You are on page 1of 50

Art:

Relief
Sculpture
Instructional Designers: Anik Fontaine,
Malorie Montpetit, Dana Colpitts, and
Rochelle French
Trajans Column, Rome (106-113 CE)

Arch of Constantine, Rome (315 CE)

Mount Rushmore National

Memorial (1927-41), Gutzon Borglum

Table of Contents
Part 1: Logistics

pg. 3

Title of the Unit, Instructional Designers, Subject Area, Grade,


Curriculum Strand, Duration, Unit Rationale and Prior Knowledge

Part 2: Desired Results

pg. 5

Learning Outcomes, Enduring Understandings and


Misconceptions, Guiding Questions, Knowledge and Skills

Part 3: Assessment Evidence


GRASPS - Performance Task, Performance Task Rubric and Other
Assessment Evidence: Formative, Summative and Self Assessment
Methods

Part 4: Learning Plan

pg. 11

pg. 14

Unit Overview, Introductory Activity, and Individual Lessons

Part 5: Reflection
How Did We Address Diverse Learner Needs, Differentiation
Activities, Adaptations/Modifications and Instructional Strategies

pg. 39

Part 6: Resources for Teaching Relief Sculpture


pg. 41
Teachers Information Sheet

Part 7: References

pg. 45

Part 1: Logistics
Instructional Designers
:
Anik Fontaine, Dana Colpitts, Malorie Montpetit & Rochelle French
Subject Area
:
Art
Grade
:
9
Curriculum Strand
:
Mainly Compositions, however some outcomes have come
from Drawing and Encounters.
Duration
:
Approximately 6 weeks
Rationale
:
Students will explore relief sculpture after they have completed a unit on
sculpture. Sculpture is a universal art form, which challenges all of the senses in
both its creation and its appreciation. Students must study the different types of
sculpture in order to really appreciate sculpture as an art form. Relief sculpture is
any work which projects from but which belongs
to
the wall, or other type of
background surface, on which it is carved. Reliefs are traditionally classified
according to how high the figures project from the background. Relief sculpture is
important to cover in the art curriculum as it is a combination of the
two-dimensional pictorial arts and the three-dimensional sculptural arts. Relief
allows students to use their drawing skills to create a picture on a background
surface, experimenting with depth and creating a degree of real
three-dimensionality, just like a proper sculpture.
In our unit students will become aware of using different processes,
techniques, and media variety to communicate ideas. Students will perceive how
technique, balance, and texture function in a work of art. By creating relief
sculptures in a variety of different ways and through different activities students
will be able to identify the characteristics of sculptural art forms and will analyze
their different relief sculptures to better understand techniques utilized in specific
works of art. Due to the fact reliefs tend to be more common than freestanding
sculpture, students should know how to create their own relief sculpture.
We have decided to focus on only relief sculpture in our unit, rather than
relief and sculpture, so students can focus on only one topic and truly understand
reliefs and creating them. Relief sculptures can portray a far wider range of
subjects than a statue because of its economy of resources. For instance, a battle
scene, that, if sculpted in the round, would require a huge amount of space and
material, can be rendered much more easily in relief. Reliefs are carved directly
onto walls, portals, ceilings, floors and other flat surfaces making them ideally
suited to architectural projects.Students will use many of the techniques they have
explored in the previous sculpture unit such as forming and carving to create their
own relief sculpture project to be displayed in a class art show or gallery walk.

Prior Knowledge:
Elements of Art and Design
Understand and apply the Elements of Art including line, shape, color,
texture, form, space, and value as the fundamentals of art in personal
artworks.
Understanding pattern, rhythm, balance, proportion and unity in art
Understand how the principles and elements of design are tied into form
and function
Understanding of a focal point or focus in an art piece
Using art vocabulary appropriately and understanding basic art vocabulary
and media
A good understanding of sculpture and some of the techniques used to create
sculpture in order to incorporate those techniques to create a relief
sculpture.
Paper manipulation and construction techniques using metal, plaster, wood,
and found objects.
Apply basic surface finishing and application techniques: texture, patinas,
glazes and paints.
Understand one dimensional, two
dimensional and three
dimensional forms
as well as the difference between them
Identifying the basic forms used in sculpture
Understanding of shapes, lines, form, texture and color to emphasize
different areas of their artwork and to give art pieces character
Drawing and sketching. Students should know how to take their ideas and
put them onto paper in order to create a sketch to follow when creating their
relief sculpture.
Using / working with clay and a variety of clay tools
The roles of architects, industrial designers and other professions who
influence sculpture and art around us
How subject matter, symbols, and ideas can make connections between art
and other disciplines
How to criticize and self reflect on their art pieces to improve and enhance
them (critical evaluation)
Basic knowledge or art history and the art movements
Thinking, planning and creating process of art class

Part 2: Desired Results


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
Record:
Students will record objects alone and in compositions.
A. Careful observation of form and surface qualities is necessary for the realistic recording of
natural objects.
B. Concepts of positive and negative space can be employed when drawing people in groups
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the kinds of lines and marks used in creating an
image.
Investigate:
Students will employ and arrange elements and principles to make compositions.
A. A consideration of balance and contrast may be applied to drawings that depict forms in
nature.
Communicate:
Students will use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of
images.
A. The subjective perception of the individual student affects the way he/she expresses action
and direction.
B. Mood and feeling as perceived by the individual student can be expressed in colour
drawings.
ENCOUNTERS
Source of Images:
Students will consider the natural environment as a source of imagery
through time and across cultures.
B. Images of nature change through time and across cultures.
Transformations Through Time:
Students will identify thematic and stylistic variations of
works as characteristics of certain artistic periods.
A. A particular concept of beauty can be discerned in works of a specific historic
period.
Impact of Images:
Students will become aware of the importance society places upon various
works of art.
A. The ways people use art changes through time.
B. Society has various ways of preserving and displaying public and private art works.
COMPOSITIONS
Composition is a search for a unified visual statement. It articulates meaning through control of
elements and their relationships. The student organizes visual material to generate thought and
to make thought visible.
Students will:

employ and arrange elements and principles to make compositions.


use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of images.
use the techniques of art criticism for analysis and comparison of art works.
create compositions in both two and three dimensions.
become familiar with the use of transparency and opacity in the creation of
compositions.
investigate the effects of controlling form, colour and space in response to selected
visual problems.
experiment with the principles of dominance, emphasis and concentration in the
creation of compositions.
investigate the effects of modifying colour, space and form to change pictorial style.

COMPOSITIONS
Components 1:
Students will experiment with colour effects on compositions.
Concepts:
B. Colour schemes create certain moods in images.
C. Colour schemes direct attention.
Components 2: Students will experiment with techniques and media within complete compositions of
two and three dimensions.
Concepts:
A. Sculptures can be formed using materials in additive and subtractive ways to
demonstrate formal and informal balance.
B. Relief compositions can be assembled or formed using materials in additive or
subtractive ways.
C. Two-dimensional materials can be used to make compositions demonstrating
simple pictorial space.
Relationships 1: Students will experiment with the principles of dominance, emphasis and
concentration in the creation of compositions.
Concepts:

A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to suggest


compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest dominance
and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.

Relationships 2: Students will learn to use the basic vocabulary of art criticism in descriptions of their
work.
Concepts:
A. Terms describing materials, techniques, subject matter and design elements
comprise the basic vocabulary of art.
B. Identifying problems associated with image making is part of learning to analyze
and criticize ones own art works.

Enduring Understandings:
Students will understand that relief sculpture is meant to be viewed from one side only.
It is three-dimensional because it has depth, but does not occupy space independently.
Students will realize that relief sculpture decorates walls or other architectural forms.
Students will understand there are are two types of relief sculpture: low relief (called
bas-relief from the French) and high relief (haut-relief, in French).
Students will understand a low relief sculpture projects very slightly from the surface,
like images on a coin. High relief sculptures project boldly from the background.
Students will recognize examples of famous relief sculptures such as the walls on
Egyptian tombs and Lorenzo Ghibertis famous bronze doors for the Baptistry of the
Florence Cathedral.
Students will understand the art process of moldmaking and both its artistic and
functional applications.
Students will be able to use basic techniques for creating molds
Students will be familiar with the various materials that can be used to create relief
sculpture.
Students will employ and arrange elements and principles to make compositions.
Students will use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of images.
Students will be able to use the techniques of art criticism for analysis and comparison
of art works.
Students will be able to create compositions in both two and three dimensions.
Students will be familiar with the use of transparency and opacity in the creation of
compositions.
Students will be able to control form, colour and space in response to selected visual
problems.
Students will be able to create emphasis and concentration in the creation of
compositions.
Students will be able to modifying colour, space and form to change pictorial style.

