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21ST CENTURY TEACHER IMAGE TO


STAKEHOLDERS
OF TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
IN THE PHILIPPINES
Marilyn U. Balagtas
balagtas.mu@pnu.edu.ph
Maria Ruth M. Regalado
regalado.mrm@pnu.edu.ph
Carmelina E. Barrera
carmelina_barrerra@yahoo.com.ph
Ramer V. Oxio
jemroy_oxine@yahoo.com.ph
Rosarito T. Suatengco
suatengco.rt@pnu.edu.ph
Josephine E. Tondo
tondo.je@pnu.edu.ph
Philippine Normal University
Manila

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ABSTRACT
This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers
from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century
teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs
in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The
highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and
professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and
the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal
stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of
Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a
validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of
both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image.
Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the
teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the
information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends
teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21 st
century teachers for a better Philippines.
Keywords: Teacher Image, 21st Century Teacher, Teacher Education,
Development Program
INTRODUCTION
Teaching is viewed as the noblest profession in the world. It
produces all other professions one could think of. According to Rand
(cited in Wayant, 2003), teaching is one of the most crucial,
responsible and important professions since it requires communicating
knowledge and guiding of the intellectual development of the human
beings. Rand added that the purpose of teaching is the communication
and spread of the right ideas and intellectual values, which means the
creation of culture. Teachers can then help create a good culture
particularly in the school, which is hoped to influence the home of their
students and the society where they also belong. As explained by Zwell
(2000), a successful culture provides an avenue for highly competent
individuals to be engaged, challenged, motivated to exercise their
talents and impact their organization.
At the helm of the teaching profession are the teachers. In the
Philippines, teachers in the Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9155 are referred to
as persons engaged in teaching at the elementary and secondary
levels, whether on full-time or part-time basis including industrial arts
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and vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory,
managerial and/or administrative functions in all schools and education
offices at the district, division, regional and central levels and qualified
to practice teaching under R.A. No. 7836 and/or those performing
functions in support of education such as standards setting, policy and
programs formulation, research and sector monitoring and evaluation
(DepEd, 2014 ). In the R.A. No.10533 or the Enhanced Basic Education
Act of 2013, the term teacher may also refer to include kindergarten
teachers since basic education starts at kindergarten level up to senior
high school (DepEd, 2013).
Moreover, the Code of Ethics for
Professional Teachers of the Philippines (Resolution Act No. 435, 1997)
describes teachers as duly licensed professionals who posses dignity
and reputation with high moral as well as technical and professional
competence (DepEd, 2014).
Teachers, in general, are respected for their image as the source
of information and facilitator of ones intellectual development. Cage
(as cited in Wayant, 2003) explains that teachers make a difference in
each childs life and affect each family and the future of every one.
Given this responsibility of teachers, their preparation or formation,
which is a responsibility of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) is
critical.
Teachers, however, could have different images as viewed by
different generations of learners from varied contexts. Traditionally, in
the Filipino context, some would see the teacher with the stereotype
image of being straight, firm, and dignified and who looks with eye
glasses, tied hair, and A-cut skirt. Intellectually, some would say
mag-teacher ka na lang (just be a teacher) if one is not that bright to
be a doctor, lawyer, or engineer. In this digital age, where people are
liberated in their thinking and behavior, there could be a change in the
image of a teacher. This change in the image of teachers as viewed by
the community is partly influenced by how they were developed by the
teacher educators or those who have trained them in TEIs.
There are a lot of expectations from teachers in this technologydriven 21st century society. According to Mac Meekin (2014), the image
of the 21st century teacher is due to the emergence of social web and
technology-driven classrooms. Mac Meekin listed 27 traits of the 21 st
century teacher, which include among others teachers who are techno
savvy, those who facilitate students learning, let them create, design,
question, contribute, relate what they learn to the real world, and
discern what is right from wrong. These traits have been supported by
Resta (as cited in Ledesma, 2011) who synthesized the characteristics
of teacher educators that can better serve students in the 21 st
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century as follows: 1) facilitate and inspire student learning and
creativity so that all students achieve in the global society; 2) enable
students to maximize the potential of their formal and informal
learning experiences; 3) facilitate learning in multiple modalities; 4)
work as effective members of learning teams; 5) use the full range of
digital-age tools to improve student engagement and achievement; 6)
work with their students to co-create new learning opportunities; 7)
use data to support student learning and program improvements; 8) be
lifelong learners; 9) be global educators; and 10) work with policy
leaders as change agents.
The 21st century teacher could also be described by the
professional standards set for teachers. In the Philippines, the National
Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) is usually referred to if
the characteristics of an effective and efficient teacher are of interest.
Domain 1 of NCBTS states that teachers serve as positive and powerful
role models of the values of the pursuit of learning (TEC, DepEd &
CHED, 2009). Being a role model implies setting good examples to
others. Hence, the value to learning of the students may also reflect
that of their teachers as facilitators of their intellectual development.
