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. .

21

148



. . , . . , . . 1

: , 2008 . . .
( ), ,
,
. 1 160/170 . . ., 2 140/150 . . .
: , . , , . . .
, ,
.
The present paper considers the results of metal analysis of coins from two hoards (a monetary one and
one of coins and goods) of the Roman period found in 2008 near the village of Koporye in Leningrad
oblast. The coins and metal goods (fragments of a neck ring and two bracelets), with the exception of one
silver denarius, are made from brass. All of the coins belong to two monetary denominations of the Roman
Empire sesterces and dupondii. The date of concealment of hoard no. 1 is 160/170 AD. That of hoard
no. 2 is 140/150 AD. These dates are additionally confirmed by chemical analysis of the metal of the coins:
the content of zinc according to S. Flemings diagram and the ratio of contents of zinc and tin after
P. T. Craddock. The similarity between the chemical compositions of the alloys of the articles and
coins along with the latters strong wear suggest that these objects were used as raw materials for
manufacturing personal ornaments.
: , , , , - , , .
Keywords: hoards of Roman coins, sesterces, dupondii, brass, =orthwestern Russia, Roman imports,
eye-brooches.
- . . .
-
(, 1951; 1961; 1966):

1. 90- . XIX .
2,1
(4644 . . .) (,
1951. . 277, 588; 1961. . 45, 180).
2. . () .
, 25 1910
1
. . , 191186, -, 1911 . ., 18. (244249 .) (, 1961.
. .
. . , 192238, -, . - . 45, 173; , . 5, . 349, . 5).
, 15.
3. . -- 1878 .
, (253260 .) (, 1966. . 83,

. . , 190000, -, - 9 (1741)).
4. . ., 34.
. -- 1952 .
.

. . , . . , . . , 2015

. . , . . , . .

(306324 .)
(, 1961. . 110, 1692).
5. . ()
1913 . (1850 .)
XXII . III (238244 .)
(, 1961. . 45, 174).
, 1120 .,


-,
,
, I .
. ., XXI . XI . ( II3, 1981 .) .
(, 1988. . 210211).
- ,
. , . 2 (. 1).
1 30 .
( 14,1 25,5 ) ( 28,5 33,6 ),
,
(. 2).

, ,
.
1
7 30 ( 1). (98117 .)
(. 2, 1),
, 163165 . (. 2, 2).
, terminus ante quem 1

160
170 . . . , ,
.
2

,
, : .,
2011. . 336360.

149

. 1. II .
. . .
Fig. 1. Find-spots of coin hoards of the 2nd century AD.
Localization by V. Yu. Sobolev.

2 12 ,
, 18 23,4
2,52 . (. 2).
,

. ,
(.
1).
2 (7981 .)
(. 2, 8). ,
141 . (. 2, 13). ,
140150- .

, 2, , 140144 . (. 2, 12).
,
,
2
140150- . . .
2 -

150

. . 21

. . , . . , . .

(mit Trompetenende) ( 109,9 )


, . ( 69,7 ),
( 1,5 ).
. 55,
, II . . . (Almgren, 1897. Taf. III, 55). . 5556,
Tarandgrberkultur. ,
, , (=owakowski, 1998. S. 119
123). , . ,
, ,
.
-
, ,

, . - ,
, , . .

.
(,
)
,
2 (70/80
160/170 .),
. .
c

2 (70170 . . .)
(, 1955. . 14).


(, 2004. . 9, 23). . -

151

1-
- 2 (=owakowski, 1996. Taf. 107).
, 2 ,
,
2.
.
,
. (
aurichalcum .
)
9070- . ..
, (,
, 2001. . 76, 85). ,
,
.
, 50- . . .
( . . 7576). 45
44 . . . ,

( . . 8990). , ,

. 3127 .
. .
. .
. , , - .
1000 ,
500 ,
XVIII . (Craddock,
2009. P. 145).
( ) -

. 2. 12:
1 1/6; 2 1/25; 3 1/12; 4 1/11; 5 1/1; 6 2/4; 7 1/27; 8 2/7; 9 2/5; 10 2/2; 11 1/22; 12 2/9; 13 2/11.

Fig. 2. Coins from hoards nos. 12:


1 1/6; 2 1/25; 3 1/12; 4 1/11; 5 1/1; 6 2/4; 7 1/27; 8 2/7; 9 2/5; 10 2/2; 11 1/22; 12 2/9; 13 2/11.

