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DOCUMENTA ASIANA VI AYANIS I Ten Years’ Excavations at Rusahinili iduru-kai 1989-1998 Edied by Allan Gilingiroglu and Mirjo Salvini With contributions by E. Abay, L. Castelletti, 0. Cevik, A. Cilirgiroglu, Z. Derin, G. Kozbe, P.1. Kuniholm, A. Maspero, O.W. Muscarella, M.W. Newton, L. Pena Cocharro, A. Rigamonti, 1. Reindell, H. Saglamtimur, M. Salvini, E.C. Stone, P. Zimansky CNR ISTITUTO PER GLI STUDI MICENEI ED EGEO-ANATOLICI ROMA 2001 ARMOUR AND WEAPONS by Zafer DERIN and Altan GILINGIROGLU Spearheads 338 spearheads were unearthed at Ayanis' in the excavations from 1989 to 1998, Only two of these are made of bronze, the rest were manufactured in iron. A great number, 323 in total, were found in the Temple Area (Area VI), since five examples were found in the Gateway (Area V), and six were obtained out ofthe fortress’. The examples coming from the temple courtyard were usually located among the burned wooden beams, between the north wall and the pillars of the courtyard. Owing b the heavy fire in the fortress we had no Jf cone spears preserved a piece af warden chaft chance tn dicenver wnnden chatte, althra in their sockets. Spearheads have two sections (Cat. 2; Hg. 1:2). The leaf-shaped blade is generally reinforced with a mid-rib and a socket to held tie wooden shaft. A hole on the socket was sometimes used to fix the shaft to the blade. All spearheads were heavily corroded, keeping the details from being observed properly (Fig. 16). Corrosion was mechanically cleaned The length of the spearheads varies from 20 te 40 cm. We may categorize them into six groups according to their weights (see the Chart selow). Type 1 BI 3 4 5 6 Bladelength | 30em | 1823cm | 17-200m |1s.sem |125-145em| Tem Socket length]? | 16-19cm |13-Isim | Item Ti-I2em_ | Tlem TotalLength | >30em| 39m [32-34:m |28-30em | 23-27em | 21.5cm Weight S1a0er| B0gr | 400g 20er_| 2l0gr Fig/Cat.No- Tel 1:2-5 1:6-10 3:26-32, 4:40 4:33-39 The length of the blade in the first group is not smaller then 30 cm, while their total length is 40-60 cm. The fall length of the blade s 39 cm in the second group. Spearheads in 247 spearheads were found at Toprakkale (Wartle 1990a, 123-126, 192; Belli 2000, 227). Total ‘umber of spearheads from Ayanis is over 450. Gilingiroglu-Derin 1998, 595. 156 Zafer Derin and Atan Cilingiroglu the third group are similar to the first and the second groups: blade 20 cm, socket 13-15 em The forth group is lighter than all earlier grougs and the length of the blade is 30 cm. Total length of the fifth group is 23-27 cm, The last sroup is 210 gr. and their total length is 21.5 cm Two spearheads out of 338 were made of bronze’ (Cat. 41; Fig. 4:41). The length of one is 43 cm. Three similar spearheads were urearthed at Aluntepe'. This type of spearhead might have been used in religious ceremonies. Spearheads can be seen on battle, hunting and ceremonial represeatations in Urartian ar. The earliest Urartian cxample is on the Balawat Gates of Shalmaneser III’. Representations on belts’, quivers’, helmets’, ivory materials’ and shields!” have similar spearheads. A bronze shield from Upper Anzaf has Urartian gods, like Haldi and Hutuni, holding a spear with their hands'’. Apart from their military function spearheads were use as a 2cremonial votive weapon in the Urartian temples. A huge spearhead represented on the roof of the Musasir temple, and a similarly large iron spearhead found in the north-corider of Irmushini temple at Cavustepe'’ surely demonstrate their religious function’. It is worth noting that most of the spearheads from Ayanis were placed in certain parts of courtyard (Fig. 15). A number of spearheads were found on the floor near the northeast corner of the temple. The rest of the spearheads was recovered next to pillars in the courtyard. Sparheads from the fortresses of Altintepe', Upper Anzat'* and Gavustepe were also discovered around the temples. It is quite possible that spearheads from these fortresses were hungon the walls of the temples, as