Misconceptions:

Relief sculpture is free standing - a relief sculpture is more common than free standing,
but is either protruding or dug into an originally flat surface
Relief sculptures only consist of statues that represent something, such as an event, or
person -
rather
, relief sculpture can portray a far wider range of subjects over that of
just a statue (reliefs are carved directly onto walls, portals, ceilings, floors and other flat
surfaces)
Relief sculpture occupies space independently (or seen from all sides),
but
relief
sculpture is meant to viewed from one side only.
That they are only made of clay - relief sculpture can be made out of just about any
material (ie. drywall, cardboard, etc.)
Relief sculpture may only be considered as a subtractive process over that of an
additive process as well.

Essential Questions:
What is relief sculpture?
Why is relief sculpture important?
What are the effects of light and shadow on low and high relief sculpture?

Knowledge:
Students will know . . .

Vocabulary:
Background:
area in an artwork behind the subject; farthest-away elements in the
picture
Relief:
carving, molding, modelling, or stamping in which the design projects from the
background surface. The degree that the relief projects from the surface can vary.
Bas-relief (low relief):
does not project very far, like the surface of a coin.
Haut-relief (high relief):
projects more boldly from the surface, giving the relief a much
more sculptural or three-dimensional appearance.
Contrast:
marked difference or comparison in color other components of design; variety
of elements in an image that provide visual interest
Detail:
minute elements of an image
Elements of Design:
The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make
up a painting, drawing, design etc. Good or bad - all paintings will contain most of if not
all, the seven elements of design: line, shape, direction, size, texture, colour, value
Texture:
element of design; the tactile quality, or how something feels when touched;
marks drawn to represent the surface qualities of an object; re-creating a surface by
adding textured material to paint or collage
Shape:
self contained defined area of geometric or organic form.
Value:
the lightness or darkness of a colour. Value is also called Tone.
Principles of Design:
thought of as what we do to the elements of design. How we apply
the Principles of design determines how successful we are in creating a work of art.
Principles of Design include: Balance, gradation, repetition, contrast, harmony,
dominance, unity
Foreground:
what appears to be in front of the other elements of a picture; the area that
appears to be nearest to the viewer
Impression:
mark left after an object has been pressed into a soft medium (such as: a
screen pressed into clay)
Modelling Clay:
manufactured, non-hardening product available for making
three-dimensional artworks by building up (additive sculpture) or carving away
(reductive sculpture)
Relief
: raised area or indent on a flat surface
Sculpture:
three-dimensional artwork; the process of creating a three-dimensional
artwork.
Three-dimensional:
having height. width, and depth; solid in form
Two-dimensional:
having height and width on a single, flat plane
Cast:
in sculpture, to duplicate an original design by means of a mold
Composition:
the organization of form in a work of art; the disposition of shapes,
masses, areas of light, dark, etc.
Mold:
a shape in which a fluid substance is given form

Basic Types of Relief Sculpture:


Low relief
(also known as: basso-relievo, or bas-relief)
sculpted projection is very slight or shallow; where the sculpture
projects only slightly from the background surface.
High relief
(also known as: alto-relievo, or alto-relief)

the sculpture projects at least half or more of its natural


circumference from the background, and may in parts be wholly
disengaged from the ground, thus approximating sculpture in the
round.
Sunken relief
(incised, coelanaglyphic or intaglio relief)
the carving is sunk below the level of the surrounding surface and is
contained within a sharply incised contour line that frames it with a
powerful line of shadow.
Additional:
Sculptors may also employ middle-relief

(mezzo-relievo)
, a style
which falls roughly between the high and low forms.
History:
Marked by swings between pictorial and sculptural dominance.
Prehistoric Relief Sculpture:
Cave Art displayed (around 23,000 BCE)
Ancient Relief Sculpture:
Reliefs were commonly seen on surfaces of stone buildings in ancient
Egypt, Assyria & other Middle Eastern cultures (circa 3,500-600 BCE)
High reliefs did not become common until Classical Antiquity (c. 500
BCE onwards), when Ancient Greek sculptors began to explore relief
sculpture more thoroughly.
Prominent in early Christian sculpture.
During the period 600-1100, abstract reliefs appeared in numerous
cultures around the world, as disparate as the Mixtec culture in
Mexico, the Norse/Viking culture & Islamic environments across the
Middle East
Medieval Relief Sculpture:
Main emphasis was on relief sculpture, as exemplified by the
wonderful reliefs which decorate the portal's (tympanum) of
Romanesque cathedrals in France, Germany, England and other
countries.
Renaissance Onwards:
Renaissance relief sculptors tended to make maximum use of the
pictorial possibilities of the 2-D background.

Famous Relief Sculptures:


Temple of Apollo Epikourios, East Frieze (c. 420 BCE)
(high relief)
Trajan's Column, Rome (106-113 CE)
(spiral/helical relief)
Arch of Constantine, Rome (315 CE)
(high relief)
Doors of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence (1452) Ghiberti
(high/low relief)
St Cecilia (1600) Stefano Maderno, Rome
(high relief)
Gates of Hell (1880-1917) by Auguste Rodin: Rodin Museum Philadelphia

The greatest and most famous relief sculpture of the 20th century is the
Mount Rushmore National Memorial (1927-41), produced under Gutzon
Borglum, in South Dakota
(high relief)

Skills:
Students will be able to . . .

Create unique, intricate and impressive relief sculptures


Communicates and expresses ideas through original artworks, using a
variety of media with appropriate skills. Students express their thoughts and
ideas creatively, while challenging their imaginations.
Reflective thinking and problem solving skills
Design their own projects
Carve away material (carving)
Sharpening tools and working with small tools to create intricate detail
Scoring or (scratching)
Add material to the top of an otherwise smooth surface (strips of clay to
stone).
Develop curiosity and ask questions to improve upon their art pieces
Challenge themselves to expand beyond where they are comfortable.
Think in a creative manner
Manage time wisely
Guide or lead the viewer to make them feel as if they are actually in your
picture through effective use of composition
Create a focal point in their sculptures where the viewers eye is drawn to
Add texture and contrasting elements to their relief pieces
Perspectives are an essential skill to learn and provide us with a way to
create and build elements and objects and correctly place them within the
picture plane.
Determine a color scheme that best represents the theme or message their
sculpture is trying to portray (The color you choose should display any
emotion or situation you want to convey to the viewer)
Think critically to problem solve and find solutions while creating their art
pieces and during art lesson activities
Use practical hand skills for sculpting
Create a 3-dimensional representation of an idea
Be proficient in various art forms, such as 3-dimensional modeling, forging
and casting.
Interpret art and connect art and theory.
Acquire a repertoire of approaches to recording visual information.
Express technical competencies and individual insights.
Apply visual, analytical and critical skills and develop control and
competency.
Develop competence with the components of images: media, techniques and
design elements.

10

Express meaning through control of visual relationships

11

Part 3: Assessment Evidence


GRASPS: Performance Assessment Task

Goal
:
What should students accomplish by completing this task?

Students will complete their own relief sculpture using clay. Students will
understand how to create depth in a piece of artwork and how to make an image
appear three dimensional. Students should know how to effectively work with clay
to shape images, carve away at the clay using different tools as well as how to
pinch the clay to add pieces to increase the focus and dimension of their artwork.

Role
:
What role (perspective) will students be taking?

Students will be taking on the role of an artist when creating their relief sculpture.
They will also be self-reflecting about their piece fulfilling the role of an art-critic.

Audience
:
Who is the relevant audience?

Students will be presenting their relief sculpture to their teacher and peers in a
showcase (or gallery walk) at the end of the unit.

Situation
:
What is the context or challenge provided to the student?

S
tudents will be challenged to create a piece of relief sculpture out of clay relating
it to the natural environment as a source of imagery (across time and culture).
Students must use techniques of carving away, molding/pinching clay, as well as
the additive process to create a relief piece with depth, a focal point, unique
imagery, and balance.

Product/Performance
:
What will the student create?

Students will be creating their own relief sculpture out of clay - with the
opportunity to pick their own image relating to their natural environment, as long
as it is representative of a relief sculpture (high relief, middle relief, low relief or
sunken relief). Students choose their subject, the type of relief, and the tools they
use to create their relief sculpture.

Success Criteria
:
What do they need to include / do / show?

