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Optic Communication Systems

For Non-Optical Communications Engineers


Peter J. Winzer
Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, USA

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Bell Labs

S.Chandrasekhar
A.R.Chraplyvy
R.-J.Essiambre
N.K.Fontaine
G.J.Foschini
H.Kogelnik
G.Kramer
A.Leven
X.Liu
S.Randel
G.Raybon
R.Ryf
R.W.Tkach

Univ. Tel Aviv


Univ. LAquila
C.Antonelli
R.Dar
A.Mecozzi
M.Shtaif

Politecnico di Torino
P.Poggiolini

AND MANY OTHERS

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

OVERVIEW

The role of optics in data networks


Linear and nonlinear impairments in optical networks

Optical modulation and detction techniques


Optical multiplexing techniques
Spatial multiplexing in optical communications
(MIMO and MIMO-SDM security)
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The role of optics


in data networks

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

MASSIVE TRAFFIC GROWTH


MULTI-MEDIA & MACHINE-TO-MACHINE APPLICATIONS
HiDef Video Communication

Panasonics LifeWall

zspace.com

100 Tb/s

[R.W.Tkach, Bell Labs Tech. J., 2010]

10 Tb/s
1 Tb/s

2 dB / year
(58%/year)
US data network traffic

100 Gb/s

60% 10 log10(1.6) dB 2 dB

1995

2000

2005
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

10 Gb/s

2010

3D manipulation

MASSIVE TRAFFIC GROWTH


MULTI-MEDIA & MACHINE-TO-MACHINE APPLICATIONS
Amdahls rule of thumb
1 Floating point operation (Flop) triggers ~1 Byte of transport
Cloud services turn the network into a giant multi-processor interface

http://www.circuitboards1.com

100 TFlops

[P.J.Winzer, Proc. ECOC, 2010]

10 TFlops
1 TFlops
100 GFlops

100 Tb/s

Top 500 Supercomputers


2.7 dB / year
(86%/year)

10 GFlops

1 GFlops

10 Tb/s
1 Tb/s

2 dB / year
(58%/year)
US data network traffic

100 Gb/s

60% 10 log10(1.6) dB 2 dB

1995

2000

2005
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

10 Gb/s

2010

TRAFFIC GROWTH VARIATIONS: 20% TO 90%


DEPENDING ON APPLICATION AND GEOGRAPHY

[P. J. Winzer, Bell Labs Tech. J., 2014]


IEEE 802.3 Industry Connections Ethernet Bandwidth Assessment, http://www.ieee802.org/3/ad_hoc/bwa/BWA_Report.pdf
Metro Network Traffic Growth, Bell Labs Strategic White Paper, http://resources.alcatel-lucent.com/asset/171568
M. Nowell, Cisco Visual Networking Index; 20102015, http://www.ieee802.org/3/ad_hoc/bwa/public/sep11/nowell_01_0911.pdf
Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 20132018, http://www.cisco.com
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

DATA NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE


OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS EVERYWHERE
Transport
Switching

Satellites

Core

LAN

Data center

Access
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WHY OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS?


Regeneration-free transmission distance

[P. J. Winzer et al., Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006)]

Alcatel-Lucents
1830 PSS

High data rates


and
long distances

Fiber to the home


(FTTH)

Aggregate link capacity


Metric: Maximum transmission distance that can be
bridged before digital regeneration becomes necessary.
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

TX

10110

1011 0

RX

WHY OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS?


REASON #1: LARGE NARROW BANDWIDTHS
At 200 THz (1.5mm) carrier frequency
Low-loss fiber
Efficient sources & detectors
Low-noise amplifiers (EDFAs)
5 50 THz of channel bandwidth
is still narrowband at 200 THz
(~a few
% relative
bandwidth)
Thats
where
most digital
radio happens
MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

~ 5 GHz

1 kHz

1 MHz

1 GHz

1 THz

1 km
1m
1 mm
Frequency / wavelength of the electromagnetic field
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10

Visible
Light

LF

hn = kT

VLF

1 PHz
1 mm

WHY OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS?


REASON #2: VERY LOW PROPAGATION LOSSES
Attenuation of glass

Divergence in free space


Divergence angle ~ l/D

2 D 2 / l2
PRX ~ PTX DTX
RX

Loss [dB/km]

E.g., 200 THz instead of 20 GHz


108 x higher antenna gain (80dB)
Accurate pointing needed
(~ mrad @ kHz vibrations)

Today: < 0.2 dB / km


(RF coax: ~ 100x to 1000x more loss)

K. H. Kudielka et al.,
Proc. IEEE Phased Array
Symposium, Boston, 419 (1996)

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11

TELECOMMUNICATIONS BEFORE FIBER-OPTICS


AT&TS LONG-HAUL BUSINESS
Technology

Coax

Microwave
Relay

mmWaveguide

Designation

Year

Voice circuits
per channel

2-way
channels

Repeater
distance

Total 2-way
voice circuits

L-1

1941

600

8 miles

2400

L-3

1950

1,860

4 miles

11,160

L-4

1967

3,600

10

2 miles

36,000

L-5E

1975

13,200

11

1 mile

145,200

TD-2 (4 GHz)

1969

1,200

12

26 miles

14,400

TH-1 (6 GHz)

1961

1,860

26 miles

14,880

AR6A (6 GHz)

1981

4,000

26 miles

32,000

WT4 (trial)

1975

4,032

57

25 miles

230,000

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12

FIBER VS. COPPER - A CLEAR BUSINESS CASE


Courtesy: H. Kogelnik

For 6x less in cable diameter,


and 23x less in weight,
and 25x longer repeater spacing,
you got 156x more capacity!

Ca. 1977
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13

OPTICAL NETWORKS: WORKHORSE OF THE INTERNET


Reconfigurable optical
add/drop multiplexer

Client interface

(e.g., 4 x 25 Gbit/s)

Line interface

(ROADM)

(e.g., 100 Gbit/s)

Router

Optical network
~ 5 THz bandwidth

WDM system

~ 100 km of fiber

Tx

Rx

(e.g., 80 x 100 Gbit/s) Spectral efficiency (SE) in [b/s/Hz]:


SE = per-channel bit rate / WDM spacing

Increase per-wavelength interface rate


Increase aggregate per-fiber capacity
Increase network flexibility
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14

Tb/s

100
10

1
100
Gb/s

Serial Interface Rates and WDM Capacities

HIGH-SPEED OPTICAL INTERFACES


WHY A TERABIT IS CHALLENGING BUT NEEDED

10
1
1986

!
1990

1994

1-port 100GigE
1998

2002

2006 2010

2014

2018

2022

200G optical line interfaces are now available


Router interface scaling has merged with transport rates
Network processors available at 400G
Router port aggregation no longer possible
[P. J. Winzer, IEEE Comm. Mag. 26-30 (2010)]
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15

HIGH-CAPACITY WDM SYSTEMS


WHEN WILL WE NEED FASTER INTERFACES ?
Fact: Leading-edge providers started installing 100G interfaces in 2010.
Question: When will such providers want higher-rate interfaces?
(Simple extrapolation of higher interface needs)
20%

40%

60%

80%

400 Gb/s

2018

2014

2013

2012

1 Tb/s

2023

2017

2015

2014

10 Tb/s

2035

2024

2020

2018

Assumed
interface rate
requirement

Assumed
traffic
growth rate

Extrapolated availability requirement


for higher-speed interfaces

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16

Tb/s

100
10

1
100
Gb/s

Serial Interface Rates and WDM Capacities

HIGH-CAPACITY WDM SYSTEMS


COMMERCIAL CAPACITY SATURATION AT ~ 50 TB/S

10
1
1986

1990

1994

1998

2002

2006 2010

2014

2018

2022

WDM systems available up to ~10 to 20 Tb/s


WDM capacity scaling has slowed from ~100%/year to ~20%/year in 2000
[P. J. Winzer, IEEE Comm. Mag. 26-30 (2010)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

