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based on 2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE/SEI 7-10

ISBN: 978-1-936039-24-1

Copyright 2014

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. and International Code Council

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication is a copyrighted work owned jointly by S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. (SKGA)

and the International Code Council, Inc (ICC). Without advance written permission from the copyright owners, no part of

this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation,

electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an

information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact:

SKGA: 334 Colfax St., Unit E, Palatine, IL 60067. Phone 1-847-991-2700

ICC:

Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate; however, it is being provided for informational

purposes only and is intended for use only as a guide. Publication of this document by SKGA and the ICC should not be

construed as SKGA and the ICC engaging in or rendering engineering, legal or other professional services. Use of the

information contained in this workbook should not be considered by the user to be a substitute for the advice of a registered

professional engineer, attorney or other professional. If such advice is required, it should be sought through the services of a

registered professional engineer, licensed attorney or other professional.

Trademarks: International Code Council, the International Code Council logo and the International Building Code

are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ... v

Acknowledgements...... vi

Chapter 1: Modal Response Spectrum Analysis: Background

and Implementation...1

Chapter 2: Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

for Earthquake Forces .. 68

Appendix A: Member Forces from Modal Analysis .... 151

References ... 167

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

iii

iv

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

PREFACE

This publication addresses the methods by which a designer may comply with the seismic

design requirements of the 2012 International Building Code (IBC)/2015 IBC/ASCE 710: Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure (ASCE 7-10 Section 12.8), Modal Response

Spectrum Analysis (ASCE 7-10 Section 12.9), or Seismic Response History Analysis

(ASCE 7-10 Chapter 16). The procedures in ASCE 7-10 Section 12.9 and Chapter 16 are

more complicated than the Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure, but are required to be

used under certain conditions of irregularity, occupancy, and height. Over the years,

many questions have been asked about code provisions concerning these procedures and

this publication has been created to answer these questions and demystify the application

of the code with respect to modal response spectrum analysis.

Although ASCE 7-10 (the 2012 and the 2015 IBC) formally recognizes modal response

spectrum analysis as well as seismic response history analyses, the modal response

spectrum analysis is more common in design office usage and is therefore the primary

subject of this publication. The background and details are explained in the first half

(Chapter 1) of this publication where a step-by-step analysis procedure is given, and a

three-story, one-bay frame example is solved entirely manually to illustrate application of

the procedure.

The second half (Chapter 2) of this publication is devoted exclusively to the detailed

design of a 20-story reinforced concrete building that utilizes a dual system consisting of

specially detailed shear walls and frames for earthquake resistance. Modal response

spectrum analysis is used as the basis of design. Design utilizing the Equivalent Lateral

Force Procedure is also illustrated because it is basically a prerequisite to design using the

Modal Response Spectrum Analysis Procedure.

A key feature of this 20-story design example that would be of particular interest to users

is the design of reinforced concrete shear walls by the procedure in the 2011 edition of

ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.

ACI 318-14 is the reference standard for concrete design and construction in the 2015

IBC. However, it is still under development. A 45-day public comment period is expected

to commence around May 15, 2014 and publications is not expected until late fall, 2014.

SKGA plans to update Part 2 of this publication to ACI 318-14, once that standard gets

finalized, and issue a second printing based on ACI 318-14. ACI Committee 318

undertook a major reorganization effort following the publication of ACI 318-11, which

is now about to culminate in ACI 318-14.Thus the update to Chapter 2 of this publication

will be more challenging than it would have been in the absence of the extensive

reorganization. The resulting update, however, would be highly valuable because it will

steer the reader through a large part of the reorganized ACI 318-14.

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Parts of this publication are influenced by an earlier book (Ghosh, S.K., Domel, Jr.,

A.W., and Fanella, D.A., Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces,

Publication EB 113.02D) from the Portland Cement Association, an organization to

which the senior author owes much gratitude. This publication started out as a version,

modified for the 2000 IBC, of an earlier publication: Seismic Design Using Structural

Dynamics (1997 UBC), published by the International Conference of Building Officials.

Dr. Madhu Khuntia, formerly of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc., contributed much to the

1997 UBC publication. Dr. Kihak Lee, Saravanan Panchacharam, and Dr. David Fanella,

formerly of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. played key roles in the first IBC update.

