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140402
140400
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COMSOL
Multiphysics,

(PDE) .
Heat Transfer
[], Diffusion [] ,
, Fluid Dynamics [].

.
20 2005
. 17 2006 .
:
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140402 140400
: .., 2006.
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, 2006.

COMSOL Multiphysics..
1. COMSOL Multiphysics....
1.1. ..
1.2. ..
1.3. ,
1.4.
.
1.5.
..
1.6.
1.7.
1.8. ..
2. Heat Transfer().....
2.1. 1D. ..
2.2. 1D axial symmetry ( )
2.3. 1D axial symmetry ( )
2.4. 2D. ...
2.5. 3D. ..
2.6. Conduction and Convection..
3. Convection and Diffusion
3.1. 1D. ..
4. ..
4.1. .
4.2.
...
4.3.

4.4.
.

4
5
5
8
12

74
6
77

13
15
18
20
24
27
27
29
33
37
38
51
56
57
59
59
66
68
72

COMSOL Multiphysics
COMSOL Multiphysics -


(PDE) .

( )
.

. ,
PDE
, : , ,
, ..
.
.

(GUI),
COMSOL Script MATLAB.

.

.
:
,

,
(Weak form), PDE ,

.
, , :



PDE, COMSOL Multiphysics
(FEM).


.
PDE,
:
,

,
,
,
4

, , , ,
, , .
,
(coupling variables)
.

.
1. ,
Model Navigator [ ] (
)

.
2.
3. ,

4.
5.
6.
7. .
8.
9.

1.

COMSOL Multiphysics

1.1.
9 , ,

.
,
. ,
CAD ,
FEMLAB,
, .
Model Navigator [ ] (.
1.1) New Space Dimension [
], 1D, 2D 3D Axial Symmetry (1D) (2D)
.
9 ,
Heat Transfer [],
Diffusion [] , , Fluid
Dynamics [].
Fluid Dynamics
- . Heat Transfer
, Conduction [],
Convection and Conduction [ ],
, ,
. Diffusion
: Diffusion [] Convection and Diffusion
[ ]. General Heat
Transfer [ ]
, , , Thin Conductive
Layer , Bioheat equation
,
Non-Isotermal Flow
.

1.1. .
, ,
: Multiphisics,
Add geometry [ ],
. ,
Add []
(Heat TransferConvection and Conduction),
(Fluid DynamicsIncompressible
Navier-Stokes).
.
9 Steady-state analysis
[ ] Transient analysis [ ],
, .
9 New Model Navigator
, Lagrange-Quadratic
[-],
, ,
.

New, Model Navigator, . Model Library


[ ],
,
. User Models [ ],
, . Settings
[] (
, ).
. COMSOL 3.2 ,
.
Open User Models
.
OK Model Navigator
,
.
, .

File , ,
, CAD
.
Edit ,
.
Options Axes/Grid
settings, Constants, Expression, Function,
Coupling Variables
.
Draw
,
.
Physics
Subdomain, Boundary,
( ) Periodic Condition
Equation system.
Mesh .
Solve
, ,
, .
Postprocessing
, :
, .

Multiphisics Model Navigator,



.
Help .

1.2.
, (. 1.2):
1D,
.
point [], line [], mirror (
), move ( ) scale ( ).

;
Mesh, Solve Postprocessing .

1.2. .

2D ,
, Array []
, . Rotate []
.
,
, , ,
.

Options>Axes/Grid settings [>
/]. ,
.
Axis [], Axis equal ,
,
Y.
, . ,
- .
x-y limits ,
0 1.1 .
Grid [] Auto
. ,
(,
),
,
.

,
,


. Visible


SNAP,

. x-y grid x y spacing
. Extra x Extra y
.
: Grid Mesh
. Grid
10

.
Mesh .

CAD

MATLAB (


File>Import),

. , .
Rectangle/Square
[/]

Rectangle/Square
(Centered)
[/ ()],
,
.
Ctrl . Shift
, .
: Draw>Specify objects.
Size Width [] Height
[]. Rotation angle .
Position .
Base
x y. Corner ,
( ,
). Center
.

Style,
Solid
Curve

-
.

:
, ,
Coerce to
solid
.
11

3D Curve Face .
Name .
, Specify objects
,
, .
.

(, , , ,
) .
, Union [],
Difference [], Intersection []
Draw>Create Composite Object ,
.
Fillet/Chamfer
Draw
. Array,
Mirror, Scale.
Rotate Move
.
Draw>Modify.

3D,

2D,
. ,
1x0.5 .

Draw>
Extrude
Extrude []
, (
, 2D
3D). Distance
. ,
, , . Scale x y
.
, ( )
. Displacement
12

. Twist
.
Draw>Embed
. z=0.
Draw>work plane settings
Draw>Revolve, .
.

.
, Scene Light
, Zoom extents
.

- ,
Draw>Draw Mode Draw Mode

1.3. ,

,
, .
,

(:
).
Comsol (Femlab)
.
Options. .
9 Constants []
,
. ,
_air=30,
_air.
,
.

.
Description
[],
.
9 Expression [] Scalar expression [
], Subdomain, Boundary, Edge(
13

9
9
9
9

) Point expression.
t; x, y, z;
s ( 0 1
) .
Q_ist=100*exp(t).
.
, alfa.
Boundary expression [ ]
, alfa.
alfa,
.
Coupling Variables [ ]

.
.
Functions [] ,
.
Interpolation function,
,
. ,
.
Coordinate systems [ ]
,
.
Material/Coefficients Library [ ]
,
( ).
Visualization/Selection
settings
[
]
,
.
Suppress []
. ,
,
, ,
.

