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Mapa Institute of Technology Intramuros

School of Civil, Environmental, and Geological Engineering

Advanced Surveying
Field Manual
FIELD WORK NO.3
Laying of a Simple Curve On Uneven Ground Using Transit
and Theodolite (Double-Deflection Angle Method)

COURSE AND SECTION: CE121F/B2


Submitted By:
CABARCE, Christian Angel C.

Student No. 2012107830

Group No. 1

Chief of Party:

Date of Field Work: 10//2015

Date of Submission: 10//2015

Submitted To:
GRADE

Professor Engr. Valerie Ira Balmoris

Introduction:
An automatic level is an optical instrument used to establish or check
points in the same horizontal plane along with a vertical staff to measure
elevation difference in elevations, etc. When it comes to surveying, automatic
levels are the most widely used tool in inspecting elevations in a site.
For Differential Leveling With Turning Points (Double Rodded), like the
previous fieldwork, students are expected to practice the basics of surveying by
using the precise level and the leveling rod to know the difference in elevations.
The students must locate their BM-1 on the field then five Turning Points which
of the same distance to each other. Each of these five turning points have their
higher ground and lower ground, with a total number of ten turning points (both
low and high). At the end, they must locate the BM-2, which will be the end of
the course. Backsights are foresights are still needed to be found, however, the
foresight for BM-1 is disregarded in this fieldwork and wont be needed.

Objectives and Instruments:


Objectives
1. To be able to lay a simple curve on uneven ground.
2. To be able to lay a simple curve using double-deflection angle method.
3. To master the use of the transit and theodolite in laying a simple curve.
Instruments
-

2 Range Poles
50m Tape
Chalk

1 Transit
1 Theodolite

An
instrument
similar
to
an
ordinary surveyor's level but capable
of finer readings and including a prism
arrangement
that permits simultaneous observation
of the rod and the leveling bubble.

Leveling rod is equipment that ties with the


precise level. It is a long rod that has
measure marks, usually in terms of
millimeters. The rod can be extended, and is
widely used in measuring the difference in
elevation.

Chalks were used to mark points A and


B. Chalks are typical markers on the
field.

Plum bob is suspended from a string and


used as a vertical reference line. In the
fieldwork, this used to ensure the center of
the dumpy level is in line with the
markings on the ground.

- Procedures and Computations:


1. The professor gives the following data:
d 1 = _______; D = _______; d 2 = _______; Location of PC on the site
- Azimuth of the backward tangent = _________; Adopt Full chord length of ______ m
- GIVEN: I = d 1 + 8D + d 2 = __________
- NOTE: Be very careful in assigning the location of PC and the direction of the
-

backward tangent so that the curve will not be obstructed by any structure.
VERY IMPORTANT: Before going to the field, the student must compute:
a. Angle

of

intersection

c. Length of the chord C =

________
b. Total deflection angle I/2 =

_______
d. Half d 1

d 1 /2 = _______
d 2 /2 = _______

e. Half d 2
f. Half D D/2 = _______

_______

2. The students:
3. 2.1 Set up the transit at PC. Level and orient the transit to the magnetic south.
4. 2.2 Turn the telescope in the direction of the backward tangent and mark its direction
with a range pole.
5. 2.3 Set the horizontal vernier reading along to zero. With the lower clamp still loosened,
direct telescope again along the tangent.
6.

2.4 Loosen the upper clamp and turn the telescope until the reading on vernier
equals the magnitude of the total deflection angle of the curve. Along this line and with a
distance ewual to the length of the long chord from PC locate the position of the PT.

7.

2.5 Set the theodolite on the exact position of PT.

8.

2.6 Level the theodolite and set the horizontal vernier to zero while sighting PC.

9. To locate the first intermediate point A in the curve mark on the ground the intersection
of the line of sight in both instruments with a reading equal to

d1
) . (Note that the
2

first instruments reading is referred from the back tangent while the second instrument
reading is referred from the long chord.)
10. The next intermediate point B may be located on the ground using the same procedure
as in step 8, but this time use a reading equal to

d1 + D
) .
2

11. The next intermediate point C may also be found following the same process, but now
use a reading in the horizontal vernier equal to

d 1 +2 D
) .
2

12. Continue the process to locate other intermediate points on the curve with a gradual
increase in the deflection angle up to the last intermediate point.
13. Determine the percentage of error by using the formula:

14.

