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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

RES 652 Action Research II


Final Research Report Learning Singapores Heritage Through Play
Aarathi D/O Ramchand (01)
Goh Yu Ling (21)
Seah Jia Qi Lynn (49)
Wheelock College Singapore

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

Question: How can we re-establish the methods of facilitation to enhance childrens


learning of Singapore heritage at PLAY@NMS?
Aim: Investigate childrens learning of Singapores heritage at an exhibit in PLAY@NMS

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

Abstract
A six weeks study was conducted at PLAY @ National Museum of Singapore to investigate
childrens learning of Singapores heritage at the kitchen exhibit by introducing different
methods of facilitation - booklet and stamp chart. 15 children between the age of five and six
years old were recruited on the spot for the research study. Among the 15 children who
participated in the study, five children were involved in the collection of baseline data while
the remaining 10 children were divided equally to be involved in the booklet implementation
and stamp chart implementation respectively. Data were collected using field notes
observations, photo documentations, interview questionnaires and voice recordings.
Quantitative results were derived by collating participants responses in relation to interview
questions supported by voice recordings. Qualitative results were analyzed from field notes
observations accompanied by photo documentations. Findings revealed that participants
involved in booklet and stamp chart implementations acquired better knowledge of
Singapores heritage in comparison to participants from the baseline data collection.
Consistent facilitation and objective driven activities were two key factors that affected
participants gaining of knowledge about Singapores heritage.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION


1.1 Museum as an Educational Resource
Museums are commonly categorized as educational institutes that informs the society
of historical development, environmental happenings as well as social cultural statues
(Karadeniz, 2010). Arinze (1999) asserted that education is the basal purpose of museums as
it informs and enables children and public to understand and appreciate the social cultural
history of relevant themes. With the emphasis of education, children museums were
developed to offer informal education through play that involves hands on experiences and
social interactions. In conjunction with the upcoming trend of designing childrens museum,
NHB launched PLAY @ National Museum of Singapore [PLAY@NMS] to cultivate the
passion for museum visiting and to promote childrens learning of heritage through play
(SGPressCentre, 2014).

1.2 Area of Focus


The current research focuses on PLAY@NMS as it recognises the importance to
educate young learners of Singapore's heritage through play. The play-based interactive
exhibits at PLAY@NMS aims to showcase the past and present features of home
environment - living room, bedroom, kitchen and a garden (National Museum of Singapore,
2014). The interactive exhibits are designed to engage children aged three to seven years old
(SGPressCentre, 2014).

This research aims to investigate childrens learning of Singapores heritage at the


kitchen exhibit in PLAY@NMS by introducing different methods of facilitation. The
independent variable is the method of facilitation whereas the dependent variable is childrens
learning of Singapores heritage.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

1.3 Research Question


The current research study will address the following question: How can we reestablish the method of facilitation to enhance childrens learning of Singapores heritage at
PLAY@NMS? The following sub-questions enable the researchers to conduct further
investigations of the main research question, to garner greater understanding and awareness
of the research:
1. How do resources and installations at the interactive exhibit support childrens learning about
Singapores heritage?
2. How does parental involvement during childrens play affect childrens understanding of
Singapores heritage?

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

SECTION TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Exploratory Play
Exploratory play is commonly categorized as spontaneous play that enhances
childrens learning (Henderson & Atencio, 2007). Learning on the other hand can be
identified as content-based, concept-based and skills-based learning (Gray, 2011). In line with
these definitions, Bishop (2013) established that exploratory play promote skill and concept
based learning such as promoting independence as well as peer interaction where ideas are
shared and problems are solved. However, Schulz and Bonawitz (2007) concurred that there
are minimal evidence to showcase a correlation with exploratory play and concept or content
development. For example, during explorative play, learners are found to limit themselves to
think beyond and explore further as compared to facilitated play (Gray, 2011).

