overlay shall be as specified for

existing pavements in terms of Bituminous

bituminous surfacing for new pavement

Macadam

sections vide para 5.7.3 of this Section.

5.10.6

can be modified to provide for other

compositions, including the combination of


granular layers of
treatment.

WBMAVMM and bituminous

The equivalent overlay thickness can

5.10.9

Pavement Performance Requirements

and Evaluation

be determined using the following equivalency

The strengthened pavement shall satisfy the


minimum standard and maintenance
requirements specified for new pavement
sections in para 5.4.3 of this Section and

factors as per Clause 7.4 of IRC: 81;

100

mm

of

BM

= 150

100

mm

of

BM

= 70

5.10.7

mm

mm

of

of

WBMAVMM

DBM/SDBC/BC

The type of material

to

be used in

Schedule-K of the Concession Agreement.

The performance measurement and evaluation

overlay construction will depend upon several

will

factors such as design traffic, thickness,

para 5.8 of this Section.

be done as per the procedure described

in

condition and type of existing bituminous


surfacing and convenience of construction. If
it

is

proposed

pavement

to strengthen an existing

Workmanship and
Work

Construction,

5.11

weak

Quality of

structure with granular construction

followed by bituminous surfacing, the

All

following requirements shall be

workmanship, and the surface finish of the

satisfied:

materials,

construction

operations,

quality of completed construction for all

The

(i)

existing bituminous surfacing shall

be completely removed by scarifying


milling before laying
layers.

It

WBM/WMM

will be ensured that the

underlying layer

is

pavement works including subgrade, sub-base,


base course, bituminous surface courses for

new

pavements and for widening and strengthening

works

shall

conform

to

the

specified

requirements and specifications and comply

not disturbed.

with the relevant provisions of Section 900 of


(ii)

If the thickness

of the scarified/milled

the

MOSRTH

Specifications.

40 mm or more, the existing


pavement thickness shall be made up
by increasing the overlay thickness

5.12

correspondingly.

Notwithstanding

layer

is

Premature Distress
the

minimum

design,

specifications and standards specified in the


(iii)

The thickness and composition of


bituminous surfacing over the granular
layer

shall

conform

to

the

preceding paras for new pavements and


strengthening of existing pavements, if the

pavement shows premature

form
camber

distress in the

recommended

surfacing and thickness

of cracking, rutting, patching, loss of

in para 4.2.3

(Bituminous Surfacing)

or any other structural or functional distress,

necessary remedial measures by strengthening/

of IRC:37.

resurfacing shall be undertaken after proper

5.10.8 Bituminous

Mix for Overlay

investigation for conforming to the

minimum

requirements prescribed in Schedule-K of the

The

44

specifications for the bituminous mixes

Concession Agreement.

PAVEMENT DESIGN

5.13

Detailed Design Report

Pavement roughness data measured by

(vii)

Bump

Integrator as per IRC:SP:16.

The new pavement design and strengthening


proposals formulated on the basis of the detailed

and

investigations

communicated

to the

studies

shall

(viii)

be

Independent Engineer for

review and comments,

if

any.

The proposal

Pavement Deflection Data measured by

Benkelman Beam

as per the procedure

detailed in IRC:81.

Pavement deflection

data shall be recorded in the prescribed

shall

Proforma vide Table 3 of IRC:81.

be accompanied by Data Collection, Data


Evaluation and Design Reports.

The
5.13.1

data

deflection

be

shall

accompanied with the characteristics of

Data Collection Report

the subgrade soil covering type of

The data

subgrade

collection report shall include:

soil, field

moisture content

(at

the time of deflection survey), average


(i)

investigation

Soil

pavements

data

relationship

compaction and soaked


in

addition

heavy

CBR

values,

other

to

Any

(ix)

(ii)

5.13.2

Test values of aggregate for pavement

at the

and

time of

other relevant information required

and comments,

information as per the prescribed


proforma.

area,

by the Independent Engineer for review

and

data

the

deflection survey.

OMC-Dry

with

in

pavement temperature

13.2 of IRC:

as per Table

SP:19. Report shall include

density

annual rainfall

new

for

The

if

any.

Data Evaluation Report

report shall inter alia cover:

courses as per Tables 13.3 and 13.4 of

IRC:SP:19. All
of

MOSRTH

tests as

per requirements

Data evaluated

(i)

Specifications shall be

in

soil characteristics

and

subgrade strength, pavement distress,

reported in addition to the tests and

information included

pavement

the above

deflection, riding quahty, skid

resistance, drainage aspects, etc.

mentioned Tables.
(ii)

(iii)

Classified traffic counts in Proforma

Pavement

deficiencies, drainage

and

constraints.

of IRC:SP:19.
(iii)

(iv)

Axle load surveys and

VDF

other relevant details.

values for

each category of commercial vehicles


as per

Any

5.13.3

Detailed Design Report

Proforma 4 of IRC:SP:19.

The Concessionaire
(v)

Estimation of

traffic

projections for

growth and

design of the preferred solution along with any


traffic

special treatment proposed for adoption.

pavement design.

departures from
(vi)

Pavement condition data


Proforma given

in

shall furnish the detailed

in

the

Table 2 of IRC:81.

shall

Any

the specifications, stated herein,

be supported with authentic standards and

specifications

and accepted practice.

45

Section 6

Roadside Drainage

SECTION

ROADSIDE DRAINAGE
6.1

General

6.1.1

The design and construction of

and sub-surface drains

for

surface

highway drainage

be carried out in accordance with the

shall

requirements of

6.2

Surface Drainage

6.2.1

The water from road and adjacent

areas

be intercepted and carried through road

shall

side drains to natural outfalls.

this Section.

The

6.2.2

peak run-off without

normal

carry

to

drains shall have sufficient capacity

Efficient drainage system shall be

6.1.2

overflowing.

provided for the entire Project Highway


including structures and

facilities.

the road surface, the carriageway, shoulders and

median

shall

selection of type of roadside drains

be based on the magnitude and duration

shall

For quick disposal of precipitation on

6.1.3

The

6.2.3

of flow. The roadside drains shall be designed

on the principles of flow

in

open channel.

have the requisite camber/crossfall

and longitudinal gradient

as per the values

specified in Section 2 of this Manual.

The estimation of design discharge

6.2.4

(peak run off) and design of drain sections shall

be made in accordance with the procedure given


6.1.4

The

natural drainage of the area shall

in

IRC:SP:42.

not be disturbed.

The open drains

6.2.5

6.1.5

The design of

drains shall be carried

out in accordance with

IRC:SP:42 and

sufficiently

When

away from

the drain

is

4H:1V imaginary

IRC:SP:50.

shall

be located

the toe of

embankment.

unlined

line

be beyond

shall

it

drawn from

the edge of

the roadway.

6.1.6

Construction of surface and sub-surface

The road

6.2.6

side drains shall not pose any

drains shall be carried out in accordance with

danger
the

MOSRTH

slopes

embankment, pavement or

Efficient drainage arrangements for

road sections in cuttings and at underpasses


shall

traffic,

of

cuttings,

structures.

Specifications.
6.2.7

6.1.7

to

requirements of Clause 309 of the

be made. Where

it

is

As

shall not

and

be

far as possible, longitudinal slope


less than 0.5 percent for

hned drains

1.0 percent for unlined drains.

not possible to drain

out water using gravity flow, necessary

6.2.8

The

arrangements for pumping shall be made.

shall

be as

side slopes of the unlined drains


flat

as possible

and

shall not

be

steeper than 2H:1V.

49

IRC:SP:73-2007

The

6.2.9

CC

drains shall be provided with

lining in the following situations:

When

(a)

due

space constraint, the

to

drains are located near the toe of the

embankment

or near structures.

(b)

Drains located in paved areas.

(c)

Flow
1

velocity

m/s

1.5

in

silt

m/s in

is

more than

0.3 m/s to

and sand and more than

is

median

provided)

be provided. The median drain

shall

at the

roadway

water and

to channelize the

along

chutes

10

the

edges of the

slopes

CC

lined

about

at

intervals or at designed spacing to


at

the

6.4.3

the

The chute

embankment

drains and drains at toe of


shall

be of Plain Cement

Concrete (Ml 5 grade) over proper bedding.

Proper arrangement for drainage of

6.3.1

provision of kerb channel

include

bottom.

stiff clay.

carriageway

may

discharge the water into side channels

Median Drainage (where dual

6.3

Drainage arrangement

6.4.2

should have adequate longitudinal slope to the

6.5

Catch Water Drains

6.5.1

Suitable catch water drains shall be

provided on the
collect

hill

slopes above a cutting to

and remove surface water run-off from

upper reaches. These drains should be of


trapezoidal shape and stone lined and

nearest culvert to drain off transversely.

cement

pointed.
6.3.2

Earthen surface in the median shall not

be sloped towards carriageway

to drain

pavement, to avoid washed away

on the

soil getting

deposited on the pavement making

it

slippery

and accident prone.


6.3.3

Turfed/paved median of up

to 5

across the pavement.

arrangement for drainage of raised carriageway

and median

shall

be made without allowing

shall

be

nearest culvert or natural drainage channel.

It

shall

be ensured that the catch water

drains are provided in stable hill slopes outside


the periphery of slide/unstable areas.

6.5.4

In superelevated sections, proper

The catch water drains

designed to carry the intercepted water to the

6.5.3

width with kerbs could be crowned for drainage

6.3.4

6.5.2

Where

required, lined chutes shall be

provided to lead the discharge to the catch

pit

of culvert or to a natural drainage channel.

6.6

Sub-surface Drains

6.6.1

The sub-surface drainage

water to drain on the other carriageway.


6.4

Drainage of High Embankment

6.4.1

In high

provided:

embankment and approaches


(i)

to bridges, proper

shall be

arrangement for drainage of

for lowering the level of water table


for drainage of subgrade,

carriageway shall be made in order to ensure


that

no damage

shoulders and

50

is

caused

embankment

to

slopes.

pavement,

(ii)

to intercept or drain out free

cut slopes,

water in

ROADSIDE DRAINAGE

(iii)

for drainage of pervious sub-base in

situations

where

it

may

be

not

6.6.8

Sub-surface drains not located below

the road

pavement

be sealed

shall

at the top.

practicable to extend the sub-base


6.6.9

across the shoulder.

Sub-surface drains shall not be used

6.6.2

(i)

Use of Geo -textile

The sub-surface

functions

the

The sub-surface

(ii)

and

titrations

(ii)

The sub-surface drains can be provided


with geo-textile either along the trench

with backfill material around pipes.

or around the pipe or both.

Aggregate drains consisting of free

(iii)

The geo-textile

draining material in the trench without

requirements

any pipe.

MOSRTH

MOSRTH

6.6.10

of

Trench excavation, laying of pipe,

the requirements of Clause 309.2 of

backfilling,

Specifications.

conform

The

702

Clause

of

the

satisfy

shall

Specifications.

and use of geo-synthetics

to the

shall

requirements of Clauses 309.3.3,

309.3.4 and 309.3.5 of

MOSRTH Specifications

internal diameter of the pipe shall

not be less than 150

mm.

6.6.11

and
6.6.6

of

jointed unperforated pipes in trenches

meet

6.6.5

designed

separation.

Perforated pipes and unperforated pipes

6.6.4
shall

drains shall be:

Close jointed perforated pipes or open

(i)

may be

using appropriate geo-textile to serve

for surface drainage.

6.6.3

drains

The sub-surface

not less than 0.5

drains shall be located

below

The

shall

drain outlet shall be a free outlet

be prepared as per Clause 309.3.6 of

MOSRTH

Specifications.

the subgrade.

6.6.12 Aggregate Drains


6.6.7

Backfill Material
(i)

(i)

Backfill material shall be free draining

sand, gravel or crushed stone designed

on inverted

filter criteria for filtration

The trench

for aggregate drain shall be

of

minimum 300

depth

to

mm

width and cut to

expose the

pavement courses

to

granular

be drained.

and permeability or of an appropriate


grading conforming to the requirements

of

Table

300.3

of

MOSRTH

(ii)
't'

Thickness of backfill material around


the pipe shall not be less than 150

(iii)

mm.

mm.

be gravel,

stone aggregate or slag of grading as

shall

The aggregate

drain shall be provided

with a geo-textile wrap to act as

The minimum thickness of material


above the top of the pipe

shall

per Table 8 of IRC:SP:42.

Specifications.

(ii)

Aggregate for the drain

filtration

and separation

layer.

be 300
6.6.13

Design of subsoil drainage

shall

be

51

IRC:SP:73-2007

based on a rational

made

to

basis.

may be

Reference

studies shall include:

IRC:SP:42
(i)

Internal Drainage of Pavement

6.7

Alignment plan, longitudinal and crosssections, contour

map.

Structures
(ii)

Boxed type construction

(i)

pavement

housed

is

in

which

earthen

in

Drainage area, water shed delineation, direction


of flow, location of outfalls, existing surface

shoulders shall not be provided.

drains,
(ii)

The sub-base

shall

Hydrological data

be extended across

ground surface condition,

rainfall,

flood

frequency, etc.

the shoulders for efficient drainage of

pavement.

(iii)

The granular sub-base


design

and

shall

grading

be of proper

(iii)

Data for hydraulic design of drains.

(iv)

Geo-technical investigations for subsurface strata, level of water table,

perform

to

satisfactorily as a drainage layer.

seepage flow

The

etc.

drainage layer shall not have material


(v)

finer than 75

micron

Identification of areas requiring sub-

size.

base drainage.
(iv)

suitable filter of granular material or


(vi)

Any

other relevant information.

geo-textile to act as filtration and


separation layer shall be incorporated

IRC:SP:19,

between the subgrade and sub-base

IRC:SP:50 may be referred

prevent clogging. Reference

made

to Section 5 of this

may

to

IRC:SP:48 and
to.

be

Manual.

Survey, Investigations and Design

6.8

IRC:SP:42,

6.8.2

Design Report

The design

report shall include:

Report

The Concessionaire

(i)

Estimation of design discharge

(ii)

Design of surface drains

(iii)

Design of sub-surface drains

(iv)

Drainage arrangement plan

(v)

Specifications of drains

(vi)

Any

shall carry out proper

surveys and investigations for detailed design

of the drainage system. The proposal for

drainage system supported with survey


investigation report and detailed design report
shall

be submitted

for review

6.8.1

to the

Independent Engineer

and comments,

if

any.

Survey and Investigations

Drainage

additional information as required

by the Independent Engineer for review

Studies

of the drainage system.

The survey and

52

investigation and drainage

Section 7

Design of Structures

SECTION

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
7.1

General

(viii)

Any

utility services to

structures
(i)

All

new

shall

structures

up

to

60

shall

Schedule-B

length

of

be taken on the

be

specified

in

Concession

the

Agreement.

be constructed with an overall

width between outermost faces of the


railings/parapets/crash barriers equal to
the

roadway width of

7.2

the approaches.
(i)

(ii)

new

All

structures

length shall have

more than 60

minimum

7.5

(ii)

(iii)

Concession Agreement,

where

shall

In Seismic

(iv)

between the outermost faces of

V, necessary

All the

components of structures

be designed for a service

life

shall

of 100

years except appurtenances like crash


barriers,

wearing surface and rubberized

components
elastomeric

All bridges shall be high level bridges,

unless specified otherwise in the

expansion joints and

in

bearings.

All

the

requirements to achieve durability and

Concession Agreement.

serviceability shall be implemented.

All structures shall be designed in

(v)

accordance with the relevant IRC

For bridges

marine environment,

in

special precautions as specified in

Codes, Standards and Specifications.

Schedule-B
Agreement

(vi)

Zones IV and

taken as per Clause 222 of IRC: 6.

footpaths shall be provided.