17

HIGH-CAPACITY WDM SYSTEMS


WHEN WILL WE NEED FASTER INTERFACES ?
Fact: Leading-edge providers started installing 10T WDM systems in 2010.
Question: When will such providers want higher-capacity systems?
(Simple extrapolation of higher WDM capacity needs)
20%

40%

60%

80%

50 Tb/s

2019

2015

2013

2012

200 Tb/s

2026

2019

2016

2015

1 Pb/s

2035

2024

2020

2018

Assumed
WDM capacity
requirement

Assumed
Traffic
growth rate

Extrapolated availability requirement


for higher-capacity systems

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18

Tb/s

100
10

1
100
Gb/s

Serial Interface Rates and WDM Capacities

HIGH-CAPACITY WDM SYSTEMS


COMMERCIAL CAPACITY SATURATION AT ~ 50 TB/S

10
1
1986

1990

1994

1998

2002

2006 2010

2014

2018

2022

WDM systems available up to ~10 to 20 Tb/s


WDM capacity scaling has slowed from ~100%/year to ~20%/year in 2000
[P. J. Winzer, IEEE Comm. Mag. 26-30 (2010)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

19

Impairments in optical
networks

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20

NOISE FROM OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS


AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION (ASE)
Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Lower bound on noise dictated by quantum mechanics
Optical signal power
Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR):
Optical noise power

[R.-J. Essiambre et al., J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)]

TX

RX

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)

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21

NOISE FROM OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS


AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION (ASE)
Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Lower bound on noise dictated by quantum mechanics
Optical signal power
Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR):
Optical noise power

Span length
100km 50km
Span loss (=G) 20dB
10dB
Spans
Nspan
2 Nspan
Total noise
100 Nspan 20 Nspan
TX

G amplifier gain = span loss


Nspan number of spans

RX

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)

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22

NOISE FROM OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS


AMPLIFIED SPONTANEOUS EMISSION (ASE)
Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Lower bound on noise dictated by quantum mechanics
Optical signal power
Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR):
Optical noise power

[R.-J. Essiambre et al., J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)]

TX

RX

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)

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23

FIBER NONLINEARITIES
THE ULTIMATE LIMIT OF FIBER TRANSMISSION
Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Lower bound on noise dictated by quantum mechanics
Signal power
Increase signal power for better (O)SNR:
(Optical) noise power
Fiber nonlinearities
(within a signal, between WDM signals, between signal and noise)

Core diam. ~8 mm
Megawatt / cm2 optical intensities
n = n0+n1 Popt + (Kerr effect)

A A ejznz A ejzn0z ejzn1Popt z


Leads to nonlinear distortions over hundreds of kilometers
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24

FIBER NONLINEARITIES
THE ULTIMATE LIMIT OF FIBER TRANSMISSION
Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Lower bound on noise dictated by quantum mechanics
Signal power
Increase signal power for better (O)SNR:
(Optical) noise power
Fiber nonlinearities
(within a signal, between WDM signals, between signal and noise)

TX

RX

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)

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25

CHROMATIC DISPERSION AND PMD


Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Signal-distortions
Fiber nonlinearity
Chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion

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26

CONCATENATED FILTERING IN OPTICAL NETWORKS


Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Signal-distortions
Fiber non-linearity
Chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion
Optical filter concatenation

DEMUX

l1

l1

lN

lN

Drop
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27

MUX

Add

WDM multiplexer
WDM demultiplexer

CROSSTALK IN OPTICAL NETWORKS


Fiber and optical component loss
Noise from in-line amplification (EDFA, Raman); proportional to gain G
Signal-distortions
Fiber non-linearity
Chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion
Optical filter concatenation
Crosstalk (WDM, inband)

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28

OPTICAL FIBER TRANSMISSION


Optical field propagating in the fibers transverse mode

+N

(Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation)

Fiber
Nonlinearity

Filtering
Effects

Noise

Chromatic Dispersion
Optical Filtering (ROADMs)

Spontaneous emission from


in-line optical amplifiers

ROADM Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer


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29

SPLIT-STEP FOURIER TRANSFORM METHOD


NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF FIBER PROPAGATION
Consider short pieces of fiber (dispersion only, nonlinearity only)
Alternate between simple solution in t and f

Simulation steps
0

Dz
Step size Dz

Dispersion (but no nonlinearity)

Nonlinearity (but no dispersion)

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30

Distance

Courtesy: Pierluigi Poggiolini

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31

Courtesy: Pierluigi Poggiolini

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

32

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33

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34

Spectral efficiency
per polarization [b/s/Hz]

DISPERSION-MANAGED SYSTEMS
MANAGING NONLINEARITY WAS REALLY HARD
10

1
~1 dB/year

0.1
0.01

1990

1994

1998
Year

2002

2006 2010
x-pol x-pol

y-pol y-pol

Laser & filter stability


Modulation
Detection
PDM

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35

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36

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37

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38

Courtesy: Pierluigi Poggiolini

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39

FINDING THE FACTOR h

Optics Express, 16335 (2014)

J. Lightwave Technology (2015)

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40

Modulation in
optical communications

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41

Tb/s

100
10

1
100
Gb/s

Serial Interface Rates and WDM Capacities

HIGH-CAPACITY WDM SYSTEMS


COMMERCIAL CAPACITY SATURATION AT ~ 50 TB/S

10
1
1986

1990

1994

1998

2002

2006 2010

2014

2018

2022

WDM systems available up to ~10 to 20 Tb/s


WDM capacity scaling has slowed from ~100%/year to ~20%/year in 2000
[P. J. Winzer, IEEE Comm. Mag. 26-30 (2010)]
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42

THE COMMUNICATION ENGINEERS TOOLKIT


5 DIMENSIONS OF AN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC WAVE

Polarization
Space

Frequency

Modulation of the field in


Time

Quadrature

Same 5 dimensions across communications technologies


(Wireless, DSL, Optics, )
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43

USING THE FIVE PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS


AN OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS POINT OF VIEW
1.2

Loss [dB]

0.9

O
1260

Space

1360

1460

C
L
1530 1625
1565

0.6
0.3
0

Polarization

1300

1400
1500
Wavelength [nm]

1600

Frequency

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature
16-QAM

F
f
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44

32-QAM

64-QAM

256-IPM

3.1

Intensity modulation

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45

MODULATING THE INTENSITY DIMENSION

Intensity
Easiest property to modulate
Use absorption or interference processes

datap
p
i
n

[P.J. Winzer et al., Proc. IEEE, p.952 (2006).]


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46

DETECTING THE INTENSITY DIMENSION

Intensity

Photodetection

Easiest property to modulate


Use absorption or interference
Electrical signal Optical intensity
Easiest property to demodulate
'Direct detection' (better1): 'demodulation) = optical intensity detection,
photodetection
Practical modulation techniques are important for high-speed optical systems.
Practical detection schemes are important for high-speed optical systems.

1)

Demodulation refers to the process of moving an (optical) passband signal to (electrical) baseband, while
detection refers to the extraction of digital information out of the baseband signal.
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47

THE #1 TRANSPONDER DESIGN STRATEGY


MODULATE AS FAST AS ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE
Polarization
Space

Frequency

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature

10 Gb/s
25 Gb/s
100G CDR Demux
[Derksen et al., OFC06]

Research:
53.5 Gb/s

107 Gb/s

107-Gb/s electrical signal


[Winzer et al., ECOC05]
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48

100G Photo-receiver
[Sinsky et al., OFC07]

3.2

Phase modulation

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49

OPTO-ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS DETECT INTENSITIES

Intensity

Phase

Photodetection

Electrical signal Optical intensity

Phase-to-amplitude conversion at detection


Also known as interference in optics
Local oscillator laser (coherent receiver)
Signal self-reference (differential mod.)