The foregoing characteristics of a teacher have to be developed
by TEIs to both the pre-service and in-service teachers so that they
could cope with the demands of this digital-age. Training programs for
teachers and educators should be designed to orient them on the
qualities desired of a 21st century teacher. Training programs such as
those conducted by the Teacher Education Council (TEC) dubbed as
Teacher Induction Program (TIP) set a good example of programs that
make new teachers aware of NCBTS and conscious of the
competencies they should be equipped with to meet the demands of
the 21st century.
However, there is also a need for the development of personal,
psychosocial, and professional aspects of the teacher based on what is
viewed and acceptable in the present society. Hence, this study aims to
determine the perceptions of students in different levels from
kindergarten to those who would become teachers themselves and to
those already practising their profession including the educators that
have developed them.
The perception of stakeholders about teachers image can be
considered as one of the most fascinating inquiries in the field of
education. Educational experts, academicians, professionals, parents,
and learners have unabashedly expressed their admiration for teachers
who have made an impact on their lives. They speak of their favorite
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teachers qualities and influence on their lives. A number of studies on
the qualities and image have also been conducted over a period of
time and across cultures.
One of the recent studies along this line was conducted by
Ampadu (2012) which examined the students views on their teachers
teaching practices in Mathematics, and how they had influenced their
learning experiences. This study, involving 358 students from junior
high schools, revealed that students perceptions of their teachers
teaching vary since their teachers employed both teacher-centered
and learner-centered approaches.
Other studies on teachers have presented a strong correlation
between perception of teachers and students learning; that is, a
student is likely to learn well if s/he has a more positive image of
his/her teacher. A case in point is Rawnsleys (1997) study which
established that students develop a more positive attitude toward their
mathematics lessons where the teacher is considered to be highly
supportive and gives the students chance to play an integral role in the
teaching-learning process.
Other studies on the image of teacher are capsulized in a book that
essentially emphasized the importance of positive perception of
students toward their teachers which is generated from a cordial and
friendly relationship between the students and their teachers
(Middleton & Petitt, 2010). The students mentioned that their best teacher
knows them personally including their interests and strengths, smile at
them, encourage them to participate in school activities, provide
descriptive feedback on assignments, connect classroom learning to
real life, apologize when they make mistakes, give meaningful
activities, and show enthusiasm in what they do.
With the stakeholders perception of teachers comes the inquiry
on the factors that might have influenced these points of view. Brok,
Fisher & Rickards (2006) in their study identified several factors that
influence students perception. These factors are student and teacher
gender, student and teacher ethnic background, student age, teacher
experience, class size, student achievement, and subject. Each of
these factors produces distinct effect on students perception.
The 21st century learning contexts bring forth a revitalized
interest on the image of teachers because face-to-face interaction in
the classroom is now challenged by other modes of learning, e.g. webbased learning. This is also coupled with the seemingly growing
number of teachers whose ethno identity, not to mention belief
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systems, is different from their own students. This new context in
education gives a new dimension in the study of students perception
of their teachers.
To contribute to how 21st century teachers are perceived
nowadays in the context of the Philippines, it is ideal to determine such
perception from those directly exposed to them and those who wanted
to become them, the teachers themselves including those that
developed them. Thus, this study was conducted. It is hoped that the
study will provide input on how the TEIs in the Philippines should
prepare future teachers in the era of the K to 12 Reform.
As shown in Figure 1,
the image of the 21st century
teacher is described in this
study
in
three
aspects,
namely:
personal,
psychosocial,
and
professional. Personal traits
initially
refer
to
the
appearance,
behavior,
manner of thinking, manner
of talking, work ethics, social
relation, student relation, and
other personal traits of a
teacher.
Psychosocial traits
refer to teachers reaction to
various situations happening
in the workplace and in the
society
in
general.
Professional traits refer to
those
competencies
expressed in terms of roles
expected of a teacher mostly drawn from the NCBTS as the national
document that defines standards for teachers observed in the
Philippines. These traits reflect teachers roles as organizer,
communicator, mentor, expert, motivator, classroom manager,
evaluator, decision maker, leader, reflective practitioner, leader,
adviser, action researcher, agent of change, learner, community
member, and role model.
These teacher traits or teacher image
were described by the internal stakeholders of the member institutions
of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS) and were used to
recommend programs for teacher development in the Philippines.
METHODOLOGY
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This descriptive research describes the image of the 21 st century
teacher based from a survey conducted in 2013 to 9 out of 10 TEIs
belonging to the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Each TEI
had respondents representing four sectors of stakeholders, namely:
basic education students (kindergarten, elementary and high school);
pre-service teachers with specialization in pre-school, elementary, and
high-school education; basic education teachers; and teacher
educators. These nine institutions are state universities situated across
the three main islands in the Philippines (four in Luzon; three in
Visayas; and two in Mindanao). There were 50 to 80 respondents from
each TEI sampled making it to a total of 612 respondents. The age of
the respondents ranged from 4 to 71, with an average age of 22. Those
respondents in the kinder and elementary levels were assisted by their
teachers when they responded to the survey instrument as there was
only one instrument that was used by all respondents. Most of the
respondents were female (69%) and single (75%). There were 31 to 83
respondents per sector. A survey questionnaire was used which made
use of forced-choice an open-ended formats.