(v)

areas.

dislodgement of superstructure shall be

the crash barriers or railings. Raised

(iv)

up

be

constructed with an overall width of

IRC: 6.

design related precautions against


structures with footpaths,

so specified in Schedule-B of the

12

be

Raised footpath shall be provided in


built

Schedule-B of the Concession

New

stresses shall

wide

Agreement.

(iii)

The design loads and


as per

carriageway, unless specified otherwise


in

Design Loading and Stresses

All railway level crossings (except

of

the

Concession

be taken. (Refer para

shall

7.22)

railway sidings) shall be replaced with

ROBs/RUBs,
otherwise

in

unless

specified

Schedule-B

7.3

Widening

Reconstruction

of

Existing Structures

of the

Concession Agreement.
7.3.1
(vii)

Typical cross sections of the

new

culverts and bridges for a 2-lane

highway

Existing Culverts

are given in Figs. 7.1 to 7.4.

(i)

All culverts which are structurally

distressed

shall

be

specified

in

55

IRC:SP:73-2007

Schedule-B of the Concession


Agreement and shall be reconstructed
as new structures.

designed as per the relevant

MOSRTH
(iv)

(ii)

All existing culverts which are not to

be reconstructed
to the

shall

IRC Codes/

Specifications.

Innovative structures like continuous


bridges, precast pre-tensioned girder

be widened equal

bridges and segmental bridges

may be

adopted, where considered appropriate.

roadway width of approaches.

The design of continuous bridges


73.2

Existing Bridges

shall

be governed by IRC:SP:66. Design of


segmental bridges shall be governed by

(i)

All the bridges which are structurally

distressed

(ii)

shall

be

specified

tensioned girder bridges shall be

Schedule-B of the Concession


Agreement and shall be reconstructed
as new structures.

7.5

The bridges which

All the structures shall have adequate waterway.

narrower

than

are

7.5

sound but
m width

(carriageway) shall be widened where

specified

(iii)

IRC:SP:65 and design of pre-cast pre-

in

Schedule-B

in

of

governed by IRC:SP:71.

Hydrology

The design discharge

shall

be evaluated for

flood of 50-year return period.

the

Concession Agreement.

7.6

Sub-Surface Investigations

All existing bridges in sound condition

7.6.1

The Concessionaire

with 7.5

wide carriageway

be

shall

shall carry out

independent sub-surface investigations to


establish the soil parameters required for

retained.

detailed design of each foundation separately,

7.4

Structure Types

if

necessary, in accordance with relevant

provisions
(i)

Bridge superstructure may be of


reinforced

concrete,

IRC:78

of

and

MOSRTH

Specifications.

pre-stressed

concrete or steel-concrete composite

7.6.2

construction.

overpasses,

For single span structures (bridges,

ROBs

etc.),

bores shall be taken

at

each of the abutment locations. For structures


(ii)

Wherever box

girders are proposed for

superstructure, the

minimum

clear

depth inside the box shall be 1.50

with

openings in the
diaphragms and box to facilitate
inspections. Haunches of minimum size
of 300 mm (horizontal) and 150 mm

having more than one span,


shall be

shall be

provided

at

locations.

7.7

Culverts

7.7.1

New

Culverts

Reinforced concrete pipes for culverts shall be


of

Bridge foundation and substructure

be of masonry or plain or

reinforced concrete. These will be

56

each of the foundation

the

extreme corners of the box section.

shall

at

one bore

suitable

(vertical)

(iii)

taken

at least

NP

type,

of IS: 458.

new

conforming

Minimum

pipe culverts shall

diameter).

to the

requirements

diameter of pipes for

be 1200

mm

(Internal

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

7.7.2

Existing Culverts

(iii)

The sheathings
steel as

(i)

shall

be either in mild

per clause 3.6.1 or

Existing pipe culverts of diameter 900

per clause 3.6.2 of IRC: 18.

mm

comply with

and above, which are

sound

in

They

as

shall

the requirements specified

Appendix 1 A/IB of IRC: 18 and the


Concessionaire shall obtain a test

condition and functioning satisfactorily,

may

HDPE

in

be extended using pipes of same

from the

certificate of confirmation

diameter.

manufacturer and furnish for review


(ii)

mm

than 900
pipes of

(iii)

shall

be replaced with

mm

minimum 1200

(a) Suitable

Engineer,

shall

be

if

Independent

of

any, before bringing the

proposed type of sheathing to the

diameter.

bedding for pipes

comments

and

All culverts having pipe diameter less

(iv)

In order to

site.

keep the number of joints

minimum

provided as per Clause 2904 of

in a duct to the

MOSRTH

sheathings shall be as long as practical

Specifications

possible, the

from handling and transportation


(b)

Minimum

cushion of 600

mm shall

without

considerations

getting

damaged. Sheathing damaged during

be provided for pipe culverts.

handling or transportation shall not be


(iv)

made good and used

Floor protection shall be as specified


in the relevant

IRC

works.

Specifications.
(v)

7.8

in the

The

joints of the

shall

Prestressing

mild

steel

sheathings

be water tight complying with the

requirements given in Appendix 2 of


(i)

The Concessionaire

shall

IRC: 18.

engage

specialized agency in consultation with

Independent Engineer for rendering


total

service

(vi)

strands shall be mechanized.

The

contract.

Concessionaire shall also obtain the


(vii)

necessary

certificate

from

the

Temporary tendons

shall

be inserted in

the sheathing or the sheathing shall

specialized agency engaged, that the

work has been

Pull-in or push-in of the prestressing

stiffened by other suitable

carried out in accordance

be

method

during concreting. Cables shall be

with the prescribed standards and

threaded after the concreting. Tendons

specifications.

shall not

be placed

until

immediately

Tendons shall be
handled with care to avoid damage or
prior to stressing.

(ii)

The Concessionaire

shall

submit

fabrication drawings, detailing of

prestressing

contamination, to either tendon or the

anchorages,

cables,

sheathing.

couplers, chairs and supports, templates

or

Any tendon damaged

or

contaminated shall be cleaned or

forms for holding anchorage

replaced.

assemblies, stressing schedule, etc for

review and comments of Independent


Engineer,

if

to the scheduled date of

(viii)

Prestressing accessories like jacks,

45 days prior

anchorages, wedges, block plates,

commencement

couplers etc being patented items shall

any, at least

of the prestressing work.

be obtained from only authorized

57

IRC:SP:73-2007

manufacturers with in-house testing

(xiv)

Guidelines for use of external and

unbonded prestressing tendons

facilities.

in

bridge structures can be considered as


(ix)

All prestressing components and

accessories
acceptance

shall

be

subject

and reviewed prior

tests

appropriate.

to

on the works. Testing

their actual use

per IRC:SP:67, wherever considered

to

7.9

Form Work

of anchorage cable assemblies shall be

carried

out

with

consultation

in

The Concessionaire

shall

be responsible for the

workable design and methodology for

Independent Engineer. Couplers which

safe,

connect two tendons

temporary or permanent forms, staging and

in the

centering required for supporting and forming

form

to

continuous tendon shall be tested

same way

as anchorages

formed by

the concrete of shape, dimensions

shown on

finish as

mechanical means.

the drawings.

all

and surface

The following

guidelines shall be adopted:


(x)

Jacks and

pumps

shall

be got calibrated

from any accredited laboratory prior


use and then

at intervals

to

(i)

Only

(ii)

Shuttering oil (release agent) used shall

steel

formwork

shall

be permitted.

not exceeding

three months.

be such, which permits easy removal


(xi)

Grouting shall be carried out as early

of shutters without leaving stains or

as possible, but not later than 10 days

other marks on the surface of the

of stressing of a tendon. Grouting of

concrete. Requirements given under

Clause 3.5 of IRC:87 shall also be

post-tensioned cables shall be carried

out as per the


specified in

recommended

complied with.

practice

Appendix 5 of IRC:

18.
(iii)

(xii)

In case of tubular staging of heights

Jointing of pre-cast units by application

more than 10 m,

of cement mortar shall not be permitted.

be paid to the structural adequacy of

The Concessionaire

the system, efficacy of the connections

shall

submit

special attention shall

adequate data in support of the


proposed method of jointing the precast units for the review and comments

(clamps etc), and


Foundation blocks

of Independent Engineer,

be provided under the base plates to

if

any.

thickness in

Ml 5

foundations.
of

adequate

cement concrete

shall

prevent unequal settlements. All bent

Whatever may be

method of

the

jointing, the holes of prestressing steel


shall

be accurately made to meet one

another in true alignment

at

ends and

tubular props shall be straightened

before re-use and the

deviation from straightness


1

in

its

length shall not be re-

even transfer of compression

used. For re-used props, suitable

from one

unit to another.

reduction in the permissible loads shall

Care

shall

be taken to ensure that the

jointing material does not enter the duct

or

press

the

sheath

prestressing steel.

58

600 of

more than

to ensure

be
(xiii)

member with

against

the

made

condition

depending upon
accordance
in

their

with

recommendations of the manufacturer

and as reviewed by Independent


Engineer.

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

(iv)

In

case

of

concrete

prestressed

(vii)

Format for reporting of

tests results.

members, the side forms shall be


removed as early as possible and the
soffit forms shall permit movement of

following information to Independent Engineer

member

for review

without

restraint,

when

Form supports and


forms for cast-in-situ members shall not

prestress

is

applied.

be removed

until sufficient prestress has

been applied

(b)

The Concessionaire

submit the

shall

and comments,

if

any, regarding

proposed proprietary system of piling:

(i)

Diameter, length and type of pile


proposed for the structure;

to carry all anticipated

loads during construction stage.


(ii)

7.10

Foundations and Sub-structures

7.10.1

The design of foundations and

structures shall

7.10.2

conform

to

to

sub-

per

Section

(iii)

(iv)

shall

shall

2500

of

any;

along

with

manufacturers and

the

name

names

of

of process/

be provided
system;

MOSRTH
(v)

Details of projects

where the process/

system has been successfully used;

7.10.3 Pile Foundations

The construction of

if

of license/

Details of plant and equipment to be

used

conform

Specifications.

(a)

Authenticated copies
agreement,

Open Foundations

IRC:78. Floor protection

as

along with specifications and standards;

IRC:78.

The design of open foundations

General features of the process/system

pile foundation in

(vi)

Limitations, if any;

(vii)

Acceptance

bridges has been introduced rather recently. The

design of pile foundations shall be done as per

specialized

literature

and IRC:78. The


(viii) Installation

Concessionaire shall submit a method statement

(ix)

be supported by the following:


Bore-log details for each foundation;

(ii)

Design assumptions;

&

and

criteria;

maintenance procedure

and schedule;

Independent Engineer for review and


comments, if any. The method statement shall
to

(i)

tests

7.10.4

(a)

Performance Warranty
Well Foundations

For conventional method of well sinking,

the Concessionaire shall submit a


(iii)

Design calculations both for new

pile

or group of piles and for pile type;


(iv)

Type of

piles-

Bored

cast-in-situ piles,

method

statement to Independent Engineer for review

and comments,

if

any, including the following :-

(i)

Design calculations and drawings,

(ii)

Procedure for sinking and plugging of

driven piles and girder piles;


(v)

Procedure adopted for installation of

well,

piles;
(iii)

(vi)

Arrangements for load

Format for reporting of

test results.

testing of piles;

59

IRC:SP:73-2007

system of well sinking

(b) If proprietary

jack

down method

proposed

is

Concessionaire

to

be used, the

submit

shall

like

relevant

information to Independent Engineer for review

and comments,

The Concessionaire

Method Statement

to

submit the

Independent Engineer for

review and comments,


following inter

shall

if

any, indicating the

alia:

any, covering the following

if

(i)

inter-alia:

(i)

7.12.2

General features of the system along

(ii)

with specifications and standards and

Sources of materials,

Design, erection and removal of


formwork,

justification for the thickness of steining

proposed

(iii)

be adopted;

to

Layout of casting yard together with


necessary details,

(ii)

Authenticated copies of license/


agreement,

(iv)

any;

if

Production, transportation, laying and

curing of concrete,
(iii)

Details of plant and equipment to be

used

along

with

the

names

(v)

Sequence of concreting

in cast-in-situ

of
construction, side shifting of girders, if

manufacturers and name of process/

applicable and placing of girders

on the

system;
bearings,
(iv)

Details of projects where the system


(vi)

Details of construction joints,

(vii)

Prestressing system,

(viii)

Methodology and equipment

has been successfully used;

(v)

Limitations,

(vi)

Acceptance

(vii) Installation

if

tests

&

if

required,

any;

and

criteria;

for side

and launching of pre-cast

shifting
girders,

maintenance procedure

and schedule;

(ix)

Key personnel

for execution

and

supervision,
(viii) Performance

7.11

Warranty
(x)

Testing and sampling procedure,

(xi)

Equipment

Approach Slabs

Approach

provision in Clause 217 of IRC: 6 and Section

2700 of

details.

slab shall be provided as per

MOSRTH

7.13

Bearings

7.13.1

All bearings shall be easily accessible

Specifications.

7.12 Superstructures

for inspection,

maintenance and replacement.

Design and specifications of bearings

shall

be

and IRC: 18 respectively. The

IRC:83 (Part I, II & III). Spherical


bearings shall conform to the requirements of
BS: 5400. The materials of bearings may,

and steel-concrete composite

however, conform to the relevant BIS codes

super structures shall conform to IRC: 22 and

nearest to the specifications specified in BS:

IRC: 24 respectively.

5400. The drawing of bearings shall include

7.12.1

The

design

of

reinforced

and

prestressed concrete super structures shall be


as per IRC:21

design of

60

steel

as per

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

the layout plan

showing exact location on top

manufacturer or to have a major discrepancy

of pier and abutment cap and the type of

in material specifications or fail to

bearings

acceptance

fixed/free/rotational at each

i.e.

criteria, shall

meet the

be rejected.

location along with notes for proper installation.

Expansion Joints

7.14
7.13.2

The Concessionaire

procure

shall

bearings only from the manufacturers approved

by

Structures shall have

i)

minimum number

of expansion joints. This

MOSRTH.

may be

achieved by adopting longer spans,


7.13.3

The Concessionaire

making the superstructure continuous


using integrated structures.
or

submit

shall

detailed specifications, designs and drawings

including

drawings

installation

maintenance

manual

replacement procedure

and

shall

conform

to

IRC:

the

SP:69. The Concessionaire shall furnish

the Independent

guarantee/proprietary indemnity bonds

incorporating
to

Expansion joints

Engineer for review and comments,

if

from the manufacturers/suppliers of

any.

expansion joints for a period of 10


7.13.4

The Concessionaire

shall

obtain a

years.

complete Quality Assurance Programme (QAP)

from the manufacturer for the review and


comments, if any, by Independent Engineer.
The QAP shall give full details of the process

Rubberized components of expansion

ii)

joints of all the existing structures older

than 15 years shall be replaced.

of quality control, raw material testing, various


stages of manufacture, testing on bearing

components

as well as testing

on complete

to

the

commencement

The wearing coat

i)

bearing in conformity with relevant part of

IRC:83 prior

Wearing Coat

7.15

shall

be cement

concrete in case of curved bridges and

of

box girder bridges,

manufacture of the bearings.

in other

cases

it

may

be either bituminous concrete or cement


7.13.5

The wearing coat shall have


two directional camber and shall be in
conformity with Section 2700 of

concrete.

In addition to the routine testing of the

materials and bearings at the manufacturer's

premises, the Concessionaire shall arrange

MOSRTH

random samples of one per cent


(minimum one number of each type) of

testing of

ii)

bearings from independent agency approved by

Independent Engineer. The bearings

shall

be

Specifications

Wearing coat in damaged/distressed


condition shall be replaced by
bituminous wearing coat.

selected by Independent Engineer and duly

sealed in his presence for dispatch to the

Reinforced

7.16

approved independent agency.