some of them seem to have been so at Ayanis. Yet it is not very reasonable to assume that more then 300 spears at Ayanis were hung on the pillars and ot the temple walls, and there is no epigraphic evidence to ensure that they were dedicated to he gods of Urartu. As we have a number of weapons, apart from opeare, with dedicatory iraeriptions, we may ouggest that opearo alco had been dedicated to god Haldi, A bronze spearhead found in 2000 has a dedicatory inscription (see Salvini, Inscriptions of Ayanis, AyBr 13). CATALOG OF SPEARHEADS | - Iron, blade: 31.2 cm, wideness: 5.8 cm, are V1, C26d, 3.50-4.10 m. 2- Iron, blade: 23 om, socket: 16.2. em, wideness: 4.4 cm, area VI, C26d , -3.50/-4,10 m. 3- Iron, blade: 18 cm, socket: 19 cm, blade: 49cm, area VI. C26c,-4.15 m. 4- Iron, blade: 21cm, socket: 4 em, blade: 4.8an, area VI. C26d, 3.50-4.10 m. 5- Iron, blade: 9 om, socket: 17.1 cm, blade: 35em, area VI. C26d, 3.50-4.10 m 6- Iron, blade: 20 cm, socket: 13.6 cm, Area VI. C26d, 3.50-4.10 m. 7- Iron, blade: 20 cm, socket: 15.7 em, Storzge Room (VII) Found in the pithos No. 2. K 16a, -17.20 m. More bronze spearheads were found in the Temp Area in 2000 excavation season. Greig 1966, 5, King 1915, 5-6 {Kellner 1976, Taf. 8; Azarpay 1968, PI.21; van den Berghe-de Meyer 1982, Ab. 95-6 Azarpay 1968, PI. 21 van den Berghe-de Meyer 1982, Ab.95-6. Muscarella 1966, Fig. 12, 14; Muscarella 1980, 153. ‘Tugrul-Belli 1997, Fig, 10; Belli 1998, Fig. 13, 2 Belli 1998, Fig.17, 18 and 21 Personel cbservation at Cavustepe. This iron spearhead used to be in the Van Museum, Hundreds of lances and speats, some of them cased in silver, were in the looting list of Sargon I from Musasir Temple Ozgur 1966, 5 Belli 1992, 25; Belli 1993, 448; Belli 2000, 209. Armour and Veapons 187 8- Iron, blade: 18 em, socket: 16.2 em, Area V 9- Iron, blade: 19 cm, socket: 12.3 em, wideness: 2.4 em, area VI. D24a, -3.20/-3.90 m. 10- Iron, blade: 17 cm, socket: 15 em, Area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 11- Iron, blade: 17 cm, socket: 15.2.em, Arca V.. C26d, 3.50/-4.10 m. 12+ Iron, blade: 16 cm, socket: 14.7.0m, Area V.. C26d,-3.50/-4.10 m. 13- Iron, blade: 14 em, socket: 14.3 m, Area V.. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m 14- Tron, blade: 15 cm, socket: 14.8 cm, Area V_. C26d,-3.50/-4.10 m. 15- Iron, blade: 13 em, socket: 15.2.0m, Area V. D27a-2.70/-3.45 m 16- Iron, blade: 14.7 cm, area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10m. 17- Iron, blade: 14 em, socket: 17 m, Area VI.C26e, -3.30/-3.70 m 18 Iron, blade: 17 cm, socket: 13 om, Area VI.D24a, -3.20/-3.90 m. 19- Iron, blade: 15.5 em, socket: 14 em, Area V.. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m 20- Iron, blade: 13 cm, socket: 14 om, Area VI.C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m 21- Iron, blade: 14 cm, socket: 13.5 em, Area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 mn. 22- Iron, blade: 14 em, socket: 15.6 cm, Area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 23- Tron, blade: 13.5 om, socket: 16.6 em, Area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 24- Iron, blade: 14 cm, socket: 13.2 em, Area VI. D24a, -3.20/-3.90 m. 25- Iron, blade: 13 em, socket: 14 em, Area VI.D25b, -4.05m. 26- Iron, Ismail Emek field, blade: 16 em , socket: 10.2 om. 27- Iron, ismail Emek field, blade: 15 em, socket: 10.4 em. 28- Iron, blade: 16.7 em, area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 29- Iron, blade: 14 em, socket: 9.5 m, area VI. D2da, -3.20/-3.40 m 30- Iron, Ismail Emek field, blade: 13 em, socket: 8.6 em 31- Iron, Ismail Emek field, blade: 15 em, socket: 4.2 em 32. Iron, fomail Emok field, blade: 14.5 om, coocet: $.5 om. 33- Iron, blade: 12 cm, socket: 13.7 em, Area V.. C26d,-3.50/-4.10 m. 34- Iron, blade: 14 cm, socket: 10.2em, Area V. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 35- Iron, ismail Emek field, blade: 14 em, socket: 10 om. 36- Iron, blade: 13 em, socket: 9.6 cm, area VI. 226d, -3.50/-4.10 m 37- Iron, blade: 15 om, socket: 6.1 cm, Area VI.C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m, 38- Iron, blade: 13 om, socket: 10 em, Area VI.C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 39- Iron, blade: 13.2 em, socket: 10 em, Area V.. C26c-d, C27a, -4.00/-4.15 m. 40- Iron, blade: 11 em, socket: 11 em, Area VI.C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. 41- Bronze, blade: 21 om, socket: 22 em, widensss: 4.2 om, area VI. C26d, -3.50/-4.10 m. Swords Two bronze swords found next to the firs pillar in the east of the Temple Area in the 1096 season are interesting and unique material ‘rom the point of Urartian archaeology (Cat 42-43, Fig. 5:42-43). One of the swords is in three pieces while the other one is almost complete. The complete one has a mid-rib all tle way from pointed top to the beginning of the handle. The section of the blade of the sword is rhombic while the handle has a round section. Both of the swords would have been hing on the upper part of the pillar together with a bronze shield that was found next to the swords. The measurements of the complete sword are: length 73.8 cm, breadth 7.9 em and fhickness 2.2 cm. The form of this sword is not similar to the iron and bronze swords that we know from other Urartian fortresses". This “© Most of the sword in Urartu were made of iron: Bamett 1963, 186, 193, Fig. 37.1 (Igéir) 158 Zafer Derin and Alan Gilingirogiu is the reason why some colleagues wish to describe it as a spear. The handle has a four-line inscription: “To Haldi, Lord, this sur Rusa Argi8tehi (son of Argitti) made (and) dedicated for his long life”. We suggest that suri is < sword/spear”, just like the one the god Haldi carries on his representation on the bronze shield of Upper Anzaf™®. According to our belief Surt is a symbolic weapon which combines 1 sword and a spear rather than a war charriot as suggested by some colleagues" CATALOG OF SWORDS 42. Bronze, length 73.8 cm, breadth 7.9 em thickness 2.2 em, Area VI,-4.17 m 43. Bronze, length 25.1 cm (broken), breadih 7.6 em, thickness 2.1 em, Area VI, -4.17 m. Quivers One of the important groups of the nilitary equipment that was recovered at Ayanis Fortress were the quivers, made of bronze, iron and leather. The bronze part of the quiver was formed by well-hammered bronze plétes. Although none has yet been found from excavations, it is well known from the writen records that quivers had also been made of silver and leather. As an example, Sargon Il, the king of Assyria, mentions in the records of his eighth campaign, dated to 714 B.C., ‘hat he obtained many silver quivers from the temple of Musasir™”. However, neither the excavations at Ayanis nor the ones at other sites yielded any quiver made of other material besides bronze. Leather pieces were usually placed ai the backside of the bronze face. These leather Pieces were attached to the metal bodies o° the quivers by means of small holes pierced along its length (Figs. 17, 18). This method enabled one to place more arrows inside. On the other hand, the leather pieces also. protectec the backs of warriors from injuries. With iron wire, the rim of the quiver was hardened ané thickened. Two rings were riveted on the body of the quiver in order to help the warrior cary iton his shoulder using cord or leather strips. The number of rivets are two or four. Simole bronze strips with two rivets were used for some of the hanging rings (Cat. 50-53; Fig. 8:50-52 and 9:53). Some of the hanging rings were placed on the body of the quiver in vertical position, (Cat. 44-54; Fig. 6:44.47; 7:48-49; 8.50-52; 9:53 and 10:54) while others wereplaced. parallel The bottom of the quivers were covered with a bronze plate shaped drop-like or rectangular and fixed to the body with rivets (Cat, 44-45, 49, 53; Fig. 6:44-45; 7:49; 9:53). The length of the bottom picecs varies between 5.3 - 9,0 cm. The bottoms of the quivers were made of metal so that the piercing ponts of the arrows placed with in would do no harm to the warriors. The quivers having pointed tops as seen in some of the Urartian”! and Piotrovskij 1959, 163, Fig. 25 (Karmi-Blur); Wartke 199a, 122-123, Abb. 30d (Toprakkale); Ipk 1987, $60-1, Figs. 12 and 27 (Dedeli and Habibugagi); R. Yildirim 1989, 3, Figs 1-3 ‘Considering the existence of 305412 swords in the Musasir temple (LAR Il, 173), we have found very few swords in the Urartian excavations, Cilingiroglu-Salvini 1999, 56-60. Belli 1998, 39-41, Fig. 18, Kénig 1954, 33-35; van Loon 1966, 190. LAR I, 173, Gitingirogiu 1984, 2 Belli 1998, Fig, 17; Methay 1991, 151, Fig 9;Born-Seidl 1995, 4, Abb76, 93. Armour and Weapons 159 Assyrian” descriptions, have not yet been found at the excavations of the Ayanis Fortress. The total number of quivers uncovered at Ayanis Fortress is 12 till the end of the 1998 excavation season. After the excavations in 1999 and 2000 this number increased to 67. This publication only covers 11 quivers unearthed unil the end of year 1998 although the studies carried out on all quivers including the ones unearthed after 1998 All the quivers were recovered at the temple area (Fig. 15), found between the pillars located at the west, north and south. It seems they had been scattered around the courtyard of the temple. Most of the quivers were found at the north, especially at the northwest. It is clear that some of the quivers had no arrows inside and were hung on the pillars with shields, or placed alone™. ‘The quivers uncovered at the south of the temple area in 1999 and 2000 seasons contained arrows inside them’, One quiver contained 36 arrows. The arrows generally had double wings and were made of bronze. It is obvious that Urartians used quivers not only as a military equipment but ako as abject for religious ceremonies as well as a material for sacrificing to the gods. The quivers found at the fortresses of Toprakkale, Yukan Anzaf and Karmir Blur have dedicaticn inscriptions to the Gods,” also on one displayed at the Gaziantep Museum. Although the quivers uncovered at Ayanis Fortress till the end 1998 season bear no inscription on them they would have served a similar purpose in as much as all found in the sacred temple aea, and some contained sacrificial seeds”. ‘These sacrificial seeds were found in and around some of the quivers (Cat. 53; Fig. 9:53; 17). The seed was recognized as “gariz” (sorglum)_ which is still used to make bread by local people living in the highlands of the Van region”, Since the quivers, which we suppose were hung on the pillars within the temple ara, contained seeds more than arrows, it is more likely that quivers had a particular function atthe religious ceromonioo The quivers were produced in two sizes. The taller ones differ between 69-71 cm (Cat, 44-45, 50, 52; Fig. 6:44-45; 8:50.52) whil: the short ones between 62-65 (Cat. 48-49, 53-54; Fig. 7:48-49; 9:53; 10:54). The length o° the quivers indicate that the arrows had a length about 70-80 cm”, The width of the bronze quivers varies between 9-12cm but the full measurement would have been at least doubled with the leather that attached to the bronze body. The quivers that unearthed at the Ayanis Fortress have general features and can be grouped in two categories as follows 1. Decorated quivers 2. Plain quivers The ‘decorated quivers’ were produced sy a method of ‘repoussé’ which requires working from the reverse side of the metal . There can also be studied in two groups 2s ; = Madhloom 1970, Plate XXIV, 6. © Gitingirogly 197:121 % Compare: Piotrovskij 1969. Fig. 82 * Bamett 1972: 170; Belli, 1994 : 422, Piotrovskij 1969, 178, Figs. 85-86; van Loon 1966, 121; van den Berge-de Meyer 1982, Nr-30, Fig. 34 % During the 2000 excavation season, 3 quivers vere found having an inscription in cuneiform around their rims. Gilingiroglu-Derin 2000, 399, See Z. Derin - O.W. Muscarella, [ron and Bronze Arrows. 