2.2 Facilitated Play


Facilitated play on the other hand, enhances concept development, as it provides
opportunity for children to explore, experiment and manipulate materials to identify a
concept and to practice it thereafter (Spiegal, Gill, Harbottle, and Ball, 2014). In addition
Gilbert, Harte and Patrick (2011) underlined in their research that facilitated play enhances
childrens potential in learning with the attributes of exploratory play freely chosen,
pleasurable, non-literal and active engagement, being retained. Weier (2000) explained that
facilitation involves the use of prompts, explanations, illustrations based on experiences.
These skills of facilitation enable children to associate newly acquired information, which is a
form of concept development. Bagot, Allen and Toukhsati (2014) further affirmed that
learning does not occur in play by chance but through intention.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

2.3 Incorporating Facilitation in Exploratory Play


Studies demonstrated a debatable phenomenon between exploratory play and active
learning. III, Day, Hughes, Wang and Schuelke (2014) acknowledged that task exploration in
exploratory play extends childrens learning. However, III et al. (2014) also raised a relevant
concern in their research that children who are unfamiliar with exploratory play are at a
disadvantage of learning due to the unawareness to manipulate play materials. Brown, Mc
Neil & Glenberg (2009) further supported with their assertion that adult guidance is
paramount in constructing childrens learning during exploratory play. Brown, Mc Neil &
Glenberg (2009) cited an example in their paper where children who engaged in free play
with math related manipulatives were less likely to comprehend the intended concept. As
such, this example shows the relevance and importance of incorporating guidance in
exploratory play without losing the spontaneous element.

Thus, it is of absolute importance for museums to advocate informal education that


involves liberal play that is provocative for intentional learning, otherwise known as
facilitated exploratory play. As such, in this research proposal, the researchers explored two
possible implementations for facilitation to encourage learning while retaining the aspect of
exploratory play. The implementations proposed in this research were the use of booklets and
stamp charts. Both the booklets and stamp charts were aimed at facilitating childrens
learning about Singapores heritage while having children explore and interact with the
materials.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

SECTION THREE: METHODOLOGY


3.1 Setting
For this study, the researchers conducted the suggested implementations at the kitchen
exhibit at PLAY @NMS.

3.2 Participants
The sampling method for this research was selective. A total of 15 children aged five
or six years old were selected for the study among the visitors of National Museum of
Singapore. Among the 15 children participated in the study, five children were involved in the
collection of baseline data while the remaining 10 children were divided equally to be
involved in the implementation of booklet and stamp chart activities respectively. All the
children involved in this research study were accompanied by their parents.

3.3 Procedures
All participants were introduced to the exhibit and observed one at a time. After the
booklet and stamp chart implementations, participants were encouraged to visit the play
exhibits again. This was done to ensure that the research process do not shortchange them of
their explorative play.

3.3.1 Baseline Data Collection


Participants were free to explore the kitchen exhibit without any interruption,
encouraging children to make meaning of their exploration.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

3.3.2 Implementation of Booklet (Annex A)


Participants were engaged in independent explorative play with the introduction of
booklet that consists of guiding questions that promotes purposeful manipulation of materials.
The questions in the booklet directed participants learning toward the objectives of the
kitchen exhibit, which is to enhance childrens knowledge of Singapores heritage.

3.3.3 Implementation of Stamp Chart (Annex B)


Participants were introduced to the different installations in the kitchen exhibit shown
on the stamp chart. Researchers posed questions that were similar to the booklet to guide
childrens learning on Singapores heritage. In response to the questions posed, children were
to explore the kitchen exhibit to seek answers. With the completed exploration of each
station, children received a stamp from the researchers.

3.4 Data Collection Methods


Data collection was conducted over a period of three sessions at the museum for
baseline and implementations of booklets and stamp charts, with a paradigm that involved a
qualitative and quantitative approach. The research design chosen in this study paved the way
to gather data regarding a) content of conversations and activities children engage in, at the
interactive exhibits, and b) childrens learning of Singapores heritage. This was
accomplished through the use of various data collection methods, namely, field notes,
booklets, stamp charts, interview questionnaires, photograph documentation, and voice
recordings during interview sessions.

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3.4.1 Field Notes


Researchers were observing and noting down the behaviors and interactions of
children at the kitchen exhibit. It gathered observations on the kinds of activities and
conversations children engaged in while playing at the interactive exhibits. Field notes were
reviewed to draw out significant observations pertaining to the study.

3.4.2 Interview Questionnaires (Annex C)


Structured interviews were conducted for 10 minutes with children after their session
at the kitchen exhibit, where they will be asked about their learning at the space. The
questions raised by the researchers during the interview were similar to the questions listed in
the booklets and stamp charts. The objective of this interview was to assess childrens
learning of Singapores heritage with reference to the objectives and goals of the exhibit.
Through this interview, researchers compared the results derived from the two methods of
facilitation and decided which method yielded better learning, in terms of measuring their
retainment of information.

3.4.3 Voice Recordings


Voice recorders were used to document childrens responses during the interview. The
voice recording clips were replayed and transcripted to draw out significant data regarding
the study.