Earth

Retaining

Structures
7.13.6

The Concessionaire

shall

submit a

certificate of confirmation regarding quality

control measures taken during manufacture of


the bearings and the material conforming to
the prescribed standards and specifications. Full
lot

of bearings of the sample found to have

inferior specifications to those certified

by the

7.16.1

Reinforced earth retaining structures

shall not

be provided for height more than 6

and near water bodies. Such structures should

be

given

special

attention

in

design,

construction, maintenance and selection of

system/system design.

61

IRC:SP:73-2007

7.16.2

qualified and experienced technical

representative of the approved supplier/


manufacturer shall be present on

site

throughout

during the casting and erection phases, to ensure

works performed by the

that the quality of the

Concessionaire

is

in

Schedule-B of the Concession

specified, in

Agreement
7.19.2

Road Over Bridge (Road over Railway

line)

accordance with the


(i)

specifications.

In case the bridge

be provided

to

is

over an existing level crossing, 2-lane

River Training and Protective Works

7.17

bridges shall be constructed with


overall width as given in sub-para 7.1(i)

River training and protective works

shall

be

of this Section. The horizontal and

provided wherever required, for ensuring the

vertical clearances to

safety of bridges and their approaches on either

be as per requirement of the Railway

side.

The

special features

and design of various

be provided shall

authorities.

types of river training and protective works


shall

be

in

accordance with IRC:89.

(ii)

In general, the

the railway

7.18
(i)

Safety Barriers

boundary there

For bridges without foot paths, concrete

edge of the carriageway on

all

requirement of electric traction and

new

excavation for foundations shall be


sufficiently

The type design

as per IRC:5.

away

so as not to endanger

the safety of the running tracks.

for the crash barriers

may be adopted

The
(iii)

The Concessionaire

shall

design loading for the crash barriers


to obtain approvals

(iii)

be as per Clause 209.7 of IRC:6.

The

be provided on the outer

be replaced by crash
in

designs and

shall

be in accordance with relevant

IRC

codes.

railings of existing bridges shall

specified

all

The design of structure

authorities.

side of footpath.

(iv)

of

be required

drawings from the concerned Railway

For bridges with foot paths, pedestrian


railing shall

no solid

provision of vertical clearances as per

at the

bridges.

shall

is

that in

embankment, provision is made for


future expansion of railway line,

crash barriers shall be provided

(ii)

Railways require

barriers,

Schedule-B

(iv)

Railway boundary

where

of

The construction of

ROB

shall

within the

be under the

supervision of Railway officers.

the

Concession Agreement.
(v)

(v)

Approach gradient
than

Parapets/Railings of the existing

shall not

be steeper

in 40.

bridges/culverts to be repaired/replaced
shall

be specified

in

Schedule-B of the

Road under Bridges (Road under

Railway

Concession Agreement.
7.19

7.19.3

Rail-Road Bridges

(i)

line)

Full

roadway

approaches shall
7.19.1

ROB/RUB

shall

be provided on

all

railway level crossings, unless otherwise

62

structure.

The

width as in the
pass below the bridge

service roads shall be

continued in the bridge portion also.

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

(ii)

The

vertical

be

as

and

per

lateral clearances shall

guidelines

given

Repairs and Strengthening

7.23

in

Repairs and Strengthening of structures to

(i)

Section 2 of this Manual.

be carried out

These

(iii)

structures shall be designed to

carry railway loads.


shall

The Concessionaire

be required to obtain approvals of

shall

be specified in Schedule-

of the Concession Agreement This shall be

based on detailed condition survey of existing


structures

and

shall bring out the nature

and

designs and drawings from the

extent of repairs to be carried out, covering the

concerned railway authorities. The


design of structure shall be in
accordance with relevant Railway

following in addition to other specific

all

requirements:-

Repair/replacement of damaged railings

(a)

codes.

and parapets, provision of crash

The construction of

(iv)

RUB

barriers,

and
approaches shall be undertaken

its

conformity with the terms specified

in

in

(b)

the approval granted by the Railway

Replacement of wearing coat (old


wearing coat shall be removed and
replaced by bituminous wearing coat),

authorities.
(c)

Replacement of expansion

(d)

Replacement of bearings,

(e)

Structural repairs to substructure/super

joints,

Grade Separated Road Structures

7.20

The location and type of grade

7.20.1

separated road structures to be provided on the

Project

Highway

shall be as

structure,

specified in

Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.


(f)

7.20.2

The

vertical

and

lateral clearances shall

be as per requirements given in Section 2 of


this

Manual. Design of structures

shall

to the requirements specified in this

conform
Manual.

Repair to flooring and protection works.

The Concessionaire

(ii)

submit repairs

shall

and strengthening plan for structures


(i)

above

to

in

para

Independent Engineer for review

and comments,

if

For

any.

all

other structures

with minor deficiencies, not affecting structural

Drainage

7.21

inadequacies, appropriate repair measures

may

be proposed and submitted to Independent

An

effective drainage system for the bridge

deck structure

shall

so as to ensure that water from the deck

taken

down

by adequate

to

Engineer for review and comments,

any.

if

be planned and designed

ground

is

level/ drainage courses

size of drainage spouts

and pipes.

work shall be
carried out in accordance with IRC:SP:40 or
by any other acceptable method according to
(iii)

Strengthening/rehabilitation

international practice.

7.22

Structures in Marine Environment


(iv)

The Concessionaire

shall take

up repair

Necessary measures/treatments for protecting

and widening of existing bridge

bridges in marine environment shall be as

site

specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

diversion of traffic so as to ensure that a

Agreement.

flow

only after making

of

traffic

is

all

at a particular

arrangement for

smooth

maintained.

The

63

IRC:SP:73-2007

Concessionaire shall take

all

guard against any accident of


such diversion and shall use

all

precautions to
traffic

due

(ii)

Hydrological investigation report


including design discharge calculation

to

necessary road

for the bridges, in case of

any change

signs, etc. for the purpose. After completion of

in the

repair and widening of the existing bridge,

as specified in para 7.5 above.

proposed waterway of any bridge

temporary works carried out for such diversions


shall

be made good by the Concessionaire.

(iii)

Design and drawings of foundations,


substructure and superstructure of

7.24

Design Report

The Concessionaire
report

including

structures.

shall furnish the design

the

following

to

(iv)

Detailed report regarding the bridges

whose width

the

and

Independent Engineer for his review and

width

comments,

improvement.

(i)

if

any.

Sub surface exploration report as per


IRC:78 as specified in para 7.6 above.

Roadway

Parapet

(v)

Any

is less

the

than the roadway

proposal

for

its

other information relevant to the

design report.

12.0

r Parapet

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Width of

culvert at deck level

(Plain/rolling terrain)

2-lane carriageway

Fig. 7.1

64

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Roadway

12.0

Crash barrier

Crash barrier

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Width of bridge (without footpath)


(Plain/rolling terrain

up

to

60

at

deck

level

length)

2-lane carriageway

Fig. 7.2

7.5

Carriageway

Crash barrier

Crash barrier

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Width of bridge

at

(Bridges above 60

deck

level

length)

2-lane carriageway

Fig. 7.3

65

IRC:SP:73-2007

Total width 12.0

0.25

1.5

1.5

8.5

0.25

Carriageway
Pedestrian

Footpath

Footpath

Pedestrian

Railing
Railing

Note:
All dimensions are in metres.

Width of bridge

at

deck

level

(Built-up area)

2-lane carriageway with footpath

Fig. 7.4

66

Section 8

Materials and SpeciHcations


for Structures

SECTION

MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURES


General

8.1

Engineer for review and comments,


details pertaining to the product/

All materials to be used in the structures

(i)

shall

be in conformity with the IRC/

covering

if any,

the

process/system

inter-alia:

MOSRTH

Specifications, unless specified otherwise in this

General features of the product/process/

(a)

Section. If the Concessionaire proposes to use

system along with specifications and

any material, which

standards adopted for the product/

MOSRTH

is

not covered in IRC/

Specifications,

relevant Indian Standards,

it

if

shall

conform

process/system;

to

there are any, or

to the requirements specified in this

Manual.

Authenticated copies of license/

(b)

agreement;

Proprietary products proven by international

usage in comparable bridge projects, proposed

Name

(c)

to

be used

shall

of manufacturer and

name of

be supported with authenticated


product/process/system;

licensing arrangement with the manufacturer.


Details of projects where the product/

(d)
(ii)

The Concessionaire

identify the

shall

process/system has been successfully

proposed sources of materials and submit the


used;

proposal to IE for review and comments,


any, prior to delivery. If

it is

found

that

if

proposed

any;

(e)

Limitations,

(f)

Acceptance

test

(g)

Installation

&

if

sources of supply do not produce uniform and

satisfactory products at any time during

and

criteria;

execution, the Concessionaire shall procure

acceptable materials conforming to the


specifications

(iii)

and schedule; and

from other sources.

The samples required

supplied well in advance,

for review shall be


at least

Performance warranty

(h)

48 hours or
(v)

minimum

maintenance procedure

The Concessionaire

shall set

up a

full-

time required for carrying out the


fledged laboratory at

relevant tests, whichever

is

site,

as per the

agreement

more. Delay in
for testing of all materials and finished

submission of samples shall not be acceptable


products.

He

shall

make arrangements

for

as a reason for delay in completion of the

additional/confirmatory testing of any material

works/extension of time for completion.

including imported materials/products for


(iv)

In case of

manufactured items, the

Concessionaire shall submit to the Independent

which

facilities

at

site

laboratory are not

available.

69

IRC:SP:73-2007

8.2

Structural Concrete

8.2.1

The Concrete

conform

be duly considered and adopted:

for use in structures shall

to the provisions in Clauses 302.6 to

302.9 of IRC:21 and Section 1700 of

Concrete (HPC)
shall

is

proposed

conform

to

to

MOSRTH
(ii)

the provisions of
(iii)

Acceptance

produced

criteria for concrete shall

conform

shall

conform

to the

to

(iv)

Permeability test for concrete,

(v)

Testing of aggregates for alkali-sihca

be

requirements as

reaction.

dense and well compacted concrete

provides effective protection against corrosion

of steel in reinforced/prestressed concrete

members. To achieve

this,

8.2.4

for concrete shall

be

to construction.

the Concessionaire

pay special attention

The mix designs

got reviewed by the Independent Engineer prior

Cement

8.3
shall

Compatibility testing of admixtures


with type of cement,

specified below.

8.2.2

as per IRC:21,

Clause 302.10 of IRC:21.

Clause 302.11 of IRC:21. Concrete

to

Regular testing of water used for

making concrete

be used, the

IRC:SP:70. Sampling and Testing of Concrete


shall be as per

chloride content in concrete

as specified in IRC:21,

Wherever High Performance

Specifications.

same

Minimum

(i)

to the following

elements, which have a bearing on the

Any

production of a durable concrete :-

be used for the works subject to limitations,

type of cement specified in IRC:21

may
if

any, specified therein.


(i)

Quality

of

materials

cement,

aggregate, water and admixtures, both

Coarse Aggregates

8.4

mineral and chemical,


(i)
(ii)

Mix

(iii)

Mixing and placing of concrete

design,

Before the commencement of the works,

least three

samples

procedure laid

down

in

at

accordance with the

in IS:

2430

shall

be taken

for each quarry source to ascertain the quality,

Concrete shall preferably be produced


suitabihty and fitness of the available material
in a

mixing and batching

plant,

for use in the works. Fresh tests shall be


(iv)

conducted, in case there

Vibration and compaction,

is

any change

in the

source or the type of rock being quarried.


(V)

Curing,

(vi)

Cover

proposal, along with a copy of test reports,


shall

to reinforcement/tendons,

and

(ii)

in

70

The following

points are also important

production of durable concrete, which shall

be submitted to the Independent Engineer

for review

(vii) Detailing.

8.2.3

The

if

any.

Aggregate having more than 0.5% of

sulphate as

than

and comments,

2%

of

SO^ with water absorption more


its

own

weight shall not be used.

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

In case of doubt, the alkali-aggregate

(iii)

reactivity shall be tested in accordance with


IS:

2386

to the

comments,

if

any.

(Part 6). Coarse aggregates having

(ASR)

positive alkali-silica reaction

shall not

8.7

Chemical Admixtures

8.7.1

Chemical Admixtures are proprietary

be used.

The maximum value of

(iv)

Independent Engineer for review and

flakiness index

for coarse aggregates shall not exceed 35

items and shall be obtained only from reputed

manufacturers with proven track record, quality


assurance and full-fledged laboratory facilities

percent.

for manufacture

8.7.2

and

testing.

Sand/Fine Aggregates

8.5

(i)

and

All fine aggregates shall conform to IS:383


tests for

conformity shall be carried out as

per IS:2386 (Part

followed

in

shall

be

and use of the

their selection

admixtures :-

The fineness

to VIII).

(i)

modulus of

The following guidelines

fine aggregates shall

The chemical admixtures

shall

comply

be between

with

9103

IS:

meet

and

the

2.0 and 3.5.

requirements stipulated in Clause 5.5


of IS:456.

Before the commencement of the works,

(ii)

at least three

samples as per

IS:

2430

shall

be
(ii)

taken for each quarry source, to ascertain the


quality, suitability

and

nitrogen

fitness of the available

test reports

shall

or

containing

nitrates,

sulphides, sulphates, or any other

material for use in the works and the proposal

along with a copy of

The admixtures generating hydrogen or

material

be

liable

affect

to

the

reinforcement/embedments or concrete

submitted to the Independent Engineer for


shall not

review and comments,

if

(iii)

Fine aggregates having positive alkali-

(iii)

silica reaction shall

Compatibility of admixture with the

cement being used

not be used.

shall

be tested before

actual use in the works.

The

test shall

be repeated in case of change of type

Water

8.6

be used.

any.

or grade or source of cement.


(i)

Water

for use in the

works for mixing and


(iv)

Admixtures

shall

not

impair the

curing shall be in conformity with Clause 302.4


durability of concrete.

They

shall not

of IRC:21.

combine with the ingredients


(ii)

three

start

form

be tested

harmful compounds or endanger the

of works and thereafter every

protection of reinforcement against

Water from each source

before the

to

months and

after

shall

each monsoon,

till

corrosion.

the

completion of the works and proposal along


(v)

with a copy of

test reports shall

The packing of admixtures

be submitted
indicate the

name of

shall clearly

the manufacturer/

71

IRC:SP:73-2007

name (name

supplier, brand

of the

(x)

Shelf

maximum and minimum

life,

product), date of production and expiry,

temperature for storage, precautions to

batch/ identification number.

be taken while mixing and any other


instructions for use.

8.7.3

The Concessionaire

Certificate

obtain a

shall

from manufacturer/supplier and

submit to the Independent Engineer for review

and comments,

The

any.

if

Certificate shall

include the following information concerning

8.7.4

requirements of IS:9103, the proposed


admixture shall also satisfy the following
conditions;

the proposed admixture;


(i)

(i)

and adverse

effects, if any, of

over and

(ii)

under dosage.

meet the requirements indicated

"Water reducing Admixtures".

for

cement

The chloride content of


shall not

the admixture

exceed 0.2 per cent by weight

when

of admixture
(ii)

and "Super-Plasticisers"

"Plasticisers"
shall

Normal dosage with permissible range


as a percentage of weight of

addition to conforming to the

In

tested in accordance

Chemical names of main ingredients.


with IS:6925.

(iii)

Chloride content,

if

any, expressed as a

(iii)

percentage by weight of the admixture.