152

. . 21

,
() (, 2009. . 133).

,

, . ,
.
,

.
()
2228 % ( 2830 % ). 27,3

. 3. 1
2 .
(Fleming, 1975. P. 119121).
: . ;

1;
2; 1;
2.

Fig. 3. Contents of zinc in alloy of coins from hoards 1


and 2 in correspondence with S. Flemings diagram.
otations: identifications according to S. Fleming; identifiable
coins from hoard 1; identifiable coins from hoard 2;
unidentifiable coins from hoard 1; unidentifiable coins
from hoard 2.

13,36 .
,
()
25,51 ,
12,88 ,
.
, 28,66 , 72 . (, ,
2001. . 63, 49), 14,14 ,
79 . ( . . 64, 51).
25,73 ,

25,03 .
, .
29,36 ( . . 140, 152, 239, 321),
30,26 ( .
. 161, 173, 247)
29,41 ( . C. 190, 393).
,
(. 3),
215 .
56 % (Fleming, 1975.
P. 119121).
. . ,
(Craddock, 1978).
I . . . ,
2228 %, 16,9 %, II . 10,7 %,
III . 7,7 % (Ibid. Tab. 1) (. 4).
- (. 2, 3) ,
1, 5 % 1617 % .
. , 70/80 170/180 . . .,
1,
. 1
.
, , 5
89 % ,
III . (. 3).

. . , . . , . .

153

. 4. , . . : 1 %
(Craddock 1978, fig. 7); (Craddock, 1978. Fig. 6).
Fig. 4. Contents of zinc in Roman metalware according to P. T. Craddocks method: contents of zinc more than 1%;
correlation of tin and zinc shares.

, 2,
23 % 1012 % , . . ,
1.
. , 70/80 140/150 .
. ., 2,
. 13 2 .
,
, 68 % , III .
(. 3; 5).
, .
, , ,
, .
, 23 %
1617 %,
5 % 15 % . .
, 5 % 89 %

. 1 , , 160170 .
2 150160 . . .

. 5.
1 () 2 () (, ;
, ).
Fig. 5. Contents of zinc in alloys of identifiable coins
from hoards 1 () and 2 (): , coins;
, chronological span).

154

. . 21

. . .
,
1 % , (Zn) (Sn)
(Craddock, 1978. Fig. 6).
(. 4):
4 %
1 910 %.


, ,
.
- ;
4 20 %
13 %.
, 22 %
28 % , .
14 % 1016 % . . .
2:1, , 3 % , 6 % . , . . , 2228 % , 13 % 67 % 16 % 24 % ;
22 %
28 % . , ,
, - -

. ,
0,5 %, . .
, .
. . . ,
1 (. 6)
00,6 % (1/3; 1/7; 1/8; 1/11;1/19;
1/21; 1/22; 1/27), . .
. 4% 1112% , . . ,

.
1 (1/1; 1/9; 1/14;
1/20; 1/24; 1/25; 1/26)
1 % 4 % , . . .
: 8 % 1617 %.
1/9 4 % 8 % , . .
, .
,
, , III . . .
1016 %.
2
(0,40,7 %) (2/2;
2/3; 2/4; 2/6; 2/7; 2/11; 2/13) (. 6),
,
(
)
. 5 % 12 % ,

. 6. : 1; 2.
Fig. 6. Contents of zinc and tin in coin alloys: hoard 1; hoard 2.

. . , . . , . .

II . . ., , .
2 1 3 %
(2/1; 2/10; 2/5),
.
2 (2/8;
2/12), (24 %) (3 % 12 %). . . , ,
(Craddock, 1978. P. 1314).
2 , ,
2
45 % 79 % (.
3). ()
(, , )
,
. ,
(12 %),
,
. 6 % 1 %
, , 3
1016 %. , III . . .
1 2,
, , .
1904 . . (Bezzenberger, 1904).
,
,

.
I
III . . . (Ibid. S. 7686,
3

, c ( ., 2011. . 217).

155

Fig. 93109). ,
,
2: 83,1 %; 0,2 %;
2,2 %; 14,2 %; 0,2 %.
, ,
,
, I . . .

( ., 2011).
, , , . :
1) , ;
2)
(, , . .);
3)
;
4) 2 , , , .