3.4.4 Photograph Documentation


Photographs of children engaging in play were snapped and used to support the field
notes observations.

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3.5 Approaches to Maintain Validity and Rigour


The researchers adopted a triangulation approach to establish validity and rigour
during the research process (Naughton & Hughes, 2011). The various data collection methods
- field notes, interview questionnaires, voice recordings and photograph documentations were used to ensure triangulation of methods. In addition to triangulations of methods and
data, the researchers also cross-referenced the data they had individually collected with coresearchers and fellow research assistants (Naughton & Hughes, 2011). These triangulation
methods ensured that the data collected are relevant and significant to the topic of study.

3.6 Ethics
To practice ethicality, parental consent forms were used to seek voluntary consent of
participants as they in the age group of five to six years old. Consent forms included pertinent
information of the research such as purpose, procedures and data collection. The participants
had the liberty to withdraw participation from the research at any point of time.

SECTION FOUR: RESULTS

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4.1 Research Tools Increased Childrens Knowledge of Singapores Heritage

The chart above shows the results obtained from the first interview question done
during structured interview: Based on your interaction with the materials at the kitchen
exhibit, can you name two local dishes? Participants were awarded one point for each local
dish identified. The number of correct local dish mentioned by the three groups of
participants from baseline data, booklet implementation and stamp chart implementation
were translated to points and collated respectively to plot the bar chart above.

For the baseline data collection, four children could not name any local dishes
whereas one child managed to identify one local dish as reflected on the bar chart. For the
booklet implementation, one child could not name any dishes, another child named one local
dish and the remaining three children identified two local dishes each. These total up to seven
local dishes identified by booklet participants as reflected on the bar chart. For the stamp

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chart implementation, each of the five children could identify two local dishes. These total up
to 10 local dishes identified by stamp chart participants as reflected on the bar chart.

The results showed a significant difference in the scores obtained by the participants
from booklet and stamp chart implementations in comparison to participants from baseline. It
can be deduced that participants from booklet and stamp chart implementation have better
understanding of the local dishes.

The bar chart above shows the results collected from the second interview question:
Can you sort the ingredients for the three local dishes (roti prata, chili crab and nasi lemak)
seen here, on the laptop? Participants answered this question by sorting the ingredients on the
dishes found in the PowerPoint slides (Annex D). One point was awarded with every
ingredient the participants sorted correctly. The number of correct ingredients sorted by the
three groups of participants from baseline data, booklet and stamp chart implementations
were translated to points and were collated on the above bar chart.

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From the baseline data collection, the participants sorted two, three, three, five and
eight ingredients correctly for the three local dishes respectively. The number of ingredients
correctly sorted by the participants were collated to a total score of 21 as reflected on the bar
chart. For the booklet implementation, the participants sorted eight, 10, 10, 10 and 11
ingredients correctly for the three local dishes respectively. The number of ingredients
correctly sorted by the participants were collated to a total score of 49 as reflected on the bar
chart. For the stamp chart implementation, the participants sorted six, eight, eight, 12 and 14
ingredients correctly for the three local dishes respectively. The number of ingredients
correctly sorted by the participants were collated to a total score of 48 as reflected on the bar
chart.

The results showed a significant difference in the scores obtained by the participants
from booklet and stamp chart implementations in comparison to participants from baseline. It
can be deduced that participants from booklet and stamp chart implementation have better
understanding of the ingredients needed for local dishes.

4.2 Research Tools Sustained Childrens Attention in Acquiring Singapores Heritage


During baseline data collection, participants were free to explore the exhibit. Based on
the field notes recorded, they were observed to be looking around the exhibit aimlessly and
leaving the exhibit numerous times. The response could have been triggered by participants
(a) not being aware of how to interact with the exhibit installation, (b) having the need to
have familiar people around and (c) being stimulated by the exhibit and wanting to explore.

For the implementation of booklet, participants were told about how the instrument
will guide them around the kitchen exhibit and engage them in activities to build on their

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heritage learning. From the field notes and photographs, the participants were observed to
complete the activities in booklet and being engaged as they manipulated with materials at
the various installations (Annex E - Figure 1&2). Although there was an instance when a
participant ran out of the kitchen exhibit to the other exhibit, he was almost immediately
brought back by his brother. Without the placement of the booklet, participants will mostly
likely lose their focus and attention on the tasks that they were engaged in.