The 2000 IBC edition of the publication was subsequently updated to conform to the

provisions of 2006 IBC/2009 IBC/ASCE 7-05. Dr. Jaehong Kim and Dr. Pro Dasgupta of

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. and Dr. Farhad Shad of Ramboll Engineering Consultants

contributed greatly to that update.

The contributions of Dr. Ali Hajihashemi of S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. in the

development of this edition of the publication are much appreciated.

vi

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

The company provides seismic and code-related consulting services to engineers,

businesses, trade associations, code-writing bodies, and governmental agencies involved

in the design and construction of buildings and other structures that are impacted by the

provisions of building codes. The company serves as a technical resource on structural

codes and standards for code development and enforcement agencies and personnel;

design professionals; academics; and the material industries. Technical support is

provided through publications, seminars, peer reviews, research projects, computer

programs, code interpretations and comparisons, a website, and other means.

Main Office: 334 E. Colfax St., Unit E, Palatine, IL 60067

West Coast Office: 43 Vantis Drive, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656

1-847-991-2700 www.skghoshassociates.com

The International Code Council is a member-focused association. It is dedicated to

developing model codes and standards used in the design, build and compliance process

to construct safe, sustainable, affordable and resilient structures. Most U.S. communities

and many global markets choose the International Codes. ICC Evaluation Service (ICCES) is the industry leader in performing technical evaluations for code compliance

fostering safe and sustainable design and construction.

Headquarters: 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2070

District Offices: Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA

1-888-422-7233 www.iccsafe.org

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

vii

viii

Seismic Design Usign Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

CHAPTER 1

BACKGROUND AND IMPLEMENTATION

1.1

The forces that a structure subjected to earthquake motions must resist result directly

from the distortions induced by the motion of the ground on which it rests. The response

(i.e., the magnitude and distribution of forces and displacements) of a structure resulting

from such a base motion is influenced by the properties of both the structure and the

foundation, as well as the particular characteristics of the exciting motion.

A simplified picture of the behavior of a building during an earthquake may be obtained

by considering Figure 1-11. As the ground on which the building rests is displaced, the

base of the building moves with it. However, the inertia of the building mass resists this

motion, which induces distortions in the building (greatly exaggerated in the figure).

This distortion wave travels along the height of the structure1. The continued shaking of

the base causes the building to undergo a complex series of oscillations.

(A)

(B)

Seismic Waves

It is important to draw a distinction between forces due to wind and those produced by

earthquakes. Occasionally, even engineers tend to think of these forces as belonging to

the same category just because codes specify design wind as well as earthquake forces in

terms of equivalent static forces. Although both wind and earthquake forces are dynamic

in character, a basic difference exists in the manner in which they are induced in a

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

and Corresponding Derived Velocity and Displacement Plots

1.3.1 Dynamic versus static structural analysis

In a structural dynamic problem, the loading and all aspects of the structural response

vary with time, so that a solution must be obtained for each instant during the history of

response.

There is a more important distinction between a static and a dynamic problem.3,4 When

the simple column of Figure 1-3(a) is subjected to a static lateral load, the internal forces

may be evaluated by simple statics. If the same load is applied dynamically, the timevarying deflections involve accelerations, which in turn generate inertia forces resisting

the motion (Figure 1-3(b)). The external loading, p(t), that causes the motion and the

inertia forces, fI(t), that resist its acceleration act simultaneously. The internal forces in

the column must equilibrate this combined load system, so that it is necessary to know

the inertia forces before the internal forces can be determined. The inertia forces depend

upon the rate of loading and on the flexibility and mass characteristics of the structure.

The basic difficulty of dynamic analysis lies in that the deflections that lead to the

development of inertia forces are themselves influenced by the inertia forces.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

where m, c, and k are the mass, damping coefficient, and stiffness, respectively, as shown

in Figure 1-4.

Equation (1-1) may be rewritten as

x 2x 2 x x g

(1-2)

where 2 = (2/T)2 = k/m, T is the natural period of vibration (Figure 1-5a), and = c/ccr

= c/2m is the fraction of critical damping* (Figure 1-5b).