1.4.

,
.
Physics>Subdomain Settings F8:
(.
14

1.3). ,
.
.
Heat Transfer by Conduction .
Equation, . Subdomain
selection, ,
. ,
.
Ctrl+A.

1.3. Subdomain Settings.


Physics ,
,

.
Time-scaling coefficient [ ].
1 .

,
.
1/60, 1/3600
..
.
.
- .
,
MATLAB, ,
, Options>Expression.

15

, ,
Artificial Diffusion [
] .


.
. -
. Solve>Restart
[>] .

.
Init ,
. Element
.
COMSOL 3.2
Groups Color. Group
.
, ,
Color.

1.5.

1.4. Boundary Settings.


,
,

. Point Mode, Edge

16

Mode, Boundary Mode Subdomain Mode



Physics>Selection Mode>
Physics> Boundary Settings F7.
(. 1.4)
Boundary selection. ,
Interior boundaries
. Coefficients

.
. Equation
.
Subdomain Settings Boundary Settings
- OMSOL 3.2 Groups Color
.
General Heat Transfer,
,
, .
, ( )
.
Member of Group(s) Boundary Condition.
( )
.
Fluid Flow>Incompressible Navier-Stokes
.

,
.

.
Physics>Periodic Condition.
Boundary Point
Edge.
.
,
(,
)
Physics>Identity
Conditions.
COMSOL 3.2
.
(PDE).
Physics>Equation system.

17

PDE,
, .
.[1]

1.1:

ca

u
2u
+ (cu u + ) + u + u = f
d
+
a
t
t 2

1.1

.
,

( Heat Transfer>Conduction) :

C p

T
(kT ) = Q
t

1.2

ca, , , a . C Heat
Transfer>Convection and Conduction =*Cp*u
( u ) :
C p

T
( kT + C pTu ) = Q
t

1.3

,
, ca
[3],
.

Physics>Equation system>Subdomain settings
Ctrl+F8, (Subdomain)
PDE
.
, .
Physics>Subdomain settings.
Physics>Equation system>Subdomain settings,
,
Physics>Subdomain settings.
Reset Equation.
Physics>Equation
system>Boundary settings Ctrl+F7.
. Physics>ODE settings COMSOL 3.2
.
18

1.6.

. ,
Mesh>Initialize Mesh (
)
Mesh>Refine mesh
.
Mesh Mode, .

Mesh>Mesh Mode. ,
, :
,
- ,
Refine selection .


.
,


. ,

.

1.5. Mesh parameters.

19

, COMSOL ,
.
Mesh>Mesh parameters F9. ,
Global ( 1.5)
. Predefined mash sizes Extremely
fine [ ] Extremely coarse [ ],
.
. Maximum element
size . 1/15
, . Maximum element
size scaling factor ,
( 0.5,
1/30 , 0.1 1/150).
Element growth rate [ ]
, ,
. Mesh curvature factor
Mesh curvature cut off ,
:
. Resolution of narrow
regions
,
.
Mesh geometry to level
, .
Subdomain.
Refinement method Regular Longest
Refine mesh.
Regular
2D , 3D. Longest,
. Subdomain,
Boundary, Edge Point
. Advanced
.
Remesh .
,
Mesh>Map mesh
Ctrl+F9.


Draw>Extrude Draw>Revolve.
,
.
2D ( ),
20

Mesh>Extrude Mesh
Mesh>Revolve Mesh .
, .
,
, .

1.7.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,

Athlon64 3000+ 1Gb ,

.
Solve Solve>Solve problem
. Restart
Solve>Restart
( ) .
,
.
.
,
,

.
, .
F11 Solve>Solver parameters
. ( 1.6).
Auto select solver,
,
.
,
.
,
Time Dependent.

21

.1.6. Solver parameters.


,

, Eigenvalue.
,
. ,
:
, ,
;
, .
=>.
(, )
()
,
.
, Ctrans ( -)
. ,
Incompressible
Navier-Stokes

.

, ,
. ,
- ,
.
Solver, .
22

Time Dependent General Time stepping [


] Times 0:10:60 . ,
0 60 10 .
, Physics>Subdomain Settings Time
scaling coefficient. 1 1/60,
1 . tolerance
. Allow complex number
,
PDE . Time Stepping
. Times to store in output
.
Specified Times,
General.
Time steps from solver. ,
,
, Times
General.
(,
) Time steps taken by solver
Strict( )
Intermediate(
General) Free.
,
Manual Tuning of step size.
Eigenvalue
Desired number of eigenvalues
Search for eigenvalues around.
,
Name of parameter
List of parameter values.
, 0:10:100
linspace(1,100,25),
1 100.
Nonlinear
, ( 25).
Highly nonlinear
problem .
Time Dependent
Adaptive Mesh Refinement,
.
, ,
. .

23

, Matrix symmetry Symmetric


. ,
.
.
,
-.

, Linear system solver.
Direct(UMFPACK)

.
, Direct (SPOOLES)
, .
GMRES.
1 Direct
Cholesky (TAUCS) Conjugate Gradients.
, ,
.

,
.
Geometric multigrid.
- ,
,
.
.
(UMFPAK) ,
, ,

.
Solve
Solve>Solve Problem. ,
( )
. ,
Solve>Update model,
, .
Restart, ,
Init , .
.
1


[symmetric, positive-definite systems]
[2,4].
.
24

:

( ), .
,
,
.

1.8.