Students will have the opportunity to chose a source of imagery from the natural
environment that they want to represent. Students are also required to
demonstrate:
Artwork carefully planned and shows an awareness of the elements and principles of
design.
Attractive, neat and or well constructed, of excellent quality
Several choices explored before selecting one; ideas generated; unusual combinations
tried; connections made to previous knowledge; outstanding problem solving skills
demonstrated.
Project was continued until is was as complete as student could make it; effort went far
beyond what was required; student took pride in his/her
Artwork was beautifully done; attention paid to the refinement of details and

12

construction techniques.

GRASPS ASSIGNMENT RUBRIC:


Relief Sculpture Standards
CRITERIA

Developing
(1)

Sufficient
(2)

Proficient
(3)

Exceptional
(4)

Overall
Appearance

Artwork was
completed and
turned in but
showed poor
workmanship; no
evidence of
planning or
following of
procedures.
Artwork never
completed.

Artwork
adequately done
yet shows lack of
refinement and
attention to
detail. Uneven
construction
parts loose.

Artwork shows
application of
design principles.
Appealing, but
lacking quality
and refinement.

Artwork carefully
planned and
shows an
awareness of the
elements and
principles of
design.
Attractive, neat
and or well
constructed, of
excellent quality

Tried one idea


and carried it out
adequately but it
lacked originality.

Creativity and
Originality

Fulfilled
assignment but
gave no evidence
of trying anything
unusual. Artwork
showed no
evidence of
original thought.

Tried a few ideas


before selecting
one; made
decisions after
referring to one
source; solved the
problem in a
logical way; based
work on someone
elses ideas.

Several choices
explored before
selecting one;
ideas generated;
unusual
combinations
tried; connections
made to previous
knowledge;
outstanding
problem solving
skills
demonstrated.

Effort and
Perseverance

Project was
completed with
minimum effort.
Work was not
finished
adequately.

Project was
finished but could
have been
improved with
more effort.

Student worked
hard and
completed
project; with a
little more effort
it might have
been outstanding.
work.

Project was
continued until is
was as complete
as student could
make it; effort
went far beyond
what was
required; student
took pride in
his/her

Below average
craftsmanship;
lack of pride in
finished artwork.
Poor
craftsmanship;
evidence of
laziness or total
lack of
understanding.
Crudely done.

Showed average
craftsmanship;
adequate; but not
as good as it could
have been.

Student worked
hard and
completed the
project; with a
little more effort
it might have
been outstanding.
Needs more
refinement and
attention to
details.

Artwork was
beautifully done;
attention paid to
the refinement of
details and
construction
techniques.

Craftsmanship,
Skill and
Consistency

Total /16
13

Other Evidence for Assessment Purposes:


Formative Assessment:
- Lego Relief Sculpture
- Relief Drawing
- Relief Bas-Painting
- Relief Sculpture: Cardboard
- Relief Sculpture: Paper
- Relief Sculpture: Drywall
- Relief Sculpture: Stone Carvings
Summative Assessment:
- Relief Sculpture Clay
Self-Assessment:
- Individual Reflections Per Lesson
- Students have been reflecting and criticizing their work in their journals
throughout this unit. The self-reflections are taken in as participation marks
and to check that students have understood and used the basic art vocabulary
and concepts.
Outcomes Met Through Self- Reflection/Assessment:
Relationships:
Students will learn to use the basic vocabulary of art criticism in descriptions
of their work.
Concepts:
A. Terms describing materials, techniques, subject matter and design
elements
comprise the basic vocabulary of art.
B. Identifying problems associated with image making is part of learning to
analyze and criticize ones own art works.

14

Part 4: Learning Plan


(Unit Plan Overview / Schedule)

Lessons

Learning
Outcomes

Concepts

Activities & Teaching


Strategies

Assessments

Lego
Relief
Sculpture

Students will have creative


freedom in designing a three
dimensional image from a two
dimensional image using Lego!
This introductory activity is
designed to get students
interested and engaged in
Relief Sculpture!

Formative &
Selfassessment

Relief
Drawing

Students observation skills


will be tested in this project as
they create a threedimensional paper sculpture
out of altered white paper on a
white paper base then
accurately interpret it as a
two-dimensional drawing.
Students will use shading,
light and shadow to create
contrast and depth in their
drawing.

Formative &
Selfassessment

COMPOSITIONS

Composition is a search for


a unified visual statement.
It articulates meaning
through control of elements
and their relationships. The
student organizes visual
material to generate
thought and to make
thought visible.

Introduction

Students will:
1.
employ and arrange
elements and principles to
make compositions;
2.
use expressiveness in
their use of elements in the
making of images;
3.
create
compositions in both two
and three dimensions;
4.
experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions;
5.
investigate the effects of
modifying colour, space and
form to change pictorial
style.

COMPOSITIONS

Components 1:
Students will
experiment with colour
effects on compositions.
Concepts:
C.
Colour schemes direct
attention.
Components 2:
Students will
experiment with techniques
and media within complete
compositions of two- and
three-dimensions.
Concepts:
B.
Relief compositions can
be assembled or formed
using materials in additive
or subtractive ways.

DRAWINGS
Focus
A

. Careful observation of

form and surface qualities


is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.
B.
Concepts of positive and
negative space can be
employed when drawing
people in groups.
C.
The illusion of depth is
created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in
creating an image.

15

Communication:

Students will use


expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making
of images.
A.
The subjective
perception of the individual
student affects the way
he/she expresses action and
direction.
B.
Mood and feeling as
perceived by the individual
student can be expressed in
colour drawings.

COMPOSITIONS

Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

DRAWING
Focus

A
. Careful observation of
form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.
C.
The illusion of depth is
created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in
creating an image.

Communicate

Students will use


expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making
of images.
A.
The subjective
perception of the individual
student affects the way
he/she expresses action and
direction.
B
. Mood and feeling as
perceived by the individual
student can be expressed in
colour drawings. (Painting)

COMPOSITIONS

Components 1:
Students will
experiment with colour
effects on compositions.
B.
Colour schemes create
certain moods in images.
C.
Colour schemes direct
attention.
Components 2:
Students will
experiment with techniques
and media within complete
compositions of two and
three dimensions.

Relief Bas
Painting

Students will have the


opportunity to create Bas
Relief Sculptures. Students
will pick an object from their
natural environment to depict
the form and specific details
and qualities of this object in
their piece. Students will take
a photo of the object they wish
to portray and transform that
photo into a three dimensional
relief sculpture. This is a great
lesson to teach students how
to make two dimensional
images (photo) into threedimensional works of art.
Having students start with this
type of Low Relief sculptures
will give them the steps they
need to proceed to the other
types of relief sculpture (mid,
high, sunken).

Formative &
Selfassessment

Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the

16

principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

DRAWING

A
. Careful observation of
form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.

ENCOUNTERS

Impact of Images:
Students
will become aware of the
importance society places
upon various works of art.
A.
The ways people use art
changes through time.
B.
Society has various ways
of preserving and
displaying public and
private art works.

Transformations Through
Time:
Students will identify
thematic and stylistic
variations of works as
characteristics of certain
artistic periods.
A.
A particular concept of
beauty can be discerned in
works of a specific historic
period.

Relief
Sculpture:
Cardboard

Students will travel back to


Ancient Times through the
creation of Cardboard Relief
Sculptures (learning about
history and historical figures).
Students will have to use their
skills of arrangement, size,
and composition in order to
properly layer pieces of
cardboard before completing
the piece with paper mache.
This lesson is designed to
teach students about
Middle-Relief Sculptures.

Formative &
Selfassessment

Relief
Sculpture:
Paper

This lesson involves building a


three-dimensional paper
sculpture balanced on a single
point and focused around the
principles of design: Contrast,
Rhythm, Unity, Pattern,
Movement & Balance.
Students will experiment with

Formative &
Selfassessment

COMPOSITIONS
Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

DRAWINGS
Communicate

Students will use


expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making
of images.
A.
The subjective
perception of the individual
student affects the way

17

he/she expresses action and


direction.

emphasis or a focal point as


well as space and form to
change the overall look and
appearance of their paper
relief sculpture. This lesson is
designed to help students with
elements of design as well as
to teach students about High
Relief Sculpture.

COMPOSITIONS

Students will
create compositions in both
two and
three dimensions.
Investigate the effects of
controlling form, colour
and space in response to
selected visual problems.
Experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
Investigate the effects of
modifying colour, space and
form to change pictorial
style.
Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

DRAWING
Focus

A
. Careful observation of
form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.
C.
The illusion of depth is
created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in
creating an image.