LengthMeasured Chord Length


|Computed Chord
|100
Computed Chord L ength

ERROR=

15.

16.
17.

FINAL DATA SHEET

18.FIELD WORK 3

19.LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE ON UNEVEN


GROUND USING TRANSIT AND THEODOLITE

20.DATE:

OCTOBER

2015
22.TIME:
24.WEATHER:

(DOUBLE-DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)


21. GROUP NO.
23.LOCATION:
25.PROFESSOR: ENGR. VALERIE IRA BALMORIS

26.
27.
28.

DATE SUPPLIED:
d 1 = _______; D = _______; d 2 = _______; Location of PC on the site

29. Azimuth of the backward tangent = _________; Adopt Full chord length of ______ m
30. GIVEN: I =
a.
b.
c.
d.

d 1 + 8D + d 2 = __________

Angle of intersection I = ________


Total deflection angle I/2 = _______
Length of the chord C = _______
d 1 /2 = _______
Half d 1

d 2 /2 = _______
e. Half d 2
f. Half D D/2 = _______
g.

STATION

h.

CHORD

i.

j.

p.

q.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

r.

s.

t.

u.

v.

w.

x.

y.

z.

aa.

ab.

ac.

ad.

ae.

af.

ag.

ah.

ai.

aj.

ak.

al.

am.

an.

ao.

ap.

aq.

ar.

as.

at.

au.

av.

aw.

ax.

ay.

az.

ba.

bb.

bc.

bd.

be.

bf.

bg.

bh.

bi.

bj.

bo.

bp.

bq.

bv.

bw.

bx.

bk.

bl.

bm.

bn.

br.

bs.

bt.

bu.

by.

bz.

ca.

cb.

cc.

A. Computations
cd. For lower ground:
ce.

BM 1' s HI =2.131 m+ 0 m

cf.

TP1 L s Elev=2.131 m2.075 m

cg.

cq.
cr. For higher ground:
'

'

cs.

BM 1 s HI =2.131 m+ 0 m

TP1 L s HI=2.205 m+0.056 m

'

ct.

TP1 H s Elev=2.131 m0.505 m

ch.

TP2 L' s Elev=2.261 m2.192 m

cu.

TP1 H ' s HI=1.626 m+0.686 m

ci.

TP2 L' s HI=2.197 m+0.069 m

cv.

TP2 H ' s Elev=2.312 m0.634 m

cj.

TP3 L' s Elev=2.266 m2.152 m

cw.

ck.

TP3 L' s HI =2.244 m+ 0.114 m

cl.

TP4 L s Elev=2.358 m2.230m

'

cm.
'

TP4 L s HI=2.265m+0.128 m

'

TP2 Hs HI =1.678 m+ 0.662 m


'

cx.

TP3 H s Elev =2.340 m0.688 m

cy.

TP3 H s HI =1.652m+0.768 m

cz.

TP4 H ' s Elev=2.420m0.615 m


TP4 H ' s HI=1.805m+0.600 m

cn.

TP5 L' s Elev=2.393m2.263 m

da.

co.

TP5 L' s HI =2.390 m+0.130 m

db.

'

TP5 H ' s Elev =2.405 m0.753 m

cp.
'

BM 2 L s Elev=2.530 m2.394 m=0.126 m

dc.

dd.

'

TP5 H s HI =1.652m+0.865 m

de.

BM 2 H ' s Elev=2.517 m2.394 m=0.123 m

B. Sketch
df.
dg.

dh. (A panoramic view of the site where the fieldwork was done)
di.
dj.
dk.
dl.
dm.
dn.
do.
dp.
The BM-1 was located on this part, which is on
the far right on the panorama.
dp.
dq.
dr.
ds.
dt.
du.

BM-1

dv.

dw.
BM-2

dx.
dy.
dz.
ea.

The turning points assigned were at locations in


between 2 slopes. Turning point 1 H will be located
on a higher ground, while 1 L will be on the lower
ground. They must be equidistant to each other.

eb.
ec.
ed.
Same as the previous fieldwork, If we
ee.
were to describe what could be seen in
ef.
the precise levels telescope, the
picture to the left is exactly the
eg.
representation of what can be seen.
eh.
ei.
ej.
ek.
el.

em.
en.
eo.