The solution to Equation (1-2) leads to the deformation response x(t), which depends on:

(a) the characteristics of the ground acceleration, x g ( t ) , (b) the natural circular frequency

of vibration, = 2/T (or equivalently the natural period of vibration, T), of the structure

without damping, and (c) the damping ratio, , of the structure. The solution to Eq. (1-2)

is given by

1

x ( t, , )

d

x g () exp d ( t )] sin d ( t )d

1

R ( t, , )

d

(1-3)

---------------------------------------------*Critical damping is defined as the least damping coefficient for which the free response of a

system (i.e. in the absence of an external exciting force) is non-vibratory, i.e., for which the

system returns to the static position without oscillation after any excitation.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

Ground

Acceleration,

g (t)

-0.4 g

El Centro

S00E Component

May 18, 1940

0

0.4 g

10

20

Time, sec.

30

10

T = 0.5 sec

= 0.02

Deformation, u, in.

T = 1 sec

= 0.02

T = 2 sec

= 0.02

-10

10

0

xmax = 6.61 in.

-10

10

0

-10

0

20

10

20

Time, sec.

30

Deformation

(or Displacement)

Response Spectrum

= 2 Percent

15

Sd, in.

10

5

0

1

2

3

Natural Vibration Period, T, sec.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

subject to low levels of shaking. The latter evidence suggested a two-factor approach

sketched in Figure 1-16. In this approach, adopted in the 1994 NEHRP Provisions,16 the

short-period plateau, of height proportional to Aa, is multiplied by a short-period site

coefficient, Fa, and the curve proportional to Av/T is multiplied by a long-period site

coefficient, Fv. Both Fa and Fv depend on the site conditions and on the level of shaking,

defined by the Aa and Av coefficients, respectively. The 1994 NEHRP Provisions

introduced new seismic coefficients Ca and Cv such that

Ca = AaFa and Cv = AvFv

(1-10)

Six soil categories (called Site Classes), designated as A through F, were introduced in

the 1994 NEHRP Provisions. The first five are based primarily on the average shear

wave velocity, vs (ft/sec), in the upper 100 ft of the soil profile, and the sixth is based on a

site-specific evaluation. The categories include: (A) hard rock (vs > 5000 ft/sec), (B) rock

(2500 ft/sec < vs < 5000 ft/sec), (C) very dense soil and soft rock (1200 ft/sec < vs <2500

ft/sec), (D) stiff soil profile (600 ft/sec < vs < 1200 ft/sec), (E) soft soil profile (vs < 600

ft/sec), and (F) soils requiring site-specific calculations such as liquefiable and collapsible

soils, sensitive clays, peats and highly organic clays, very high plasticity clays, and very

thick soft/medium stiff clays.

In recognition of the fact that in many cases the shear wave velocities may not be

available, alternative definitions of the site categories were also included in the 1994

NEHRP Provisions. These alternative definitions use the standard penetration resistance

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

19

however, they are uniformly defined as the maximum level of earthquake ground

shaking that is considered as reasonable to design buildings to resist. This definition

facilitates the development of a design approach that provides approximately uniform

protection against collapse resulting from maximum considered earthquake (MCE)

ground motions throughout the United States.

It is widely recognized that the ground motion difference between 10-percent and 2percent probabilities of being exceeded in 50 years (henceforth referred to as 10%/50 and

2%/50 ground motions, respectively) in coastal California is typically smaller than the

corresponding difference in inactive seismic areas such as the eastern and central United

States. Figure 1-17, reproduced from the commentary to the 1997 NEHRP Provisions,

plots the spectral acceleration at a period of 0.2 second, normalized at a 2-percent

probability of being exceeded in 50 years (10 percent in 250 years), versus the annual

frequency of being exceeded.

The figure shows that in coastal California, the ratio between the 0.2-second spectral

accelerations for the 2%/50 and 10%/50 ground motions is about 1.5, whereas the ratio

varies between 2.0 and 5.0 in other parts of the United States.