While implementing the stamp chart, the participants were directed to the various
installations for free play. At the end of every installation, a question was posed to direct
childrens learning on Singapores heritage. As they were being engaged in the different
installations, they were observed to complete the activities at different stations listed on the
stamp charts and manipulate with the materials without any of the participants leaving the
exhibit (Annex E - Figure 3&4). Based on the field notes recorded, they followed through the
tasks that were required to be completed.

4.3 Research Tools Directed Childrens Learning to Singapores Heritage


During baseline collection, participants were mainly using materials found in the
kitchen exhibit for dramatic play (Annex F - Figure 5&6). They were associating their prior
knowledge when recreating real experiences during their dramatic play. From the field notes
observation, some even depicted the development of fine motor skills when picking up
ingredients with ladle and tongs. They also picked up social and numeracy skills when they
interacted with visitors and matched the ingredients to silhouettes. However, participants did
not display signs of learning about heritage as their play was not directed toward the heritage
of Singapore.

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Research tool such as booklet provided instructions and directed children to activities
that encouraged their exploration on Singapore's heritage (Annex F - Figure 7-9). Information
presented in booklet with words such as local dishes, olden and modern days, enhanced
childrens knowledge of singapores heritage. As for the stamp chart, a brief introduction was
given by researchers to guide participants in their exploration of the kitchen exhibit listed
(Annex F - Figure 10-12). Questions and comments posed by researchers directed childrens
exploration on Singapores heritage. During conversations with participants, words such as
local dishes, olden and modern days, were mentioned for children to draw relation between
play and learning. The identified words enabled participants to associate how interaction with
kitchen exhibit enhanced heritage learning.

4.4 Research Tools Encouraged Parental Involvement in Childrens Learning of


Singapore's Heritage
During baseline implementations, parents of participants were observed to have sat by
the exhibit, watching the participants interacting with installations materials. Some parents
were observed facilitating participants play by teaching them how to use the materials at the
stove installation for cooking but nothing specific to Singapores heritage (Annex G - Figure
13).

Based on the analysis of field notes, a significant increase in parental involvement


was observed with the implementation of booklet and stamp chart. Parents were observed to
be around participants, engaging in conversations to help them better understand relevant
concepts and learning (Annex G - figure 14-16). With the research tools, parents were better
able to guide children in the activities at the kitchen installation to extend children's
knowledge on Singapore's heritage. In addition, parental involvement was most prominently

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observed when children were playing and cooking with ingredients needed for preparation of
various local dishes.

SECTION FIVE: DISCUSSION


5.1 Summary of Findings
Based on the quantitative results derived from the interview responses, there was a
significant increase in participants knowledge of Singapores heritage when they were
involved in the booklet and stamp chart implementations as compared to the baseline data
collection. With the themes identified from the qualitative results, there were two key factors
surfaced - consistent facilitation from the use of research tools and adults, and objectivedriven activities. These key factors contributed to the significant increase in childrens
learning of Singapores heritage.

5.1.1 Consistent Facilitation


Consistent facilitation sustains childrens attention and supports children in the
exploration of materials purposefully. According to Singer, Nederend, Penninx, Tajik and
Boom (2014), consistent facilitation that encompasses reciprocal interactions, responsiveness
to childrens signals and needs, provision of prompts and suggestions significantly increases
childrens engagement during play and exploration. In this research, the researchers
incorporated means of consistent facilitation in the form of booklet, stamp chart and
researchers prompts. As a result of the provision of consistent facilitation, the participants
displayed sustained attention while manipulating with the installation materials at the kitchen
exhibit. Participants sustained attention at the kitchen exhibit translated into the quantitative
results, where they were seen to be more competent in acquiring knowledge on Singapores
heritage. Singer et al. (2014) emphasized that thorough understanding of concepts can only

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occur with sustained engagement. This suggests that sustained engagement derived from
consistent facilitation is necessary for children to acquire in-depth learning of concepts in the
midst of exploration.