The survey
questionnaire had four main parts: the first part asked for the
respondents personal and institutional information; the second part
was a checklist of personal traits of teachers where each category
requires selecting top two preferred among five given traits; the third
part showed items reflective of the psychosocial traits presented using
a Semantic Differential Scale; and the last part included professional
traits categorized into 16 roles of a teacher where each had five
statements expressed in the form of a four-point Likert Scale. The
open-ended part of the instrument allowed the respondents to provide
information or traits that were not captured by any of the parts of the
instrument. The instrument underwent validation by experts and was
tried out to the different internal stakeholders of one of the 10 member
TEIs of the 3NS. All those involved in the tryout represented the sectors
targeted as respondents of the study. The final instrument was based
on the suggestions given by the expert validators and feedback from
those who participated in the pilot testing. The instrument had two
versions: one in English and another in Filipino. Data were analyzed
using descriptive statistics. Responses provided in the open-ended
format were consolidated based on common patterns and themes and
they were used to validate and enrich the data generated from the
forced-choice items.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Personal Traits

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This section focuses on the personal traits of teachers based on
eight categories: appearance, behavior, stance or point of view,
communication skills, work ethics, social relation, student relation, and
other personal traits.
Teachers Appearance. The kindergarten pupils perceived that their
teacher should be smart (ranked 1) and well-groomed (ranked 2)
among the five initial traits they needed to choose from. The other
three traits include cheerful (ranked 3), well-dressed (ranked 4),
and healthy (ranked 5). These descriptions of the appearance of the
teacher were supported by the majority of the respondents from the
basic education students, pre-service teachers in elementary and
secondary levels, basic education teachers, and teacher educators
themselves. Smartness and good grooming were then seen as the top
two desirable appearance of the 21st century teachers. The results are
attributable to the traditional view of a teacher as the source of
knowledge and role model including that in grooming, close to being
omniscient in the eyes of the students. It is an expectation that every
student especially in the basic education holds. A teacher departing
from this image may turn out to be a major disappointment for
students even in this era of technology-driven society. In addition, in
the context of school, the teacher should be smart, which could be
synonymous to being intelligent, well-read and well-informed
considering teachers as the main giver or source of information. The
school, in its most basic and ultimate role, is seen like a fountain of
knowledge and the teacher as its main player.
Teachers Behavior. Similar to teachers appearance, the choice of
the kindergarten pupils as to how their teachers should behave is that
they should be well-mannered (ranked 1). This perceived image is
the same as what the majority says from among the kindergarten
teachers themselves, and the students and would-be teachers in the
secondary schools, basic education teachers, and teacher educators.
The second most popular response is that they like the teacher to be
disciplined (ranked 2), which is also associated with proper behavior.
Consistently, the results show the importance of social decorum
among teachers. This perception can be associated with the view of
teachers as leaders and as implementers of rules. Other choices of the
respondents included traits such as honorable (ranked 3), humble
(ranked 4), and proactive (ranked 5). The perceived behavior of a
teacher in the 21st century could then still be the same as the
conventional image of a teacher as the cited traits were desired even
by the teachers of the past.

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Teachers Manner of Thinking. As regards manner of thinking, the
21st century teacher is perceived as open-minded (ranked 1).This was
endorsed mostly by the elementary pupils, pre-service teachers in all
levels, and teacher educators. The other traits on how the teacher
thinks based on the weighted mean and ranks include being a global
thinker (ranked 2.5) and realistic (ranked 2.5), intelligent (ranked
4), and practical (ranked 5). Apparently, the 21st century teacher
needs to be open-minded to see the realities of the global society,
which would require practical discernment as the society is fastchanging brought about by technological and environmental changes.
Teachers Manner of Talking. As regards manner of talking, the 21st
century teacher is viewed as confident (ranked 1).
This was
endorsed mostly by the pre-service teachers in the kindergarten and
secondary level, basic education teachers and teacher educators. To
other stakeholders, talking with sense of humor (ranked 2) matters
as well including having clear diction (ranked 3), polite (ranked 4),
and honest (ranked 5). Clearly, what matters at present is that
teachers are able to convey their ideas with confidence and clarity for
them to look credible and smart. These traits are consistent with the
one of the desired qualities of 21 st century learners, is a good
communicator (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2013). Teachers are
likely to be listened to if they show a sense of humor. Display of
politeness and honesty at all times makes them appear boring.
Teachers Work Ethics.