, 2009 . .
. ., 2009.
, 1951 . . // . 1951. 4.
, 1961 . . . ., 1961 (; . 44).
, 1966 . . // . ., 1966. . 6.
, 2004 . . -.
1879 . , 2004.
, 1988 . . XXI .
: . ., 1988.
, , 2001 . ., . .
. , , .
., 2001.
, , 2001 . ., . .
: . ., 2001. . II: . .
., 2011 . ., . ., . .
//
: ., . . ., 2011.
., 2011 . ., . ., . .
//
. ., 2011. 1.
, 1955 . . -
(V . . .V . . .). , 1955.
Almgren, 1897 Almgren O. Studien ber nordeuropische Fibelformen der ersten nachchristlichen Jahrhunderte mit Bercksichtigun

156

. . 21

der provinziarmischen und sdrussischen Formen. Stockholm,


1897.
Bezzenberger, 1904 Bezzenberger A. Analysen vorgeschichtlicher
Bronzen Ostpreussens. Knigsberg, 1904.
Craddock, 1978 Craddock P. T. The Composition of the Copper
Alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations. The
Origins and Early Use of Brass // Journal of Archaeological Science. 1978. Vol. 5.
Craddock, 2009 Craddock P. T. Scientific Investigation of Copies,
Fakes and Forgeries. Oxford, 2009.

Fleming, 1975 Fleming S. J. Authenticity in Art. The scientific Detection of Forgery. London; Bristol, 1975.
+owakowski, 1996 +owakowski W. Das Samland in der rmischen
Kaiserzeit und seine Verbindungen mit dem rmischen Reich und
der barbarischen Welt. Warszawa; Marburg, 1996.
+owakowski, 1998 +owakowski W. Die Fibeln Almgren 55 und 56
aus heutigen Sicht // 100 Jahre Fibelformen nach Oskar Almgren:
Internationale Arbeitstagung (2528 Mai, 1997, Kleinmachnow,
Land Brandenburg). Forschungen zur Archologie im Land Brandenburg, 5. Wnsdorf, 1998.

Chemical analysis of hoards of Roman coins from Koporye


O. V. Sharov, I. V. Palaguta, S. V. Khavrin
Before present the Roman coins on the territory
of the present Leningradskaya region were represented by an accidental findings. The discovery of
two hoards that include furnishings and Roman
coins near the Koporye village permits us to
broaden our knowledge on the history of the region
during the III centuries AD. The hoards include 30
and 12 brass coins, respectively: sestertius and dupondius at face value, worn and corroded, and one
silver denarius (later finding on the place of hoard
2). All the definable coins dated to the governing of
emperors from Titus (7981 AD) to Antoninus Pius
(141160) and Lucius Verus (161169 AD),

thereby the hoards can be deposited, respectively, in


160170 and 140150 AD.
It is affirmed by the chemical analysis of coins
alloy: the admixture of zinc in brass corresponds to
the S. Flemings diagram (1975) and agrees to proposed dates. Our conclusions also dont contradict
to the results of P.T. Craddocks studies of Roman
copper alloys (1978). The same brass alloy was
used for the Almgren 55 type fibula and the conical
edged neck-ring dated to 70170 AD. The similarity
of alloy of articles and coins and depreciation of
coins allow to suppose that the coin were used as
raw material for furnishings.

. . , . . , . .

157

1. 1 2 .
Appendix 1. Coins from hoards nos. 1 and 2 found near the village of Koporye

1/1

1/2




;

,



..[ANTON]INVS..;

,

1/3

1/4

1/5
1/6

1/7

1/8

1/9

1/10

1/11

1/12

1/13

1/14

;



;

(PR, G,
F, VF)

30,9

25,5

PR (

?
(117138 .)

30,2

15,8

PR (


(161169 .)

(161180 .)

30,8

15,1

G (

33,2

18,3

PR (

?
(98117 .)

33,6

21,5

PR (
,

)
PR (

)
PR (

)
PR (

)
PR (

)
F (,



SC,
Victoria



,


,

28,5

15,8

29,0

18,8

31,7

18,2

30,0

14,1


(138161 .)

32,2

19,0

(117138 .)

31,7

17,6

G (,

SC;

30,5

14,4

G (,

31,2

16,7

PR (

. . 21

158

1/15

1/16

1/17

1/18

1/19

1/20

1/21

...[VS]

1/22

1/23

1/24

1/25

(PR, G,
F, VF)
PR (, )

?
(138161 .)