Postprocessing mode [ ]
.
Postprocessing>

Postprocessing mode. ,
, - ,
- - .
, :
.
, . ,
.
,
.
Postprocessing>Plot parameters F12. Plot
parameters ( 1D).
General Plot type
, Line [], Max/min
marker [ ] Geometry edges [
] . Solution to
use [ ]
( , )
Solution at time [ ].
Interpolated, Time
.

25

.1.7. .
, ,
.
Line Line plot
General, Height data
,
. Heat transfer
Predefined quantities [ ]
,
: Heat flux [ ], Temperature gradient [
], PDE (,
.. )
(,
). Expression []
.
, : gradT_ht.
, ,

- .
Line color Uniform [] ,
, Line color expression
.
Max/Min .
Animation (time dependent)
26

(parametric)
.
.
.
. 2D
Surface Plot (,
) . 3D Surface Plot
. Contour plot
( - ). Arrow
plot ( ,
) . Streamline plot
. Line Plot
. Animate
. Postprocessing>Plot
Parameters F12,
. General
, .
,
,
.

.

. SNAP
. Draw
Point for Cross-Section Point Plot. ,
.
Draw Line for Cross-Section Line Plot
.
Postprocessing>Cross-Section Plot
Parameters .
General (
) , .
Point ,
, . Line
,
.
.
Domain Plot parameters

.
Slice
Plot [ ],
27


. Isosurface Plot . Subdomain Plot
.
Boundary Plot
. 2D.

Postprocessing>Plot Parameters F12

.

, . Postprocessing>Subdomain/
Boundary/Edge Parameters :
, . ,
(,
) 1.
,
.
File>Export>Postprocessing Data.

2. Heat Transfer ()
2.1. 1D.

. ,
, .
Axial symmetry (1D).
I
III c .
10000 /3.

1. Model Navigator.
2. Space Dimension 1D.
Mode

3. Application
Transfer>Conduction>Steady-state analysis.
4. OK.
.

1. Draw>Specify Objects>Line.
28

Heat

2.
Coordinates.
3. 5 15 . 0 0.05
4. OK. ,
I1.
5. Draw>Specify Objects>Line
6. 0.05 0.2 .
9 , Line
Shift
7. OK.
8. Zoom Extents
.



.
1. Physics>Subdomain Settings (
F8).
2. Subdomain selection .
.
3. 1-1

k [/*]
Q [/3]
1
5

400
10 000 000
2
15

0.11
0
4. Density () Heat capacity
() .
.

.
1. Physics>Boundary Settings (F7).
2. Boundary selection .
.
2 , .
, Interior boundaries.
3. 1-2



1
-
Temperature T0=373
2
-
Continuity
3
- Heat flux
h=10 /(2*) Tinf=293

29

9 h
( + ),

: Const
Tamb
- 5,67*10-8 /(2*4)
. ,
,
(
).
,

.


1. ,
Mesh>Initialize Mesh
.
.
[Mesh>Refine Mesh].

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters[


].

Solver[]

Stationary
2.
linear[ ].
3. OK.
[Solve>Solve Problem].
4. Solve[].

.

2.2. 1D axial symmetry ( )



.
,
1000. , ..
.
300K.
R1, R2.
0.98.

30

R1
R2
Tliq
Tamb
emissivity
sigma

0.05
0.15
1000
300
0.98
5.67
/*4


1. Model Navigator Axial symmetry (1D)
Space dimension.
2. , COMSOL
Multiphysics>Heat Transfer Conduction.
3. Steady-state analysis.
4. OK.

1. Draw, Specify Objects
Line.
2. Line, 0.05 0.15 r
Coordinates.
3. OK.
4. Zoom Extents.

1. Options Constants.
2.
-:
NAME EXPRESSION
emissivity 0.98
sigma
5.67e-8


1. Physics Subdomain Settings.
2. Subdomain Settings 1
:
SUBDOMAIN 1
k (isotropic)
55.563

7850
Cp
460

31

,
. ,
:
1. Init.
2. 1000 Temperature.
3. OK.

1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. Boundary Settings 1.
3. Boundary condition Temperature.
4. 1000 Temperature.
5. 2.
6. Boundary condition Heat flux.
7. emissivity*sigma Problem-dependent constant.
8. 300 Ambient temperature [
].
9. OK.
,
.
( ),

-,
. , ,

.
.

Initialize Mesh
( ).
15 .

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters[


].

Solver[]

Stationary
2.
nonlinear[ ].
3. OK.
4. Solve[].

32


,
( 2.1).

2.1. .
- ,

.

Postprocessing Point Evaluation,
OK
. 1
1000 K. 2
15 T=895.401929 .
T=895.401901 .
,
. ,
.
.

33

2.3. 1D axial symmetry ( )


, .
:

1. Model Navigator Axial symmetry (1D)
Space dimension.
2. , COMSOL
Multiphysics>Heat Transfer Conduction.
3. Transient analysis.
4. OK.

.

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters[


].
2. Solver[] Time dependent [
].
3. General Times 0:0.1:1
0:20:3000. ,
2 20 . 3000 .
4. OK.
5. Solve[].

,
3000 .
,
,
.
1. Postprocessing>Plot Parameters.
2. General Solution at time.

.
3. 300.
4. Apply.
, . ..

.
2

34

.
.
5. Line Line Color
Uniform Color [ ]
Use expression to color lines[
].
.
6. Animate[].
,
.
7. , .
Ctrl+A
8. Start Animation. ,
.
AVI MOV .
9. OK.
10. Postprocessing>Cross-Section Plot Parameters.
11. General , .
12. Point.
13. Coordinates r: 0.15

14. OK.
:

2.3. .