The question therefore arose as to whether the definition of design ground motion based

on a constant probability for the entire United States would result in similar levels of

seismic safety for all buildings.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

21

design provisions of ASCE 7-10 that are beyond the scope of this publication. For a

comprehensive discussion of those revisions, please refer to the ASCE publication

Significant Changes to the Seismic Load Provisions of ASCE 7-10: An Illustrated

Guide.22

1.7.1 Equations of motion

The building of Figure 1-20 is used to illustrate multi-degree-of-freedom analysis.3,4 The

mass of the structure is assumed concentrated at the floor levels (lumped-mass

idealization) and subject to lateral displacements only. The equations of dynamic

equilibrium of the system may be written as

(1-15)

where {x} , {x } , and {x} are the acceleration, velocity, and displacement vectors,

respectively; {p(t)} is the load vector; and [m], [c], and [k] are the mass, damping, and

stiffness matrices, respectively. The mass matrix for a lumped mass system is diagonal,

i.e. the inertia force corresponding to any degree of freedom depends only on the

acceleration in that degree of freedom. In general, it is not practical to evaluate the

damping coefficients in matrix [c], and damping is expressed in fractions of critical

damping. The stiffness coefficient kij in matrix [k] is the force corresponding to

displacement coordinate i resulting from a unit displacement of coordinate j.

Figure 1-20. Lumped MDOF System with Applied Loading and Resulting

Displacements

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

29

m3

x2

m2

33

32

31

x3

21

23

22

(a)

m1

Shape

change

12

11

x1

Mode 1

Frequency 1

13

Mode 2

Frequency 2

Mode 3

Frequency 3

No change in shape

x1 = 11X1 + 12X2 + 13X3

(b)

or,

or,

x1 11

x 2 21

x

3 31

12

22

32

13 X1

23 X 2

33 X3

{ x } = [{ 1 } { 2 } { 3 }] { X }

{ x } = [ { X }

(c)

xi = im

Free vibration

in mode m

Tm =

Period

2

m

Frequency

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

31

Vt =

Step 9 Distribute base shear for each mode over height of structure

Fim =

w i im

Vm

w i im

Vm = base shear in mode m

Step 10 Perform lateral analysis for each modeto determine member forces for each

mode of vibration being considered (ASCE 7 Section 12.9.2)

For rigid diaphragms, include accidental torsion (ASCE 7 Section 12.8.4.2) and amplified

accidental torsion (ASCE 7 Section 12.8.4.3) in the distribution of story shears to lateralforce-resisting systems.

Step 11 Combine dynamic analysis results (moments, shears, axial forces, and

displacements) for all considered modes using the square root of the sum of the squares

(SRSS) combination or the complete quadratic combination (CQC) to approximate total

structural response (ASCE 7 Section 12.9.3) or resultant design values.

Step 12 Scale story drifts from dynamic analysis results (ASCE 7 Section 12.9.4)

Scale factor = 0.85 [0.5S1W/(R/Ie)]/Vt 1.0

Adjusted story drifts = 0.85 [0.5S1W/(R/Ie)]/Vt (Original story drifts)

Adjusted story drifts are to be smaller than the allowable story drifts given in ASCE 7

Table 12.12-1.

1.12.1 General

A three-story reinforced concrete building (Figure 1-29) is designed following the

requirements of the 2012/2015 IBC (ASCE 7-10). The building is located in Los Angeles

(on Site Class D). The dynamic analysis procedure is used as the basis of design.

1.12.2 Design Criteria

hs

w

E

56

= 10 ft

= 386.4 kips/floor

= 4000 ksi

(Figure 1-29(a))

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

Icol

Beams

16.67 in. (depth) 12 in. (width)

Columns

16.67 16.67 in.

Material properties:

Concrete (all members):

fc = 4000 psi

All members are constructed of normal weight concrete (wc = 145 pcf)

Reinforcement:

fy = 60,000 psi

Service Loads:

Assumed floor load

Total weight W

= 386.4 kips/floor

= 386.4 x 3 = 1159.2 kips

The risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake (MCER) spectral response

acceleration (for 5% damping) at short period, SS = 1.5g, and that at 1-second period, S1

= 0.6g.