When it comes to work ethics, the 21st
century teachers are perceived responsible (ranked 1). This was
endorsed mostly by the elementary pupils, pre-service teachers in the
kindergarten and secondary level, basic education teachers and
teacher educators. Other stakeholders value more a teacher who is
creative (ranked 2), organized (ranked 3), resourceful (ranked 4),
and with initiative (ranked 5). It can be inferred from the data that
being responsible was prioritized among the five traits since a
responsible teacher could also manifest traits of being organized and
also working with initiative. Being creative, which is a
characteristic that is truly reflective of the 21 st century teacher, was
chosen more than being a resourceful as the former also manifests
the latter trait.
Teachers Social Relation. As regards social relations, the 21 st
century teacher is viewed as fair (ranked 1). This was endorsed by
almost all sectors of stakeholders. Other respondents prefer a teacher
who is kind (ranked 2), caring (ranked 3), understanding (ranked
4) and friendly (ranked 5). The results show that stakeholders across
sectors prefer a teacher who is fair,
kind, caring, or friendly when
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dealing with other people regardless of who they are. These traits are
truly admirable of a teacher this 21st century and maybe across time.
Teachers Relation with Students.
As regards relation with
st
students, the 21 century teacher is perceived as encouraging
(ranked 1). This was endorsed by almost all secondary school students,
pre-service teachers at all levels, basic education teachers and teacher
educators. Other respondents prefer a teacher who is collaborative
(ranked 2), respectful (ranked 3), authoritative (ranked 4) and
lenient (ranked 5). Looking at the results, one could infer that
education stakeholders prefer the present teachers to be encouraging
and collaborative. Being collaborative in addition to being a good
communicator is a trait highlighted in the framework of the 21 st
century learner (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2013).
Other Personal Traits of a Teacher. When asked to name other
personal traits the like 21st century teacher to possess, the majority of
the stakeholder respondents identified
God-fearing (ranked 1.5) and patient (ranked 1.5). These traits are
also desired of students in basic education level (DepEd, 2013). These
means that both students and teachers value the virtue of patience
and fear to God as these traits are expected in a country whose
population is mostly affiliated with religious groups, like the Philippines.
Consequently, the 21st century teacher is still expected to be morally
upright (ranked 3), which is also defined in the Code of Ethics for
Professional Teachers (RA 435, 1997). Other stakeholders also want the
teachers to be generous (ranked 4) and nationalistic (ranked 5).
Psychosocial Attributes
This section presents the data and discussion of the psychosocial
attributes of a teacher drawn from various situations testing his/her
perception or possible behavior as a social being. These traits include
teachers reaction to: 1) a multicultural classroom; 2) a competition; 3)
an external evaluation/accreditation; 4) school policies; 5) academic
situation; 6) a diverse classroom; 7) social equality; 8) personal and
organizational success; 9) environmental disasters; 10) bold
expressions; and 11) societal concerns.
Teachers Behavior in Multicultural Classroom. The respondents
across all sectors in the study expressed a strong agreement, that
when the 21st century teacher is assigned to handle a multicultural
class, s/he views it as a good opportunity to enhance his/her teaching
skills and not as threat that may force him/her to seek employment in
another school. Given the situation, it can be gleaned that the
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respondents image of a 21 st century teacher is one that is highly
motivated and open-minded rather than nearsighted or narrowminded.
Teachers Behavior in a Competition. The majority of the
respondents (excluding basic education teachers and teacher
educators) described the 21st century teacher as a person who is likely
to cheer up when his/her coached team fails to win in a competition.
The basic education teachers and the teacher educators chose
challenged rather than cheers up as a preferred image of a teacher
in a competition, a response that suggests depth and strong sense of
maturity in dealing with situations related to teaching and learning as
seasoned or professional teachers. Although the opposite response
indicated by the rest of the respondents is widely acceptable, it may be
viewed in a professional perspective as less scholarly. This clearly
suggests that the respondents view the 21 st century teacher not only
as good sport but also as a highly motivated person. This perception
was also supported by another item where all the respondents agree
that the 21st century teacher regards competition as a potent
motivation to achieving excellent performance. Specifically in
education, competition provokes students to obtain more marks, to
exert more ideas, and to excel in their studies (Kaddour, 2011).
Teachers Behavior in an External Evaluation/Accreditation. The
majority of the respondents favored the situation that suggests that
the 21st century teacher reviews the weak areas, and helps in
improving the school performance when the schools overall
performance in an accreditation or evaluation process fails. This means
that all the respondents perceive the 21 st century teacher as just and
thorough rather than cynical in his/her dealings.
Teachers Behavior to School Policies. The majority of the
respondents visualize the 21st century teacher to have a strong sense
of moral obligation rather than judgmental as most of their responses
strongly favored counsels the colleague as an appropriate action the
21st century teacher should take when a colleague is found violating
school rules and policies. This is a more professional way of treating
colleagues and making them understand the need to abide by the
school rules and regulations. As Code for Professional Ethics for
Teachers requires, the teacher shall at all times show professional
courtesy, helpfulness, and sympathy towards teachers and other
personnel in the school. (Sec.1)
Teachers Behavior in an Academic Situation. The majority of the
respondents show the tendency to walk the path between consoling
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and defending. The question now is the manner of defending and
consoling what they do. It is also a possibility that they defend their
colleagues by talking to them and expressing their opinions but not
actually taking concrete actions to defend them. An investigation on
this matter is worth the time since it gives information on the dynamic
relationship established by teachers and students in an academic
institution.