35

Zoom window
. ,
.
15. Point Expression 895.402-T
16. OK.
17. Zoom window
,
1 .

2.4. .
18. , 1
1800 (30
)
,

.
19. Postprocessing>Domain Plot Parameters.
20. Plot type Line/Extrusion Plot.

36

21. Solutions to use [ ]


Select via: Interpolated times
[ ].
22. Times :
100 200 500 900 1300 2000
23. Line/Extrusion Plot type
Line Plot.
24. Expression T. Subdomain Selection
.
, , ,
, - .
25. Line settings.
26. Line color Color.
Line style Cycle. Line marker Cycle.
27. Color .
28. Legend.
29. OK Line settings.
30. OK Domain Plot Parameters.
( 2.5).

2.5.
.
37

2.4. 2D.

,
, [3].
T0=293 K, L=0,02 , H=0.03 .
,
( ). :

=2800 /3

=2000 /(*)
k=1.7 /(2*)

, :
T 10(t ) = T 0 + T 1 [1 exp( t )] T 20(t ) = T 2 + T 2 sin( t ) * exp( t ) ,
1=393 2=373 , 1=1-0=100 , 2=50, =0,01 -1, =0,05 -1,
=0,003 -1, 1=60000
/(2*) 2=40000 /(2*).
.

1. Model Navigator 2D Space dimension.
2. COMSOL
Multiphysics [FEMLAB]>Heat Transfer Conduction.
3. Transient analysis.
4. OK.

1. Draw Specify Objects Rectangle.
2. Rectangle, Size 0.03 Width
[], 0.02 Height []
3. OK.
4. Draw Specify Objects Point.
5. 0.015, y 0.02.
.
6. OK.
7. Zoom Extents.

1. Options Constants.

38

2.
:
3. OK.
NAME EXPRESSION
4. Options>Expressions>
T1
393
Boundary Expression [
T2
373
].
deltaT1 100
5. 1, Name
deltaT2 50
Tliq, Expression
sigma
0.01

omega 0.05
T0+deltaT1*(1-exp(-sigma*t)).
eta
0.003
T0
293
6. 4, Expression
T2-deltaT2*sin(omega*t)*exp(-eta*t).
Tliq,
.
7. OK.

2.6.

.
.


1. Physics Subdomain Settings.
2. Subdomain Settings SUBDOMAIN
1 k (isotropic)
:

Cp
.
4. Init.

39

1
1.7
2800
2000

5. T0 Temperature.
6. OK.

1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. Boundary Settings 1.
3. Boundary condition Heat flux.
4. 60000 h - Heat transfer coefficient.
5. Tliq Tinf - External Temperature
6. 4.
7. 40000 h - Heat transfer coefficient.
8. Tliq Tinf - External Temperature
9. OK.
: ,
Tliq, ,
Boundary Expressions.

Initialize Mesh
( ).
629 .

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters.


2. Solver[] Time dependent.
3. General Times 0:0.1:1
0:10:3000.
4. OK.
5. Solve[].


3000 .
.
, Animation

.
Contour plot
Arrow
plot , Streamline
plot
. -
,
, .

40

2.5. 3D.

,

. .

.
, , ,
.

2.7. .

.
,
,

.
16 .
3, 4. 4 , 10
. , ,
, , , .

( kT ) = 0

2.1

41

k - [*-1-1], T [K].
:
n ( kT ) = q0 + h(Tinf T )

2.2

n - , h - [ -2-1], Tinf [K].



h 15 -2-1,
,
.
h . ,
.
:

Nu = f () Gr1 4 => h =

k
f () Gr1 4
L

2.3

k - (=0,06 -1K-1), L -
, (44 ),
f()

[]
0
90
100
110
120

F()

0.48
0.46
0.45
0.435
0.42

[]
130
140
150
160
180

F()

0.38
0.35
0.28
0.22
0.15

Gr , [1]

gTL3
Gr =
2

2.4

- (1/), 1/T
, g - (9.81 /2),
(18x10-6 2/)
=>
,
.
42


Model Navigator New . Space
dimension 2D, OK.

1. Options Constants.
, OK:
NAME
EXPRESSION NAME
D
4.4e-2
Hh
K
0.06
visc
Tinf
298
beta
Tinner
363
grav


EXPRESSION
15
18e-6
1/Tinf
9.81

2. Options Interpolation Functions


[ ].
3. New. Function name
graph, Interpolation metod Linear.
OK.
4. Interpolation Functions,
x f(x); , OK:
X
F(X)
X
F(X)
X
F(X) X
F(X)
0
0.48
110 0.435
140 0.35 180 0.15
90
0.46
120 0.42
150 0.28
100
0.45
130 0.38
160 0.22
5. Options Axes/Grid Settings.
6. Axis equal, :

x min
-1.4
y min
0.2
x max
2.6
y max
2.8
7. Grid, Auto,
, OK:

x spacing
0.1
y spacing
0.1

:

43

R1 :
1. Shift,
Rectangle/Square .
, OK:

Width
0.8
x-position
0
Height
0.4
y-position
0.8
Base
Corner
CO1 :
1. 2nd Degree Bezier Curve .
2. (0, 1.2), (0.2, 1.2), (0.2, 1.4).
3. Line, (0.6, 1.4).
4. 2nd Degree Bezier Curve.
5. (0.6, 1.4),
(0.6, 1.2), (0.8, 1.2).
6. .
,
.
CO2 :
1. Line ,
(0.2, 1.4), (0.2, 2.0), (0.4, 1.9), (0.6, 2.0), and (0.6, 1.4).
2. , .
CO4:
1. 2nd Degree Bezier Curve.
2. (0.2, 2.0), (0.2, 2.2), (0.4, 2.2), (0.6, 2.2), and
(0.6, 2.0).
3. Line, (0.4, 1.9)
(0.2, 2.0).
4. . CO4,
.
5. Shift Rectangle/Square
(Centered).
44

6. , OK:

Width
0.1

45
Base
Center
x-position
0.4
y-position
2.05
7. Line, ,
(0.2, 2.1),
.
8. Line,
, (0.6, 2.1),
.
9. Line,
, (0.4, 2.2),
.
10. Line,
, (0.4, 1.9),
.
11. , CO3, SQ1, B1, B2, B3, B4,
. (
Coerce to Solid
, Shift
)
:
1. R1, CO1, CO2, CO4, Array
.( Shift
)
2. ;
OK:

displacement - x
0.8
displacement - y
0
array size - x
3
array size - y
1
CO10:
1. Line.
2. R1,
(-1.2, 0.8), (-1.2, 1.1), (-0.8, 1.1).
3. 3rd Degree Bezier Curve[
].
4. (-0.4, 1.1), (-0.4, 1.2), (0, 1.2).
5. CO10.
45

9
,
,
, - :
1. Ctrl-A.

2. Scale
.
3. ,
OK:

Scale factor - x
1e-2
Scale factor - y
1e-2
Scale base point - x
0
Scale base point - y
0
4. Zoom Extents. .

1. Mesh Map Mesh.
.
2. Boundary, :

,
, Ctrl.
3. Constrained edge element distribution (
1 Number of edge elements).
4. :

46

5. Constrained edge element distribution,


Number of edge elements 2.
6. Remesh, OK.
7. Mesh Revolve Mesh [ ].
8. , 2
180.
9. Angle from x-axis, 0.
10. OK.
9 ,
.
. ,
. ,
Draw>Revolve
,
.
, . , -

,
. , ,
.
. ,
,
.

1. Multiphysics Model Navigator.
2. Multiphysics Geom2 (3D).
3. Heat Transfer
Module>General Heat Transfer>Steady-state analysis.
FEMLAB>Heat

Transfer>Conduction>Steady-state analysis
4. Add, OK.

47

1. Physics Subdomain Settings.


2. .
3. ,
. Load. , Materials
Library1>Silica Glass. OK.
:

K
CP
1.38 2203 703
4. Init, Temperature
323.
5. OK.

1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. Ctrl+A.
3. Boundary condition Heat Flux,
:

h
Hc
Tinf
Tinf
4. Apply.
5. , .. 4
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
( ):
1,2,5,8,12,15,21,22,24,27,33,34,37,40,43,46,48,52,61,62,72,75,81,82,84,
87,93,94,97,100,103,106,108,112,121,122,132,135,141,142,144,147,153,
154,157,160,163,166,168,172,181,182,191,192

48

6. Boundary condition Thermal insulation


[ ], Apply.
7. , ,
:
4,6,16,18,76,78,136,138

8. Boundary conditions Heat flux,


:

h
Hh
Tinf
Tinner
9. OK.
10. Options Expressions>Boundary Expressions.
11. , ,
.
49

Physics>Boundary Settings Select by group.


, 3.
.
Boundary Expressions.

12. ,
OK:
EXPRESSION
Hc
angle
Gr

VALUE
K/D*graph(angle)*Gr^0.25
90+180*atan(y/z)/pi
grav*beta*(T-Tinf)/visc^2*D^3

1. Solve Solver Parameters.


2. Solver Stationary nonlinear.
.
,
.
3. Linear system solver GMRES.
.
4. Preconditioner Algebraic multigrid.
5. Matrix symmetry Symmetric. (
, Symmetric Matrices).
.
.
50

.
.
6. OK.
7. Solve . Athlon
3000 c 1
. (
).

,

:
1. Postprocessing Plot Parameters (
Comsol 3.2 F12).
2. General. Slice[],
Boundary.
3. Boundary. Predefined
quantities[
]

Temperature.
4. Apply.
9 , Slice
. Expression
. , T-273.15 ,
.
,
.
, 363
40 ,
15 .
, .
, .
.
9 Boundary Expression Gr.

.

:
1. Postprocessing>Plot Parameters,
Boundary, Predefined quantities Heat transfer
coefficient. OK.
FEMLAB, Expression h_ht
h , ht

51

(
Multiphysics)
2. ,
, Boundary Integration
Postprocessing. ,

3. ,
Boundary Settings Select by group.
4. 3 .
.
5. Boundary Integration, Predefined
quantities Normal total heat flux.(
Normal heat flux) OK.
6.
. ,
,
.

1.6 .

2.6. Conduction and Convection


Heat Transfer

. , Heat
Transfer>Conduction,

,
. (1.3)
.

. ,
,
. ,
0 2 /. ( 2 .,
20 ) , ,
, .
2 .

. 2 . ,

.

52

=7805 /3

=475 /(*)
k=44,5 /(2*)

.
9
, ,
,

.

1. Model Navigator Axial symmetry (2D)
Space dimension.
2. COMSOL
Multiphysics [FEMLAB]>Heat Transfer Convection and
Conduction.
3. Steady-State analysis.
4. OK.