5.1.2 Objective-Driven Activities


As discussed in the literature review, museums are often associated with education as
it provides children and public the experience to understand and appreciate the relevant
themes of culture (Arinze, 1999). Very often, educators, parents and museum goers adopt a
mindset and belief that children should explore freely and actively construct their learning.
However, based on a research conducted by Wilde and Urhahne (2008), in contrast to their
hypothesis that constructive tasks provide more learning for children than instructive tasks,
they found that participants who engaged in open tasks (constructive) did not learn more than
participants of close tasks (instructive). Reinmann-Rothmeier and Mandl (2011) further
explained that allowing children to freely construct have been indicated as ineffective due to
the absence of learning outcomes. In line with this, researchers have found that instructive
tools such as booklet and stamp chart that promote objective-driven activities, were useful in
helping participants acquire knowledge about Singapores heritage. Thus, proving that for
purposeful learning to take place, museums have to introduce clear objectives for each
installation, accompanied with objective-driven activities, while allowing children to
construct meaning freely. After all, learning environment always needs to strive to achieve a
balance between constructivist and instructive elements (Reinmann-Rothmeier & Mandl,
2001).
5.1.3 Parental Involvement
In addition to the two key factors that surfaced in the findings, researchers observed a
trend of parents responding actively in facilitation during booklet and stamp chart

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implementations. During baseline data collection, participants parents were seen sitting
around, engaging conversations with other adults or even using their mobile devices.
However, with the presence of research tools, parents were seen interacting with participants.
In the following paragraphs, two possible reasons for this trend will be discussed.

As Singapore is an academic driven society, parents are more than willing to work
with their child in every opportunity presented to them (OECD, 2010). In addition, Childrens
Aid Society (2003) reasoned that parents associate learning with worksheet-based activities
as compared to play-based activities. Thus, participants parents may perceive booklet and
stamp chart as academic tools, which possibly motivated them in their involvement when
helping their children to complete the booklet and stamp chart tasks. Also, as academic tools
provide clear objectives and instructions, parents feel assured to facilitate childrens learning
(Harvey, 2007).

Smith and Dziurgot (2011) established that parents tailor their interactions according
to the contextual needs of children. In relation to the research, some parents were seen
reading the booklet to the participants which suggests that participants possibly found booklet
a challenge to read. Hence, parents would have suited their interactions in a way that can
assist and empower their children, in hope to help them find success in completing the tasks.
Thus, when a challenge is added to an activity, it gives room for parents to scaffold childrens
learning (Lewis, 2005).

Irregardless of which reasons triggered parental involvement, it can be clearly seen


that the booklet and stamp chart served as great means to encourage parents to interact and
scaffold childrens learning accordingly.

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5.2 Limitations
The results gathered from participants cannot be generalized across young children
due to the small sample size. The cognitive development and learning styles of each
participant varies despite all of them being five and six years old. With a small sample size, a
participant who might be more advanced in his/her cognitive development will cause the
results to be significantly positively skewed, while a participant who might be delayed in
his/her cognitive development will cause the results to be negatively skewed.

The inability to read the booklet by most participants served as a limitation for the
research although parents or researcher were around to assist. This research was intended to
set off with independent learning tools - booklet and stamp chart - that encourage verbal
exchanges that enhances participants learning of Singapores heritage. However, with the
limitation of participants finding difficulty in reading, the booklet tool required verbal
guidance to be given. As a result, booklet and stamp chart were similar to a certain extent
and this limited the findings to the research questions.

In addition, researchers noticed that participants were drawn to an installation at the


kitchen that was not considered in the booklet and stamp chart interventions. Participants
were observed engaging in activities related to Singapores heritage, specifically the
identification of local dishes at the particular installation. However, it was found that there
was an oversight in the inclusion of that installation at the kitchen exhibit for participants
exploration on Singapores heritage. As such, results on the effectiveness of participants
exploration at the kitchen exhibit in their learning of Singapores heritage cannot be
generalized for the entire kitchen exhibit.

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5.3 Recommendations
The research study could be improved by recruiting a larger sample size for more
reliable results. With a large sample size, results would not be significantly skewed positively
or negatively. This is because it would reduce the chances children who are more advanced or
delayed in their cognitive development, thus affecting the results.

Other research tools such as museum kit could be used for the research, in view of the
limitation of booklets. Museum kits require minimum reading and support children in
purposeful exploratory play. Future research tools should retain elements of consistent
facilitation, objective-driven activities and quality interactions with adults as identified in the
research discussion. Alternatively, the booklet could be further enhanced with the inclusion of
pictorial cues for young learners to be able to use the booklet independently for their play.

For a fair assessment of the research study, it would be effective if all installations
were taken into account during the research interventions. Through, the field notes, it can be
observed that the neglected installation could have possibly reinforced childrens learning of
identifying the names of local dishes. As such to ensure the validity of this hypothesis, all
installations should have been included in the study.