Direct detection with delay demodulation


Coherent receiver

Differential phase modulation


Information in phase difference
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50

BINARY DIFFERENTIAL PHASE MODULATION


NEED BALANCED DETECTION TO GAIN 3 dB
Im{E}

Im{E}

constructive

Re{E}

Re{E}

destructive
balanced

OSNR penalty [dB]

OOK

DPSK

Detector amplitude imbalance


[Gnauck et al., JLT, 115 (2005)]
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51

3.3

Multi-level modulation

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52

NEED HIGHER BIT RATES ?


ONE OPTION: MULTI-LEVEL
Polarization
Space

Frequency

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature

10 Gb/s
50 Gb/s Multilevel (PAM)
25 Gb/s
53.5 Gb/s

107 Gb/s
10
11
01
00

PAM: Pulse amplitude modulation


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53

NEED HIGHER BIT RATES ?


ONE OPTION: MULTI-LEVEL
Polarization
Space

Frequency

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature

10 Gb/s
50 Gb/s Multilevel (PAM)
25 Gb/s
56 Gb/s (28 GBd)

112 Gb/s (56 GBd)

[Gnauck et al., OFC 2011] [Winzer et al., ECOC 2011]

160 Gb/s (80 GBd)

214 Gb/s (107 GBd)

[Raybon et al., PTL 2012]

[Raybon et al., ECOC 2013]

PAM: Pulse amplitude modulation


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54

QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING (QPSK)


MULTI-LEVEL IN BOTH QUADRATURES

Im{E}
Re{E}

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55

16-QAM TRANSMITTER
USING A DAC AND AN I/Q MODULATOR
2-bit arbitrary waveform generator

D1
D1
215-1
PRBS at
14.0 Gb/s
(D2 outputs
half-pattern
delayed wrt
D1 outputs)

6 dB
Multiple-bit
delay

6 dB

11-GHz LPF

Laser

p/2
Integrated
I/Q Modulator

D2
D2

6 dB

6 dB

11-GHz LPF

PRBS: Pseudo-random bit sequence


I/Q: In-phase/quadrature (or: Re{E} / Im{E})

Im{E}

Re{E}

4
4

[Winzer et al., ECOC08]


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56

HIGHER-LEVEL FORMATS
USING A DAC AND AN I/Q MODULATOR
N-level Electronic Signal I
p/2

N2 QAM Signal

Laser

N-level Electronic Signal Q

Format
QPSK
16-QAM
64-QAM
256-QAM
N2-QAM

N Bits/symbol
2
2
4
4
8
6
16
8
N
2 log2(N)

8-level drive for 64-QAM

10 GBaud

[A. Sano et al., ECOC2010, PD2.4]

50 GBaud
[J. Godin et al., BLTJ, 2013]

[J. Godin et al., BLTJ, 2013]

21.4 GBaud

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57

CONSTELLATION SIZE VERSUS SYMBOL RATE

PDM 512-QAM
3 GBaud (27 Gb/s)

PDM 256-QAM
4 GBaud (32 Gb/s)

PDM 64-QAM
21 GBaud (128 Gb/s)

PDM 16-QAM
80 GBaud (320 Gb/s)

PDM QPSK
107 GBaud (224 Gb/s)

[Okamoto et al., ECOC10]

[Nakazawa et al., OFC10]

[Gnauck et al., OFC11]

[Raybon et al., PTL12]

[Raybon et al., PTL12]

ADC & DAC resolution

Bandwidth
[Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3824 (2012)]

[R. H. Walden, JSAC (1999), and Proc. CSIC (2008)]


[A. Khilo et al., Opt. Ex. (2012)]

Line rate [Gb/s]

300

200

16-QAM

100

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58

4
5
6
Bits per symbol

SCALING THROUGH MORE LEVELS OR SYMBOL RATE ?

ATT
PDM 512-QAM EDFA
3 GBaudOSNR
(54 Gb/s)
[Okamoto et al., ECOC10]

Ix
Pol-div.
90 deg
Hybrid
PDM 256-QAM

PC

Y-polarization

4 GBaud (64 Gb/s)

PC

0 Gb/s

1 nm
OF

[Nakazawa et al., OFC10]

LO

PDM 64-QAM
21 GBaud (256 offline
Gb/s)

PDM 16-QAM
80 GBaud (640 Gb/s)

processing [Raybon et al., IPC12]


[Gnauck et al., OFC11]
LeCroy
LabMaster
scaling 9 Zi

Logarithmic

[T. Pfau et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 989 (2009)]


[Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3824 (2012)]
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59

X-polarization

PDM QPSK
107 GBaud (448 Gb/s)
[Raybon et al., ECOC12]

Linear scaling

Bits per symbol (per polarization)

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
IMPLEMENTATION PENALTY
9
8
7
6
5

3.3
1.5

1.5

4
3
2
1

2.0

2.8

1.0 1.3

1.7

1.6

2.4

0.6

0.5
0.6

2
4.3

2.1
0.7

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.9

10
20
50
Symbol rate [Gbaud]

[Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3824 (2012)]


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60

2.4
0.9

100

EVOLUTION OF HIGH-SPEED TRANSPONDERS


TOWARDS 1 TB/S ON A SINGLE CARRIER
Single pol -1

Polarization
Space

Frequency

Single pol -2

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature
107 Gbaud 16-QAM
(856 Gb/s)
PDM

[Randel et al, 2014]

Serial interface rates [Gb/s]

72 GBd PDM-64-QAM (864 Gb/s)


[Raybon et al, 2013]

1000

107 Gbaud QPSK

100
10
1
1986

1990

1994

1998

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

61

2002

2006 2010

2014

2018

2022

10
1
0.1

~1 dB/year

0.01
1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010
x-pol x-pol
Year

y-pol y-pol

Spectral efficiency
per polarization [b/s/Hz]

Spectral efficiency
per polarization [b/s/Hz]

SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY AND ITS PRICE IN SNR


10 SE = log2 (1 + SNR)
64
16
4

2x
2x

Laser & filter stability


Modulation
Detection
PDM

20 years ago: Device physics set engineering


limits on spectral efficiency
Today: Information theory sets fundamental
limits on spectral efficiency
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

62

256

3.7 dB 8.8 dB
5
10
15
20
Required SNR per bit [dB]

Simple on-off modulation,


direct detection
Higher-order modulation,
coherent detection

25

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

LOW SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY MODULATION


(SPACEBORNE APPLICATIONS)

Intensity

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)


10

01

00

11

10 Capacityconstrained

1
PPM
8

16
32

0.1

64

0
Position within PPM symbol

Time

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

63

256

Sensitivityconstrained

5
10
15
20
25
SNR (photons) per bit [dB]

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

LOW SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY MODULATION


(SPACEBORNE APPLICATIONS)

Intensity

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)


10

01

00

11

10 Capacityconstrained

1
PPM

8
Shot-noise
limited
16
channels

32

0.1

64

0
Position within PPM symbol

Time

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

64

256

Sensitivityconstrained

5
10
15
20
25
SNR (photons) per bit [dB]

FROM CLASSICAL TO QUANTUM TECHNIQUES


[J. Gordon, Quantum effects in communication systems, Proc. IRE 50, 1898 (1962)]
[A. S. Holevo, The capacity of a quantum channel with general signal states, Trans. Inf. Theory 44, 269 (1998)]

Quantum

Classical

[C. Antonelli et al., J. Lightwave Technol. (2014)]

Sensitivity [dB bits/photon]

10

???