160 Zafer Deria ard Altan Gilingiroglu ) quivers with horizontal band reliefs b) quivers with figure ‘The quivers with horizontal band reief have 3 groups of bands (Cat. 48-49, S4; Fig, 7:48-49, 10:54) or four groups of bands (Cat, 44-47, 50-53; Fig. 6:44-47; 8:50-52; 9:53), Each group of bands contain different nunber of bands. Some of the group of bands also contained five (Cat. 54; Fig. 10:54), six (Cat. 44-49, 53; Fig 6-7:44-49; 9:53) or eight (Cat. 50-52; Fig, 8:50-52) horizontal bands. The horizontal bands generally ended with a vertical band relief. The band relief play a decorative role on the quivers but they would have been rather made to strengthen them. Similar quivers with horizontal bard relief have also been obtained from other Urartian fortresses. Kayalidere produced seven”, Upper Anzaf two", and Toprakkale six’! It is also known that many quivers have teen found at Cavustepe near Van and_ Altntepe near Erzincan™?. Due to their decorations with figures, the quivers uncovered at Karmir Blur differ from the ones mentioned above” The quivers are not limited to the ones obtained from the scientific excavations, museums and private collections" in Turkey and abroad also possess many similar quivers. Some of these quivers and pieces of quivers have been purchased by the museums of Van, Adana and Gaziantep. Apart from these too many masterpieces of quivers displayed in some of the museums in Europe, Israel, Unted States and Japan” have been plundered from Turkey and then smuggled into these counties via different ways. The quivers with figures were uncovered at the Ayanis Fortress during the excavation season in 200. On one found in the roons at the southem part of the temple, a war scene composed of chariots was depicted. On aiother a scene of flying horses was shown. Bud motives and (+) signs were used on some o° the quivers” The quivers depicted on the offeriag plates and belts” in the Urartian archaeology were generally hung on the shoulders of scldiers, The strap of the quiver wrapped the body diagonally.” The warrior figurine” found at Karmir Blur, however, carries the quiver by hanging it to his belt. Urartian soldiers, camried these quivers on their shoulders during wars and hunting, but they also placed them on their chariots". As clearly shown in Assyrian descriptions, one or two quivers usually fixed to the right-front part of the chariots in vertical or diagonal position, Burney 1966: 93-95 Fig. 18. 6,66 PI. XVII d-5. Belli 1993b: 22-24; Tugnul-Belli 1997, Figs. 1, 2, 5-9, Bamett 1972: 170, 171 Fig.7,9-12; Wartke 19902: 58-60 Abb. 8.a,b Taf XII. Bamett-Gokge 1952, 12, Pl. XVIII; Belli 1991, 11 Piotrovskij 1955: 36-40, PI.26, 1959: PIX; 1969, Fig. 85-86; van Loon 1966, 121; Piotrovskij 1970, 39, Pl. 49; Bamett-Watson 1952; 135139, PL. XXXI.1; Barnett 1959: 7, 12, 15. Merhay 1991, Fig.17 a-b; van den Berehe-Neyer 1982, Cat. No.30 Abb. 34. Tasylirek 1975, 154, Pl. XXXVe-d; Belli 1992, 11-12. Ozgen 1979; 46-50 Fig.4; Merbav 1991; Figs 17-18. Figured quivers will be published in. Ayanistl Kellner 1976: Cat No 181 Fig 38; 1991, Fig 99, 103, 106, 172, 188-189; Tasyirek 1978: 224-226, 228, 230,231 Fig. 1, 2,4, 8 Pl. 5, 6,; ie. 1975, Pig. 18,19, Fig.37, 51, 55. Belli 1998, Figs, 26-30. Piotrovskij 1969, Fig. 127. Kellner 1983, Pl. 18/2-3, PIL19/1; Ozgen 1684, Fig.4; Tagytirek 1976 Fig. 16, PI.13; Amiet 1982, Fig 6. For Assyrian samples: Madhloom 1970, Pls. LVIII3b, XLIX 1, XXIV 5-6 Armour and Veapons 61 Both the quivers with horizontal bands ani with figures unearthed at Ayanis Fortress are dated to the reign of king Rusa II, founder of the fortress. Some of the quivers obtained from other excavations can be dated according to the inscriptions on them. Some quivers from Karmir Blur bear inscriptions of Argishti Iand Sarduri II and, thus dated to 8" century B.C. The Kayalidere finds are dated to midde of 8" century B.C. Judging from the inscription of Argishti II (714-685 B.C), tho quiver from Yukan Anzaf is dated to the last years ofthe 8" or beginning of the 7 century B.C. The one from Altintepe was also dated to the end of 8" or beginning 7" century B.C. Daing is also the same for some of the quivers kept in private collections when their forms and style were taken into account". The quiver from Toprakkale has an inscription of Rusa IIT nd is dated somewhere towards the end of the 