(iv)

Except where resistance to freezing and

thawing and

to disruptive

deicing salts

necessary, the air content

is

action of

Values of dry material content with


relative density of the admixture,

of freshly mixed concrete in accordance

which

with the pressure method given in


can be used for Uniformity Tests.
IS:
(v)

pH

(vi)

Whether or not

1199 shall not be more than 2

percent

value and colour.

higher

than

that

of the

corresponding control mix and in any


the proposed admixture

used

per

as

the

case, not higher than 3 percent of the

when

leads to the entrainment of air

test

mix.

manufacturer's

recommended dosage and

if so, to

what

(iv)

Uniformity

tests

essential to

extent.

on the admixtures are

compare

qualitatively the

composition of different samples taken


(vii)

Where two

or

proposed

be used in any one mix,

to

more admixtures

from batch

are

to batch or

at different times.

from same batch

The

tests that shall

be performed along with permissible

confirmation as to their compatibility.

variations over the values stated


(viii)

Confirmation that there

is

no

risk of

by the

manufacturer are given below;

corrosion of reinforcement or other

embedments.
(ix)

Latest date of test and


laboratory.

72

name

of the

Dry

within 3 percent and

Material

5 percent of liquid and

Content:

solid admixture

respectively.

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Ash

within

Content:

value stated by the

Guidance may be taken from BS:4447. The

manufacturer.

modulus of

percent of the

acceptance tests prior to actual use on works.

conform

tests, shall

Relative

within 2 percent

to the

per acceptance

design value, which

be within a range not more than 5 per

shall

Density:

elasticity value, as

cent between the

maximum and

the

minimum.

(for liquid admixtures)

Reinforcement/Untensioned Steel

8.8.2

All tests relating to the concrete

(v)

admixtures

be

shall

periodically

an

at

conducted
independent

laboratory and compared with the data

furnished by the manufacturer.

(i)

All reinforcing steel for use in works, shall

be procured from original producers or their


authorized agents.

(ii)

Only new

Every bar
8.8

steel shall

shall

be brought to the

site.

be inspected before assembling

Steel

on the work and defective,


8.8.1

Steel for

be discarded. Cracked ends of bars shall

shall

Pre stressing

or burnt bars

brittle

be cut before use.

The

(i)

prestressing steel shall be of any of the


(iii)

All reinforcement shall be free

rust

and coats of

following types:

(a)

drawn

Plain hard

to

IS:1785

(Part-

steel

wire confonning

(Part-I)

and IS:1785

substances, which

position shall be free

II),

of

paints,

(e)

destroy or reduce bond.

from loose

mud

oil,

rust or scales,

or

chloride

to IS:6003,

Where cleaning of corroded portions

High

tensile steel bar

conforming

to

stress

conforming

to IS: 6006,

Uncoated

method of cleaning such

relieved

stress relieved

conforming

in respect

relaxation loss

strand

and

review and comments,


8.8.3

low relaxation

to IS: 14268.

at

of modulus of

elasticity,

Mild

Steel

steel,

if

any.

for Bearings

high tensile

steel, cast steel, steel

forgings, and stainless steel shall

conform

IRC:83

(Part

to

of

III).

1000 hours, minimum

ultimate tensile strength, stress-strain curve etc.


shall

as

sand blasting or other method shall be

the provisions contained in clause 925.1

Data

is

submitted to the Independent Engineer for prior

Uncoated

steel

(ii)

in

contamination and other corrosion products.

IS:2090,

(d)

or any other

Cold drawn indented wire conforming

required, effective
(c)

may

mud

The reinforcement bars bent and fixed

coats
(b)

paints, oil,

from loose

8.8.4

Structural Steel

be obtained from the manufacturers.

Prestressing steel shall be subjected to

All structural steel, castings and forgings,


fasteners (bolts, nuts, washers

and

rivets),

73

IRC:SP:73-2007

welding consumables, wire ropes and cables


shall

conform

to the provisions of Clauses

after

review by the Independent Engineer shall

not be used in the works and shall be

505.1.2, 505.2, 505.3, 505.4 and 505.6 of

from

IRC: 24 respectively.

Such materials

site

by the Concessionaire
shall not

removed

at his cost.

be made acceptable

by any modifications.
8.9

Storage of Materials
8.10

All materials shall be stored

at

Reports to be submitted

proper places

so as to prevent their deterioration or intrusion

The Concessionaire

of foreign matter and to ensure the preservation

all

of their quality and fitness for the work.

Any

be used

in the Project

damaged

for review

74

otherwise considered defective

test results

of

Highway,

as specified in

QC documents, to the Independent Engineer

the

is

submit

materials and finished products proposed to

material which has deteriorated or has been


or

shall

and comments,

if

any.

Section 9

Traffic Control Devices

Road

Safety

Works

and

SECTION

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES AND


ROAD SAFETY WORKS
General

9.1

semi-permanent marking and provide

improved
Traffic control devices shall comprise

(i)

of

traffic signs,

road markings, safety

pedestrian railings, etc.

barriers,

Guidelines given in IRC:35, IRC:67

and Section 800 of the MOSRTH


Specifications shall be followed in
adopting appropriate road markings and
traffic signs, unless

otherwise specified

visibility

during night time and wet-

weather conditions. These shall be either reflex


lens type or solid white beads.

provided

at

These

shall

be

hazardous locations and while

approaching important intersections, to


supplement the paint or thermoplastic line
markings and road stretches passing through

municipal areas or village settlements and


habitations.

in this Section.

(ii)

The Concessionaire shall also follow


the guidelines and suggestions
stipulated in the

Safety

in

MOSRTH

"Manual

for

Road Design", while

designing, constructing, operating and

maintaining the two-lane highway.

Road Signs

9.3

There are three types of road signs

viz.,

mandatory/regulatory signs, cautionary/


warning

signs,

and informatory

signs. Locations

of signs shall conform to IRC: 67 and Section

800 of

MOSRTH

9.3.1

Sheeting

Specifications.

Road Markings

9.2

All road markings shall conform to IRC: 35.

Road markings

shall

markings such

as longitudinal

comprise of carriageway

The

retro-reflective sheeting shall

be used on

and object markings such as object within the

The sheeting shall be weatherresistant and show colourfastness. It shall be


new and unused and shall show no evidence of

carriageway, adjacent to carriageway and

cracking, scaling, pitting, blistering, edge lifting

marking on kerbs.

or curling and shall have negligible shrinkage

markings on

intersections, hazardous locations, parking, etc.

the signs.

or expansion.

Material

9.2.1

of having tested the

sheeting for these properties in an unprotected

Hot applied thermoplastic

(i)

A certificate

paint with

glass beads shall be used as carriageway

marking materials.

outdoor exposure facing the sun for two years

and

its

having passed these

tests

shall

be

obtained from a reputed laboratory by the

manufacturer of the sheeting and shall be


(ii)

Road marking
IS:

paint conforming to

164 shall be used for object

markings.

provided for review and comments,


the Independent Engineer.

The

if

any, of

reflective

sheeting shall be of High Intensity Grade with

encapsulated lens or with micro prismatic retro9.2.2

The

Raised Pavement Markers ( Cat's Eyes):

cat's

eyes or road studs are used to form

reflective

element material as specified by the

Government. The

retro-reflective surface after

77

IRC:SP:73-2007

cleaning with soap and water and

minimum

condition shall have the

of retro-reflection (determined

ASTM

with

Standard

in

in

dry

cut-outs. Screen-printing shall

be processed and

manner

co-efficient

finished with materials and in a

accordance

specified by the sheeting manufacturers.

4956-04) as indicated

For screen-printed transparent coloured areas

Tables 9.1 and 9.2.

on white sheeting, the co-efficient of

Messages/Borders

9.3.2

reflection shall not be less than

50%

retro-

of the

values of corresponding colour in Tables 9.1

The

messages (legends, letters, numerals etc.)

and borders

Table

shall either

9.2.

Minimum

High Intensity Grade


Sheeting (Encapsulated Lens Type) (Candelas Per Lux Per Square Metre)

9.1:

Acceptable

Observation

Entrance

Angle

Angle

0.1"^

Coefficient of Retro-Reflection for

White^

Yellow*

Green'^

Red*

Blue*

-4

300

200

54

54

24

0.1^

-h30

180

120

32

32

14

0.2

-4

250

170

45

45

20

0.2

-f-30

150

100

25

25

11

0.5

-4

95

62

15

15

7.5

0.5

+30

65

45

10

10

5.0

Minimum
^

and

be screen-printed or of

Coefficient of Retro-reflection

(RJ (cd-lx 'm

')

Value for 0.1 observation angles are supplementary requirements that shall apply only when specified by the purchaser

in the

contract or order.

Minimum

High Intensity MicroPrismatic Grade Sheeting (Candelas Per Lux Per Square Metre)

Table 9.2: Acceptable

Observation

Entrance

Angle

Angle

White*

Coefficient of Retro- Reflection for

Yellow*

Green*

Red*

Blue*

Fluorescent

Fluorescent

Fluorescent

Yellow-

Yellow*

Orange*

Green*

0.1B

-4

500

380

70

90

42

400

300

150

0.1"^

-h30

240

175

32

42

20

185

140

70

0.2

-4

360

270

50

65

30

290

220

105

0.2

+30

170

135

25

30

14

135

100

50

0.5

-4

150

110

21

27

13

120

90

45

0.5

+30

72

54

10

13

55

40

22

Minimum
"

Value for

Coefficient of Retro-reflection
0. 1

-)

obserx'ation angles are supplementary requirements that shall apply only

the contract or order

78

{RJ (cd-lx 'm

when

specified by the purchaser in

AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

Cut out messages and borders, wherever used,


shall

made

be

out of retro-reflective sheeting

(as per para 9.3.1), except those in black,

shall be

which

non-reflective as specified by the

tack free adhesive activated by heat applied in

a heat-vacuum applicator, in a manner


recommended by the sheeting manufacturer.
The adhesive shall be protected by an easily

manufacturer. The cutouts shall be bonded

removable

properly with the base sheeting in the manner

soaking in water or other solvent) and shall be

specified by the manufacturer.

suitable for the type of material of the base

liner

(removable by peeling without

plate used for the sign.

9.3.3

Colour Scheme

a durable

bond

The adhesive

it

shall not

colour scheme shall be in accordance

from the sign base

with IRC:67, the colours shall be as

instrument. In case of pressure sensitive

Ready

adhesive sheeting, the sheeting shall be applied

Mixed

Paints".

in

be possible to remove the sheeting

accordance

The colours
uniform when

one piece by use of sharp

the

manufacturer's

Sheeting with adhesives

and

requiring use of solvents or other preparation

seen in daylight or under

for adhesive shall be applied strictly in

shall be durable

normal headlights
Direction,

in

with

specifications.

(iii)

such that

Unless specified otherwise, the general

stipulated in IS:5 "Colour for

(ii)

form

smooth corrosion and weather

to

resistant surface of the base plate


(i)

shall

at night.

accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

and

destination

plate

9.3.5

Installation

identification signs shall have green

background and white messages

The

(legends, letters, numerals, etc.) and

mountings

borders.

them

sign posts, their foundations and sign

in a

shall

be so constructed as to hold

proper and permanent position against

the normal storm


(iv)

Colour scheme for

facility

information

signs, other useful information signs

and parking signs

shall

conform

to the

with an area upto 0.9

loads. Normally, signs

sqm

shall

be mounted on

a single post, and for greater area two or

more

supports shall be provided. Sign supports

may

provisions contained in IRC:67. In

be of mild

respect of informatory signs, the

Galvanized Iron (GI). Post end(s) shall be

messages/borders shall either be screen-

firmly fixed to the ground by

printed or of cutouts, while for warning

and regulatory

(v)

wind

signs, these shall be

steel

(MS), reinforced concrete or

means of properly
designed foundation. The work of foundation
shall conform to relevant IRC/CPWD/PWD

screen-printed.

Specifications.

Clustering and proliferation of road

All components of signs and supports, other

signs shall be avoided for enhancing

than the reflective portion and

their effectiveness.

be thoroughly descaled, cleaned, primed and

GI

posts shall

painted with two coats of epoxy paint.


9.3.4

part of

Adhesives

MS

Any

post below ground shall be painted

with three coats of red lead paint.

The sheeting

shall either

have a pressure-

sensitive adhesive of the aggressive tack

The

requiring no heat, solvent or other preparation

in the case

for adhesion to a

smooth clean

surface, or a

signs shall be fixed to the posts

by welding

of steel posts and by bolts and

washers of suitable size in the case of reinforced

79

IRC:SP:73-2007

concrete or GI posts. After the nuts have

culverts, pipes

been tightened, the

retaining walls, lighting supports, traffic signs

tails

furred over with

of the bolts shall be

hammer

prevent

to

and headwalls, cut slopes,

and signal supports,

trees

and

utility poles.

removal.
9.4.2

Important informatory signs such as


approaching important locations, like Toll
Plaza, major town shall be mounted on gantries,
in the form of overhead signs.
9.3.6

There are broadly three types of longitudinal


roadside safety barriers:

(a)

Flexible type (like wire-rope fencing)

(b)

Semi Rigid

Warranty and Durability

The Concessionaire
manufacturer

shall

seven year warranty for


(i)

"W

(ii)

Thrie

stipulated retro-reflectance of the retroreflective sheeting of high intensity grade

and comments,

hke

if

beam

type steel barriers

beam

type steel barriers

and

submit the same to the Independent Engineer


for review

type,

obtain from the

satisfactory field performance including

any.

These

of strong post type and

steel barriers are

usually remain functional after moderate


collisions, thereby eliminating the

Roadside Safety Barriers

9.4.

Types of Roadside Safety Barriers

immediate

There are two types of safety barriers

need for

repair.

viz.,

longitudinal roadside safety barriers and median

(c)

Rigid type (like concrete crash barriers)

9.4.3

Roadside Steel Barriers

safety barriers.

Warrants

9.4.1

(i)

The

longitudinal roadside barriers are basically

Design Aspects: The "W" beam type


safety barrier consists of a steel post

mm thick

also for preventing the vehicles veering off the

"W" beam rail element


which is spaced away from the posts.
The spacer minimizes vehicular

sharp curves. The warrants for a

snagging and reduces the likelihood of

meant

two types of roadside hazards


embankments and roadside obstacles and

i.e.

to shield

fill

section in

and 3

terms of the height and slope needing protection

a vehicle vaulting over the barrier.

with roadside barriers are shown in Fig.9.1.

steel posts

The

shall

barrier

having a

fill

is

not warranted for

slope of

3:

or

flatter.

embankment
The warrants

for roadside objects are mainly dependent

upon

the type of obstacle and the probability of their

being

hit.

barrier shall be installed only

the result of vehicle striking the barrier


to

be

is

if

likely

mm

rail shall

size

be 700

and posts

shall

and

5mm

thick.

mm
The

mm above ground level


be spaced 2

center. Typical details are

m center to

shown

in Fig.

9.2.

less severe than the severity of accident

resulting from the vehicle impacting the

unshielded obstacle.

Some

of the

commonly

encountered roadside obstacles are bridge

abutments and

80

and the blocking out spacer

both be channel section of 75

X 150

The

piers,

railing ends, roadside rock mass.

The

thrie

beam

safety barrier shall

have

posts and spacers similar to the ones

mentioned above for "W" beam type.