1. Draw Specify Objects .
2. Rectangle, Size 0.01 (
) Width
[], 0.2 Height []
3. OK.
4. Draw Specify Objects Rectangle.
5. Rectangle, Size 0.02 Width [],
0.2 Height [], Position r
0.01.
6. OK.
7. Zoom Extents.

1. Options Expressions>Global Expressions.
2. Name S, Expression -(0.01-(r))*50,
S
.
3. OK.

53

4. Options Integration Coupling


Variables>Boundary Variables [
> ]
5. Source 6 (
)
6. Name Tint, a Expressions T*2*pi*r/(0.0008*pi)
OK.
9 ,
, 2*pi*r.
, ,
S=pi*(R^2-r^2)=pi*(0.03^2-0.01^2)=0.0008*pi
^2.
2D T .
9
4-6
.

. , ,
.
,
. ,
Postprocessing>Boundary Integration

, .
7. Options>Integration Coupling Variables>Subdomain
Variables [ >
]
8. 1, Name Vsterj,
Expression 2*pi*r, .
9
,
2*pi*r.
,
1.
9. OK.


1. Physics Subdomain Settings.
2. Subdomain Settings
1 2:
SUBDOMAIN 1
2
k (isotropic)
44.5
0.61

7850
995.6
p
475
4178
Q
2000/Vsterj
0
54

u
v

0
0
0
6*Vmean*S*(1-S)
.
3. Init.
4. 300 Temperature
.
5. OK.


1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. Boundary Settings 1.
3. Boundary condition Axial symmetry.
4. 5.
5. Temperature 300.
6. 6 Convective flux.
7. Thermal
insulation.
8. OK.
, 300 .

Mesh>Mesh parameters Predefined mesh
sizes Global, Finer Remesh.
OK. 416 .

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters.


2. Solver[] Parametric linear.
3. General Name of parameter Vmean,
List of parameter values [ ]
0:0.1:2.
4. OK.
5. Solve[].


2 /. Animation ,
, .
Postprocessing>Plot parameters (F12)
General Parameter value,
.
1. Postprocessing>Cross-Section Plot Parameters.

55

2. General , .
3. Point.
9 - OK,

.
,
,
300 .

Artificial Diffusion [ ] Subdomain
Settings.
,
.
4. Expression Tint.
5. OK.
:

56

3. Convection and Diffusion


,
1.2 1.3
.
,
c
ts
+ ( Dc) = R ,
3.1
t
D 2/, R ,
, ts .

n ( D c ) = N 0 + k c ( c b c )

3.2

N0 - , kc - , cb .
3.1
:
ts

c
+ ( Dc + cu ) = R
t

3.2

, :
n ( Dc + cu ) = N 0

3.3

[3]:
L = 2, ,
, NaOH.
1,
0.
.
,
, [0; 0.2 L/c0].
. NaOH D=10-9 2/.
1=0,01 /3, 0= 0 /3, 0 =1 /.

, /3 /3. NaOH
M=30 /. 1 = 1/3 /3, 0,2L/c0
400 .

57

3.1. 1D ( )

1. Model Navigator 1D Space dimension.
2. , COMSOL
Multiphysics>Convection and Diffusion Convection
and Diffusion.
3. Transient analysis.
4. OK.

1. Draw>Specify Objects>Line.
2.
Coordinates.
3. 0 1
4. OK.
5. Draw>Specify Objects>Line
6. 1 2 .
7. OK.
8. Zoom Extents
.



1. Physics>Subdomain Settings .
2. D 1e-9, u 1e-3
3. Artificial diffusion, Isotropic
diffusion, tuning parameter 0.1
4. OK
5. Init. 1 1/3,
2 0
6. OK.

1. Physics>Boundary Settings (F7).
2.


1
Concentration c0=1/3 /3
2
3
Concentration c0=0 /3
3. OK

58


1. Mesh>Mesh parameters.
2. Global Maximum element size 0.05
3. Boundary 2
4. Maximum element size 0.005
,
.

1. Solve[] Solver Parameters[


].
2. Solver[] Time dependent [
].
3. General Times 0:0.1:1
0:10:400.
4. OK.
5. Solve[].

,
.
.
, ,
[3],
,
,
.
Postprocessing>Plot Parameters.
1. General Solution at time.

.
2. 0.
3. Apply.

.
,
Artificial diffusion, .
4. Animate[]
.
5. Postprocessing>Cross-Section Plot Parameters.
6. General , .
7. Point.
59

8. Coordinates r: 1.1
9. OK.
10. 1.1
.

4.

.
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
. COMSOL Multyphysics
.

.
-.

4.1.
, ,

. 4.1:
,

( ).

. 4.1. .
A ,
A-B .
60


, h. .
, .

h,
.
,

.

: General Heat Transfer Non-Isothermal Flow.

, .4.1.

.4.2. (a),
(b).

.

, (
A .4.1).
. 4.2
.
:

: ( ) 0.13 , 0.002

: 0.02 , 0.002

0.010

61

,
2 (b) ,
.

.
(The Non-Isothermal Flow),
-,
, u, , p, :
(u )u = [ p + (u + (u )T ) (2 / 3 k )( u ) I ] + ( 0 ) g
4.1
(u ) = 0
- ,
, , , 0.
(-0)g.
, .

.
( kT ) = Q C pTu T

4.2

k - ; Cp - Q -
1,25 /3 (1
/) .
2/3 , ,
.
.