Communicate

Students will use


expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making
of images.
A.
The subjective
perception of the individual
student affects the way
he/she expresses action and
direction.

COMPOSITIONS

Components 2:
Students will experiment
with techniques and media
within complete
compositions of two and
three dimensions.
Concepts:
B.
Relief compositions can
be assembled or formed
using materials in additive
or subtractive ways.

Relief
Sculpture:
Drywall

Students will create a relief


sculpture of a favorite logo
using wallboard (drywall) and
carving tools. This lesson is to
help students understand the
subtractive process needed to
make relief sculptures. this
lesson also provides a unique
opportunity for students to
learn about Sunken Relief
Sculptures!

Formative &
Selfassessment

18

C.
Two-dimensional
materials can be used to
make compositions
demonstrating simple
pictorial space.
Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

DRAWING

A
. Careful observation of
form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.
C.
The illusion of depth is
created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in
creating an image.

COMPOSITIONS

Components 2:
Students will
experiment with techniques
and media within complete
compositions of two and
three dimensions.
Concepts:
A.
Sculptures can be formed
using materials in additive
and subtractive ways to
demonstrate formal and
informal balance.
B.
Relief compositions can
be assembled or formed
using materials in additive
or subtractive ways.
C.
Two-dimensional
materials can be used to
make compositions
demonstrating
simple pictorial space.

Relief
Sculpture:
Stone
Carvings

Students will create a Bas


Relief sculpture that look like a
Stone Carving through an
additive process.

Formative &
Selfassessment

Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

19

Investigate:

Students will employ and


arrange elements and
principles to make
compositions.
Concepts:
A.
A consideration of
balance and contrast may
be applied to drawings that
depict forms in nature.

DRAWINGS
Focus

A
. Careful observation of
form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic
recording of natural objects.
C.
The illusion of depth is
created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in
creating an image.

Communicate

Students will use


expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making
of images.
A.
The subjective
perception of the individual
student affects the way
he/she expresses action and
direction.

ENCOUNTERS
Source of Images:

Students will consider the


natural environment as a
source of imagery through
time and across cultures.
B.
Images of nature change
through time and across
cultures.

COMPOSITIONS

Relief
Sculpture:
Clay

This project is designed for


middle school to high school
students. It allows students to
create a relief sculpture out of
clay. Students will carve into
the clay, add pieces of clay, use
shape, balance, focal point,
depth in order to create a relief
sculpture that has dimension
and unique form.

Summative
& Selfassessment

1.
employ and arrange
elements and principles to
make compositions;
2.
create compositions in both
two and three dimensions;
3.
experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and
concentration in the
creation of compositions.
Components 2:
Students will
experiment with techniques
and media within complete
compositions of two and
three dimensions.
B.
Relief compositions can
be assembled or formed
using materials in additive
or
subtractive ways.
C.
Two-dimensional
materials can be used to
make compositions
demonstrating simple
pictorial space.
Relationships 1:
Students
will experiment with the
principles of dominance,
emphasis and

20

concentration in the
creation of compositions.
A.
Cluster and
concentration of design
elements in compositions
tend to suggest
compression and/or
movement.
B.
Differences in size or
value of design elements in
compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.

21

Introductory Activity (1 Class)


Learning Outcomes:
COMPOSITIONS
Composition is a search for a unified visual
statement. It articulates meaning through
control of elements and their relationships.
The student organizes visual material to
generate thought and to make thought visible.
Students will:
- employ and arrange elements and
principles to make compositions.
- use expressiveness in their use of
elements in the making of images.
- create compositions in both two and three
dimensions.
- experiment with the principles of
dominance, emphasis and concentration in
the creation of compositions.
- investigate the effects of modifying colour,
space and form to change pictorial style.
COMPOSITIONS
Components 1:
Students will experiment with colour effects on compositions.
Concepts:
C. Colour schemes direct attention.
Components 2:
Students will experiment with techniques and media within
complete compositions of two and three dimensions.
Concepts:
B. Relief compositions can be assembled or formed using materials in
additive
or subtractive ways.

Description:
Students will have creative freedom in designing a three-dimensional image from
a two-dimensional image using Lego! This introductory activity is designed to get
students interested and engaged in Relief Sculpture!

Process:
1. Student Directed
: Students will be given the freedom to design and create
any (appropriate) photo into a three-dimensional Lego sculpture. Students
will have to first find an image using a device or a photo that they already
have and then proceed to building a Lego replica of the image.

22

2. Student Directed / Collaborative


: Students will then share what they have
created at the end of class with the rest of the students!

Assessment:
Formative - Lego Piece

Adaptations/Modifications:
Instead of Lego, teachers could also get students to use blocks, chocolate
bars, marshmallows and toothpicks, or a variety of other fun mediums!

Resources/Materials:
Art Materials:
Photographs or Images
Device
Lots of Lego (ask students to bring their own if you cannot supply enough)

23

Lesson #1: Relief Drawings (3-4 Classes)


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS

Focus

A.
Careful observation of form and surface qualities
is necessary for the realistic recording of natural
objects.
B. Concepts of positive and negative space can
be employed when drawing people in groups.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the
kinds
of lines and marks used in creating an image.
Communicate
Students will use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of images.
A. The subjective perception of the individual student affects the way he/she
expresses action and direction.
B. Mood and feeling as perceived by the individual student can be expressed in
colour
drawings.

COMPOSITIONS
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance,
emphasis and concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to
suggest compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.

Description:

Students observation skills will be tested in this project as they create a


three-dimensional paper sculpture out of altered white paper on a white paper
base then accurately interpret it as a two-dimensional drawing. The paper
sculpture is abstract and monotonal, therefore students will be focused on
precisely what they see in front of them and not be distracted by preconceived
ideas of how an object should look.

Process:

1. Create the Relief:


(
Teacher Directed
: Modeling and explaining the process
and product for instruction, Student Directed for creation of relief)
The altered paper relief will need to be interesting and well composed.
Consider the following:

24

Good use of space (large empty spaces will not make for an interesting
composition).
Interesting use of paper (forms, textures, lines).
Interesting values and shadows according to the light source. Some
ideas for altering the paper: folding, bending, rolling, twisting,
tearing, crumpling, cutting, shredding, creating fringe, puncturing,
scoring, weaving, layering, slotting, mushing, etc. Glue or tape onto
the tag board surface.
2. Draw the Relief:
(Student Directed)

An unmoving, unchanging light source should be available during the


entire time period the drawing requires. Directional table lamps are
ideal. Light from windows may significantly change from one day to
the next and overhead fluorescent lighting isn't strong enough.
Choose an interesting view of the relief and begin with a very, very
light outline of the composition on the illustration board. Fill in the
value areas of shading and shadows according to the light source.
Shading should define the forms of the relief and accurately depict the
paper textures - smooth, crumpled, torn, folded, etc.
Create areas of contrast instead of outlines defining the edges.
Contrast light against dark, rough against smooth, for example. There
should be no outlines when the drawing is completed.
Students will then write a Reflection on their piece describing what
went well and what could be improved upon

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:
Students could also use cardboard, construction paper, or photographs to
create the relief. The drawing itself can be done using pencils, charcoal,
crayons, or even paint!!!

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

White Sulphite Drawing Paper 12 x 18 (One per student)


2 Ply Tag-Board, white, 12 x 18 (One per student)
Scissors (One per student)
Transparent Tape (One roll per pair of students)
Drawing Pencils
Eraser
14-Ply Illustration Board 15 x 20

Website for Relief Drawings:


http://cdn.dick-blick.com/lessonplans/relief
drawing/relief-drawing-relief-drawing.pdf

25

26

Lesson #2: Relief Bas Painting (4-5


Classes)
Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
Focus
A.
Careful observation of form and surface qualities is
necessary for the realistic recording of natural
objects.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in creating an image.
Communicate
Students will use expressiveness in their use of

elements in the making of images.


A. The subjective perception of the individual student
affects the way he/she expresses action and
direction.
B. Mood and feeling as perceived by the individual
student can be expressed in colour drawings
(painting)
COMPOSITIONS
Components 1:
Students will experiment with colour
effects on compositions.
Concepts:
B. Colour schemes create certain moods in images.
C. Colour schemes direct attention.
Components 2:
Students will experiment with techniques and media within
complete compositions of two and three dimensions.
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance,
emphasis and concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to suggest
compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.