The backsights and foresights must be


taken then move to another station.
Until it reaches the BM-2, that is when
the course is complete. The elevation
and HI will be solved through formulas.

ep.

eq.
er.
es.
et.
eu.
ev.
ew.
ex.
ey.
ez.
fa.
fb.
fc.
fd.
fe.
ff.
fg.
fh.
fi.
fj.
fk.
fl.
fm.
Student

fn.

Research and Discussion:

Signature

of

fo.
fp.
fq.

CONCEPTS / PRINCIPLE:

fr.
fs.

The same for the previous fieldwork, we shall still define some terms
known in this fieldwork. The term level is used compare the relative position of an
object with the horizon or the relative position of two or more objects. Objects
that are level are parallel with the horizon and at the same elevation with each
other. Level is usually determined by an air bubble in a small container of liquid.
The container is usually either a tube or cylinder. This apparatus is commonly
called a spirit level or simply a level. The spirit level by itself is not a useable tool.
It is usually incorporated with additional tools, for example, a carpenters level, or
a survey level. Objects are also level if they are perpendicular to a vertical line. A
vertical line can be established with a plumb bob or a piece of string with a
weight.

ft.

The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors

made in stone structures, into which an angle-iron could be placed to form a "bench" for a
leveling rod, thus ensuring that a leveling rod could be accurately repositioned in the same
place in future. These marks were usually indicated with a chiseled arrow below the horizontal
line. The height of a benchmark is calculated relative to the heights of nearby benchmarks in a
network extending from a fundamental benchmark, a point with a precisely known relationship
to the level datum of the area, typically mean sea level. The position and height of each
benchmark is shown on large-scale map.
fu.
fv.

A difference in elevation is the vertical distance between two level surfaces or

planes. If the elevation of each of the level surfaces is known, then a difference in elevation
could be calculated between the earth and elevation or either surface and also between any two
surfaces.
fw.
fx.

A back sight is a rod reading taken on a point of known or assumed elevation. The

elevation of a point would be known if the true elevation above sea level were known. The
elevation would be assumed if it was a local benchmark where the true elevation was not
known.
fy.
fz.

A foresight is a rod reading taken on a point of unknown elevation. In surveying

two different types of foresights are used, intermediate, and true. An intermediate foresight is
a rod reading on a point that will not be used as a turning point or benchmark. A true foresight is
a rod reading on an unknown point that will be used for a turning point or for a benchmark.

ga.
gb.

A turning point (TP) is a station along a survey that is established as a temporary

benchmark. The purpose of the turning point is to provide a new reference point when the
instrument is moved. The turning point should be a stake or other durable structure and the
elevation should not be part of the survey data. The instrument would be set up at instrument
position one (IP1); a back sight would be taken on bench mark one (BM1) and foresight on the
turning point. Once the back sight and foresight rod readings are known, the elevation of the
turning point can be computed. The TP becomes a new point that can be used as a reference
point. It is not considered a bench marks unless the appropriate marker is used. Turning points
are intended to be temporary. Then the instrument would be moved to IP2, and the process
repeated until the second benchmark was reached.
gc.
gd.

RELATION TO OTHER TOPICS:


ge.

This and the previous fieldwork can be tied with the two-peg test.
Normally, a two-peg test is a kind of test wherein you determine the error of a
level and to provide necessary adjustments to calculations. It is also a
recalibration process for the level to obtain accurate readings on a level.

gf.

gg.
gh.
gi.
gj.
gk.
gl.
gm.
gn.
go.
gp.

gq.
gr.
gs.
gt.
gu.
gv.
gw.
gx.

gy.
gz.
ha.
hb.
hc.
hd.
he.

Conclusion:
As said in the previous fieldwork, it is important to know the basics of leveling

since its one of the fundamentals of surveying. Aside from the measuring,
knowing the elevation is important mostly in the field to have an accurate survey
of the land to be taken.
hf.