7" century B.C. Consequently, as long as the dates cited above are concerned, the quivers similar to the ones found at Ayanis fortress woud have been produced from mid 8" century B.C. up to the end of the Urartian Kingdom. CATALOG OF QUIVERS 44- Bronze, Area VI. length: 70.3 om. breadth: 10.6 cm, E24a, -4.12 m. 45- Bronze, Area VI, length: 69 cm, breadht 9.4 cm, E24c, -4.14 m. 46- Bronze, Area VI, length: 29 cm, breadht 10cm, F24¢, -3.91 m 47- Bronze, Area VI, length: 25cm, breadht 11em, D2Sa, -1.00n 48- Bronze, Area VI, length: 60.cm, breadht: 11m, D24b, -3.75 m. 49- Bronze, Area VI, length: 62cm, breadht 104 cm, E24a, 4.12 m. 50- Bronze, Area VI, length: 70 cm, breadht. B24 6, 4.12 m 51- Bronze. Area VI. length: 10m. breadht 11em. D24 ¢. 3.90m 52- Bronze, Area VI, length: 69 cm, breadht. 12cm, E24 a, -3.88m 53- Bronze, Area VI, length: 65 cm, breadht 9 an, D27a, -4.30 m. 54- Bronze, Area VI, length: 65 cm, breadht Shields Ten bronze shields have been discovered at Ayanis including the season of 2000. Only four shields (Cat. 55-58; Fig. 10-12:55-58) are inthis study. Alll shields at Ayanis were made of a beaten sheet of bronze. An iron bar fixed to he rim served to strengthen the shields. All shields from Ayanis are round and of conical shape with a wide rim along which usually runs an inscription. The rim of the shield variots from 0.70 m to 1.20 m. There are three handles, one is larger than other two, on the imer side of the shields, perhaps to carry or hang them on a wall or on the pillars (Fig. 19). Small handles are located near the top of the shields. Handles were attached t the shields wit rivets. Considerably heavy shields might not be used in practical life. Urartian soldiers onthe Balawat Gates” and the soldiers on the different Urartian artifacts" hold the shield with one hand, and the shields on these artifacts. are much smaller than those found at Ayanis. |t was stated by Sargon II that there were 25212 small and large shields in the temple of Musasir“®. It is clear that all shields from the temple area of Ayanis were used to decorate the walls and the pillars of the courtyard after © van den Berghe-de Meyer 1982,135: Tanabe-Hori 1982, Fig, 1:126, Pls. XIX: 25, XX26. King 1915, 5-6 Bom-Seidl 1985, Abb, 71-2; Azarpay 1968, Pls.1¢, 12, 21, Kellner 1991, Figs. 1, 2, 5, 9, 69, 102-3, 187; Belli 1998, Fig. 18. LAR I, 173. 162 Zafer Derix ani Altan Cilingiroztu they were dedicated to the god Haldi Most of the shields have no decoration on them. Some are richly decorated with striding lions and bulls in three concentric zones. Identical decoration was mentioned by Sargon II in his cighth year’s campaign: “...12 great shields of silver, whose edges were ‘ornamented with heads of dragons, lions and wild-oxen..."°. Similar ornamentation may be seen on the shields from Kayalidere, Karmir-Blur, Toprakkale and Upper Anzaf“”. A few shields from Ayanis have an inscription in ene or two rows along the wide rim (see Salvini, The Inscriptions of Ayanis), Archacologied evidence clearly proves that a woven material ‘was attached to the inner side of the shields. An undecorated“* bronze shield (together with a quiver) was also found next to a pillar in the Temple area (Cat. 55; Fig. 10:53). A large part of the shield, 0.71 m in diameter, is missing. It is clear that shicld and quiver were hung on the upper part of the pillar. Three handles were riveted to the shield. A cuneiorm inscription runs along the rim (see Salvini, The Inscriptions of Ayanis). Another undecorated bronze shield (Cat. 56) was found next to a pillar, on the floor of the courtyard. A part of the rim was foded out, as a result of dropping from the pillar where it originally hung. The diameter o’ the shield is 0.85 m, and it has three handles riveted to shield (Fig. 20) A bronze shield was excavated in area C35a_in the monumental gate of the fortress (Area V) (Fig. 19). It was on a mud-brick ramp leading to the inner part of the fortress, The gate would not have been its the original ocation, It might have been left here during the