Photon counting
0

Gordon/Holevo
quantum capacity

Linear Shannon

-10

-20
0.001

0.01

0.1
1
Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]
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65

10

100

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

SOME MORE ADVANCED TRICKS


4D, CODING, SHAPING, OVER-FILTERING
10

Constellation
shaping

256-QAM
64-QAM

Coded modulation 16-QAM

[Liu et al., OFC12]

Over-filtering

ISI

4-QAM
1

MAP
[Cai et al., ECOC10]

5
10
15
20
Required SNR per bit [dB]

25

Whatever you do, Shannon will be the limit


[C. E. Shannon, BLTJ (1948)]
[Karlsson & Agrell, ECOC10]

ISI: Inter-symbol interference; MAP: Maximum a posteriori


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66

4-DIMENSIONAL MODULATION
CLOSER SYMBOL PACKING THROUGH CORRELATIONS
Simple 2D example: 16-QAM, viewed as 2 independent, orthogonally muxed 4-PAMs
Im{E}

Im{E}

Re{E}
4
Im{E}

Im{E}

Re{E}

Re{E}
4

In 4D space:
(Ix/Qx/Iy/Qy)

Re{E}

=4
=

[H. Buelow et al., OFC 2013]

4
Here, the two dimensions
are no longer independent
2D modulation
Sacrifice SE for performance

[Karlsson & Agrell, ECOC10]


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67

Spectral efficiency =

Information bits
Signal spectral width

Spectrum [dB]

DIGITAL PULSE SHAPING


PULSE BANDWIDTH AND SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY

10 dB

56 GHz
Frequency

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68

MODERN OPTICAL TRANSPONDERS


DIGITAL PULSE SHAPING
t

DAC
Transmit
DSP

DAC
DAC
DAC

PDM
I/Q-MOD

TX Laser

First 200G 16-QAM coherent interface


Alcatel-Lucent 2013

Modern coherent transponders use pulse shaping for:


Spectral efficiency
Pre-compensation of various fiber impairments
(dispersion, nonlinearity, filtering)
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

69

Coherent detection and


digital signal processing

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70

COHERENT DETECTION BASICS

Signal

|ESig(t) + ELO|2 = |ESig(t)|2 + |ELO|2 2 Re{ESig(t) ELO e

Beat term
Requires signal-LO
polarization alignment

Local
Oscillator (LO)

Signal

j2pfIFt+jfSig(t)

Second signal quadrature Im{ESig(t) ELO e


90-deg hybrid

90-deg shifted LO

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71

j2pfIFt+jfSig(t)

COHERENT DETECTION BASICS


Polarization-diversity 90-degree hybrid
x-polarization
y-polarization

Signal

Local
Oscillator (LO)

Signal

90-deg shifted LO

Signal

Local
Oscillator (LO)

Signal

90-deg shifted LO

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

72

The good news:


Polarization multiplexing
comes for free

COHERENT DETECTION BASICS


THE ROLE OF THE INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY
Signal

|ESig(t) + ELO|2: 2 Re{ESig(t) ELO e j2pfIFt +jfSig(t)}

Beat term
Local
Oscillator (LO)
Heterodyne

Homodyne

Intradyne

Front-end bandwidth

~ 5* Symbol rate

Symbol rate

~Symbol rate

Phase/frequency locking

Frequency locking

Analog optical PLL

Digital electronic PLL


(free-running LO)

Spectral sketch

0 IF
Im{E}
Constellation sketch

0
Im{E}

Re{E}

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73

Re{E}

IF
Im{E}

Re{E}

MODERN COHERENT DETECTION


DO AS MUCH AS YOU CAN DIGITALLY, IN CMOS
Im{E}

Coherent optical front-end

Re{E}

Signal
LO laser

In-phase component

90 deg
Hybrid

Quadrature component

PBS
PBS

In-phase component

90 deg
Hybrid

PBS Polarization beam splitter


A/D Analog-to-digital conversion

Quadrature component

LO Local oscillator
DSP Digital signal processing
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

74

y-pol.

y pol.

x-pol.

x pol.

MODERN COHERENT DETECTION


HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION IN THE LAB

Digitization
Coherent optical front-end
Agilent 90000 Q-Series
160 GS/s @ 63GHz

x pol.
y pol.

Signal
LO laser

90 deg
Hybrid

Qx

PBS
PBS

Ix

90 deg
Hybrid

Iy
Qy

PBS Polarization beam splitter


A/D Analog-to-digital conversion

A/D
A/D
A/D
A/D

LO Local oscillator
DSP Digital signal processing
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

75

LeCroy LabMaster 10Zi


160 GS/s @ 65 GHz

MODERN COHERENT DETECTION


HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION ON CHIP

Digitization
Coherent optical front-end
x pol.
y pol.

Signal
LO laser

90 deg
Hybrid

Qx

PBS
PBS

Ix

90 deg
Hybrid

Iy
Qy

PBS Polarization beam splitter


A/D Analog-to-digital conversion

A/D
A/D
A/D
A/D

LO Local oscillator
DSP Digital signal processing
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76

Qx
Iy
Qy

A/D
A/D
A/D
A/D

Chromatic dispersion

Ix

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS


Digital computation of
exp(-j a f2 )

Fiber

Transmit pulse

DSP

Dispersed received pulse

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77

Compensated pulse

Qx
Iy
Qy

A/D
A/D
A/D
A/D

Chromatic dispersion

Ix

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS


Digital computation of
exp(-j a f2 )
Local oscillator laser needs to be coherent
across dispersed pulse width
Electronically enhanced laser phase noise
[W. Shieh et al., Opt. Exp., vol. 16, 15718 (2008)]
[C. Xie, Proc. OFC, OMT4 (2009)]

Received phase
Ideal
Fiber
with LO phase noise
Transmit pulse

Dispersed received pulse

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

78

Compensated pulse

OSNR

A/D

LO

Y-polarization

offline
processing
LeCroy
LabMaster 9 Zi

Jones matrix inversion

PBS

Fiber

Y-polarization

Signal 1

ffline
cessing

Polarization rotation

PBS

Axxx + Axyy
Ix

Ayxx + Ayyy

Signal 2

X-polarization

9 Zi
y

79

LO

offline
processing

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

ol-div.
0 deg
ybrid

X-polarization

Y-polarization

X-polarization

offline
processing

A/D

Ix

Y-polarization

EDFA

Pol-div.
90 deg
Hybrid

Retiming, resampling

Qy

PC

Clock recovery

Iy

A/D
ATT

PC

Qx

1 nm
j OF

Chromatic dispersion

640 Gb/s

A/D

PC

Ix

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS

Qy

A/D

A/D

PBS

Retiming, resampling

Iy

A/D

Clock recovery

Qx

Chromatic dispersion

Ix

A/D

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS


Hxx

Hxy
Hyx
Hyy

Fiber

Y-polarization

Signal 1

ffline
cessing

Polarization rotation

+
PBS
Axxx + Axyy
Ayxx + Ayyy

Signal 2

X-polarization

offline
processing

X-polarization

Y-polarization

9 Zi

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

80

Hxy
Hyx
Hyy

+
Im{E}

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81

Re{E}

Phase tracking

A/D

Hxx

Frequency locking

Qy

A/D

Retiming, resampling

Iy

Clock recovery

Qx

A/D

Chromatic dispersion

Ix

A/D

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS

Hxy
Hyx
Hyy

[T. Mizuochi et al., Proc. OFC, 2012 ]

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82

Decision/Decoding

Phase tracking

A/D

Hxx

Frequency locking

Qy

A/D

Retiming, resampling

Iy

Clock recovery

Qx

A/D

Chromatic dispersion

Ix

A/D

Front-end corrections

MAIN COHERENT DSP BUILDING BLOCKS

A WORD ON FEC IN OPTICAL SYSTEMS


Thats how most optical communications engineers view FEC:
Hard decision, 7% Overhead
-Log(Corrected BER)

BER = 210-3 FEC


BER = 10-16
decoder

FEC correction threshold

Assumes hard-decision FEC


Assumes independent errors
(sufficient scrambling wrt burst errors)

-Log(Uncorrected BER)

Problem: Soft-decision FEC

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83

A WORD ON SOFT FEC IN OPTICAL SYSTEMS


Thats what nonlinearities can do:
(Outside the assumptions leading to the Gaussian Noise model)

[J. Cho et al., Optics Express, 7915 (2012)]


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84

A WORD ON SOFT FEC IN OPTICAL SYSTEMS


Thats what nonlinearities can do:
(Outside the assumptions leading to the Gaussian Noise model)

[A. Leven et al., Phot. Technol. Lett., 1547 (2011)]


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85

A WORD ON SOFT FEC IN OPTICAL SYSTEMS


Back-to-back

After 1600-km transmission

Gaussian-like signal statistics down to ~1E-5 even after 1600-km transmission


The performance of SD-FEC expected to be fully obtained.