The

rail shall

be placed 850

mm

above

AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

the ground level. This barrier has higher


initial
is

less

cost than the

"W" beam

Table 9.3

Flare Rates

type but

Flare Rates

prone to damages due to vehicle

collisions especially for shallow angle

beam

impacts. Typical details of thrie


barrier are

shown

The "W" beam,

in Fig. 9.3.

the thrie

Rigid

Semi-rigid

barriers

barriers

100

17-1

1^.1

80

111

in

km

npr hour

beam, the

posts spacers and fasteners for steel


barriers shall be galvanized

Design speed

by hot dip
11:1

9:1

50

8:1

7:1

40

8:1

7:1

30

8:1

7:1

process.

End treatment

for steel barrier:

An

untreated end of the roadside barrier

can be hazardous,

if hit,

beam can

barrier

because the

penetrate

the

passenger compartment and cause the

impact vehicle

to stop abruptly.

The posts in the end treatment should


have the same cross sections as
provided in the main barrier.

End

treatments should therefore form an


integral part of safety barriers.

treatment should not spear vault or

End
roll

At road cross-sections

a vehicle for head-on or angled impacts.


the road transitions

The two end treatments recommended


for steel barriers are "Turned

Anchored

in

down

back slope".

rail is

over

The

prevent the

and

to

away from

minimize

the travelled

the

side

slopes

The

rail

element to

from pulling out of the

anchorage. The barrier can also be

to pass

anchored

an earth berm specially

in

constructed for this purpose, provided

unstable. In order to locate the barrier

terminal

back

anchored portion should develop a

without becoming airborne or

it

wi-th

tensile strength in the rail

intended to collapse

on impact, allowing the vehicle

flat

preferably not steeper than 10:1.

height to ground level, with a gentle

down

the

fill,

The back slope covering

be graded

or thrie sections, reduced from full

turned

to

anchored portion of the barrier should

Turned down guardrails have the "W"

slope over a distance of 8 to 9 m.

from cut

safety barriers can be anchored in


slopes.

guardrail and

in cutting or if

the

way

new berm

itself is

not a hazard to

The earth berm should be


made impervious to erosion.

the traffic.

driver's reaction to a

hazard near the road, by gradually


introducing a parallel barrier installation

or to transition a roadside barrier nearer


the roadway, such as a bridge parapet

or a railing, the turned

down

rail

should

be flared away from the roadway.


Suggested flare rates depend upon the
design speed and the type of barrier
(Table 9.3).

(iii)

Placement: Placement recommendations determine the exact layout of the


barrier

and should be made keeping

view the
and

lateral offset

flare rate.

The

in

of the barrier

final layout shall

be

a site-specific combination of these


factors.

The

away from

barriers should be as far

the traffic as possible

and

81

IRC:SP:73-2007

should

preferably

have

uniform

overturning of the vehicles.

clearance between the traffic and the

The concrete

hazard.

up

in lengths

As

travelled way. For long

barriers should not

The

distance between the barrier and the

shall

hazard should not be less than the

mix

of a

full

by an impact

mm cement concrete or hot

asphalt placed at the base of barrier,

than 75

embankments, a minimum distance of

mm

pavement

mm should be maintained between

600

be 25

to provide lateral restraint.

sized vehicle. In case of

the barrier and the start of

6 m, depending upon

be leaner than M30.


The minimum thickness of foundations

and continuous

deflection of the barrier

pre-cast

arrangements. Concrete grade for the

of the

stretches, this offset is not critical.

to

may be

the feasibility of transport and lifting

far as possible, the safety barrier

should be placed beyond 2.5

barrier

step

is

thick overlay

on the road

anticipated, the foundation

may be

However,

embankment

Where more

increased to 125

longitudinal

mm.

roadside

slope of a hazard to prevent the wheels

concrete barrier should have elaborate

from dropping over the edge. Typical

footing design which

details are

shown

is

structurally

safe, unless sufficient earth

in Fig. 9.4.

support

is

available.

Flatter flare
particularly

9.4.4

rates

may be

used,

where extensive grading

(ii)

End Treatment:

Safety barrier shall be

would be required to ensure a flat


approach from the travelled way,

provided with an end treatment, which

subject to the availability of right of

of terminating end of the median barrier

way.

within a length of 8

Roadside Concrete Barriers

shall

(iii)

be obtained by tapering the height

to

9 m.

Placement: Placement recommendations for roadside steel barriers, given

(i)

Design Aspects: Roadside concrete

in para 9.4.3 above, are applicable to

safety barriers are rigid barriers having

concrete barriers as well.

a sloped front face and a vertical back


face.

The recommended designs of

cast in-situ

shown
Based

9.4.5

and 9.6 respectively.

evaluation

of

(i)

way and

These destabilize the


balance and disturb its

the barriers.

vehicle

and the psychological effect

of barrier height on driver reaction, the

equilibrium before

most desirable height of the median


barrier is 800 mm. Variations upto 50

thus defeating the essential purpose of

mm in height of barrier can be made in

vehicle.

the total height of the barrier to


the site requirements.

It

is,

lower slope between 200

however,

mm

mm

safety

it

strikes the barrier,

and redirection of the impacting

meet

important to maintain the height of

82

Raised curbs or drains shall not be


provided between the travelled

vehicle

direction, sight distance, structural


stability

General

and pre-cast barriers are

in Figs. 9.5

on

the

and 350

so as to reduce the chances of

(ii)

In rural situations, both the roadside

and the median barriers


be

steel barriers.

shall preferably

Concrete barriers shall

be preferred in urban situations.

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

9.5

Safety during Construction

(ii)

Widening of an

existing road requires special

attention

traffic

to

diversion,

mm GSB + 150 mm WBM + 20


Mixed Seal Surfacing.
9.6

to the Independent Engineer for review


any.

The

Traffic

mm

and

Management Plan

Design Report

The Concessionaire
traffic

guidelines given in IRC:SP:55 and submitted

if

crust composition shall be of 150

traffic

management and road safety. A proper Traffic


Management Plan during construction shall be
formulated by the Concessionaire as per

comments,

The

AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

shall

submit proposals for

control devices and road safety works

together with drawings and details to the

Independent
comments,

if

Engineer for review and


any. The proposals shall include:

during construction shall be put in place before


the start of any construction activity.

(i)

Details covering type, location, material


specifications, installation details and

The execution of work

shall

be so planned that

the inconvenience to the traffic

is

minimal. The

temporary diversion, where constructed,

conform

(i)

to the following

minimum

Width of diversion road

the requisite warranties for satisfactory


field

shall

be equal

(as applicable) in

respect of road signs, road markings

standards:

shall

performance

and roadside safety


(ii)

Traffic

barriers;

Management Plan during

to the width of the existing carriageway

construction in accordance with the

but not less than 5.5 m.

requirement specified in para 9.5 above.

83

IRC:SP:73-2007

Fill section

Fill section

Fig. 9.1

84

height (m)

Warrants for roadside barriers on embankments

TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

75x150x5 Channel section

io

y
J
J

CT)

o
o

mm Thick

o
o
oo

Note:
All dimensions are in

Fig. 9.2

Typical details of

"W" beam

mm.

section

85

Thrie

beam back-up

plate (At posts

where

thrie-beam splice

does not occur)

Post and block

75x150x5
channel section

-1

Note:
All dimensions are in

Fig. 9.3

Typical details of thrie

beam

section

mm.

TRAFHC CONTROL DEVICES AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

600

mm

minimum

desirable

wJA^JA^JWJWJl

ry ^ ,v iv,Viiy
<

Fig. 9.4

Recommended

barrier placement

87

IRC:SP:73-2007

oo

ir:

098

88

01

018

TRAFHC CONTROL DEVICES AND ROAD SAFETY WORKS

t3

1
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T3

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89

Section 10

Toll Plazas

SECTION

10

TOLL PLAZAS
General

10.1

Concessionaire to procure the same on behalf

of the Government.

The Concessionaire shall provide required


number of Toll Plazas for collection of toll as
per the Concession Agreement. The fee
collection system shall be speedy, efficient and

user friendly.

The design of

the Toll Plazas

10.4

Lay out and design of

10.4.1

Stage construction of Toll Plaza in

respect of

number of toll

Toll Plaza

lanes shall be allowed.

should be such that they are aesthetically

However, other structures as envisaged

in the

pleasing and efficient and the fee collection

Concession Agreement shall be provided

at the

should be quick, courteous and adequately

staff

initial

stage itself

trained before deployment.

10.4.2

Location of Toll Plaza

10.2

(i)

General Lay Out

Lane width = 3.2

The location of Toll Plaza shall be indicated in


Schedule-C of the Concession Agreement.

and 4.1

in general

for oversize vehicles.

(ii)

Median
= 50 m

(iii)

Transition

Their locations shall be decided keeping in view

Width =

(a)

1.8

Length

(b)

the following factors:

(i)

Land

(ii)

Stream of

(iii)

Visibility for the approaching traffic,

availability,

10

may be

at Toll

provided

widened

to the

Plaza on either side.

on Toll Plaza,

traffic

(iv)

away

Reasonably

in

from two-lane section


width

(iv)

from

office building shall

The

be located taking

into consideration the future expansion.

road

intersections and/or rail crossings,

Provision for future expansion:

Typical layout plan of

2+2

Toll Plaza

is

given

in Fig. 10.1.

(v)

Free from risk of flooding and


submergence,

10.3

Land

etc.

10.4.3

for Toll Plaza

Number of Lanes

The number of

at Toll Plaza

lanes at the Toll Plaza in initial

stage should be corresponding to the forecast

Adequate land for Toll Plaza


to permit the provision of a

of 8

toll

lanes including

structures to be

location.

all

shall

shall be

traffic for at least

5 years.

minimum number

other buildings and

accommodated

Land

be acquired

at the Toll

Plaza

acquired by the

Government at its own cost. However,


Government may, if so specified, require

Forecast traffic

- Forecast

traffic in

vehicles/day

terms of

for

the

vehicles classified under

the

tollable category.

the

tollable vehicles

Non-

need not

93

IRC:SP:73-2007

considered

be

calculation of
lanes, as

toll

be allowed

for

facilities shall

number of
they would

to pass

The

(i)

be provided:

staff

posted

counters shall

at the

be provided with sufficient equipment

through

and small denomination notes/coins

a separate lane.

at

the start of each shift.

Peak hour

- Percentage

factor

of

traffic

travelling during peak

hour

Intercom

(ii)

may be

toll

provided

Supervisors.

traffic.

The number of

shall be

between booths and the office of the

average daily

to

facility

lanes for the Toll Plaza

(iii)

any booth

incoming

derived using Table 10.1.

Table 10.1

If

Number

of

is

closed for any reason,

traffic

shall

be guided into

lanes in each direction

toll

(Semi Automatic

gates)

toll

Peak Hour Factor

Forecast Traffic
(in vehicles/day) total

6%

7%

8%

9%

Less than 7,000

7,000-12,000

More

of both directions

10.4.4

than 12,000

any time, the queue of vehicles

If at

becomes so

the adjoining

help of appropriate signs.

large that the waiting time of the

user exceeds three minutes, the

number of

lanes shall be increased so that the

waiting time

is

brought

down

working booth with the

toll

maximum

(iv)

The

entire fee collection

complex

shall

be adequately guarded.

to less than three

minutes.
10.4.6

10.4.5

Toll Collection

Vehicle Counting Classifier

System

Each lane

A minimum

semi-automatic system for

toll

shall

be equipped with micro-

controller based vehicle counting and classifier

collection shall be adopted. In this system, the

and battery backup

collection of tolls and recording data

of power failure.

made through

would be

to collect data in the case

electronic equipment. Within a

period of 5 years from

COD,

at least

one booth

Toll

Booths

Toll booths

may be

10.5

for either side traffic shall be upgraded to toll

collection with the help of smart card.

provided of prefabricated

materials or of brick masonry.

For smooth and


collection,

94

(VCS) Unit

efficient functioning of toll

the following arrangements/

shall

The

toll

booths

have adequate space for seating of

collector, computer, printer, cash box,

toll

etc.

It

TOLL PLAZAS

should have provision for Hght, fan and

The

conditioning.

air

road markings for the Toll Plaza area shall

typical details of toll booth

consist of lane markings, diagonals, chevron

are given in Fig. 10.2.

markings. Single centre line

is

provided

at the

centre of carriageway at toll gate to demarcate

Road works

10.6

each service lane. Diagonal markings for central


traffic

island and chevron markings at side

traffic

island shall be provided to guide the

Vehicles are required to decelerate while


entering the

toll

lane, stop for

then accelerate and merge in


traffic

payment and
the main line

of the highway. All these operations of

vehicles at Toll Plaza are prone to oil/POL


spillage

on the

surface,

which may have

back action on bituminous

cut-

surface. Therefore,

concrete pavement would be preferred in the


Toll Plaza area including tapering zone,

from

and long term serviceability


consideration. The rigid pavement shall be

approaching and separating


10.8.2

traffic.

The road markings

accordance

with

shall

provision

of

be

in

IRC:35.

Thermoplastic paint with reflective glass beads


shall

be used as road marking material. Typical

details of road

markings

at

Toll Plaza are given

in Fig 10.9.

durability

designed as per IRC:58. For

paver shall not be

this

10.9

Toll Plaza

10.9.1

The

Complex

work, use of

insisted.

size of the office

complex depertds

on the minimum requirement of


10.7

Traffic Signs

10.7.1

as toilet, bathroom, store, rest


post,

well thought out strategy should be

evolved for providing

traffic signs at the Toll

medical aid post,

room,

such

traffic aid

All these depend on

etc.

the size of Toll Plaza and

facilities

may

vary as per the

need of a particular location/ area.

Plaza, in accordance with IRC: 67.

10.9.2

10.7.2

Signs should be placed along the

Project Highway, roadway of Toll Plaza to

provided

guide and render assistance to the drivers


(i)

approaching Toll Plaza.

It

necessary to

is

The following

facilities

be

Plaza complex :-

at Toll

Office complex with

and

shall

toilet,

bathroom

room.

rest

remind the driver about the existence of Toll


Plaza one

500

km

m ahead.

ahead with a repeater sign

combination with certain road markings such


as stop line

The

Traffic aid post (refer Section- 13)

(iii)

Medical aid post

(refer Section- 13)

and the word 'STOP' marked on


10.10

the pavement.

10.7.3

(ii)

Stop sign shall always be used in

Toll

supplemented by

Plaza

should

sign

be

the sign advising the users of

Check/Barrier Gate

A boom

barrier

is

generally placed at the exit

of each lane to avoid passing of any vehicle

the notified toll rates for various types of

without payment of

vehicles. Typical details of road signs required

barrier gates shall be used.

toll.

Electrically operated

for toll purpose are given in Figs. 10.3 to 10.8.

10.11

10.8

Road Markings
10.11.1

10.8.1

Lighting

The road markings

accordance with Section 9 of

shall

this

be

in

Manual. The

The

Toll Plaza

complex

shall

have

continuous and reliable electric supply system


for efficient functioning.

95

IRC;SP:73-2007

10.11.2 Interior Lighting

movement of

The

10.11.5

toll

booths and

facility building office shall

vehicles.

Highway Lighting

be illuminated adequately. Indoor lighting


should be with fluorescent lamps. Lighting
should be provided

in

such a manner that glare

Lighting in 100

length on both side

approaches of Toll Plaza

shall

be provided to

avoided or minimised. The level of


illumination shall be 200 to 300 Lux as per

enhance the safety on highway and

IS:3646 (Part

toll gate.

is

II).

Lighting of the Toll Plaza

enhancing the night

is

visibility.

important for

The

lighting

system shall consist of the following major

Canopy Lighting

A higher level of illumination


be provided

provided
(i)

High Mast

(ii)

Lighting on both side approaches to the

upto 100

Lux by

providing 150-watt metal halide lamps shall


at the toll gate

and

at toll

booth

1000-watt halogen lamps shall be

locations.

components:

make

the drivers conscious of their approaching the

10.11.6

10.11.3 Exterior Lighting

to

at the selected

nodes of space frame

of the canopy to ensure uniform illumination

lighting.

of the area.