()

[/3]
Cp [/( )]
k [/( )]

2330
703
163

62

(FR4)
1900
1369
0.30


:
= ( p0 M w ) /( RT ) ,

4.3

p0 = 101.3 , Mw = 0.0288 /, R = 8.314 /*. ,

Cp=1100

log k = (-3,723+0,865 log(T))

4.4

= 6.0 10 6 + 4.0 10 8 T

4.5


(normal flow) .
, .
,
( ),
uy, umax,
1 /. :
uy=s(1-s)4umax

4.6

s - ,
COMSOL Multiphysics 0 1
.
normal flow/zero pressure. ,
no-slip .
300 K ( ).
.

,
y. ,
.

63

.4.3. .
( 4.3) ,
, .
30 K, 90 K.
, (
1 ) .
, ,
.
.
-

. ( 4.4) ,

.

. 4.4.
.
64

,
. 4.5
.
, . ,

.

.4.5. (a) (b).

65


,
, .
4.6,
,
50 60 K.

. 4.6.
.
. 4.7, ,

.

. 4.7. .
66

4.2.

:
Heat_Transfer_Module/Electronics_and_Power_Systems/circuit_board_na
t_2D


1. COMSOL Multiphysics, Model Navigator
New.
2. Space dimension 2D.
3. Multiphysics.
Heat Transfer Module>General Heat Transfer,
Add.
4. Heat Transfer Module>Non-Isothermal Flow,
Add, OK.
Femlab, Heat Transfer.
Femlab>Heat Transfer>Conduction and Convection>
Steady-state analysis, Add. Fluid dynamics>
Incompressible Navier-Stocks>Steady-state analysis, Add,
OK.

1. Options Constants,
, OK:
NAME
EXPRESSION
q_source 2/3*1/(2e-3*20e-3^2)
T0
300
rho0_air 1.013e5*28.8e-3/(8.314*T0)
2. Options Expressions>Scalar Expressions,
, OK:
NAME
EXPRESSION
k_air
10^(-3.723+0.865*log10(abs(T)))
rho_air 1.013e5*28.8e-3/(8.314*T)
Cp_air 1.1e3
eta_air 6e-6+4e-8*T

1. , Draw, Specify
Object>Rectangle, , OK:
OBJECT WIDTH HEIGHT BASE X
67

R1
0.002
0.13
Corner 0
0
R2
0.01
0.13
Corner 0.002 0
R3
0.002
0.02
Corner 0.002 0.01
2. Zoom Extents.
3. R3,
Array . ,
Displacement y 0.03; Array size y
4. OK.


1. Multiphysics Non-Isothermal
Flow ( Incompressible Navier-Stocks).
2. Physics Subdomain Settings.
3. 1 36. Active in this
domain,

Non-Isothermal
Flow(Incompressible Navier-Stocks) .
4. 2
:
PARAMETER EXPRESSION
rho_air

eta_air

Fy
9.81*(rho0_air-rho_air)
5. OK Subdomain Settings.
6. Multiphysics General Heat
Transfer (Convection and Conduction).
7. Physics Subdomain Settings
, Init T0 Temperature.
8. Conduction (Physics)
.
SUBDOMAIN
1
2
k (isotropic) 0.3 k_air
1900 rho_air

1369 Cp_air
Cp
9. 2 , Convection,
Enable convective heat transfer. (
Convection and Conduction
). x-velocity u, y-velocity v.
10. Conduction 3-6.
Load, Silicon, OK.
11. Q q_source.
12. OK Subdomain Settings.
68


1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. OK (
Radiation type ):
BOUNDARY
5
22
Boundary condition Temperature Convective flux
T0
T0
None
Radiation type
3. Multiphysics Non-Isothermal Flow(Incompressible
Navier-Stocks).
4. Physics Boundary Settings.
5. No slip.
6. 5 22, Normal flow>Pressure
(pressure) 0.
7. OK.
8. Physics>Periodic Conditions Periodic
Boundary Conditions.
9. Source [] 1,
Expression [] T, Enter.
10. Destination [],
27, Expression T.
11. Source Vertices Vertex selection,
1 2, >>.
12. Destination Vertices.
21 22. OK.

1. Mesh Mesh Parameters. Global.
Predefined mesh sizes Normal.
2. Subdomain 2, Maximum
element size
1.5e-3. OK.
3. Mesh Initialize Mesh.

Solve .

1. 2-3 Plot Parameters


Postprocessing.

69

2. Surface Temperature Predefined


quantities Surface data. OK.
3. 2-5 (a) Surface data Velocity field
OK.

4.3.

:
Heat_Transfer_Module/Electronics_and_Power_Systems/circuit_board_na
t_3D

: Space dimension
3D.


1. .
, Draw Block.
OBJECT LENGTH X LENGTH Y LENGTH Z BASE X BASE Y BASE Z
BLK1
0.015
0.002
0.13
0
0
0
BLK2
0.01
0.002
0.02
0
-0.002 0.01
BLK3
0.015
0.01
0.13
0
-0.01 0
2. Zoom Extents .
3. BLK2 Array
. Displacement, z 0.03;
Array size z 4. OK.


1. Physics Subdomain Settings.
2. 2-6. Active in this
subdomain Non-Isothermal
Flow .
3. 1
:
PARAMETER EXPRESSION
rho_air

eta_air

Fz
9.81*(rho0_air-rho_air)
4. Artificial Diffusion, Streamline diffusion,
OK.
70

5. OK Subdomain Settings.
6. Multiphysics General Heat
Transfer.
7. Physics Subdomain Settings.
. Init,
Temperature T0.
8. Conduction :
SUBDOMAIN
1
6
k (isotropic) k_air
0.3
rho_air 1900

Cp_air 1369
Cp
9. 1, Convection. Enable
convective heat transfer, x-, y- z-velocity u, v,
w, .
10. Artificial Diffusion. Streamline diffusion
OK.
11. Conduction, 2-5.
Load, Silicon, OK.
12. Q q_source.
13. OK Subdomain Settings.