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86

MAJOR DSP ASIC MILESTONES IN OPTICS


ADC resolution vs. sample rate

9
2

~70% per year

10

Number of bit

Gate Counts (Million)

10

7
6
5
4

Stated
ENOB

3
2
10

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

10

2011

Year

20

30

40

50

Sample rate [GS/s]

70M+ gates

Nortel electronic pre-EDC 10G Tx (2005)


20GS/s DAC

Nortel 40Gb/s PDM-QPSK (2007)


20GS/s ADC/DSP
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

87

Alcatel-Lucent 112Gb/s (2010)


56GS/s ADC/DSP

60

Multiplexing in optical
communication systems

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

88

SAME 5 DIMENSIONS FOR MULTIPLEXING


AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST
1.2

Loss [dB]

0.9

O
1260

Space

1360

1460

C
L
1530 1625
1565

0.6
0.3
0

Polarization

1300

1400
1500
Wavelength [nm]

1600

Frequency

Physical dimensions
Time

Quadrature
16-QAM

F
f
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

89

32-QAM

64-QAM

256-IPM

WAVELENGTH-DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (WDM)

Orthogonality through non-overlapping frequency bins (WDM)

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

90

-35

-45

VARIOUS SUPERCHANNEL DEMONSTRATIONS


-55

-65

-75
193950

200 GHz

194000

194050

194100

194150

194200

200 GHz

-35

263 GHz

-10

300 GHz

-45

-20
-55

-30
-65

-40

Ix
-75
193950

Y-polarization
-50
1551.5
1552.0
1552.5 1553.0 1553.5
1554.0
1 Tb/s
(2 subcarriers)
16-QAM
offline
Wavelength,
nm
5.2
bit/s/Hz
processing

3200 km transmission
LeCroy
[Raybon
LabMaster 9 Zi

X-polarization
et al., IPC12]

194000

194050

194100

194150

194200

1 Tb/s (4 subcarriers) 16-QAM


5.0 bit/s/Hz
2400 km transmission

1.5 Tb/s (8 subcarriers) 16-QAM


5.7 bit/s/Hz
5600 km transmission

1.2 Tb/s (24 subcarriers) QPSK


3.74 bit/s/Hz
7200 km transmission

[Renaudier et al., OFC12]

[Liu et al., ECOC12]

[Chandrasekhar et al., ECOC09]

ADC&DAC bandwidth & resolution


Few carriers
High symbol rate

Optical parallelism

Laser

Mod.

Laser

Mod.

Laser

Mod.

Laser

Mod.

f
f

f
f

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

91

Large # of carriers
Lower symbol rate

OFDM IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS


Electrical OFDM
56 Gb/s net rate (65 Gb/s line rate)
32-QAM per subcarrier

[Takahashi et al., OFC09]

All subcarriers modulated at once

Laser

Optical OFDM

Mod.

Mod.

All subcarriers modulated individually


Parallel optical hardware

f
Comb

Mod.
Mod.
Mod.

65 GHz

f
f
f
f

300 GHz

60 GHz

448 Gb/s (10 subcarrier) 16-QAM


5 bit/s/Hz
2000 km transm.

606 Gb/s (10 subcarrier) 32-QAM


7 bit/s/Hz
2000 km transm.

1.2 Tb/s (24 subcarrier) QPSK


3 bit/s/Hz
7200 km transm.

[X. Liu et al., OFC10]

[X. Liu et al., ECOC10]

[S. Chandrasekhar et al., ECOC09]

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92

POLARIZATION-DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (PDM)


A standard single-mode fiber supports two orthogonal polarizations
One can transport independent signals in both polarizations, provided
that one can separate them again at the receiver in the presence of
random polarization rotations within the transmission fiber
Polarization diversity receivers detect both polarizations
(see section on coherent detection below)
PDM increases spectral efficiency by a factor of 2

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93

SPACE-DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (SDM)


Spatially disjoint optical beams are orthogonal
Multiple fiber strands
Multi-core fiber

http://www.occfiber.com/

Spatially overlapping optical beams can also be orthogonal


Multiple modes in multi-mode fiber

provided that one can selectively excite and detect those modes

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

94

Capacity limits

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

95

THE NONLINEAR SHANNON LIMIT


Increasing the signal power (i.e. the SNR) creates signal distortions from fiber
nonlinearity, eventually limiting system performance
Capacity C [bits/s]

Maximum
capacity

C = B log2 (1 + SNR)

SNR [dB]
Signal launch power [dBm]

Distributed Noise

Tx

Rx
Nonlinear distortions
Quantum mechanics dictates a lower bound on amplifier noise

[R.-J. Essiambre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008) or J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

96

AN LOWER BOUND ESTIMATE FOR THE SHANNON LIMIT

Capacity per unit bandwidth


(bits/s/Hz)

Assume ring constellations


Deterministic signal back-propagation to remove (most of the) channel memory
Numerical solution of nonlinear Schrdinger equation Numerical statistics
Capacity C [bits/s]

Maximum
capacity

SNR [dB]
Signal launch power [dBm]

1 ring
2 rings
4 rings
8 rings
16 rings

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Distributed Noise

Tx

10

15

20

25

30

35

SNR (dB)

Rx
Numerical statistics

[R.-J. Essiambre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008) or J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

97

40

1/2

Imag part of field [ mW ]

0.2
0.1

1 ring
2 rings
4 rings
8 rings
16 rings

-0.1

0.1

0.2
1/2

Real part of field [ mW ]

0
-0.5

-0.5

0.5

1
1/2

Real part of field [ mW ]

5
4

3
2

2
1
0
-1
-2
-2

-1

2
1/2

Real part of field [ mW ]

1
0

-1
-1

1/2

-0.2
-0.2

0.5

Imag part of field [ mW ]

-0.1

Capacity per unit bandwidth


(bits/s/Hz)

1/2

Imag part of field [ mW ]

SOME EXAMPLE RESULTS

10

15

20

25

30

SNR (dB)

Note: Capacity maximum occurs at fairly high SNRs


R.-J. Essiambre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008) or J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

98

35

40

VARIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS TO CAPACITY

R.-J. Essiambre et al., J. Lightwave Technol. (2010)


COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

99

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS TO FIBER PARAMETERS

Capacity is fairly insensitive to (heroic!)


improvements of fiber loss, nonlinearity,
or dispersion
Dont waste your money improving
single-mode fiber...
[R.J.Essiambre and R.W.Tkach, Proc. IEEE, 2012]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

100

15

75

10

50

25

Metro
2
100

Long-haul Submarine

1,000
10,000
Transmission distance [km]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

101

10

C-band capacity [Tb/s]

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

THE RATE-REACH TRADE-OFF IN OPTICAL FIBER

10

75

50

5
Metro
2
100

25
Long-haul Submarine
1,000
10,000
Transmission distance [km]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

102

10

C-band capacity [Tb/s]

15

<2x

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

THE RATE-REACH TRADE-OFF IN OPTICAL FIBER

15

75

10

50

25

2
100

10

1,000
10,000
Transmission distance [km]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

103

Commercial WDM
product needs
in 2021, 2018, 2016

C-band capacity [Tb/s]

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

THE RATE-REACH TRADE-OFF IN OPTICAL FIBER

20, 30, 60%


traffic growth
per year

WDM products, 2013

SCALING SERIAL OR PARALLEL ?

Spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

OR

20

TX

RX

TX

RX

TX

RX

~ 500 regenerators
(every ~3 km, ~4096-QAM)
3 parallel
systems

10

[P. J. Winzer, PTL 23, 851 (2011)]

10

100
1,000
Transmission distance [km]
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104

10,000

MULTI-BAND SYSTEMS USE MORE SPECTRUM


Polarization
Frequency
Space

1.2
Quadrature

Loss [dB]

Time

0.9

Attenuation of various fiber types


O
1260 1360

S
1460

C
L
1530 1625
1565

0.6
0.3
0

1300

1400
1500
Wavelength [nm]

Use more bandwidth within the low-loss fiber window


Multi-band systems: C, L, S(?) bands
Requires wide-band optical amplifiers, transponders, ROADMs, ...
If all bands were exploited: ~5x capacity gain
Sufficient for 3 to 9 years at 60% to 20% traffic growth
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

105

1600

SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING PARALLEL SYSTEMS


Polarization
Frequency
Space
Time

Quadrature

High scalability (~100 spatial paths)


Sufficient for 10 to 25 years at 60% to 20% traffic growth
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

106

Spatial multiplexing:
The final frontier

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

107

INTEGRATION FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY


Deploying M parallel paths is better than using multiple regenerators
But: M systems cost M times as much & consume M times the energy
Cost/bit (or energy/bit) remains constant

Integration is key to scale capacity in parallel systems

Both from a CAPEX and an OPEX point of view

TX

RX

TX

RX

TX

RX

Integration

Integration

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108

THE PRICE FOR INTEGRATION IS CROSSTALK


HOW MUCH END-TO-END CROSSTALK IS ACCEPTABLE?
TX

SDM
ROADM

ROADM

TX
TX

RX

RX

MIMO
DSP

RX
[Winzer et al., ECOC 2011]

Ix

X-polarization

Jones matrix inversion

X-polarization

LeCroy
LabMaster 9 Zi

offline
processing

offline
processing

Y-polarization

Y-polarization

LeCroy
LabMaster 9 Zi

Ix

OSNR: Optical signal-to-noise ratio


MIMO: Multiple-input multiple-output
DSP: Digital signal processing
SDM: Space-division multiplexing
ROADM: Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer

MIMO required

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109

Small penalty

SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING USING MIMO


THREE ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS
[Winzer and Foschini, Proc. OFC, OThO5 (2011)]

PBS

Fiber

PBS
Axxx + Axyy

Y-polarization

Signal 1

offline
ocessing

Polarization rotation

Ayxx + Ayyy

Signal 2
x

X-polarization

Y-polarization

X-polarization

LeCroy
LabMaster 9 Zi

Beam
Splitters
f2 FMF

Lenses
Mirror

[R. Ryf, et.al., JLT 30(4), 2012]


[N. Fontaine et al. ECOC 2012 (Th.2.D.6)]

EDFA

PC

SMF
port 2

LO

Phase
Plates

Pol-div.
90 deg
Hybrid

f1

PC

SMF
port 1

Ix

SMF
port 0

offline
processing

1. MIMO processing of all modes

w1,1

w1,2

w1,3

w1,4

w1,5

w1,6

w2,1

w2,2

w2,3

w2,4

w2,5

w2,6

w3,1

w3,2

w3,3

w3,4

w3,5

w3,6

w4,1

w4,2

w4,3

w4,4

w4,5

w4,6

w5,1

w5,2

w5,3

w5,4

w5,5

w5,6

w6,1

w6,2

w6,3

w6,4

w6,5

w6,6

640 Gb/s

ATT

OSNR

1 nm
OF

2. Coherent detection of any complete orthogonal set of modes


3. Selective excitation of any complete orthogonal set of modes
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110

Aggregate spectral efficiency [b/s/Hz]

SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING USING MIMO


IMPRESSIVE RESULTS
[Takara, ECOC 2012]

90
80

70
60

[Liu, ECOC 2011]

50
40

[Gnauck, ECOC 2012]


[Sakaguchi, OFC 2012]

30

[Ryf, OFC 2013]

[Chandrasekhar, ECOC 2011]

20

[Takahashi, ECOC 2012]

10
10

100
1,000
10,000
Transmission distance [km]
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111

MIMO-SDM IN FIBER DIFFERENCES TO WIRELESS

MT

MIMO channel N
0

+
+

MR

MIMO
Decoder

Potential addressability of all propagation modes (complete set)


Perturbed unitary channel (mode-dependent loss)
Fiber nonlinearity (likely to set per-mode power constraints)
High reliability requirements (99.999%), low outage probabilities (10-5)
Distributed noise (from optical amplifiers
RX TX feedback almost always impossible
Nonlinear MIMO signal processing ?

MIMO
Encoder

N0

MxM
Channel
matrix H
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112

SELECTIVE MODE EXCITATION AND OUTAGE


WHAT IS CAUSING OUTAGE ?

MIMO
Decoder

MR

MIMO
Encoder

MT

MIMO channel N
0

+
N0
MxM
Channel
matrix H

[Winzer and Foschini, Optics Express, 2011]


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113

SELECTIVE MODE EXCITATION AND OUTAGE


QUANTIFYING OUTAGE
1. Generate 100,000 instantiations of random (unitary) matrices H

MIMO channel N
0

MR

MIMO
Encoder

MT

Per-mode power limitation

MIMO
Decoder

Relative frequency

2. Calculate MIMO capacity for each matrix

10

10
10
10
10

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

MIMO capacity
(Multiples of a single mode)

N0
MxM
Channel
matrix H

[Antonelli et al., Optics Express, 2013]


[Ryf et al., OFC 2013, PD]

[Winzer and Foschini, Optics Express, 2011]


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114

SELECTIVE MODE EXCITATION AND OUTAGE


QUANTIFYING OUTAGE
1. Generate 100,000 instantiations of random (unitary) matrices H

Per-mode power limitation

3. Integrate statistics to get outage


1
Outage probability

(Probability that
channel does not
support target
capacity Ct )

Relative frequency

2. Calculate MIMO capacity for each matrix

10

10
10
10
10

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

2
Ct
MIMO capacity
(Multiples of a single mode)

10

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

10

-5

[Winzer and Foschini, Optics Express, 2011]

MIMO capacity Ct

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115

SELECTIVE MODE EXCITATION AND OUTAGE


MATCHING TRANSPONDERS AND FIBER MODES
Capacity CT / CS

100
10
1

No crosstalk

64-mode fiber
10 modes addressed

4
M = 128

0.1

SNR = 20 dB
10-4 outage

0.01
1
10
100
Transponder modes (MTR)

Severe capacity penalties for exciting just a subset of modes


Strong mode coupling Match transponder and fiber modes
[Winzer and Foschini, Optics Express, 2011]
[R. Dar et al., Trans. Inf. Theory, 2013]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

116

OUTAGE AND AVERAGE BIT ERROR RATIOS


QUANTITATIVE RESULTS

BER for different


channel realizations

-2

10

Outage
Probability

Average BER
-3

BER

10

BER
Threshold
Unperturbed

-4

10

SNR penalty

-5

10

7.5

8.5

SNR (dB)
[K. Guan et al., Photon. Technol. Lett. (2014)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

117

90

0.05

0.1

Probability Density

OUTAGE AND AVERAGE MIMO PERFORMANCE


IMPLICATIONS OF A STOCHASTIC CHANNEL MATRIX

Probability density

Frequency-flat channel
10

10

10

-1

10

-2

BERmax

BER

BER

BER

BER
BERth
f
t

Rapidly frequency-varying channel


BER

BERth

BER

BER BERmin

BER

BER
BERth
f
t

[Ho and Kahn, J. Lightwav Technol., 3719 (2011)]