(iii)

Water Supply

Toll Plaza.

10.12

Canopy

Adequate water supply

lighting of complex.

shall

be provided. For

working out water requirement and internal


(iv)

Back up arrangement

of power

in case

failure.

(v)

10.11.4

IS: 1172,

Highway

lighting around Toll Plaza.

High Mast Lighting

10.13

1944 (Part

&

II)

IS:5339 and

be

made

to

IS: 1742.

Fire Fighting System

For protection of the Toll Plaza complex against


fire

IS:

may

drainage system, reference

recommends 30 Lux of

hazards,

adequate

fire

protection

arrangements shall be made.

average illumination on road surface and ratio


of

minimum

Normal low

to

average illumination

as' 0.4.

It

is,

therefore,

necessary to install high mast. The 30

of the mast

is

m height

considered suitable to have

uniform spread of desired level of illumination

96

Report to be submitted

light poles are not able to give the

required lighting conditions.

in the Toll

10.14

Plaza area for frequent and safe

The design and layout of


including

Toll Plaza complex,

all facilities shall

Independent
comments,

if

Engineer
any.

be submitted to the
for

review

and

TOLL PLAZAS

97

IRC:SP:73-2007

98

TOLL PLAZAS

X)

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99

IRC:SP:73-2007

100

TOLL PLAZAS

IRC:SP:73-2007

102

TOLL PLAZAS

103

IRC:SP:73-2007

in/

Note:
All dimensions are in

Fig. 10.8

104

Recommended

sign layout for

toll

rates (side

mounted)

mm.

TOLL PLAZAS

105

Section 11

Roadside Furniture

SECTION

11

ROADSIDE FURNITURE
General

11.1

Roadside furniture

Roadside Railings

Guard

Rails

11.4.1

Pedestrian

Road Boundary

Stones (RBS)

(i)

right of

Rails

element

prevent

to

indiscriminate crossing and spilling

stones shall be provided at the

boundary on both sides of the

Guard

Pedestrian guardrails are an important

design

Road boundary

Pedestrian

be provided as per

shall

details given in this Section.

11.2

11.4

over

way

of

pedestrians

on

to

the

available under the control of the Government.

carriageway. Their judicious use can

200 m. The boundary

help to ensure that pedestrians cross

These

shall

be spaced

at

the

stones shall be of cement concrete as per Type

Design given
shall

in

highway

at

predetermined and safe

locations.

IRC:25. The boundary stones

be painted with cement primer and enamel

paint and

marked 'RBS' by

As

paint.

the guardrails

movement
11.3

Kilometre and 200

footpath,

Stones

would confine

of pedestrians

it is

The

Km

and 200

available

for the use of pedestrians.

(ii)

Highway. The side of the road on which


such stones will be provided, shall be

Design: The design shall be such that


the guardrails are neat

shall

be 1.2

visibility

specifications of

Kilometre stone shall conform to


IRC:8. The matter to be written on
various Kilometre stones and the
pattern thereof, shall be as specified in

IRC:8.

and simple

in

appearance. The height of guardrail

decided by the Government.

The design and

made

stones shall be

provided on one side of the Project

(ii)

the

the

obligatory that sufficient

width of footpath be
(i)

to

m from footpath

level.

The

of the approaching vehicles

by the pedestrians as well

as

visibility of the pedestrians

by the

the

drivers of the approaching vehicles


shall

be adequate. The railings

shall not

have any thick horizontal member,


other than the baluster to achieve the
desired objective.

(iii)

m stones shall be provided at every


200 m distance. The design and
specification of 200 m stone shall

200

conform
written

be

to

IRC: 26. The matter

on various 200

as specified in IRC: 26.

to

be

stones shall

Pedestrian guardrails

may be

of

reinforced cement concrete, iron tubes,


steel

steel

channeled sections and pipes, or


sections appropriate for the

environment. Refer to IRC: 103.

109

IRC:SP:73-2007

(iii)

Application: Pedestrian guardrails shall

be provided

at the

(f)

Central reserves:

Where

there

is

central reserve or a median, guardrails

following locations/

be erected within

shall

situations:

it

to deter the

pedestrians from attempting a crossing.

Hazardous locations on

(a)

stretches: In particularly

where

the road

vehicles

move

straight

busy reaches,

(iv)

congested and

is

Gaps/Setback Distance: The guardrails


be

shall

set

back from edge of the

carriageway by

at a fast pace, guardrails

150

at least

mm.

be provided on both sides of the

shall

carriageway so as to channelize the

11.5

Overhead

11.5.1

Overhead road signs

Traffic Signs

pedestrians on to the planned crossing


locations.

in lieu of, or as

At Junctions/Intersections: Railing

(b)

where the

shall

be provided

an adjunct to ground signs

situation so warrants, for providing

barriers shall be provided to prevent

warning of hazardous situations, help

people from crossing the junctions

regulating traffic, for proper information and

diagonally

guidance of the road users. The following

The

signalized intersections.

at

barrier shall

crossing facility

open only

(at the

at

planned

Zebra Crossing).

At unsignalized junctions they

shall

conditions

may be

in

considered while deciding

about the provision of overhead signs:

be

provided for sufficient length to guide

volume

or near capacity,

(i)

Traffic

(ii)

Restricted sight distance,

(iii)

Built

(iv)

Insufficient space for

at

the pedestrians to the nearest planned

pedestrian crossing.

(c)

Schools: Provision of guardrails

up

stretches,

near schools, where children would


otherwise run straight into the road,
essential.

If

there

is

a pedestrian

is

ground mounted

signs,

crossing or a school crossing patrol


nearby, the guardrails shall be extended

up
(d)

to

(v)

highways

it.

Bus

Distances of important places and route

stops.

Railway

stations, etc.:

11.5.2

The

at suitable intervals.

overhead

signs

shall

be

Guardrails shall be provided along

reflectorized type, with high intensity retro-

sidewalks with suitable access

retlective sheeting preferably of encapsulated

stops, railway stations

at

bus

and other areas

lens type.

of heavy pedestrian activity such as

cinema houses,

stadia, etc. for

guiding

pedestrians safely in such areas.

11.5.3

Design, location, application, height,

vertical

and

lateral clearances

of overhead road

signs shall be as specified in Section


(e)

Overpass, Subway,

shall

be provided

at

etc.:

Guardrails

MOSRTH

Specifications.

these locations in

order to compel the pedestrians to use

11.5.4

the facilities provided for them.

structure

Materials for overhead signs support

and

installation shall

with Section 802 of

110

800 of

be

MOSRTH

in

accordance

Specifications.

ROADSIDE FURNITURE

11.5.5

Location and size of overhead

traffic

signs shall be specified in Schedule-B of the

These include pavement markings and post type


delineators.

Concession Agreement.
11.7.2

Traffic

11.6

Impact Attenuators
(i)

11.6.1

Dehneators will include:

These are protective systems which

Roadway

Indicators

roadway so

objects like the following:

the alignment
it

(iii)

11.6.2

shall

be

as to guide drivers about

and

particularly,

where

might be confusing to drivers.

Bridge abutments.
(ii)

(ii)

They

provided to delineate the edges of the

prevent errant vehicles from impacting fixed

(i)

Hazard Markers

They

shall

be used

Structural columns of large direction

to define obstructions like guardrails

signs.

abutments adjacent to the


carriageway and bridges which are
narrower than the roadway width.

and

Illumination lamp posts.

In case of two-lane highway, they

may

(iii)

Object Markers

They

shall

be

not

provided to indicate hazards and

appropriate. Necessary safety devices like an

obstructions within the vehicle flow

be

provided

where Guard Rail

assembly of old tyres or


sand can be adopted

11.7

Road

steel

drums

is

filled

path like channelizing islands close to

with

the intersections.

at suitable location.

Delineators

11.7.3

Delineator by pavement markings shall

be provided as per IRC:35. Guidepost side


11.7.1

They provide

visual assistance to

drivers about the road ahead especially at night.

delineators shall be provided as per

and Section 800 of

MOSRTH

IRC:79

Specifications.

111

Section 12

Landscaping and
Tree Plantation

SECTION

12

LANDSCAPING AND TREE PLANTATION


General

12.1

The

distances for alternative rows of trees shall

be reckoned from the nearest edge of the

The Concessionaire shall plant trees and shrubs


of required number and type at the appropriate
locations within the Right of

Way and

pavement.

No

plantation shall be allowed

embankment

the

on

slopes.

in the

land earmarked by the Government for

12.2.2

The Government shall specify the


number of trees which are required to be

In plain terrain, a stopping sight distance of

planted by the Concessionaire as compensatory

180

The Concessionaire shall also


maintain the trees and shrubs in good condition
during the Operation Period as per the
maintenance schedule. The guidelines given in

100

km per hour

Set-back of Trees on Curves

afforestation.

afforestation.

this Section shall

trees

be followed

in plantation

of

corresponding to the design speed of

sections of state

shall

be ensured on

curved

highways along the innermost

lane.

However, where there are

their

requirement

may

site restrictions,

be reduced to 120

corresponding to the design speed of 80

m
km

per hour as a special case. The existing trees

and shrubs.

and vegetation on the sides have


12.2

all

to

be suitably

Design Considerations in various

thinned/trimmed or even removed,

locations

and a regular programme of pruning of the

if

necessary,

offending trees shall be undertaken as part of


12.2.1

Set-back Distance of Trees and Other

the maintenance operations.

Plantation
In the urban section of the Project Highway,

Trees on the roadside shall be sufficiently away

trees

from the roadway so

provided the distance between the edge of kerb

that they are not a

hazard

to road traffic or restrict the visibility.

Most

vulnerable locations in this regard are the inside

can be planted on the raised footpaths,

and the nearest edge of

tree is not less than

2 m.

of curves, junction comers and cut slopes. Trees


shall

12

be placed

at a

minimum

distance of 10-

m from the centre line of the extreme traffic

lane, to provide recovery area for the vehicle


that runs off the road.

second row of trees 6

will also be desirable

and

planted, wherever possible. Preferably, the

first

further

row of

away

trees shall consist of species with thick

shade and other rows of vertical growth type

In all cases, location of trees shall be

checked

to ensure that to the motorists, clear visibility

of

all

highway signs/signals

is

available at

times. Also, the foliage or trees shall not


in the

way of roadway

12.2.3

Vertical

all

come

lighting.

Clearance of Trees and Other

Plantations

providing thin shade. Expansion of the Project

Highway

to

4-lanes shall be taken into

consideration while locating the trees so that

land

is

free of trees

when widening

takes place.

For safe

traffic operation, the vertical clearance

available across the


5

m. From

roadway

this angle, the

shall

be

minimum

probable size of

all

115

IRC:SP:73-2007

plants shall be anticipated in advance, at the

be avoided as their maintenance would

time of

cause interference with

initial planting.

To allow

wind and

for the effects of growth,

rain, trees shall

be trimmed

above the pavement

to

in rural

and 6.5

(iii)

The species must be capable of


developing a straight and clean bole

and urban areas

upto a height of 2.5 to 3.5

ground

respectively.

Spacing of Avenue Trees

12.2.4

(iv)

The
fast

The spacing of avenue

trees will

traffic flow.

depend on

m from the

level.

selected trees shall, preferably, be

growing and wind-firm. These

not be thorny or drop too

many

shall

leaves.

the type and growth characteristics of trees,

requirement of maintenance, penetration of


distant views, etc.

meet the requirement

range of 10-15
for

most

(v)

would

trees

be deep rooted as

varieties.

Choice of Trees

In urban areas, the species selected shall

be of less spreading type, so that these

do not

The following

shall

shallow roots injure pavements.

(vi)

12.2.5

The

guidelines shall be kept in view

clear

interfere with

view of signs and efficiency of

roadway

while selecting the species of trees to be

overhead services,

lighting.

planted:

12.3
(i)

Trees shall be selected with due regard


to soil, rainfall, temperature

and water

level.

The Concessionaire

116

Trees which become very wide shall

shall

submit scheme for

plantation and maintenance of plants and trees


to the

(ii)

Maintenance of Plants

Independent Engineer for review and

comments,

if

any.

Section 13

Project Facilities

SECTION

13

PROJECT FACILITIES
General

13.1

13.2.4

The requirement of

the project facilities to be

provided shall be indicated

Schedule-C of

in

Pedestrian Crossing

Where complete segregation of


from vehicular

traffic

is

pedestrians

some

not provided,

the Concession Agreement. This shall include

form of planned road sharing principle

information regarding location and size of the

be applied. Pedestrian crossings shall be

facilities.

Land required

facilities shall

shall

for provision of

provided where they will be well used.

be acquired by the Government

Pedestrian crossings shall be suitably integrated

and the date of handing over of the land

Concessionaire shall be indicated

to the

in

with the overall design of the intersection.

the

Concession Agreement.

The following

criteria

shall be

followed

regarding selection of pedestrian crossing:


13.2

Pedestrian Facilities

13.2.1

General

(i)

accidents. Therefore, adequate consideration

of

be given to their safety through provision

facilities.

The

Crossing

Pedestrian

(Pedestrian Crosswalk): Pedestrian

Pedestrians are vulnerable to being involved in

shall

At-Grade

facilities for pedestrians

in this Section shall

given

be provided on the Project

crosswalks shall be provided

exists

between vehicular and pedestrian

movements. Wherever possible, the


at right

angles to

the carriageway and properly

13.2.2

The sidewalks

shall

marked

so that the pedestrians are subjected to

Footpath (Sidewalk)

minimum
(i)

all

locations where substantial conflict

crosswalks shall be

Highway.

at

important intersections and such other

be provided

in the

inconvenience. Crosswalks

shall not substantially increase the

walk

built-up sections, on both sides, by

distance of pedestrians. Adequate

barrier type (non-mountable) kerbs of

visibility,

height 200

mm above the adjacent road

and

freedom from obstructions

sufficient space for waiting are the

other important requirements for

surface.

location of crosswalks.
(ii)

The width of sidewalks depends upon


the expected pedestrian flow and shall

At-grade pedestrian crossings can be

be fixed subject to land

uncontrolled

shall not

be

availability, but

less than 1.5

m.

or

controlled.

Uncontrolled pedestrian crossings shall

be provided only where the intersection


13.2.3

Pedestrian Guard Rails

itself is left

uncontrolled because of low

volumes

of

both

vehicular

and

Pedestrian guardrails shall be as specified in

pedestrian traffic even during peak

Section II of this Manual.

hours and where accident records do

119

IRC:SP:73-2007

not indicate any need to segregate

13.3

Street Lighting

13.3.1

General

vehicular traffic from cross pedestrian

Uncontrolled pedestrian
crosswalk shall be marked by studs or
traffic.

paint hne.

(i)

The Concessionaire

shall provide

lighting at specified locations of the

Controlled form of crossing shall be

Project Highway, using appropriate

achieved through provision of Zebra

system and source of electric power as

Crossings, whether at an unsignalized

per the requirements of this Section.

or signalized intersection.
(ii)
(ii)

Zebra Crossing:

A Zebra Crossing

not be sited within 150

somewhat

of another

carriageway

line.

during night and

back from the

set

However, the

distance shall not be so

set

much

where

setback

the

appreciable or

The width of

in

(iii)

all

lighting,

13.3.2

Specifications

lie

m. The

(i)

Unless stated otherwise elsewhere in

Manual, the minimum average

proceed uninterrupted through the

level of illumination

median

of Project

strip

as

specified in this Section.

this

In the event of the

sets

shall bear all costs

crossing shall, as far as possible,

strip.