In comparison with the sources of error with the previous fieldwork and to this
current fieldwork, we can say they have similar sources of error. If the levels
bubble is not in the center, this would make the level not balanced and would
have increments in readings than a normal reading would. Another error happens
when the leveling rod is not straight, this affects the readings on the level
because the accuracy of the reading must be, normally, in millimeters and with
that said every inaccurate slanting o sudden movements from left to right affects
the whole reading. Another source of error is when about to touch or trip the
tripod, which imbalances the level because movements misalign the bubble of
the level. The leveling staffs bottom part must be clean since any organic thing
that is on the staff could affect the reading to be taken.

hg.

Common recommendations can be suggested to make the fieldwork really


easy and to obtain the most accurate way. Here are some recommendations:

hh.
hi. WAVING THE ROD FORWARD AND BACKWARDS
hj.

Waving the rod forwards and backwards is a good way to get an accurate
reading. Why? If a staff man places a staff perpendicular to the ground, the one
who will use the level wont know whether the staff is really perpendicular to the
ground or straight. The tendency of this principle is to wave the rod forwards and
backwards and whatever the lowest reading to be seen on the bulls eye target is
the reading to be taken note of.

hk.

hl. PACING
hm.

Like the previous fieldwork, measuring tapes were not provided for

this fieldwork. In order to maintain equidistant lengths for each turning point, etc.
Pacing is a good substitute for measurements.
hn.
ho. BALANCING THE BUBBLE
hp.

There is a technique to easily place the bubble to the center. There are 3
leveling screws on the telescope. In order to balance the bubble, the telescopes
axis must be parallel and in-between the two leveling screws. Afterwards, we
must turn the two leveling screws both in or both out, never of the same
direction, to bring the bubble adjacent to the center. After this, use the third
leveling screw to place the bubble to the center.

hq.
hr. TWO-PEG TEST
hs.

This test is also applicable for the first fieldwork that uses the level. Why
two-peg tests are helpful anyway? As stated, two-peg tests are like recalibration
process for a level to know what is the error of the level itself. Reason behind this
is that when a level is used, you are not really sure, despite you leveled the
bubble correctly and such, whether the level reading itself has an error. Usually,
surveyors used two peg-test to check for the error if in case it was dropped, etc.
The acceptable error is usually 2 millimeters over 16 meters.

ht.
hu.

Some other tips to easily finish the fieldwork is to minimalize all


unimportant acts during fieldwork, such as not placing your entire hand that
covers the graduations of the level rod/ staff. Also, avoiding tripping the tripod
that will imbalance the bubble in the bulls eye level. Another recommendation is
using a Field book (It can be a simple notebook, etc.), aside from the data sheet
given, so that it will be easy to place all data that have been gathered.
Additionally, doing the two-peg tests as stated in the previous paragraph, helps
the accuracy of the readings.

hv.

For the application of this fieldwork, it is still the same from the previous
fieldwork, an application in field could be making a contour plan. With contour
plans, we can determine the slope of the land, floor levels, etc. These things are
important because they are pre-requisites before doing the main construction on
a specific site.

hw.
hx.
hy.

hz.
ia.

References:

ib.

Waving the Rod Forwards and Backwards, Balancing the Bubble and TwoPeg Test; from OTEN Building Courses Videos:

ic.

(Introduction to Surveying Playlist)

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDUuWSYkExUoO5y5X8DfFRMi-bL-dJACid.
ie.

Surveying Terms

if.

http://biosystems.okstate.edu/Home/fharry/2313/500_AddInfo/133_TERMS/Terms.

html
ig.
ih.
ii.
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im.
in.
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ip.
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ir.
is.
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iv.
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ix.
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jf.TABLE OF CONTENTS
jg.
PAGE

jh.
INTRODUCTION..
1
ji.

OBJECTIVES

&

INSTRUMENTS.2
jj.

PROCEDURE

&

COMPUTATIONS.3-4
jk.
Procedure..3
jl.
Computations4
jm.

DATA

SHEETS.5-8
jn.

Preliminary

Data

Sheet..5
jo.

Final

Data

Sheet6-8
jp.

RESEARCH

&

DISCUSSIONS.9-10
jq.
CONCLUSION.
11-12
jr.
References.12
js.

jt.
ju.
jv.
jw.

jx.
jy.
jz.
ka.
kb.
kc.
kd.
ke.

kf.