Description:

Students will have the opportunity to create Bas Relief Sculptures. This is a great
lesson to teach students how to make two dimensional images into three
dimensional works of art. Having students start with this type of Low Relief
sculptures will give them the steps they need to proceed to the other types of relief

27

sculpture (Mid, High, Sunken). Students will be asked to include texture, and a
rhythm/pattern component to their piece.

Process:

1. Video Instruction:

Students will begin the lesson by watching this seven minute instructional video
on how to make Bas Relief Paintings:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6eOV-73JXE

2. The teacher will then describe how this type of art is an example of Low
Relief Sculpture (
also known as: basso-relievo, or bas-relief) -
sculpted
projection is very slight or shallow; where the sculpture projects only
slightly from the background surface.
3. Students will then be asked to draw a design in their foam board. Before
carving, teacher approval must be given.
4. Students will then carve their Low Relief Sculpture. Each piece should have
different definitive texture lines. Also, each piece should have a rhythm or
flow that matches the piece.
5. Once carving is complete, students will have the opportunity to paint their
piece. They will paint their piece in the color that represents the mood or
emotions they want to portray. As they are deciding on colors, they must
consider using one solid color or multiple contrasting colors to direct
attention (the focus).
6. Students will then write a Reflection on their piece describing what went
well and what could be improved upon.

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:

This lesson can be adapted to match any theme or expression that your class
is working on. For example, if they were doing a study of nature, they could
use Bas Relief Sculpture to make a piece representing an element(s) of
nature.

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

Variety of carving tools (small and large)


Linoleum Block Printing Material ( inch thick)
Pencil
Eraser
Wood Cutting Block to carve on (Safety)
Acrylic Paint
Paint Brushes
Paint Trays
Water Tins

Video Link on How to Make a Bas Relief Painting?:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6eOV-73JXE

28

Lesson #3: Relief Sculpture: Cardboard (4-5 Classes)


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
A.
Careful observation of form and
surface qualities is necessary for the
realistic recording of natural objects.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly
by the kinds of lines and marks used
in creating an image.
COMPOSITIONS
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the
principles of dominance, emphasis and
concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in
compositions tend to suggest compression and/or
movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in
compositions suggest dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.
ENCOUNTERS
Impact of Images:
Students will become aware of the importance society places
upon various works of art.
A. The ways people use art changes through time.
B.
Society has various ways of preserving and displaying public and private art

works.
Transformations Through Time:
Students will identify thematic and stylistic
variations of works as characteristics of certain artistic periods.
A. A particular concept of beauty can be discerned in works of a specific historic

period.

Description:

Students will travel back to Ancient Times through the creation of Cardboard Relief
Sculptures. Students will have to use their skills of arrangement, size, and
composition in order to properly layer pieces of cardboard before completing the
piece with paper mache. This lesson is designed to teach students about
Middle-Relief Sculptures.

Process:
29

1. Students will start the lesson with an Ancient Egypt Sculpture Search and
Find. They will have to find ten different mid-relief sculptures from ancient
times in groups of two or three. Students will then choose a piece of Ancient
art that they would like to base their project on. (Student Directed,
Collaborative)
2. Teacher Instruction:
The teacher will then give a lesson on famous ancient relief sculptures
and talk about the earliest known relief sculptures
The teacher will also present what Middle Relief Sculpture is:
Additional:
Sculptors may also employ middle-relief

(mezzo-relievo)
, a style which falls roughly between the high
and low forms.
The teacher will then model the process of how to create a cardboard
relief sculpture.
3. Students will then begin by layering pieces of cardboard into the design and
shape required for their piece with glue.
4. Once the student has finished layering their piece they may begin to paper
mache over top of the piece.
5. Once the mache is dry students may have the opportunity to paint over top!
6. Students will then write a Reflection on their piece describing what went
well and what could be improved upon.

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:
If this lesson is too easy for your class, cardboard could also be used to teach
the Subtractive elements of Relief Sculpture. The photo on the right is a
great example of a low relief sculpture made from cardboard!

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

Cardboard
White Glue
Pencils
Erasers
Paper Mache Materials
Newspaper
Paint
Paint Brushes
Paint Trays
Water Containers

Other Materials:

Scavenger Hunt Sheet


Laptops or Other Devices for Search
and Find

30

Website for Cardboard Relief Sculpture Examples:


http://www.toddtremeer.com/portfolio/grade-9-art-ancient-relief-sculpture/

31

Lesson #4: Relief Sculpture: Paper (3-4 Classes)


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
Communicate
Students will use expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making of images.
A.
The subjective perception of the individual
student affects the way he/she expresses
action and direction.
COMPOSITIONS
Composition is a search for a unified visual
statement. It articulates meaning through control of
elements and their relationships. The student
organizes visual material to generate thought and to
make thought visible.
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance,
emphasis and concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in
compositions tend to suggest compression and/or
movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in
compositions suggest dominance and emphasis of
larger, stronger elements.
Students will:
- employ and arrange elements and principles to make compositions.
- use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of images.
- create compositions in both two and three dimensions.
- investigate the effects of controlling form, colour and space in response to
selected visual problems.
- experiment with the principles of dominance, emphasis and concentration
in the creation of compositions.
- investigate the effects of modifying colour, space and form to change
pictorial style.

Description:

This lesson involves building a three-dimensional paper sculpture balanced on a


single point and focused around the principles of design:
Contrast
- formed by light and shadow as it affects the plans of the
sculpture
Rhythm
- the repetitive waves formed by staggered heights of the papers,
especially as viewed from the side.

32

Unity
- created in monochromatic tones
Pattern
- formed by the careful planning and repetition of design from a
single point
Movement
- formed by lines as the design moves away from the point
Balance
- students will build a symmetrical design, exactly the same on all
sides of the point.

This lesson is designed to help students with elements of design as well as to teach
students about High Relief Sculpture.

Process:

1. The teacher will show examples and a model of a Paper Relief Sculpture. The
teacher will also provide students with a definition of High Relief Sculpture
with some other examples
(also known as: alto-relievo, or alto-relief) -
the
sculpture projects at least half or more of its natural circumference from the
background, and may in parts be wholly disengaged from the ground, thus
approximating sculpture in the round.
2. Students will create preliminary linear designs that show understanding of
the assignment based on the six principles of design. Designs should be
executed in pencil on drawing paper. Students will begin with a single point
and build their designs out from that point.
3. Selecting their best design, the students will transfer their drawing to
illustration board, which will be the base for the sculpture. Students
measure lines, angles and curves using rulers, triangles, compasses and
french curves.
4. Before beginning the sculpture, students will need to decide what height
they want to cut the strips of paper. The sculpture will need to function from
a side view as well as a frontal view. Begin by cutting the tallest pieces and
adjust the height of the surrounding ones.
5. Once the pieces are cut and the height is planned, students will then begin
to glue down the strips of paper. Start from the center of the design, around
the point. Filling fine-point squeeze bottles with glue will allow application
of a narrow, even line. Place a single glue line on the illustration board base,
then place the cut piece of paper upright into the glue. Hold the piece in
place for about 30 seconds. Repeat with the remaining pieces of the design
until it is all in place.
6. Once the paper sculpture is complete, students will use spray paint to unify
the piece with a single color.
IMPORTANT:
Spray paint should only be
applied in a spray booth or in a well ventilated area using a respirator to
avoid breathing fumes.
7. Students will then write a Reflection on their piece describing what went
well and what could be improved upon.

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:

33

There are a lot of design elements presented in this lesson which can easily
be minimized to accommodate students that may be overwhelmed with the
number of elements presented.

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

Pencils and erasers


Drawing Paper
Rulers, Measuring Triangles, Compass
14-Ply Illustration Board
White Posterboard
White Glue
Scissors
Spray Paint

Website on Paper Relief Sculptures:


http://cdn.dick-blick.com/lessonplans/
paper-relief-sculpture/paper-relief-sculpture-paper-relief-sculpture.pdf

34

Lesson #5: Relief Sculpture: Drywall (5-6 Classes)


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
A.
Careful observation of form and surface qualities

is

necessary for the realistic recording of natural


objects.
B. Concepts of positive and negative space can
be employed when drawing people in groups.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the kinds
of lines and marks used in creating an image.
Communication:
Students will use expressiveness in
their use of elements in the making of images.
A. The subjective perception of the individual
student affects the way he/she expresses action
direction.
B. Mood and feeling as perceived by the individual
student can be expressed in colour drawings
(painting)

and

COMPOSITIONS
Components 2:
Students will experiment with
techniques and media within complete
compositions of two and three dimensions.
Concepts:
B. Relief compositions can be assembled or
formed using materials in additive or
subtractive ways.
C. Two-dimensional materials can be
used to make compositions
demonstrating simple pictorial space
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance,
emphasis and concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to suggest
compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.