Teachers Behavior in a Diverse Classroom. The majority of the
groups of respondents indicated agreement to the idea that the 21 st
century teacher views cultural differences or diversity as hindrance to
the achievement of optimum learning among learners in a classroom.
The responses suggest that the aforesaid differences if not handled
effectively, may pose as potential threat that keeps learners from
achieving fully and optimally in the classroom. The proper handling
may start from the curriculum which dictates the content of instruction,
that is sensitive and at the same time responsive to needs of students
of various ethnical backgrounds or orientations to the employment of
methodologies which are appropriate to address such differences.
Teachers Behavior in Promoting Equality. Social equality is
desired in a diverse classroom and community. This was so evident in
the study as all respondents agreed to the idea that that the 21 st
century teacher views the promotion of equality as one of the most
important and crucial concerns of teachers. This means that the
respondents view the 21st century teacher as an ambassador in
promoting ethnic equality so as to avoid conflicts that root from ethnic
diversity and cultural differences. Likewise, Mourar (2007) states that
fairness is a basic element of ethics of the teachers. Giving everybody
an equal opportunity to succeed in the society starts in the character
building years of the children. Essentially, teachers should lead by
example for children and show them how fairness works. Fairness is
not merely treating everybody alike, it goes much deeper. Fairness
rather means giving everybody the right tools to advance and grow
which could be associated with social equality.
Teachers Behavior in Organizational Success. With the exception
of the basic education teachers and teacher educators, all the rest of
the respondents indicated disagreement on the idea that the 21 st
century teacher regards organizational success as the sole
responsibility of leaders or officials in an organization. Obviously, the
majority of the respondents subscribe to the opposite idea, that is,
they believe that the 21st century teacher should view that the success
of an organization depends on the collective efforts of the individual
members. This is consistent with their view of personal success as
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product not only of ones own making but also of the other people
around him/her.
Teachers Behavior to Environmental Disasters. All of the
respondents agree that the 21st century teacher views environmental
disasters as a social concern rather than as a normal phenomenon.
This suggests that the respondents perceived the 21 st century teacher
as a person and a professional who has a profound and broad
understanding of the environment and of the critical environmental
issues and problems.
Teachers Behavior to Bold Expressions of Thoughts. Although
the majority of the groups of respondents signified disagreement to the
idea that the 21st century teacher views bold expression of thoughts,
opinions and sentiments as a manifestation of defiance, the basic
education teachers and the teacher educators indicated opposite
response. This difference may be explained by the latter group of
respondents careful attention to the word bold in the statement that
if one is careful or meticulous enough, the statement could mean
strong defiance or violent or undiplomatic way of expressing
sentiments or airing grievances to authorities, and it should not be
practiced by the 21st century teacher.
Teachers Behavior to Societal Concerns. All of the respondents
view the 21st century teacher as one who believes that each citizen has
his/her own responsibilities and accountabilities as a member of
society. This is strongly supported by the respondents unanimous
agreement to the statement that the 21 st century teacher views
societal problems or issues as concerns of every individual. The
respondents also think of the 21 st century teacher as a person who
recognizes that social responsiveness starts with the social
consciousness because social awareness is a key to informed and
active involvement to social affairs. Finally, all of the respondents were
in strong agreement to the statement that the 21 st century teacher
regards social awareness as everybodys responsibility. This means
that the respondents perceived the 21 st century teacher as a
professional who asserts that social awareness is the prime or vital
responsibility of every individual in a society.
Professional Attributes
This section enumerates the perceived roles of a professional
teacher in the 21st century based on the data collected from the

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students and teachers in basic education as well as from the preservice teachers and their teacher educators in the TEIs surveyed.
Teacher as a Planner and Organizer. The respondents in all levels
agree that 21st century teachers should be thoughtful of the diversity
of learners in his/her classroom. Also, the teachers must be able to set
appropriate learning goals for all types of learners. In implementing
so, they must pace the lessons with consideration of the needs and
difficulties of the learners, giving equal importance to their cultural
background when providing learning opportunities. Their teaching
methods, learning activities and instructional materials and resources
must be aligned with the lesson objectives and appropriate to learners,
as well. According to Brown, Earlam & Race (1995), an effective
teacher also trains the students to be organized in everything including
the management of their time and learning resources.
Teacher as an Effective Communicator. The respondent
stakeholders at all levels recognize the importance of effective
communication in the teaching and learning processes. All of them
strongly agree that teachers must use the language appropriate to the
learners level and background and to the subject area being taught.
They likewise approve the use of mother tongue in the classroom. On
the other hand, startlingly, all the basic education student respondents
oppose the use of the students lingo in classroom discourse when preand in-service teachers and teacher educators actually support its use.