5.4 Implications and Conclusion


There is a clear notion that the best way for children to learn is through play.
However, through this research study, it has been further refined that exploratory play

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provided for children has to be facilitated when specific learning is intended. When an
environment is stimulated with only exploratory play, children are exposed to broad concepts
that overwhelm their learning. (Grsel and Mandl, 1993). With the unawareness of how to
interact with materials provided, children are limited by the possibility of not manipulating
the materials for the intended purpose of learning.

On the other hand, when play is facilitated to an extreme, children are restricted in
making meaning of their learning (Grsel, 2000; Gruber, Mandl and Renkl, 2000; Grsel,
2006). Thus, for learning to take place in any form of setting, the element of facilitation has
to be considered in exploratory play to introduce the learning of concepts to children as they
explore with materials purposefully. This implies that adults have to strive to provide a
balance of exploratory and facilitated play.

In conclusion, the research study highlighted that the resources and installations at the
kitchen exhibit could enhance childrens learning of Singapores heritage with the presence of
facilitation tools such as booklets and stamp charts. It also identified that parental
involvement with children during the use of research tools increased childrens learning of
Singapores heritage significantly. Therefore, museums such as PLAY@NMS have to seek a
balance of exploratory play with facilitation at their interactive exhibits for children, as
consistent facilitation and objective-driven activities enhance their learning of Singapores
heritage.

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Wilde, M., & Urhahne, D. (2008). Museum learning: A study of motivation and learning
achievement. Journal of Biological Education, 42(2), 78-83.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY


Annex A Booklet

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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Annex
B
Stamp
Chart

Annex
C

Interview Questionnaire

Pseudonym:
Baseline Data Collection / Booklet / Stamp Chart

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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1. Based on your interaction with the materials at the kitchen exhibit, can you name two local
dishes?

2. Can you sort the ingredients for the three local dishes (roti prata, chili crab and nasi lemak)
seen here, on the laptop?

3. What are the differences between cooking in a kitchen in the past and cooking in the
kitchen today?

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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Annex D Activity for Interview Question Two

Participantswererequiredtosorttheingredientstotherespectivelocaldishes.Participants
didsobypointingtothelocaldishtheythinkeachingredientbelongs to.Researchers
draggedtheingredientsaccordinglytotherespectivelocaldishesaccordingtoparticipants
responses.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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Annex E - 4.2 Research Tools Sustained Childrens Attention in Acquiring Singapores


Heritage (Photo Documentation)
Booklet Implementation

Figure1

Figure2

Figure 1 &2 show participants involved in the booklet implementations


being actively engaged in the booklet activities and manipulation of
materials at the various installations.

Stamp Chart Implementation

Figure3

Figure4

Figure 3&4 show participants involved in the stamp chart


implementation being actively engaged at the installations in the kitchen
exhibit.

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY


Annex F - 4.3 Research Tools Directed Childrens Learning to Singapores Heritage
(Photo Documentation)
Baseline Data Collection

Figure5

Figure6

During baseline data collection, participants did not showcase acquired learning directed to
Singapores heritage but demonstrated development of other skills such as fine motor
development and social emotional skills. Figure 5&6 above show children engaging in
pretend play at the stove area in traditional kitchen and are grabbing ingredients with tongs
and stirring ingredients with ladle while interacting with peers.
Booklet Implementation

Figure7

Figure8

Figure9

Figure 7-9 show a participant being guided by the booklet to specific installations
such as the interactive board to match ingredients to the respective silhouettes on the
local dishes.

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LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY


Stamp Chart Implementation
Figure10

Figure12
Figure11

Figure 10-12 show that participants involved in the stamp chart implementation were
guided by researchers to explore the installations purposefully in relation to develop
understandings of Singapores heritage.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY

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Annex G - 4.4 Research Tools Encouraged Parental Involvement in Childrens Learning


of Singapore's Heritage (Photo Documentation)
Baseline Data Collection

Figure13
Figure13showsaparentteachingaparticipantinvolvedinbaselinedatacollection
howtoscaleafishusingaknifeonthechoppingboard.

BookletImplementation

Figure14

Figure15
Figure 14 & 15 show parents interacting with participants involved in booklet
activities such as to explain the differences between a modern and traditional stove
and scaffold matching of ingredients to the silhouettes on the respective local dishes
respectively.

LEARNING SINGAPORES HERITAGE THROUGH PLAY


Stamp Chart Implementation

Figure16
Figure 16 shows a parent interacting with a participant involved in stamp chart
implementation,atthestoveinstallationinthekitchenexhibit.

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