Description:

Students will create a relief sculpture of a favorite logo using wallboard (drywall)
and carving tools. This lesson is to help students understand the subtractive
process needed to make relief sculptures. this lesson also provides a unique
opportunity for students to learn about Sunken Relief Sculptures!

35

Process:
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

Teacher Directed
: The teacher will describe and show an example of a drywall relief
sculpture. The teacher will also teach students about Sunken Relief and provide
historical examples of Sunken Relief:
Sunken relief
(incised, coelanaglyphic or intaglio relief)
the carving is sunk below
the level of the surrounding surface and is contained within a sharply incised
contour line that frames it with a powerful line of shadow.
Teacher Preparation
:The drywall should be cut by the teacher into 12 (or smaller)
squares. This can be done by scoring the drywall on the "right" side with a box cutter (or
exacto knife), and then "snapping" it along the score line. Use the boxcutter on the
reverse side to cut through the remaining paper that held the squares together.
Student Directed
: Students will glue their square of drywall (back side down) to a piece
of cardboard the same size. This was to make sure that the piece stayed together, even if
it cracked while they were working on it. Next, they used sponges (wet, but not dripping)
to soften and remove the paper on the front of the board. This took time and patience!
Student Directed
: Students will choose a logo (using a device) that they will draw, with
pencil, onto their piece of drywall after all of the paper is taken away.
Student Directed
: As students begin to carve their work it is important that they keep
the surface slightly damp. This makes the drywall easier to carve and will reduce
chipping. However, if they get too wet the drywall is MORE likely to crack. Students
should also use a small carving tool to outline their design, before using larger carving
tools.
Once students are done carving they can use acrylic paint to add color to their designs.
Students will then write a
Reflection
on their piece describing what went well and what
could be improved upon.

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection
Adaptations/Modifications:

You can modify this lessons theme of logos to anything that suits your
class! For example: students could model their drywall piece after the theme
of nature.

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

Wallboard (Drywall)
Carving Tools
Sponges
Water Containers
Teachers need box cutter or exacto knife
Glue
Cardboard (for the back of the Drywall)
Pencil
Eraser
Acrylic Paint
Paint Brushes
Paint Trays

Website on Drywall Relief Sculptures:

http://www.art-rageous.net/ReliefSculpture02.html

36

Lesson #6: Relief Sculpture: Stone Carvings (4- 5 Classes)


Learning Outcomes:
DRAWINGS
A.
Careful observation of form and surface
qualities is necessary for the realistic
recording
of natural objects.
B. Concepts of positive and negative space can
be employed when drawing people in groups.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the
kinds of lines and marks used in creating an
image.
Communication:
Students will use expressiveness in their
use of elements in the making of images.
A. The subjective perception of the individual student
affects the way he/she expresses action and
direction.
COMPOSITIONS
Components 2:
Students will experiment with techniques and
media within complete compositions of two and three
dimensions.
Concepts:
A.
Sculptures can be formed using materials in additive and subtractive ways to
demonstrate formal and informal balance.
B.
Relief compositions can be assembled or formed using materials in additive or
subtractive ways.
C.
Two-dimensional materials can be used to make compositions demonstrating |
simple pictorial space.
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance,
emphasis and concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to suggest
compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.

Description:

Students will create a Bas Relief sculpture that look like a Stone Carving through an
additive process. The bas relief sculpture will be created using matboard and then
students will paint a layer of fleck stone paint onto their piece to create the
effect/look of stone.

37

Process:
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Collaborative Work/ Student Directed


: Students will work in groups of 3-4 to research
ancient stone carvings. Students will then choose elements from different pieces of
ancient stone carvings in order to create their own work.
Teacher Directed:
Teachers will show students examples of Famous Ancient Relief
Sculptures. The teacher will also demonstrate how to create a stone carving piece and
provide exemplar pieces.
Student Directed
: Students will then grab a scrap of mat board for a for a base layer
and will form their design from 2-4 additional layers of matboard. Students should use
small pieces of masking tape to close any holes or tunnels on the edges of the layers.
Students can use a couple of different methods to transfer their design to the
matboard:
One method students can use is to make a pattern of one of the elements
of their design and trace around it
Another method students can use it to use a graphite transfer method:
After sketching their designs, students place their paper against a
window in order to trace the design onto the back of their paper. Then, by
using a pencil to darken the lines on the back of the paper, they can place
their design on a piece of matboard. As they trace over their lines on the
front of the paper, the heavy application of graphite on the back side of
the paper transferred to the matboard.
Student Directed
: Students will then use scissors to cut their design pieces. The rougher
edges on the mat board can be removed by sanding lightly with sandpaper.
Student Directed
: Once students have all of their pieces cut out, they can begin
arranging them and gluing the layers together.
Student Directed
: Once completed students will spray paint their piece. Once this layer
is dry, students will then paint a layer of fleck stone paint.
Students will then write a
Reflection
on their piece describing what went well and what
could be improved upon.

Assessment:
Formative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:

There are other methods to texturing the stone carving so that the look like
they are made of stone. One such method that you could adapt to this lesson
is using glue and sand!

Resources/Materials:
Art Supplies:

Matboard
Masking Tape
Glue
Pencils
Erasers
Spray Paint
Fleck Spray Paint

Website on Stone Carving Relief Sculptures:

http://www.art-rageous.net/ReliefSculpture-AdditiveProcess.html

38

Lesson #7: Relief Sculpture: Clay (5-6 lessons)


Learning Outcomes:
Grade 9 General Outcome
Students will:
consider the natural environment as
a source of imagery through time and across
cultures.
DRAWINGS
Focus
A.
Careful observation of form and surface
qualities
is necessary for the realistic recording of
natural
objects.
B. Concepts of positive and negative space can
be employed when drawing people in groups.
C. The illusion of depth is created partly by the
kinds of lines and marks used in creating an image.
Communicate:
Students will use expressiveness in their use
of elements in the making of images.
A. The subjective perception of the individual student
affects the way he/she expresses action and direction.
Investigate:
Students will employ and arrange elements and principles to make
compositions.
A.
A consideration of balance and contrast may be applied to drawings that depict

forms in nature.
ENCOUNTERS
Source of Images:
Students will consider the natural environment as a source of imagery
through time and across cultures.
B. Images of nature change through time and across cultures.
COMPOSITIONS
Composition is a search for a unified visual statement. It articulates meaning
through control of elements and their relationships. The student organizes visual
material to generate thought and to make thought visible.
Students will:
- employ and arrange elements and principles to make compositions.
- use expressiveness in their use of elements in the making of images.
- use the techniques of art criticism for analysis and comparison of art works.
- create compositions in both two and three dimensions.

39

- investigate the effects of controlling form, colour and space in response to


selected visual problems.
- experiment with the principles of dominance, emphasis and concentration
in the creation of compositions.
Components 2:
Students will experiment with techniques and media within complete
compositions of two and three dimensions.
A.
Sculptures can be formed using materials in additive and subtractive ways to

demonstrate formal and informal balance.


B. Relief compositions can be assembled or formed using materials in additive or
subtractive ways.
C. Two-dimensional materials can be used to make compositions demonstrating
simple pictorial space.
Relationships 1:
Students will experiment with the principles of dominance, emphasis and
concentration in the creation of compositions.
A. Cluster and concentration of design elements in compositions tend to suggest
compression and/or movement.
B. Differences in size or value of design elements in compositions suggest
dominance and emphasis of larger, stronger elements.
Relationships 2:
Students will learn to use the basic vocabulary of art criticism in
descriptions of their work.
A. Terms describing materials, techniques, subject matter and design elements
comprise the basic vocabulary of art.
B.
Identifying problems associated with image making is part of learning to

analyze
and criticize ones own art works.
Objectives:
1. Students will first design and create a sculptural relief using modeling clay.
2. The lesson will incorporate art history, aesthetics, and criticism with this
hands on activity.
3. The lesson will focus on important design elements and a variety of
technical skills essential to relief sculpture, as well as creative
self-expression.

Description:

This project is designed for middle school to high school students. It allows
students to create a relief sculpture out of clay. Students will use nature as a source
for inspiration along everything they have learned about relief sculpture
throughout the unit to create a stunning relief piece to be marked and showcased
in a gallery walk.