The contradictions were probably due to either a misconception or lack
of understanding of the term lingo by both parties. At one end,
student lingo may have been construed by the teacher groups as
language used by the students when they speak with their peers, and
therefore could facilitate learning processes. On the other end, the
students probably thought of student lingo as too informal and
inappropriate in the classroom setting, and may be difficult for the
teachers to comprehend. Thus, students decided that their peer
language should not be spoken while doing classroom activities. Given
the valuable contribution of effective communication in the skillful
delivery of teaching and learning processes, the inclusion of
communication skills development in the training content and design
of teacher development programs should be considered.
Similarly,
the inclusion of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) in the K to 12 Curriculum necessitates the conduct of formal
teacher training to help ensure the effective implementation of
program.
Teacher as a Facilitator. The respondents at all levels strongly agree
to the idea that 21st century teachers should encourage learners to
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freely express their ideas while optimizing time and available learning
resources and observing established routines and procedures. The
respondents clearly recognize one of the key roles that teachers play
as facilitator of learning. Gleaning from the data, the 21 st century
teachers are expected to be skillful at creating a truly learner-centered
learning environment, one that is non-threatening and able to get
learners hooked at achieving despite apparent academic diversities.
While computer-based instruction is quite rapidly dominating teachinglearning processes, the stakeholders response on the issue of teaching
without the black/chalkboard shows the appreciation of the importance
of having a discussion board while teaching. It would be most helpful,
therefore, to design the training curriculum of teacher training
programs for knowledge and skills development, providing minds-on
and hands-on opportunities to explore and learn various facilitative
techniques, and development and utilization of technologies that
support teaching and learning processes.
Teacher as an Expert. The stakeholder respondents at all levels
strongly agree that 21st century teachers should be knowledgeable not
only of their specific field of expertise but also of other fields that are
directly or indirectly related to the content they teach. Data further
reveals that the 21st century teachers are expected to integrate
relevant scholarly works or ideas to enrich the lesson as needed, and
not simply to focus on the specific topic to be learned at a time. They
should make learning meaningful and relevant by linking current
content with lessons learned in the past and those that may be
presented in the future, as well as with the learners actual
experiences. Clearly, teachers must have a thorough understanding of
contentwhat it is about and how it connects with other areas and to
real life. It may be observed, however, that if compared with the basic
education students, the pre- and in-service teachers and the teacher
educators are more conscious of the need to connect specific content
with those in other related fields.. This is an evidence of the formers
appreciation of one of the special features of the K to 12 Enhanced
Basic Education Curriculum the use of the spiral approach to ensure
mastery of knowledge and skills after each level. The spiral curriculum
is a technique often used in teaching where the basic facts of a subject
are first learned.
As learning progresses, the details gradually
increase; its connections with concepts in other learning areas are
established, and the basic and preceding concepts are emphasized
many times. To support this expectation of 21 stcentury teachers as
experts, and in line with the teacher quality requirements of the K to
12 EBE Program, importantly, teachers are afforded learning
opportunities that would keep them abreast with constantly evolving
concepts and information in their fields, and how these are found to
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connect with the content of other learning areas.
Teacher
development programs, therefore, should not only constantly provide
teachers with content updates, but also with learning opportunities to
truly appreciate where and how concepts connect and should be
viewed.
Teacher as a Motivator. The majority of the respondents agree that
the teacher as a motivator inspires students to study hard. As the
teacher serves as motivator, s/he inspires the students to study hard,
gives timely feedback to students for all given tasks, creates a stressfree environment, encourages students to join various school and class
activities, and sets high standards of learning performance. According
to Zulueta and Guimabatan (2012), motivation is central of learning. A
motivated student obtains what he/she learns more compared with
others who are not motivated. As teachers play an important role in
the learning process of the students, teachers must be a motivator to
each learner. Each learner is different from one another. Some learners
are considered deep who respond well to the challenge of mastering a
complex task and subject. Others are strategic learners who are
motivated primarily with rewards. Some learners react well with
competition. Ken Bain (as cited in the Center for Teaching, 2014 )
describes also surface learners who are motivated by a desire to avoid
failure. Individual teachers have various types and levels of motivation
to improve their teaching in ways that better enhance student
learning.
Teacher as a Classroom Manager. Stakeholders believe that the 21st
century teacher must be a classroom manager, who maintains a safe
and orderly classroom for his/her students. S/he must check the
condition of his/her classroom from the materials s/he uses up to the
arrangements of chairs and tables and even the cleanliness of the
rooms. Teachers need to monitor the situation of the learners inside
the classroom. Teachers equally feel attached to and concerned about
the children and are ready to offer their utmost effort and time even
beyond the confines of the classroom (Salandanan, 2010). Classroom
management is another significant factor for the learning of the
students. Teachers play various roles in a typical classroom, but surely
one of the most important roles they play is that of a classroom
manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly
managed classroom (Marzano & Marzano, 2014). Teachers must assure
the proper management of classroom before the class starts. Learning
environment is one of the domains identified in the NCBTS, which deals
with providing social and physical environment within which all
students, regardless of their individual differences in learning. It can

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also engage learners to different learning activities and work towards
attaining high standards of learning.