1. Physics Boundary Settings.
2. ;
OK.
BOUNDARY
3
4
Boundary condition Temperature Convective flux
T0
T0
None
Radiation type
3. Multiphysics Non-Isothermal Flow.
4. Physics Boundary Settings.
5. Ctrl+A,
No slip.
6. 3 4,
Normal flow/Pressure pressure of 0.
7. 1 34, Slip/Symmetry.
8. OK.
9. Physics Periodic Conditions>Periodic Boundary
Conditions ( ).
10. Source 2. Expression T,
Enter.

71

11. Destination, 29.


Expression T.
12. Source Vertices (
>>), , 1, 2, 39, 40.
13. Destination Vertices 21,
22, 43, 44, . OK.

1. Mesh Mesh Parameters. Global
Predefined mesh sizes Finer.
2. Boundary 2. Maximum element
size ( ) 3e-3.
3. Advanced. x-direction scale factor 0.5.
OK.
4. Mesh Initialize Mesh.

1. Solve Solver Parameters.


2. Solver Stationary nonlinear, Linear
system solver Direct (UMFPACK).
3. Solve .

,
. ,
: .
500 MB
. COMSOL Multiphysics
15
1.5-GHz.

1. 4 Postprocessing Plot
Parameters.
2. General ,
Boundary.
3. Boundary. Surface data
Predefined quantities Temperature. Apply.
4. 5 (b), General,
Slice Boundary.
5. Slice Slice data Predefined
quantities - Velocity field.
6. x, y, z levels 1, 0, 8, .
OK.
72

4.4.

: Heat_Transfer_Module/
Electronics_and_Power_Systems/circuit_board_forced_3D


.

.
, .

1. Draw mode Draw
Main toolbar.
2. , Draw>Modify>Rotate.
3. Rotation -90.
4. Rotation axis direction vector, x, y, z 1,
0, 0, . OK.
90 , ,
.


1. Multiphysics General Heat Transfer.
2. Physics Boundary Settings.
3. ,
OK:
BOUNDARY
5
29
Boundary condition Convective flux Temperature
T0
T0
None
Radiation type
4. Multiphysics Non-Isothermal
Flow.
5. Physics Boundary Settings.
6. 29, Boundary condition
Inflow/Outflow velocity.
7. y-velocity
-4*(1e4)*(z)*(0.01-(z))*(z>0). OK.

73


1. Mesh Mesh Parameters. Global
Predefined mesh sizes Finer.
2. Resolution of narrow regions 1.
3. Boundary 2. Maximum element
size 3e-3; Element growth rate
2.
4. Advanced. x-direction scale factor
0.5. OK.
5. Mesh Initialize Mesh.

1. Solve Solver Manager.


2. Initial Value Initial value
Initial value expression.
3. Solve For Non-Isothermal
Flow.
4. Solve .
7 500 MB
.
5. COMSOL Multiphysics
, Init, Initial value
Current Solution.
-
,
.
:
6. Solve For .
7. Solve .
7 .

1. 6, Plot Parameters
Postprocessing.
2. General Slice Boundary.
3. Slice Surface data Predefined
quantities Temperature.
4. x, y, z levels 1, 10, 0, .
Apply.
5. 7, Slice
Predefined quantities Velocity field.
6. x levels 0, OK.

74


1

. . 300 .
300 .
40 /2. 5 /2. 0.5.
T, . A
. B . .
1 , .

[5].
,
- -
.
,
.

A, B, C, T,

10
3
5
350
2

15
3
4
350
3

15
3
10
350
4

25
2
5
400
5

20
2
4
400
6

10
2
5
400
7

5
0.5
1
400
8

50
3
10
400
9

40
5
5
450
10

25
2
10
450
11

25
1
5
450
12

80
3
6
450
13

25
2.5
15
450
14

35
2.5
20
373
15

45
3
8
373
16

8
0.4
2
373
17

25
2
5
373
18

20
2
5
373
19

10
1
4
500
20

5
0.2
1
500

75

2

,
, . 1.
h=20 /2.
[5].

3
34 (2.3),
.
.
.

T1,

T2,

,1/c

,1/c

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

393
393
393
393
393
373
373
373
373
373
400
400
400
400
400
450
450
450
400
400

373
373
373
373
373
393
393
393
393
393
380
380
380
380
380
400
400
400
450
450

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.025

0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.07
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.07
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.07
0.08
0.05
0.04

76

, 1/c 1,
/(2*)
0.001 60000
0.002 70000
0.003 65000
0.004 55000
0.005 70000
0.001 45000
0.002 50000
0.003 60000
0.004 70000
0.005 65000
0.001 55000
0.002 70000
0.003 45000
0.004 50000
0.005 50000
0.001 60000
0.002 80000
0.003 60000
0.004 70000
0.005 65000

2,
/(2*)
40000
45000
35000
30000
40000
45000
35000
30000
40000
45000
35000
30000
40000
45000
35000
30000
40000
45000
35000
30000


1.
.. .. .. :
. .: , 1981. 416 .
.. .. ..
2.
: . .
. . . .: . ., 1990. 207 .
.. .
3.
: . .: -
, 2002. 576 .
. . .: ,
4.
1979. 392 .
: . . . .. , ..
5.
. .: , 1991.1232 .
www.matlab.exponenta.ru
6.

77