Process:
1.

Student Directed:
students will go outside on a nature walk to look at the natural
environment that surrounds them for inspiration for this final clay relief sculpture.
Have students consider balance, contrast, space, lines, focus, etc. when thinking about
their design.

40

2. Independent:
Creating a composition - start with a rough sketch (drawing) to generate
ideas and try (unusual) combinations before selecting the final choice for their clay relief
sculpture. The composition may include background or the figure may stand alone.
3. Collaborative/Independent:
Once students have created their initial drawing, they will
have to look at it through the eyes of an art critic to search for ways to improve or
enhance their composition. Students will then change their image of nature to reflect
what they critiqued and make improvements.
4. Student Directed
: students will begin to work on their relief sculpture using clay. They
will create what they sketched by laying out a square, flat piece of clay and start taking
away the negative space or adding the positive space. Students should start with a thin
carving tool to outline their design and then move on to larger carving tools. Students
will have allotted class time to finish their projects.
5. Teacher Directed:
Once the students have completed their relief sculpture, the teacher
will fire their projects into the kiln. It is the teachers responsibility to ensure that all
the pieces are dried enough before entering the kiln. Students should not be in charge of
firing their art pieces for safety reasons.
6. Student Directed/Teacher Directed:
Students will glaze their relief sculptures with clear
or colored glaze. Once students are finished glazing their projects, their work must be
fired into the kiln one more time. This will be done by the teacher again.
7. Collaborative Work:
Once all students have finished completing their pieces they will be
put on display, either around the class, in a display case, or around the school.

Assessment:
Summative - Art Piece, Self-Assessment - Reflection

Adaptations/Modifications:
Students with limited mobility:
These students can use a mold instead.
Making the rubber mold:
Seal the clay with two thin coats of Antique Bronze
Finishing Glaze, allowing two hours between coats. Wait 24 hours to be sure
the sealant is dry before building the mold. Build the latex rubber mold by
painting 10 to 15 (depending on the size of the project) coats on the clay
model. Begin with very thin coats to avoid bubbles and to pick up all the
detail. Paint the rubber onto the board to create a 1" flange around the piece.
Be sure each coat dries thoroughly before applying the next. After about
two-thirds of the coats are on, reinforce the next coat while still wet with
strips of cheesecloth, and then continue building remaining coats. A large
project requiring 15 coats could take two to three days to complete the rubber
mold.

Resources/Materials:
Art Materials:

Permoplast Modelling Clay


Antique Bronze Finishing Glaze
Sketch Paper Pencil
1/ 2 inch foam core board (or any other board available for classroom use)
Plastic Wrap, Masking Tape, Scissors
Mixing bowls
Disposable plastic gloves
Wire Baking Rack or additional boards for drying
Water Tempera or acrylic paint
A Variety of Carving Tools (Thin and Thick Carving Tools)

41

Kiln
Ceramic Glaze
Paint Brushes (For Glaze)
Paint Trays (For Glaze)
Lesson #13 - Creating Relief Sculpture:
http://www.theartsweb.com/teachers/lesson_plan_archive/Lesson13.pdf

42

Part 5: Reflection

How did you address diverse learner needs in your unit design?

Our unit reaches out to every multiple intelligence. There are hands on
activities and projects for kinesthetic and visual learners, the final project uses the
natural environment as a source for inspiration to meet the needs of naturalist
learners, there are group discussions and a collaborative research activity on relief
sculptures in ancient Egypt to meet the needs of interpersonal learners, at the end
of every lesson there is a self reflection to meet the needs of intrapersonal learners
and every project requires creativity, critical thinking and problem solving to meet
the needs of the logical/mathematical students.
All the lessons have been given a timeline, however that time is flexible
based on the pace of the students. Some projects may be completed quicker than
expected, while others will require longer than the time given. The introductory
lesson is the only one that is a class period. All other lessons allow for 4-6 days to
give students enough time to think about their pieces, experiment and create their
works of art. In our unit we have thought out adaptations and modifications for
every lesson, which are indicated within each lesson plan.
Adaptations/Modifications Relief Sculpture unit:
Introductory Activity:
Instead of Lego, teachers could also get students to use

blocks, chocolate bars, marshmallows and toothpicks, or a variety of other fun


mediums!
Lesson #1 -
Drawings: Students can use cardboard, construction paper, or
photographs to create the relief. The drawing itself can be done using pencils,
charcoal, crayons, or paint!
Lesson #2 -
Bas Painting: This lesson can be adapted to match any theme or
expression that your class is working on. For example, if they were doing a study of
nature, they could use Bas Relief Sculpture to make a piece representing an
element(s) of nature.
Lesson #3 -
Cardboard: If this lesson is too easy for your class, cardboard could
also be used to teach the Subtractive elements of Relief Sculpture - its harder than
it sounds!
Lesson #4 -
Paper: There are a lot of design elements presented in this lesson
which can easily be minimized to accommodate students that may be overwhelmed
with the number of elements presented.
Lesson #5 -
Drywall: You can modify this lessons theme of logos to anything that
suits your class! For example: students could model their drywall piece after the
theme of nature.

43

Lesson #6 -
Stone Carvings: There are other methods to texturing a stone
carving so that it looks like they are made of stone, such as using glue and sand.
Have different tools for students to use to cut and carve with.
Lesson #7 -
Clay Sculpture: Students with limited mobility can use a mold instead
to create their relief clay sculpture.
There are countless ways in which teachers can better accommodate
students diverse needs through accommodations, modifications and
differentiation in their lessons. In the suggestions listed above, students needs
have a greater chance of being met through implementation of the adaptations and
modifications (to that of the original lesson plans). By providing students with the
choice of subject for every piece it meets all students needs as they can choose
something they love and can use as inspiration for their relief sculpture piece. For
the drywall lesson they will be creating logos, however it is not one specific logo,
allowing students to choose one that represents them best or a logo that resonates
with them. This is the same case for the final piece. For the clay sculpture students
are drawing inspiration from nature, however they do not have to create a specific
object from the natural environment. Students have the freedom to be creative
and as detailed or minimal as they choose. By giving students choice, freedom and
the ability to make a piece that they love we meet all the diverse learners needs
and allow all students to be successful.
In our lessons we used some modelling and direct instruction, but every
lesson was based on the students creating or a hands-on approach. Each project
allows for hands-on learning, inquiry based learning and of course project-based
learning, the style that best aligns with art class. Students are always creating
their own individual pieces to allow for ultimate creativity and exploration. There
are still moments of collaboration in our unit when students discuss creative ideas
with one another, provide feedback to each other, research ancient Egypt relief
examples as well as art exhibits and gallery walks.
Every single lesson has a self reflection as it is essential in art to critique
your work. Students are able to reflect on what they have learned, the art process
and the meaning or message behind their work of art created. We have a used a
variety of instructional practices to teach relief sculpture as well as a variety of
different mediums for students to explore the unit of relief. Students are able to
see how relief sculptures look different based on the medium used, if you carve
away or add material, as well as the type of relief you create: low, high or sunken.
Our unit plan can actually be done through a whole trimester as the amount of
activities included as well as the diverse mediums used to experiment with relief
allows for full exploration of this art process.

44

Part 6: Resources for Teaching Relief Sculpture


Trade Magazines:
Architectural Digest, Art News, Clay Times, Pottery Making
Videos:
MontMarteArt. (15 June, 2014). Published on Jun 15, 2014. Art Lesson: How To
Make A Plaster Relief Sculpture [video]. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=gWCiGXg9Ngw
* This is a great introduction to plaster casting.
* Fun, easy and great to do with kids!
Artrelief. (3 December, 2011). Wall Relief Decoration: Interior Design [video].
Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzWoHt_6qUU
Nickels, S. (2 January, 2009). What a Relief: A New Concept in Sculpting [video].
Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhwoW28I-Zs

Websites:

Artsonia Kids Art Museum. (2015). The Largest Student Art Gallery on the Web.
Retrieved from
http://www.artsonia.com/
* Great website where you can post students artwork!
Getty, Paul. (2015). The J. Paul Getty Museum: Lesson Plans. Retrieved from
http://www.getty.edu/education/teachers/classroom_resources/curricula/sculptur
e/lesson_plan_index.html
KinderArt. (2014). Sculpture and Collage Lessons for Kids: Clay, Pottery, Paper.
Retrieved from
http://www.kinderart.com/sculpture/

45

Teachers Information Sheet


Stages of Relief Carving:
1. Create a pattern, drawn on paper.
2. Prepare your material (wood panel, drywall,etc.) for carving. This could be a
single piece of wood or a laminated panel.
3. Transfer the pattern to the panel, using carbon paper as the transfer
medium.
4. Remove material around the objects that comprise the pattern.
5. Model the objects
6. Detail the objects
7. Tidy the background behind the objects
8. Apply a suitable finish to the panel
* Relief Sculptures may be made in the round where the work can be viewed
from any angle, or they can be made in relief. Work in relief is made to be
viewed from the front, and the design projects from the surface. *
Relief sculpture
is sculpture in which images are set against a flat background. A
coin is a good example of relief sculpture: the inscription, the date, and the
figure--sometimes a portrait of a statesmanare slightly raised above a flat
surface. When the image is only slightly raised, as with the coin, the sculpture is
called low relief or
bas-relief
. The ancient Egyptians sometimes carved figures into
a flat surface. This type of carving is known as
sunken relief
. Statues that are
almost three-dimensional but still are attached to backgrounds are regarded as
high relief
.