Pre-FEC BER

BER =

1
N

S BER
i=1

[B. Wedding et al., Proc. OFC, WAA1 (2001); X. Liu et al., Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1109 (2005).]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

118

OUTAGE AND AVERAGE MIMO CAPACITIES

IMPLICATIONS OF A STOCHASTIC CHANNEL MATRIX

Probability density

Frequency-flat channel
C, BER

10

10

10

-1

10

-2

C, BER

C, BER
BER
BERth
f
t

Rapidly frequency-varying channel


C, BER

BERmax

BER BERmin

BERth

C, BER

C, BER
BER
BERth
f
t

Pre-FEC BER
1

CT / CS

C=

CA / CS 2

MIMO Capacity C/CS

1
N

SC
i=1

[L. H. Ozarow et al., Trans. Vehic. Tech. 43, 359 (1994); E. Bilgeri et al., Trans. Inf. Theory 44, 2619 (1998)]
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

119

OUTAGE OR AVERAGE MIMO CAPACITIES


ARE THE CAPACITIES MUCH DIFFERENT ?
Outage capacities

Average capacities

10
1
0.1

100
Capacity CA / CS

Capacity CT / CS

100
No crosstalk

M = 128
SNR = 20 dB
10-4 outage

0.01
1
10
100
Transponder modes (MTR)

10
1

No crosstalk
4
M = 128

0.1
SNR = 20 dB
Average cap.

0.01
1
10
100
Transponder modes (MTR)

[Winzer, Randel, Ryf, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI, Chapter 10, 2013]
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120

SMF
port 1

Beam
Splitters
f1

f2

FMF

Phase
Plates
SMF
port 2

Lenses
Mirror

LP01 X-pol

LP01 Y-pol

LP11a X-pol LP11a Y-pol LP11b X-pol LP11b Y-pol

Phase

SMF
port 0

Intensity

HOW TO PERFORM SELECTIVE EXCITATION


UNITARY TRANSFORM INTO (ANY COMPLETE) BASE

[R. Ryf, et.al., JLT 30(4), 2012]

[H. Blow et al., ECOC2011 (Tu.5.B);


N. Fontaine et al. ECOC 2012 (Th.2.D.6)]

[R. Ryf et al., PTL, 1973 (2012); C. R. Doerr et al., PTL, 597 (2011)]
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121

OA

SDM
ROADM

OA

Splice

Spatial superchannel

Coh

Spectral superchannel

Space

Space

OA

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

GENERIC SDM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE


SPATIAL SUPERCHANNELS NEEDED FOR MIMO

Wavelength

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122

Wavelength

Coh

Coh

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

OA

SDM
ROADM

OA

Splice

OA

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

GENERIC SDM SYSTEM COMPONENTS


PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS

Coh

Coh

Coh

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

SDM Mux/Demux:
Insertion loss
Imperfect orthogonality (crosstalk)

Network elements (ROADMs):


Mode-dependent loss
Imperfect orthogonality (crosstalk)

Fiber span, splices:


Mode coupling
Mode-dependent loss
Differential modal delays

Optical Amplifiers:
Mode-dependent gain
Mode-dependent noise
Distributed noise loading
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123

OA

OA

Splice

MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

SDM
ROADM

OA

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

N1,M

N2,M

Fiber Span
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124

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

GENERIC SDM SYSTEM ABSTRACTION


MATRIX CONCATENATION WITH DISTRIBUTED NOISE

Coh

Coh

Coh

MIMO
RX

HK
+
NK,M

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

OA

SDM
ROADM

OA

Splice

OA

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

RECEIVER DEMULTIPLEXER
MATRICES AFTER NOISE ADDITION DONT COUNT

Coh

Coh

Coh

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

NK,1
+
MIMO
TX

HK

MIMO
RX

+
NK,M

Matrices after noise addition can (in principle) be fully inverted by the RX
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125

OA

SDM
ROADM

OA

Splice

OA

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

RECEIVER MULTIPLEXER
MATRICES BEFOR NOISE ADDITION DO COUNT

Coh

Coh

Coh

NK,1
+
MIMO
TX

L1

MIMO
RX

H1
+
NK,M

COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

126

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RECEIVER MULTIPLEXER
MATRICES BEFOR NOISE ADDITION DO COUNT

NK,1
+
MIMO
TX

L1

MIMO
RX

H1
+
NK,M

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127

RECEIVER MULTIPLEXER
MATRICES BEFOR NOISE ADDITION DO COUNT
NK,1

+
MIMO
TX

L1

MIMO
RX

H1
+

Unitary

NK,M

Decompose matrix as

L UDV

Diagonal

Mode-average insertion loss

l1

lM

Mode-dependent loss (MDL)

Other MDL definition in use:


Use a definition that is
Easily measurable, can be specified and can be standardized
Makes statements on system performance
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128

EXAMPLE DEVICE PERFORMANCE


CHARACTERIZING A SPOT-BASED MODE MULTIPLEXER
10

MDL (dB)

Accessible
design
space

6
4
2

4
6
CIL (dB)

[Ryf et.al. IEEE Summer Topicals 2012, TuC3.2 ]


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129

10

EXAMPLE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE


CHARACTERIZING A MODE MULTIPLEXER
MIMO capacity

Isolated
crosstalk

0.8

Random
crosstalk
Distributed
crosstalk

0.6

0.4
M = 10

0.2 SNR = 20 dB
-20
-10
0
SDM-Mux crosstalk [dB]

Distributed crosstalk

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130

Isolated crosstalk

EXAMPLE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE


CHARACTERIZING A MODE MULTIPLEXER
Isolated
crosstalk

0.8

Random
crosstalk
Distributed
crosstalk

0.6

0.4
M = 10

1
MIMO capacity

MIMO capacity

0.2 SNR = 20 dB
-20
-10
0
SDM-Mux crosstalk [dB]

Isolated
crosstalk

0.8
0.6
Distributed
crosstalk

0.4

Random
crosstalk

M = 10

0.2 SNR = 20 dB
1 2
5 10 20 50
SDM-Mux MDL [dB]

Neither crosstalk nor MDL and IL fully describe system impact of multiplexer
Physics of coupling mechanism remains important
Approximate statement: ~10 20 dB of MDL for 10% capacity penalty
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

131

OA

SDM
ROADM

OA

OA

Splice

MIMO channel

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE

Coh

Coh

Coh

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L1

H1

L2

H2

LK

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

Segment
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132

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE

MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L1

H1

L2

H2

LK

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

Segment
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133

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE
MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L LS

H1

L2

H2

LK

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

Matrix concatenation (K segments)

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134

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE
MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L LS

H1

H2

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

MDLseg,dB = 1 dB

10x

10x

Log(PDF)

10x

Log(PDF)

Log(PDF)

Matrix concatenation (K segments)

MDLseg,dB = 2 dB

MDLseg,dB = 5 dB

0.95
1
1.05
0.8
1
1.2
Mode-average loss (LS) Mode-average loss (LS)

0.5 1
2.5
Mode-average loss (LS)

Full uniformly random mode coupling, M=16, K=64


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135

(a ~ 10-3)

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE
MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L LS

H1

H2

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

Matrix concatenation (K segments)

Constant signal
power per mode

(a ~ 10-3)

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136

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE
MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L LS

H1

H2

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

Capacity at 10-4 outage


(CT / MCS)

Matrix concatenation (K segments)

0.8

SNR = 20 dB

0.6 M = 128, 32, 16, 8


0.4
0.2
1 2
5 10 20 50
Average system MDL [dB]
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137

CONCATENATED MDL ELEMENTS


WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRIBUTED NOISE
MIMO channel

N0
+

MIMO
TX

L LS

H1

H2

MIMO
RX

HK
+
N0

0.8

1
Average capacity
(CA / MCS)

Capacity at 10-4 outage


(CT / MCS)

Matrix concatenation (K segments)