29,3

20,8

?
(117138 .)

32,0

15,0

PR (, )


;
IM<...>IT;
Vesta (?),

,

30,7

16,2

G (,

32,6

21,9


SC (?);

(?)

31,0

20,2

PR (, )
G (,

30,5

19,7


;

,
SC;
Virtus
,
;

,

,



IM[P];
SC
;
,
,


(138161 .)

32,1

14,2

?
(117138 .)
Cohen 356 (?)

31,9

22,9

31,6

18,4

PR (, )

32,0

15,5

?
(163165 .);
RIC 1385 1388

32,6

19,9

PR (

)
F (
;

PR (, )
G (,

)
F (,

. . , . . , . .

1/25

1/26

1/27

1/28

1/29

1/30

2/1

2/2

DIVA FAV
STINA;

;


,


;

2/3

2/4

2/5

; ,

,

,



[VE]NER[I AVGUSTAE]
SC;

ADVENTVI AVG
RE DVCI (?);


;

,


, SC;
Vesta , ,
,


,




,


159

(PR, G,
F, VF)

32,5

20,3


(138141 .);
RIC 1081

32,9

19,7

31,0

15,3

31,0

16,9

(117138 .)

29,6

14,1

29,7

20,3

F (
)

,
(141 .);
RIC 1130;
Cohen 162

31,2

19,6

FVF (,
)

(117138 .)

32,4

22,6

G (
,

(117138 .)

32,4

23,4

G (
,

(117138 .)

31,9

20,2

G (
,

PR (

)
F (,
)

PR (

)
PR (

)
PR (

. . 21

160

2/5

2/6

2/7

...VESP...;

2/8

; ,

,

ANTONINVS
AVG PIVS P P
TR P COS III;

2/9

2/10

2/11

DIVA AVGVS
TA FAVSTINA;

;


,


; ,

,

2/12

2/13

(PR, G,
F, VF)

;




,

(117138 .)

32,0

21,7

G (
,

(7981 .)

32,9

21,5

G (

(117138 .)

33,2

18,0

G (
,

CLEMENTIA
AVG;
Clementia
;

,

PIETAS AVG
SC;
Pietas , ,


,


(140143 .);
RIC 64

17,0

2,52

FVF ()

(117138 .)

29,1

20,7

G (
,

,
(141 .);
RIC 1146A;
Cohen 240v

31,6

20,9

FVF (,
)

?
(117138 .)

32,4

20,1

G (
,

?
(98117 .)

31,5

19,2

PR (
,

. . , . . , . .

161

2. - 1
Appendix 2. Results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of hoard no. 1


1/1
1/3
1/7
1/8
1/9
1/11
1/14
1/17
1/19
1/20
1/21
1/22
1/24
1/25
1/26
1/27

Cu
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Zn
1213
56
1113
69
79
35
911
1314
1113
1416
68
1416
1617
911
1416
1315

As
.
.
.

<0,2
.
.
?
.
.
.

.
.
?

Sn
24
.
<0,6

25
<0,4
24

12

<0,4
12
13
13

Pb
<0,5
<0,2
<0,4
.
<0,4
<0,2
<0,9
.
.
<0,9
.
<0,3
<0,3
<0,3
<0,2
<0,3

Sb
<0,3
.
<0,3

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag, Ni
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag

3. - 2
Appendix 3. Results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of hoard no. 2


2/1
2/2
2/3
2/4
2/5
2/6
2/7
2/8
2/10
2/11
2/12
2/13
2/9
2/14
2/15
2/16

Cu
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
~6
.
.
.

Zn
78
57
68
1011
1012
56
1112
23
911
89
24
68
79
67
45

As
Sn
Pb
Sb
.
<0,3
.
1-2
<0,2
<0,7
<0,3
.

<0,4
<0,3
.

<0,7
<0,3
.
?
<1
.
24

<0,6
<0,8
.

<0,5
.
.

<1
.
24

<0,5
.
12
.

.
1014
7-9

<0,4
<0,3

Ag ~ 93 %, Pb = 12 %; Au, Bi .
<0,8
<0,7
.
12
.
<0,4

46
<0,3
~1
.
46

Ag, Mn
Ag
Ag, Mn
Ag, Mn
Ag, Mn
Ag
Mn
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag
Ag