Teacher as an Assessor/Evaluator. The views of the kindergarten
learners, elementary students, and high school students, which are
congruent with the view of the prospective teachers, 21 st century
teacher must not heavily employ traditional techniques when
assessing learning. S/he prepares formative and summative tests
regularly and uses assessment results to improve teaching and
learning. Evaluation is very essential for the learners to realize and
understand the ideas they need to improve on. Feedbacks on
assessments are not only used for diagnostic and corrective measures
but also to encourage and motivate the learners for further effort, to
maintain and improve self-confidence as appropriate. Evaluation is the
systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance,
using criteria governed by a set of standards. This evaluation helps to
assess pupils progress. Another important domain in the National
Competency-Based Teacher Standards where in assessment is
included. The domain of Planning, Assessing and Reporting refers to
the aligned use of assessment and planning activities to ensure that
the teaching-learning activities are maximally appropriate to the
students current knowledge and learning levels (DepEd, 2006).
Teacher as a Problem Solver/Decision Maker. As shown in the
views by the kindergarten pupils, elementary students and high school
students, which the prospective teachers in the same level also agree
with, teachers must take appropriate action to address teachinglearning difficulties and make outright decision when no other authority
can decide in a problematic situation. Parents entrust their children to
school since they know and believe that the teachers are the second
parents to their children. Decision making involves giving consideration
to a matter, identifying the desired end result, determining the options
to get to the end result, and then selecting the most suitable option to
achieve the desired purpose. Teachers make countless decisions all
day long in an effort to promote student learning. Breakdown of
decisions includes three categories: planning, implementing, and
assessing. Some decisions are made at the desk when preparing
lesson or unit plans, designing an instructional activity, or grading
papers (Fuller, 2011).
Teacher as a Reflective Practitioner. All stakeholder respondents
are in agreement of the view that the 21st century teachers should be
reflective practitioners. As such, 21st century learners should have their
personal philosophy, and evaluate their own teaching and its impact
through self-evaluation and feedbacking. The results concur with what
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Brookfield (1995) suggests of a teacher as a reflective practitioner, one
who needs to know oneself or ones autobiography as a teacher and
learner and who recognizes students eyes, colleagues perceptions, as
well as theoretical literature.
Teacher as a Leader. The data reveal that the majority of the
stakeholders from kindergarten to teacher educators expressed
agreement on the image of the 21 st century teacher as a leader and
his/her leadership should strongly manifest inside and outside the
classroom by reinforcing and following policies and rules in the
workplace and by initiating projects/activities that effect better
learning and stimulating work environment.
Teacher as an Adviser.
The majority of the stakeholders value
the need for a teacher as an adviser in the 21 st century classroom. This
image of a teacher as an adviser is one who sets up the venue for
students success, provides fruitful classroom experiences, and
promotes rights, and justice. They agreed that classroom opportunities
should not create fear and discomfort among learners. The teacher as
an adviser also gives individualized guidance to students, conducts
regular conferences with parents and teachers, involves parents to
participate in school activities, and provides opportunities to realize
and maximize students potentials.
Teacher as an Action Researcher. The data reveal that stakeholders
view the 21st century teacher as someone who uses and undertakes
research to inform instruction. This finding strengthens that claim of
many institutions that research is an important or even integral
component of instruction which means that the two are
complementary. Other behaviors of a teacher as a researcher include
creating knowledge, making a connection between teaching and
research, getting research ideas based on students performance, and
doing extra reading and other learning activities. This indicates for a
preference to do doing extra academic undertakings like research that
could inform or further learning in the classroom.
PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR TEIS
This section presents suggested development program for preservice and in-service teachers based on the findings of the study to
get closer to bridging the gap between theory and practice and provide
the students across levels with teachers whose qualities match with
their expectations. The development programs are described in terms
of scope and design.

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Scope. Training of pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, and even
teacher educators should be holistic to include development programs
for the improvement of their personality as well as their psychosocial
and professional image. The personality development training should
expose them to techniques in projecting the following images of a
teacher: smart, well-mannered, open-minded, confident, responsible,
fair, encouraging, god-fearing, and patient. As explained by Magno &
Sembrano (2007), personal characteristics have an effect on teaching
efficacy as they lead to better teaching performance and effectiveness.
This then suggests that a good training package for teachers should
cover both personal and professional. Hence, teachers need also to be
trained on the professional and psychosocial aspects as well. For the
training on teachers psychosocial skills, this should cover: how to deal
with learners in a multicultural, competitive, or diverse classroom; how
to cooperate to school rules and regulations and to external
evaluations and accreditation; how to behave as a member of a school,
organization, or society; and how to express oneself and respond to the
academic concerns of the school and society. In terms of professional
development, all the teachers at different career stages starting from
pre-service level to being a teacher educator should undergo
continuous training for their professional development to be better
planner, organizer, communicator, facilitator, expert, motivator,
classroom manger, assessor/evaluator, problem solver, decision
maker, reflective practitioner, leader, adviser and action researcher.