SNR = 20 dB

0.6 M = 128, 32, 16, 8


0.4
0.2

0.8

SNR = 20 dB

0.6 M = 128, 32, 16, 8


0.4
0.2

1 2
5 10 20 50
Average system MDL [dB]

1 2
5 10 20 50
Average system MDL [dB]

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138

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


DEFINITIONS AND ASSUMTIONS ARE IMPORTANT
MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

rt =

MIMO
RX

M E0 L
N0

Constant signal
power per fiber

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139

EXAMPLE MULTIPLY SPLICED FIBER LINK


THERE ARE ~1000 SPLICES ON A LONG-HAUL LINK

512 splices, 10-4 outage probability

[S. Warm and K. Petermann, Opt. Ex. 519 (2013)]


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140

OA

OA

Splice

MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

SDM
ROADM

OA

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

Fiber Span
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141

SDM Demux

Fiber Span

Coh

SDM Demux

Mod

WDM Mux

Mod

Spatial Superchannel

WDM Demux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

Coding
&
TX-DSP

Mod

SDM Mux

GENERIC SDM SYSTEM ABSTRACTION


EFFECTS OF DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE

Coh

Coh

Coh

MIMO
RX

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

RX-DSP
&
Dec.

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


SPATIAL NOISE CORRELATION

Spatial noise correlation


MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

Fiber Span
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142

MIMO
RX

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


SPATIAL NOISE CORRELATION
MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

Fiber Span

Spatial noise correlation

If segment matrices are unitary:

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143

MIMO
RX

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


SPATIAL NOISE WHITENING FILTER
MIMO channel

MIMO
TX

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

Equiv channel N0

MIMO
RX

MIMO receiver

+
MIMO
TX

G-1 HS

G-1

G
+

MIMO
RX

N0

Spatial noise whitening filter

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144

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


NOISE LOADING AT TRANSMITTER IS BEST
MIMO channel

Average MIMO capacity

MIMO
TX

L1

N1,1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

HK

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

Noise
TX

M = 32
K = 32
0.8 SNR = 20 dB

nd

3 1st 2

0.6

LK

H2

th

MIMO
RX

[Winzer et al. JLT 2010]

Filter before noise loading


Filter after noise loading

Evenly distr. noise

0.4

Noise at RX

0.2

0
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Filter bandwidth / Symbol rate

1 2
5 10 20 50
Total system MDL [dB]

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145

DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER NOISE


~10 dB SYSTEM MDL FOR 10% CAPACITY PENALTY
MIMO channel

L1

N2,1

NK,1

L2

H1

LK

H2
+

N1,M

N2,M

NK,M

1
0.8

HK

MIMO
RX

1
SNR = 20 dB

0.6 M = 128, 32, 16, 8


0.4

Average capacity
(CA / MCS)

Capacity at 10-4 outage


(CT / MCS)

MIMO
TX

N1,1

0.2

0.8

SNR = 20 dB

0.6 M = 128, 32, 16, 8


0.4
0.2

1 2
5 10 20 50
Average system MDL [dB]

1 2
5 10 20 50
Average system MDL [dB]

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146

Security in MIMO systems

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147

SECURE TRANSMISSION
EVERYBODY SHOULD BE INTERESTED

Secret Message

Alice
Eve (Eavesdropper)

HOW CAN SDM HELP ?


COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

148

Bob

DOES TAPPING REDUCE SPATIAL INFORMATION?


VARIOUS MEASURES OF SDM SECURITY
[S. K. Miller,

Inf. Sec. Mag.,

November 2006]

Secrecy and equivocation


Rate/distortion analysis
Computational security

Mode dependent loss (MDL) from eavesdropping


Detect an eavesdropper
Achieve provable security against physical layer attacks
Increase secure data rates
Need to understand both sides of the coin
How secure can an SDM waveguide be?
How can an SDM waveguide be wire-tapped?
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149

INFORMATION-THEORETIC SECURITY
Information-theoretic security (strictest notion of
security, similar to quantum key distribution, QKD):

Secrecy (equivocation) is the eavesdroppers uncertainty


(entropy) of the source message given the received signal

Secrecy capacity is the maximum amount of information


that can be sent to a legitimate receiver while ensuring
that zero information can be intercepted by an
eavesdropper

[1] A. D. Wyner, Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 54, 1355(1075).


[2] S. K. Cheong, et. al., IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 24, 451(1978).
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

150

System Model (I) - MIMO Channel

Channel between Alice-Bob

Channel between Alice-Eve

Mode-average gain
(loss)

We assume that H is known only to legitimate receiver. No channel


side information (CSI) at the transmitter.
Eavesdropper knows He at the receiver
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151

MIMO-SDM CHANNEL DYNAMICS


3 RESULTING DEFINITIONS OF SECRECY CAPACITY
-1

Probability Density

10

-2

10

Slow-varying frequency-flat

Interception
Probability

Average
Outage
Guaranteed

-3

10

Interception-free

0.5

Frequency-selective

Average Secrecy Capacity

Guaranteed
Secrecy Capacity

Outage Secrecy Capacity

-4

10

Cs

Cs

Cs

1.5

Average
Outage
Guranteed

Cs

Secrecy Capacity (normalized to C )


o

H and He are unknown at the transmitter


Trade-off between information rate and security
Guaranteed secrecy capacity
Outage secrecy capacity
Average secrecy capacity
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152

Cs

Cs

f
t

MIMO-SDM MAY GIVE VERY HIGH, SECURE BIT RATES


(A SINGLE SPATIAL PATH CAN BE 100 TB/S!)

Secrecy Capacity
[% of single spatial path]

1000

100
M=4
M=8
M=16
M=32
M=64

10

1
5

10

15

20
25
MDL (dB)

[K. Guan et al., Proc. ECOC 2012]


[K. Guan et al., Asilomar 2012]
[K. Guan et al., IEEE Trans. Inf. Sec. For. (2015)]
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153

30

35

40

SOME FURTHER READING


(WHERE MOST OF THE MATERIAL IN HERE IS FROM)
Modulation and multiplexing in optical communications:
P. J. Winzer et al., Advanced optical modulation formats, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V, I. Kaminow
et al. (eds.), Elsevier (2008).
P. J. Winzer et al., Advanced optical modulation formats, Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952-985 (2006).
P. J. Winzer, Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems, IEEE/LEOS Newsletter, February
2009, http://photonicssociety.org/newsletters/feb09/modulation.pdf
R.-J. Essiambre et al., Capacity limits of optical fiber networks, J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662-701 (2010).
P. J. Winzer, Beyond 100G Ethernet, IEEE Comm. Mag. 48(7), 26-30 (2010).
P. J. Winzer, High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats, J. Lightwave Technol. 20(26), 3824-3835
(2012).
X. Liu et al., Digital signal processing techniques enabling multi-Tb/s superchannel transmission, IEEE Signal
Processing Magazine 31(2), 16-24 (2014).
Spatial multiplexing and MIMO-SDM:
P. J. Winzer et al., Spatial multiplexing using multiple-input multiple-output signal processing, in Optical Fiber
Telecommunications VI, I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. Willner (eds.), Elsevier (2013).
P. J. Winzer, Optical networking beyond WDM, IEEE Phot. J. 4(2), 647-651 (2012).
P. J. Winzer, Making spatial multiplexing a reality, Nature Photonics 8, 345-348 (2014).
P. J. Winzer, Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities, Bell Labs Tech. J.
19, 22-30 (2014).
P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical
transport systems, Optics Express 19(17), 16680-16696 (2011).
K. Guan et al., BER performance of MDL-impaired MIMO-SDM systems with finite constellation inputs, Photon.
Technol. Lett. 26(12), 1223-1226 (2014).
K. Guan et al., Secrecy Capacities in Space-Division Multiplexed Fiber Optic Communication Systems, IEEE
COPYRIGHT 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Trans. Information Security and Forensics (2015).
154

Thank you!

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