Styles of Relief:
1.
2.
3.
4.

High relief
(usually between 1/2" and 2" in depth)
Bas relief or Low relief
(usually under 1/2" in depth)
Deep relief
(usually over 2" in depth)
Pierced relief
(where holes are carved clear through the material)

Relief Artists:
Bill Mack:
Contemporary American Relief Sculpture. His sculptures have more
physical depth than high relief and involve the viewer in a three-dimensional
experience.
Jeff Nishinaka:
Relief paper sculpture artist from Los Angeles. He has f
ound various
techniques in how to manipulate and bend paper to make magnificent
masterpieces.

46

Thomas Crawford, William Henry Rinehart, Edward Sheffield Bartholomew:


Popularized
relief sculpture in marble and built their reputations by producing idealized
in-the-round statues for an international clientele.

Category

Bas Relief

High Relief

Meaning

A sculptural relief in which the


figural projection from the given
plane or surface or background is
slight and very delicate

A sculptural relief in which the figural


projection from the background
surface is significant and notable

Relative
Depth

In the lowest reliefs, like the figures


carved on coins, the dimension of
depth may make no sense if
observed from one side. However,
when observed from the front, the
relative depth of the sculpted
elements may be visible.

The depth of the sculpture is clearly


visible, irrespective of whether one
looks from the sides or front. In fact,
if it is a very high relief sculpture,
many elements may even be
completely detached from the
background.

Low-relief sculptures look like mere


outlines of elements, sometimes
with minute details.

Looking at very high relief sculptures


is, more often than not, like looking
at free-standing statues, standing on
their own without any attached plane.

Technique

The plane is moderately scratched


out with a chisel to remove the
"extra" part of the background, in
order to leave out the raised,
unsculpted portions that form the
sculpture. Detailing, if any, is done
at the end.

In a full range high relief sculpture,


over 50% of the depth of the figure
has to be portrayed. So, more of the
background has to be chiseled out,
and because the figure is larger and
clearer, more detailing has to be done.

Common
Materials

Stone, brick, terracotta, and metals


(gold, silver, copper, bronze) in case
of coins

Mostly stone; also stucco and


terracotta in many cases

Examples

Ancient Egyptian art; ancient Near


Eastern and Asian cultures;
Mesoamerican art; ancient Hindu
and Buddhist sites in India, Java,
Cambodia, and Sri Lanka; ancient
European art; Babylon; and Pompeii;
very rare instances from the Middle
Ages

Ancient Greek and Roman art;


medieval Hindu and Buddhist art of
India and Java; medieval Europe, both
as a funerary art as well as on the
exquisitely sculpted neoclassical
pediments.

Perspective

47

Terms:
Modeling:
done with clay, wax, or some other soft, pliable material. The sculptor
adds pieces of material and molds it to the desired shape.
Carving
: thought of as the opposite of modeling because it involves removing
rather than adding material. With knife or chisel, the sculptor carves from a block
of wood or stone until the form is made.
Joining, or constructing:
not widely practiced until the 20th century. In this method
the artist uses pieces of wood, metal, or plastic and joins them together into a
construction.
Firing
:
is the only system that converts clay sculpture itself into a durable object.
Not all clay sculpture is suitable for firing, for the system requires the object to be
hollow and free from impurities and air bubbles. Relief sculptures are fired by
placing them in a kiln, a high-temperature oven, and baking until very hard.
* NOTE:
Almost everyone has actually practiced all three methods of
making sculpture. When you make a snake or clown of clay, you are
modeling. Whittling a stick is carving, and playing with an erector
set or building a model airplane is joining.

Materials used in Relief Sculpture


Before beginning to work, sculptors must decide what material to use. Materials
range from something as rare and costly as ivory, which comes from elephants'
tusks, to common clay. Classroom materials for relief sculpture can be: clay,
plaster, foam, paper, paper mache, drywall, wood, bark, etc. Sculptors can use
materials that are permanent or ones that must be made permanent (ex-clay that
must be fired to harden) Each kind has its advantages and disadvantages. For
example, stone like marble is very hard, and carving must be done with great
strength and at the same time with great delicacy. Mistakes are difficult to repair,
and too much force can cause breakage. In contrast, clay is very soft, allowing
artists to experiment a great deal, adding pieces and remodeling sections. If a
mistake is made, the error can be removed quickly.
Tools:
- Sculpting tools are an extension of the artist's hands.
- Certain tools let a sculptor work a soft substance easily and precisely
- Loops of wire held in wooden handles can drag off large sections from a
mass of clay more quickly and neatly than can a person's hands
- Sticks or blades of wood, ivory, or light, flexible metals can give clean edges
and draw fine lines across the surface of wax, clay, or soft metal
- Hammers, mallets, chisels, and drills are needed for the process of carving
- Welding torches and soldering irons can be used to join metal together for
sculpture

48

Part 7: References
American Art Clay Co, Inc.. (n.d.). Lesson #13 - Creating Relief Sculpture: A Lesson
in
Sculpture and moldmaking using Scultamold. Retrieved November 13, 2015,
from
http://www.theartsweb.com/teachers/lesson_plan_archive/Lesson13.pdf

Artrelief. (3 December, 2011). Wall Relief Decoration: Interior Design [video].


Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uz
WoHt_6qUU
Artsonia Kids Art Museum. (2015). The Largest Student Art Gallery on the Web.
Retrieved November 17, 2015, from
http://www.artsonia.com/
Barrett, S. (12 September, 2015). Art-Rageous! Retrieved November 13, 2015, from
http://www.art-rageous.net/ReliefSculpture-AdditiveProcess.html

Bayless, C., Lucek, B., Shawberry, T. (2004). Paper Relief Sculpture (art and
geometry). Retrieved November 13, 2015, from
http://cdn.dick-blick.com/lesson
plans/paper-relief-sculpture/paper-relief-sculpture-paper-relief-sculpture.pdf
Blick Art Materials. (2 October, 2010). Bas Relief Painting - Lesson Plan [video].
Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=b6eOV-73JXE
Brynjolson, R. (2009). Teaching Art: A Complete Guide for the Classroom.
Winnipeg,
MB: Portage and Main Press. Print.
Colby College Museum of Art. (n.d.). Bernard Langlais - Teacher Guide: Grades 9 12.
Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
http://www.colby.edu/museum/wp-content/
uploads/sites/129/2014/11/Langlais-9-12.pdf
Dokolasa, C. (2004). Relief Drawing. Retrieved November 13, 2015, from
http://
cdn.dick-blick.com/lessonplans/relief-drawing/relief-drawing-reliefdrawing.pdf
KinderArt. (2014). Sculpture and Collage Lessons for Kids: Clay, Pottery, Paper.
Retrieved November 15, 2015, from
http://www.kinderart.com/sculpture/

49

MontMarteArt. (15 June, 2014). Art Lesson: How To Make A Plaster Relief Sculpture
[video]. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=gWCiGXg9Ngw
New World Encyclopedia (8 July, 2015). Relief (sculpture). Retrieved November 12,
2015, from
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Relief_(sculpture)
Nickels, S. (2 January, 2009). What a Relief: A New Concept in Sculpting [video].
Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhwoW28I-Zs
Tremeer, T. (n.d.). Ancient Reliefs: Grade 9. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from
http://www.toddtremeer.com/portfolio/grade-9-art-ancient-relief-sculpture/

Visual Arts Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Relief Sculpture. Retrieved November 12, 2015,
from
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/sculpture/relief.htm

50