Design. The training of teachers at all levels to develop their desirable
images should be in a developmental manner where their preparation
begins while they are still students in the basic education level.
Teachers could develop among their students the same traits the
students want of their teacher. As the saying goes, the earlier the
better. This means that the potential of students to become future
teachers could be nurtured as early as they entered the school for
formal training. Actual exposure to the teachers they want and their
formation into individuals who possess these traits they want may
serve as a good foundation for the creation of model teachers in the
future. Likewise, kindergarten teachers should continue monitoring
their pupils who have the inclination to be like them and sustain this
liking through role modelling. Considering that pupils may be handled
by different teachers of different personalities in the same school,
there must be articulation of students preferred professions between
the present and the former teachers to provide them with the right
guidance to the profession where they will likely succeed in the future
including that of becoming a teacher. These pupils who have initial
aptitude to teaching detected as early as when they were in
kindergarten should be continuously monitored in their basic education
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so that they really go into teaching and become the great teachers
they envision themselves to be. According to Paine (as cited in Frysh,
2011), the teachers in Finland, a country that led in international
assessment for students, are regarded equal as the doctors, lawyers
and other high professions in the world and so highly compensated.
Teaching is then looked up to as the most honorable profession.
Paine said the "preparation and development of high-quality teachers,"
is of essence in raising the standards of learning. Hence, rigorous and
developmental kind of training is necessary to strengthen the quality of
teachers at present and to assure better teachers of tomorrow.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The foregoing data have provided significant information on the
image of the 21st century teacher that could provide lessons
particularly to TEIs in the Philippines. First, regardless of the sector
they represent, the stakeholders of TEIs perceive the 21 st century
teacher as smart, well-mannered, open-minded, confident, responsible,
fair, encouraging, God-fearing, and patient. Second, in terms of
psychosocial traits, the 21st century teacher is viewed as a
professional who demonstrates a strong moral character, strong sense
of moral obligation, and positive sense of the world. S/he is openminded, highly motivated, just, thorough, obedient, humane, but is
challenged to manage the requirements of diverse and multicultural
classroom. S/he advocates equality, fairness, and compassion among
the people and deems it his/her moral obligation and social
responsibility to keep them morality sound. He/she also believes in
peaceful and diplomatic way of resolving conflicts. Further, as a
professional, he/she is perceived as a person who recognizes that
success is achieved collectively through unity and cooperation. He/she
is thought of as person who has not only broad and profound
understanding of the social and environmental issues and problems
but also deep concern for the society and environment. Lastly, as
regards professional traits, the 21st century teacher regardless of the
level of learner s/he handles is a planner, organizer, communicator,
facilitator, expert, motivator, classroom manger, assessor/evaluator,
problem solver, decision maker, reflective practitioner, leader, adviser,
and action researcher.
Given the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the
21 century teacher, the TEIs should rethink on how they train the
students who will be teachers. Pre-service teacher education programs
should develop in them these roles of a professional teacher while
continuing professional education programs should enhance teachers
capacity to elevate their practices in performing their various roles as
st

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they mature or grow in their profession so that they could always be
looked up to as role models for other teachers who are younger than
they are in teaching. Teachers should all act as leaders, action
researchers, reflective practitioners, and advisers; the difference lies in
the manifestation and actualization of these traits. The TEIs, being
focused on higher education, develop their students to be their own
persons; however, there is a pattern of behavior or image that may or
may not work in basic education. Eventually, the TEIs have to figure
out and see how training addresses or departs from the expectations
and the contexts in which the teachers will be in the future. The new
teacher education curriculum should be sensitive to the development
of the psychosocial attributes, that is, it should aim to develop the
psychosocial social attributes the different stakeholders of education
expect the 21st century teachers to possess and demonstrate. The
congruence between what the stakeholders expect and how the 21st
century teachers behave may facilitate a smooth relationship between
the former and the latter. Smooth relation may result in positive image
of the teachers and respect and support from stakeholders. With this,
the 21st century teachers may develop positive self-concept and selfesteem and may take pride in the teaching profession. All these will
enable the 21st century teachers to function in the classroom and in
society with dignity and pride, efficiently and productively, and fully
and optimally as individuals and professionals. The instructions
provided by the TEIs in the country should deliberately develop the
psychosocial attributes, especially those that are expected of them to
possess and demonstrate, of the would-be teachers. Intervention
programs of the same intention may also be implemented to attain the
same purpose. Review of the curriculum of teacher education to check
what is being taught in the pre-service is reflective of the requirements
in the in-service. Retraining of tertiary teachers to enable them to have
a full grasp and understanding of the basic education contexts as well
as the players that compose such contexts is also needed. Finally, a
holistic scope and a developmental design of a training program for
the present and future teachers across levels of learners is
recommended for consideration of TEIs in the Philippines.
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