Assume Risk Category: II

and Seismic importance factor, Ie = 1.0

Site Class = D

Site coefficient Fa = 1.0

Site coefficient Fv = 1.5

(ASCE 7 Table 11.4-2)

At short periods:

(ASCE 7 Eq. 11.4-4)

Special Moment Frame system of reinforced concrete has R = 8 (ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1,

Item C.5)

Seismic Design Category: Based on both SDS (ASCE 7 Table 11.6-1) and SD1 (ASCE 7

Table 11.6-2), the Seismic Design Category for the example building is D.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

57

hs

hs

hs

k

w

(a)

k32 = -250

k31 = 0

k33 = 250

250

k21 = -250

k22 = 500

k23 = -250

k12 = -250

k13 = 0

250

k11 = 500

250

(b)

Figure 1-29. Response Spectrum Analysis Example

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

65

CHAPTER 2

STRUCTURES FOR EARTHQUAKE FORCES

2.1

Introduction

2.1.1 General

A 20-story reinforced concrete office building is designed following the

requirements of the International Building Code (IBC), 2012 and 2015 editions, and

ASCE 7-10. The building is located on IBC Site Class D. Both dynamic and static

lateral force procedures are used as the basis of design.

The building is symmetrical about both principal plan axes. Along each axis a dual

system (special reinforced concrete shear walls with special moment-resisting frames

or SMRF) is utilized for resistance to lateral forces.

A Dual System is defined as a structural system with the following features (ASCE

7-10 Section 12.2.5.1):

12.2.5.1 Dual Systems. For a dual system, the moment frames shall be capable

of resisting at least 25 percent of the design seismic forces. The total seismic

force resistance is to be provided by the combination of the moment frames and

the shear walls or braced frames in proportion to their rigidities.

2.1.2 Design criteria

A typical plan and elevation of the example building are shown in Figures 2-1 and 22, respectively. The member sizes for the structure are chosen as follows:

Beams

Interior columns

Exterior columns

Shear walls:

Grade to 10th floor

10th floor to 17th floor

17th floor to roof

Shear wall boundary elements

68

40 40 in.

34 34 in.

16 in. thick

14 in. thick

12 in. thick

38 38 in.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

Figure 2-4. Reinforcement Details for Shear Wall C2-D2 (between Level 1 and Level

2) by Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

91

Figure 2-5. Design Strength Interaction Diagram for Shear Wall C2-D2 (between

Level 1 and Level 2) by Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

= 0.0035 > 0.0025

O.K.

For hw/w = 8.64 > 2.0

c

=2

For normal-weight concrete, = 1

Vn

= 2178 kips

In accordance with ACI 318 Section 21.9.4.4, Vn must not exceed 8Acv f c'

92

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

(between Level 1 and Level 2) and Column A2-2 (between Level 2 and Level 3)

by a stirrup cannot exceed 14 in.

Top

34 2 1.5 2 0.5

2 12 in. 14 in. .......OK

5

Since, the bottom bars will be placed based on the stirrup locations, maximum distance

between two transversely supported bars is the same as above.

2.7.2.4 Negative reinforcing bar cutoff

The negative reinforcement at the joint face is 6-No.8 bars. The location where 3 of the 6

bars can be terminated will be determined. Note that 3-No.8 bars must be continuous

throughout the length of the beam to satisfy the minimum reinforcement requirements of

ACI 318 Section 21.5.2.1.

The loading used to find the cutoff point of the 3-No.8 bars is 0.7 times the dead load in

combination with the probable flexural strengths (Mpr) at the ends of the members (fourth

load combination, representing a condition where the vertical component of the

earthquake counteracts dead load effects), as this combination will produce the longest

bar cutoff lengths.

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)

125

Figure 2-13. Reinforcement Details for Interior Columns B2-1 and B2-2

0.8 Po = 0.8 {0.85fc (Ag - Ast)+ Astfy} = 4174 kips > 3506 kips for Column B2-1

> 3320 kips for Column B2-2

Figure 2-14 shows the P-M interaction diagram for the interior columns.

Figure 2-14. P-M Interaction Diagrams for Columns B2-1 (left) and B2-2 (right)

2.8.2.2 General

ACI 318 Section 21.6 applies to frame members

(i) resisting earthquake forces and

132

Seismic Design using Structural Dynamics (2012 IBC, 2015 IBC, and ASCE 7-10)