DG

including cost of energy consumption

crossings.

to 4.0

The Concessionaire

and operation cost of

is

the Zebra Crossing shall

visibility is low,

of procurement, installation, running

necessary

be adequate and shall generally


within a range of 2.0

suitable

as to

distance

skew

at the

make

standby arrangements.

walking distance for the pedestrians.

may be

when

including provision of

back

cause an appreciable increase


Pedestrian guardrails

shall

arrangements for procuring Power


Supply to ensure uninterrupted lighting

shall

such crossing. The Zebra Crossing shall

be

The Concessionaire

median

on the stretches

Highway including

Toll

Plazas, truck lay-byes, bus bays, etc

being used as pedestrian refuge,

adequate width of median shall be

shall

be 30 Lux.

provided. In case of raised medians,

such

portion

depressed

could

with

exceeding 150

kerb

be

suitably

height

(ii)

not

The layout of

the lighting

together with type of luminaries for

mm.

different locations shall

be prepared by

the Concessionaire in such a

In the vicinity of

Zebra crossing,

that the

minimum

manner

illumination level

guardrails of sufficient length shall be

prescribed in para 13.3.2(i) can be

provided to deter pedestrians from

achieved and shall be submitted to the

crossing the road at any arbitrary point

Independent Engineer for review and

along the road. Fig. 13.1 gives a typical

comments,

layout

of Zebra

intersection

Crossing
controlled

channelization only.

at

if

any.

an

by

(iii)

Overhead

electrical

power

and

telecommunication lines erected within


the

120

system

ROW

by the Concessionaire

shall

PROJECT FACILITIES

be provided with adequate clearance so


that safe use of the

highway

is

not

and

be provided

facilities to

at the

truck lay-

byes.

affected.

and

13.4.2 Location

and horizontal clearances for

Vertical

(iv)

Size

electrical installations shall

conform

to

Truck lay-byes

check

IRC:32.

shall, in general,

be located near

interstate borders,

barriers,

places of

conventional stops of the truck operators,


All the fixtures, wires/cables, lights

(v)

shall

conform

to

specifications as a

BIS
minimum. The
relevant

Concessionaire, may, with the prior

review and comments,

if

etc.

The places be identified on the basis of field


survey and shall have adequate space for
facilities as specified in

subsequent para 13.4.3

and future growth.

any, of the

Independent Engineer use fixtures with

13.4.3

Facilities

better specifications.

The
13.3.3

Locations where Lighting

be

to

is

truck lay-byes shall have the following

facilities:

Provided
(i)

Paved parking,

(ii)

Rest areas with

(iii)

Telephone.

Unless specified otherwise in Schedule-C of


the Concession
this

Agreement and elsewhere

Manual, the Concessionaire

shall

in

toilets,

drinking water,

provide

lighting at the following locations of the Project

Highway:
13.4.4 Lighting
Toll Plaza Area:

(i)

The

around Toll Plaza,

lighting in

toll

and

booths, office

building, on the approach road, etc.


shall be

as per Section

10 of this

The truck lay-byes and 50 m length of the


Project Highway on its either side shall be
illuminated at night to provide an average
illumination of 30 Lux. Suitably designed

Manual.

having aesthetic appeal and

electric poles

Truck lay byes: Lighting

(ii)

at the

truck

lay byes shall be as per para 13.4 of


this

Manual.

energy saving bulbs

may be used

to provide

required illumination. Alternatively, photo


voltaic

lamps may be used.

13.4

Truck Lay-byes

13.5

Bus Bays and Bus Shelters

13.4.1

General

13.5.1

General

The Concessionaire

shall construct

and

maintain adequate number and size of truck


lay-byes for parking of trucks by the side of
the Project

Highway

as indicated

by the

Government. The guidelines, as given here,


shall

be followed in regard to location, size

The buses

shall

be allowed to stop for dropping

and picking up passengers only at the bus bays.


The Government shall indicate in Schedule-C
of the Concession Agreement, the

number and

broad location of bus bays to be provided by


the Concessionaire.

The bus bays

shall

conform

121

IRC:SP:73-2007

to the specifications

and standards given

number of passengers from one pickup stop to the other, it might be

in this

Section. In cases where bus stands are provided

by the concerned

Government Transport

State

desirable

construct

to

single,

Authorities, the Concessionaire shall provide

composite bus stop of suitable design

only access road within the right of way.

to cater to all the

13.5.2 Location

(vi)

bus routes collectively.

In hilly areas, the bus

The

location of the bus bays shall be fixed on

straight

the basis of following principles:

(i)

The bus

and the

stops shall be sited

away from

bridges and other important structures

and embankment sections more than 3

m
(ii)

high.

As

bus bays shall not

be located on horizontal curves or

The

summit of

vertical curves.

location shall have

13.5.3

(i)

good

visibihty,

(usually not less than

50 m). Subject

these requirements,

will

where

be advisable

to

choose

to

widen the roadway economically for

locativ.iis

it is

possible

Layout and Design


For plain area, typical layouts of bus

The length "L" shown


be 15 m, which shall be increased
is

shall not

be located too

close to the road intersections.

m if more than one bus

At

likely to halt at the

bus bay

at

one

time.

(ii)

intersections to start/end of the bus bay

desirable.

in

gap

from the tangent point of

be

be adopted.

in Fig. 13.2 shall

multiples of 15

The bus bays

shall

it

to

in Fig. 13.2 shall

distance.

of 300

reasonably good

at

not less than the safe stopping sight

(iv)

is

sides, gradients are flat

visibility is

bays given
(iii)

be

shall

accommodating bus bays.

far as possible,

the

on both

bays

where the road

located, preferably,

For

hilly areas,

constraint

minor

in Fig.

where there

is

a general

on space, the layout indicated

13.3

may be

adopted.

intersections (e.g. junctions with village

roads), distance of 60

adopted. However,

volume of buses
intersection,

bay

shall

it is

is

if

m may

be

(iii)

a substantial

Bus bays

shall

be provided on both

sides of the Project

to turn right at the

Highway

for each

direction of travel independendy, so that

necessary that the bus

the buses

be located sufficiently ahead

road.

do not have

to cut across the

Bus bays on opposite

sides shall

of the intersection so that the buses can

be staggered to a certain extent to avoid

be manoeuvred easily from the pick-

undue congestion on the highway. At


intersections, the bus bays for up and

up stop on the

hand side to the


extreme right lane for turning. The
left

location of the bus bays


after

may be

down

fixed

direction shall be located on

farther sides of the intersection.

due consultation with the local

communities expected

to

use such

facilities.,

(iv)

The bus bay

shall

be provided with a

shelter for passengers.

The

shelter shall

be structurally safe and aesthetic


(v)

122

in

At major four-way intersections

appearance, while also being functional

involving transfer of a substantial

so as to protect the waiting passengers

PROJECT FACILITIES

adequately from sun, wind and


the shelter

is

rain. If

suitably protected to avoid slips.


shelter shall be set

13.5.4

by

Road Markings

constructed on the hillside,

slopes shall be properly dressed and

line

'13.5.6

at least

The

back from the kerb

500 mm.

Pavement

Pavement markings with thermoplastic paint


having glass beads shall be provided

at the

bus

shown in Figs. 13.2 and 13.3 with the


word 'BUS' written prominently on the
pavement. Pedestrian crossings shall be marked
stops as

slightly

behind the standing position of the

buses in order to reduce pedestrian conflicts.

The pavement

in

the bus bays shall have

adequate crust with respect to the wheel loads

The kerbs

shall

be marked with continuous

yellow line to indicate "No Parking".

expected. Also, the surfacing shall be strong

enough

to withstand forces

due

to frequent

13.6

Cattle Crossings

braking and acceleration by the buses. The


colour and texture of the bus bay surfacing
shall

be preferably distinctive from that of the

Facility for cattle crossings shall be

as specified in para 2.14.3 of this

provided

Manual.

main carriageway.
13.5.5

(i)

Aid Posts

13.7

Traffic

Traffic

Aid Posts

Drainage

The bus bays

shall

have proper cross

slope to drain off the excess water.


water,

which

is

likely to splash

No

on the

shall

be established

at Toll

Plaza locations in accordance with the


provisions of the Concession Agreement.

waiting passengers, shall be allowed to


collect near the bus shelters.

(ii)

Suitable kerb gutter section with


requisite longitudinal slope
at intervals to

and outlets

ensure quick disposal of

13.8

Medical Aid Posts

Medical Aid Posts

shall

Plaza locations

in

be established

at Toll

accordance with the

provisions of the Concession Agreement.

water shall be provided.

123

IRC:SP:73-2007

Fig, 13.1

Arrangement of zebra crossing


(4-lane) in built

124

up area

PROJECT FACILITIES

(U

o
415

.Q

a
s
T3

131)

B 2
on
O

13

O
X
3
2
t
XJ

a
o

"5

"

Pedestrian
crossing sign

125

IRC:SP:73-2007

126

Section 14

Special Requirements for


Hill

Roads

SECTION

14

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HILL ROADS


14.1

General

protect ecology sensitive areas like wild life

and bird sanctuaries, reserve


14.1.1

The Concessionaire

shall

pay due

forests, national

parks, etc.

attention to geo-technical, environmental and

and take appropriate

14.1.6

ensure the following: (The

traffic

social aspects of hill roads

measures

to

guidelines given in IRC:SP: 48

may be

referred

such as parapets,

barriers,

boulder nets,

railings, roadside safety


etc.

shall

be provided,

where necessary.

to, for details).

(i)

Provision of protective structures for

geological

against

Stability

Set back distance at horizontal

14.2

curves

disturbances.

Requisite sight distance should be available

(ii)

Prevention of

(iii)

Provision of efficient drainage and

visibility in the lateral direction

preservation of natural drainage system.

to obstructions like walls, cut-slopes,

soil erosion.

across the inside of horizontal curves.

areas, etc.

14.1.2

along

If there are

any landslide prone areas

investigation

adequate
undertaken and

alignment,

road

the

shall

be

appropriate remedial measures shall be


provided as per guidelines given

in

realignment

is

any

new

construction/

involved, the alignment shall

avoid large scale cuttings and

offending obstructions should be cleared to


ensure the needed

visibility,

can be determined

using the Equation given in IRC:52.

fillings

and

Grade compensation

at curves

At horizontal curves, the gradient

shall

be eased

by applying the grade compensation correction


for gradients steeper than

with IRC:52.

Areas having potential landslide or settlement

14.4

shall

wooded

Set back distance from the central

follow the profile of land, as far as possible.

problems

due

of the carriageway, within which the

14.3

Where

arise

IRC:SP:

48.

14.1.3

line

may

Lack of

4%

in

accordance

Hairpin Bends

be avoided. Adverse impact on

the environment shall be reduced

by adopting

Hairpin bends, where unavoidable,

may be

proper mitigation measures. Refer to guidelines

designed either as a circular curve with

given in IRC:SP: 48.

transition curves at

each end or as a compound

circular curve.

14.1.4

Unstable

hill

slopes shall be adequately

addressed by providing appropriate bio-

Design

engineering and stabilization measures.

for the design of hairpin bends.

the full

14.1.5

Necessary safeguard shall be taken

criteria

given in IRC:52 shall be adopted

At hairpin bends

roadway width should be surfaced.

to

129

IRC:SP:73-2007

Climbing Lane

14.5

land. Location of cross drains

and culverts

should be so chosen as to avoid erosion of the

Climbing lane

be provided, where

shall

outlet.

Erosion control works like drop walls,

specified in Schedule-B of the Concession

apron

at out-fall points

Agreement,

paving of the channel shall be provided where

in order to address the necessity

of making available separate lane for safe

along with pitching/

required.

overtaking for vehicle travelling uphill.

14.10

Proper signing and road markings

shall

provided to ensure that the absolute right of

way

for climbing vehicles

14.10.1 Retaining walls shall be provided:

available.

is

(i)

Heavy rock

14.6

blasting should be avoided.

Controlled blasting shall be resorted


shall

Retaining Walls

be

to.

(ii)

To

by cutting

to the valley

and the road, by under cutting by

a stream or other water course,

be rendered stable in

itself,

damage caused

arrest

side

the construction stage

is restricted,

MOSRTH
(iii)

shall

unstable

hill side

To achieve width of roadway, where


cutting into hill

Specifications.

Cut slopes

down

Blasting

Blasting and related operations shall be carried

14.7

the

strata or fills,

be supervised by experienced personnel.

out in accordance with Clause 302 of

To support

at the

(iv)

correct angle and benching etc. including slope

At valley

points,

where water flows

over the road,

stabilizing structures like drains, breast walls,

pitching, etc.
(v)

Where

14.8

is

it

necessary to cross

hills

At places where the valley

side gets

monsoons and is likely


slips and damage to the

saturated in the

or

high ridges, the various alternatives including

to result in

construction of tunnel to avoid deep cuts shall

road,

be considered and the most preferred alternative


shall be chosen.

The

(vi)

alternative to be followed

be indicated by the Government in


Schedule-B of the Concession Agreement.

provision of retaining walls.

shall

Where road

is to

be taken through tunnel,

salient details shall

its

be indicated in Schedule-B

At any other locations warranting

14.10.2 For general features, arrangement and


design, guidelines given in IRC:SP:
referred

48 may be

to.

of the Concession Agreement.

Construction of apron, pitching,


flooring shall conform to Clauses 2503 to 2507
14.11

For drainage of water from roadside,

14.9

an effective system of drainage shall be

of

MOSRTH

Specifications.

constructed to lead the run-off to natural water


courses. In particular, catch water drains (Refer
to para 6.5 of this

Manual)

above the cut slopes.


water

130

is

It

shall

shall

be provided

be ensured that

not drained into villages and cultivated

14.12

Disposal

sites

shall

be identified for

disposal of waste, debris, etc. Tipping of waste


into valley sides, stream channels, water bodies,

and forest areas

shall not

be resorted

to.

Appendices

APPENDIX(Reference Para 1.12)

List of paras for preparing Schedules of the Concession

Para

Section

Section

Section 2

1.14
2.1

Agreement

Particulars to be specified

(i),

(ii),

(a)

(ii)

(iii)

Two

(ii)

2.1

(V)

(b)

2.2.3

laning Plus option

Requirement of 4 laning

up
2.1

Two

laning or

areas,

and such

in stretches passing

through built

stretches.

Construction of bypass, alignment and land for the bypass.

Land

for geometric

improvements, and such stretches

Land

for geometric

improvements and such stretches for

ruling design speed

Right of way

2.3
2.5.2

(i)

Provision of foot paths in built up sections

Width of Roadway

2.6.1

if different

from

that given in

Para

Z.O.I

2.13.1

Provision of Service Roads and Stretches

2.14.1

Location and other features or grade separated structures

2.14.2

Type of Structures

2.14.3

Section 3

3.1

(i)

and 3.2

3.3.1

(ii)

for Vehicular under/over passes

Location of Cattle and Pedestrian Underpasses/ overpasses

Type of Intersection and land

for intersection

Location and other features of grade separated intersections


WllllUUl lallips.

O O O

Length of viaduct

3.3.3
3.4.1

(iii)

at

grade separated structures

Location and other features of interchanges


T

pnath

nf

vinrliift

at

crraHp

<ipr>aratprl

stniPtiirps

TTntpr

changes with ramps)


Section 4

4.2.2

Section 5

5.1.2

(i)

Sections of existing road to be raised

Requirement of

CC

Pavement, and design and maintenance

requirements

Section 7

5.9.7

Stretches to be reconstructed

5.9.9

Width of Paved Shoulder

7.1

(ii)

Width of

7.1

(iii)

Requirement of bridge with foot paths

7.1

(iv)

Bridge which

structures of

may

if

different

more than 60

from

1.5

length

not to be high level

133

IRC:SP:73-2007

Section

Para

Particulars to be specified

7.1

(VI)

Railway

7.1

(viii)

Utility services to be carried over the structures

level Crossings not to be replaced

7.3.1

(i)

Distressed culverts to be reconstructed

7.3.2

(i)

Distressed bridges to be reconstructed

7.3.2

(ii)

Existing bridges to be widened

7.18 (iv)

Requirement of Crash barriers


Parapets/Railings

7.18 (V)

of

by

ROB/RUB

for existing bridges

existing

bridges

to

be

repaired/

replaced.

Measures for protecting bridges

7.22
7.23

in

marine environment

Structures to be repaired/strengthened, nature and extent of

(i)

repairs

Specifications of reflecting sheeting

Section 9

9.3.1

Section

10

10.2

Section

11.5.5

Location and size of overhead

Section 12

12.1

Number

Section 13

13.1

Project facilities and land for providing project facilities

13.3.3

Situations/locations

13.4

Location and number of truck lay-byes to be provided.

13.5.1

Location and number of bus bays to be provided

14.5

Requirement of Climbing lane

14.8

Alignment/Construction of tunnel and

Section 14

134

&

10.3

Location of Toll Plaza and land for Toll Plaza


traffic

signs

of trees to be planted

where

lighting to be provided

its

salient details

APPENDIX-2
(Reference Para 1.5}

IRC

List of

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

1.

Title of the Publication

ROADS

1 (A)

Transport Planning, Traffic Assessment


"

1.

IRC:3-1983

2.

IRC:9-1972

1 (B)

Road Geometric

1.

Publications

IRC::12- 1983

Dimensions
Traffic

&

&

&

Policies

Weights of Road Design Vehicles

Census on Non-Urban Roads

(First

(First

Revision)

Revision)

Design Features

Recommended

Practice

for

Location

and Layout of Roadside

Motor-Fuel Filhne and Motor-Fuel Filling-cum-Service Stations

(Second Revision)
2.

IRC::32- 1969

Standard
Electric

3.

IRC::38- 1988

Vertical

for

and Horizontal Clearances of Overhead

Power and Telecommunication Lines

as Related to

Roads

Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Curves for Highways and

Design Tables

(First

Revision)

4.

IRC::39- 1986

Standards for Road-Rail Level Crossings (First Revision)

5.

IRC::54- 1974

Lateral

and Vertical Clearances

at

Underpasses

for

Vehicular

Traffic
6.

IRC::64- 1990

Guidelines for Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas (First Revision)

7.

IRC::66- 1976

Recommended

8.

IRC::70- 1977

Practice for Sight Distance on Rural

Guidelines on Regulation and Control of

Mixed

Highways

Traffic in

Urban

Areas
9.

IRC::73- 1980

Geometric Design Standards for Rural (Non-Urban Highways)

10.

IRC::80- 1981

Type Designs

for Pick-up

Bus Stops on Rural

(i.e.

Non-Urban)

Highways
11.

IRC::86- 1983

Geometric Design Standards for Urban Roads

12.

IRC::98- 1997

Guidelines on Accommodation of Utility Services on Roads in

Urban Areas
13.

IRC::99- 1988

Tentative

(First

in Plains

Revision)

Guidelines

on the Provision of Speed Breakers for

Control of Vehicular Speeds on Minor Roads


14.

IRC :103-1988

Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities

15.

IRC :106-1990

Guidelines for Capacity of Urban Roads in Plain Areas

135

IRC:SP:73-2007

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

16.

IRC:SP: 23-1983

Vertical

17.

IRC:SP: 41-1994

Guidelines on Design of At-Grade Intersections in Rural

Title of the Publication

Curves for Highways

&

Urban

Areas
1 (C)

Road Markings
Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heights for Use on

IRC:30-1968

1.

Highway Signs

Code of

IRC:35-1997

2.

(D)

Road Furniture

&

Practice for

Road Markings (With

Paints) (First Revision)

Signage

1.

IRC: 8- 1980

Type Designs

for

Highway Kilometer Stones (Second Revision)

2.

IRC:25-1967

Type Designs

for

Boundary Stones

3.

IRC: 26- 1967

Type Design

4.

IRC:31-1969

Route Marker Signs for State Routes

5.

IRC:67-2001

Code of

6.

IRC:79-1981

Recommended

7.

IRC:SP:31-1992

New

1 (E)

Road

1.

IRC:53-1982

Road Accident Forms A-1 and 4

2.

IRC:SP:27-1984

Report Containing Recommendations of IRC Regional Workshops

Safety

&

Traffic

for

200-Metre Stones

Practice for

Road Signs

Practice for

Road

(First

Revision)

Delineators

Traffic Signs

Management
(First

Revision)

on Highway Safety
3.

IRC:SP:32-1988

Road

4.

IRC:SP:44-1994

Highway

5.

IRC:SP:55-2001

Guidelines for Safety

1 (F)

Embankment

1.

IRC: 10- 1961

Construction

Safety for Children (5-12 Years old)

&

Safety

Code
in

Construction Zones

Erosion Control

Recommended

Practice for

Borrow

pits

for

Road Embankments

Constructed by Manual Operation


2.

IRC:28-1967

Tentative Specifications for the Construction of Stabilised Soil

Roads with Soft Aggregate


3.

IRC:33-1969

Standard

Procedure

Stabilised Soil
4.

136

IRC:36-1970

for

in

Areas of Moderate and High Rainfall

Evaluation

and Condition

Surveys of

Roads

Recommended Practice
for Road Works

for Construction of Earth

Embankments

APPENDIX-2

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

5.

IRC:56-1974

Title of the Publication

Recommended

Practice for Treatment of

Embankment Slopes

for

Erosion Control
6.

IRC:75-1979

Guidelines for the Design of High

7.

IRC :SP: 5 8-2001

Guidelines for Use of Fly ash in

1 (G)
1.

Road Embankments

Non-Bituminous Base and Sub-Base


IRC: 19-2005

Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Water

Macadam
IRC:49-1973

Recommended Practice
for Lime Stabilisation

3.

IRC:50-1973

Recommended Design Criteria


Soil in Road Construction

4.

IRC:5 1-1992

Guidelines for the Use of Soil

for the Pulverization of

for the

Black Cotton Soils

Use of Cement Modified

Lime Mixes

in

Road Construction

Revision)

(First

IRC:60-1976

Bound

(Third Revision)

2.

5.

Embankments

Tentative Guidelines for the

Use of Lime- Flyash Concrete

as

Pavement Base or Sub-Base


6.

IRC:63-1976

Tentative Guidelines for the

Use of Low Grade Aggregates and

Soil

Aggregates Mixtures in Road Pavement Construction


7.

IRC:74-1979

Flyash Concrete as a
8.

IRC:88-1984

Lean-Cement Concrete and Lean-Cement


Pavement Base or Sub-Base

Tentative Guidehnes for

Recommended
Base

in

Practice for

Lime Flyash

Stabilised Soil Base/Sub-

Pavement Construction

Wet Mix Macadam

9.

IRC: 109-1997

Guidelines for

10.

IRC:SP:59-2002

Guidelines for Use of Geotextiles in

Road Pavements and Associated

Works
1 (H) Design, Construction
1.

IRC: 14-2004

and Maintenance of Flexible Pavements

Recommended

Practice

for

Open Graded Premix Carpet

(Third Revision)
2.

IRC: 16-1989

Specification for Priming of Base Course with Bituminous Primers


(First

3.

IRC: 19-2005

Revision)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice of Water

Macadam
4.

IRC:20-1966

Bound

(Third Revision)

Recommended

Practice for Bituminous Penetration

Macadam

(Full

Grout)

137

IRC:SP:73-2007

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

5.

IRC:27-1967

Title of the Publication

Tentative Specifications for Bituminous

Macadam

&

(Base

Binder

Course)

Road Construction

6.

IRC:34-1970

Recommendations

7.

IRC:37-2001

Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements (Second Revision)

8.

IRC :47- 1972

Tentative Specification for Built-up Spray Grout

9.

IRC:55-1974

Recommended

10.

IRC:8 1-1997

Tentative Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible

for

in

Waterlogged Areas

Practice for Sand-Bitumen Base Courses

Using Benkelman

Beam
for

Road Pavements

Deflection Technique (First Revision)

11.

IRC:82-1982

Code of Practice
Highways

12.

IRC:95-1987

Specification for Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete

13.

IRC: 110-2005

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Design

Maintenance of Bituminous Surfaces of

and

Construction of Surface Dressing


14.

IRC:SP:53-2002

Guidehnes on Use of Polymer and Rubber Modified Bitumen

Road Construction
1 (I) Design,
1.

(First

in

Revision)

Construction and Maintenance of Cement Concrete Pavements

IRC: 15-2002

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Construction of

Concrete Roads (Third Revision)


2.

IRC:44- 1976

Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements


Non-Air Entrained and Continuously Graded Concrete) (First

Tentative Guidelines for


(for

Revision)
3.

IRC:57-1974

Recommended

4.

IRC:58-2002

Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for

Practice for Sealing of Joints in Concrete

Pavements

Highways (Second Revision)


5.

IRC:61-1976

Guidehnes

Tentative

Pavements
6.

IRC:68- 1976

in

for

the

Construction of

Cement Concrete

Hot Weather

Tentative Guidelines on Cement-Flyash Concrete for Rigid

Pavement

Construction
7.

IRC:77-1979

Guidelines for Repair of Concrete Pavements

Tentative

Using

Synthetic Resins

9.

IRC:84-1983

Code of

IRC:91-1985

Tentative

Practice for Curing of

Pavements

138

Guidelines
in

for

Cold Weather

Cement Concrete Pavements

Construction

of

Cement Concrete

APPENDIX-2

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

10.

IRC:SP:49-1998

Title of the Publication

Guidelines for the Use of Dry Lean Concrete as Sub-base for Rigid

Pavement
11.

IRC:SP:62-2004

Guidelines for the Design and Construction of

Pavement

for Rural

Cement Concrete

Roads

12.

IRC:SP:63-2004

Guidelines for the Use of Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement

13.

IRC:SP-68-2005

Guidelines

Construction

for

of

Roller

Compacted Concrete

Pavements
1 (J)

Project Preparation, Contract

1.

IRC:42-1972

Management and Quality Control

Proforma for Record of Test Values of Locally Available Pavement


Construction Materials

IRC:SP: 16-2004

2.

Guidelines for Surface Evenness of

Highway Pavements

(First

Revision)

IRC:SP: 19-2001

3.

Manual

for Survey, Investigation

and Preparation of Road Projects

(Second Revision)
4.

IRC:SP:57-2000

Guidelines for Quality Systems for

5.

IRC:SP:68-2005

Guidelines

Construction

for

of

Road Construction
Roller

Compacted Concrete

Pavements
1

(K) Hill Roads

1.

IRC:52-2001

Recommendations about the Alignment Survey and Geometric


Design of Hill Roads (Second Revision)

2.

IRC:SP:48-1998

Hill

1 (L)

Road Drainage

1.

IRC:SP:42-1994

Guidelines on

2.

IRC:SP:50-1999

Guidelines on Urban Drainage

1
1.

Road Manual

Road Drainage

(M) Road Machinery


IRC:43-1972

Recommended

Practice for Tools,

Equipment and Appliances for

Concrete Pavement Construction


2.

IRC:72-1978

Recommended

and Appliances for


3.

IRC:90-1985

Use and Upkeep of Equipment, Tools


Bituminous Pavement Construction

Practice for

Guidelines of Selection, Operation and Maintenance of Bituminous

Hot Mix Plant


4.

IRC:SP:22-1980

Recommendation
Machinery

for the

to cater to the

Road Making
General Demand of Road Works

Sizes for each Type of

139

IRC:SP:73-2007

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

5.

IRC:SP:25-1984

Title of the Publication

Gopi and

his

Road Roller-Guidelines on Maintenance of Road

Rollers

IRC:SP:29-1994

6.

Directory of Indigenous Manufacturers of Road/ Bridge Construction

&

Machinery

IRC:SP:34-1989

7.

Important Bridge Components (First Revision)

General Guidelines about the Equipment for Bituminous Surface


Dressing

2.

BRIDGES

2 (A) Codes of Practice


1.

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:5-1998

Section
2.

General Features of Design (Seventh Revision)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:6-2000

Section
3.

IRC: 18-2000

Loads and Stresses (Fourth Revision)

II

Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Bridges (Post Tensioned


Concrete) Third Revision)

4.

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:21-2000

Section

III

Cement Concrete

(Plain

and Reinforced) (Third

Revision)
5.

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:22-1986

Section VI
6.

IRC:45-1972

Recommendation

(Part-I)

Scour level

IRC:83-1987

(Part II)

IRC:83-2002

in the

of Soil below

Design of Well Foundation of Bridges

Foundations and Substructures (Second Revision)

Bearings, Part

Bearings, Part

(Part III) Standard Specifications

Metallic Bearings (First Revision)

II:

Elastomeric Bearings

and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IX - Bearings,
Metallic Guide Bearings
Section

140

Resistance

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,


Section IX

12.

Estimating the

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,


Section IX

11.

for

Masonry (Second Revision)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:78-2000

IRC:83-1999

Road Bridges (Second Revision)

Brick, Stone and Block

Section VII
10.

Revision)

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:40-2002

Maximum
9.

Steel

Section IV
8.

(First

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,

IRC:24-2001

Section
7.

Composite Construction

Part

III:

Pot,

Pot-cum-PTFE, Pin and

APPENDIX-2

S.

Code/

No.

Document No.

13.

IRC:87-1984

Title of the Publication

Guidelines for the Design and Erection of False

work

for

Road

Bridges
14.

IRC: 89-1997

Guidelines

for

Design and Construction of River Training

Control Works for

&

Road Bridges

(First

&

Revision)

15.

IRC :SP: 69-2005

Guidelines

16.

IRC :SP: 70-2005

Guidelines for the Use of High Performance Concrete in Bridges.

17.

IRC:SP:7 1-2006

Guidelines for Design and Construction of Precast

Specifications for Expansion Joints.

Pre-Tensioned Girders for Bridges.

2 (B) Inspection, Maintenance

&

Rehabilitation

1.

IRC:SP:35-1990

Guidelines for Inspection and Maintenance of Bridges

2.

IRC:SP:40-1993

Guidehnes on Techniques for Strengthening and Rehabilitation of


Bridges

3.

IRC:SP:52-1999

Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual

2 (C) Project Preparation, Contract Management


1.

IRC :SP:47- 1998

&

Quality Control

Guidelines on Quality Systems for

Road Bridges

(Plain, Reinforced,

Prestressed and Composite Concrete)


2.

IRC:SP:54-2000

Project Preparation

Manual

for Bridges

2 (D) Other Important Publications


1.

IRC: 7- 1971

Recommended

Numbering Bridges and Culverts

(First

Guidehnes for the Design of Small Bridges and Culverts

(First

Practice for

Revision)
2.

IRC:SP: 13-2004

Revision)
3.

3.

IRC:SP:5 1-1999

MOSRTH

Guidelines for Load Testing of Bridges

Publications

1.

MOSRTH

Specifications for

2.

MOSRTH

Standard Plans for Single, Double and Triple Cell

Road and Bridge Works, 2001 (Fourth Revision)

Box

Culverts with and without

Earth cushion
3.

MOSRTH

4.

Manual

Type Designs

for Safety in

for Intersections

on National Highways. 1992

Road Design

141

14

(The

official

amendments

to this

in its periodical, 'Indian

effective

and

document would be published by the IRC

Highways', which shall be considered as

as part of the code/guidelines/manual, etc.

Date specified therein)

from the