plunder of Ayanis. The diameter of the shied! is 1.20 m, the largest one ever found at Ayanis (Cat. 57). There are three handles, one large, the other two smaller. They were riveted to the body. Tho chield hae no decoration, but a cuneiform inceription of Rusa con of Argioti runo along the rim. A richly decorated bronze shield (Cat. $8; Fig. 11:58) is a unique artifact not only for Ayanis but also for all Urartian art. It was found close to the north wall of the temple. It would have been hung on the north wall of the temple together with a quiver, full of sorghum inside, and an unidentified artifact made of bone. The shield drop upside down on the floor together with the quiver and bone artifact. Apart from the surface decorations it has a lion head in the middle of it. The diameter of the shield is 1.0 m, there are three handles on the inner side all riveted to the shield and tothe lion head. The weight of the lion head is $.1 kg, its height is 0.19 m, its width is 0.18 m (Figs. 12, 21-22). The eyes of the lion, manufactured with white and black stone, were discovered loose beneath the shicld. The lion vwas represented in a snarling attitute with a open mouth,where its teeth can be seen. The whiskers are clearly visible on the nose. Tvo flat ears were separately made and stuck t0 the head. The mane was incised on the heid in flame shape. Some lion representations in Urartian art are stylistically similar to the ion head from Ayanis. The head of lions from Patnos®, Altintepe”, Alakoy"' and Gevas”, and some examples in private collections™ resemble to one from Ayanis although they were manufactured of bronze, ivory and stone * LARIL, 173. ” Kayalidere: Burney 1966, Figs.18 and 20; Karmir-blur: Piotrovskij 1955, Figs. 17-8; Toprakkale ‘«, Piotrovskij 1950, PL X,1; Upper Anzaf. Belli 1998, Fig. 17, Belli 1995, Figs. 13, (4; Burney 1966, Fi 1953, Fig. 2.2, Pl. XV 1,2. Akurgal 1968, Fig, 26- Gzgiig 1969, Figs, 30-40 Derin-Saglamtemir 1998, 22, Fig. 4. ‘Sevin 1993, 565, Fig. |, Pls. 101, la-d. Zahihaas |991, 195, 20.4, Pl XXI be; Ozety 1966, 5+ ; Barnett-Gokge Rifka 1991, Fig. a. Armour and Veapons 163 respectively. The lion head, which has curving neck, was attached to the middle of the shield with the help of rivets. Handles were also used tofix the head to the shield, The outer surface of the shield is divided nto three bands where we have the figures of striding lions and bulls (Fig. 23). The border of the first band is framed by single line of bud motifs while the second border has a double ines of bud motifs. The artisan introduced twelve lions into the first decoration zone, The second band, which has sixteen bulls in it, ends with a double line of buds. Twenty lions ae introduced into the last band which ends. with a single line of buds, A double line of cuneform inscription belonging to king of Rusa run along the rim (see Salvini, The Inscriptions of Ayanis). We had epigraphic evidence from the Assyrian records for the existence of shields with a lion’s head projecting from their centers. As Sargon II stated in his eighth year’s campaign, “...six shields of gold which hung rigHt and left in his house and shone brilliantly, with the heads of snarling lions projecting from their hearths, and containing 5 talents and 12 minas of shining gold”. It is not likely that siields on the facade of the Musasir were manufactured with solid gold. Excavations at Ayanis have provided some bronze artifacts, including a small lion, plated with gold leaf It s possible that shields at Musasir were also plated with gold to give an impression of shning gold. The argument concerning the existence of gold headed shield in Urartu is now over. It is archacologically proved that lion headed shields were used to decorate the Uratian temples as it was at Musasir. Some remarks” about shields with a lion head hes now lost their importance “... nor have any shields been found with animal heads projecting Yom their center as described in the Sargon document and illustrated in the relief of his Khorsabad palace”. The lion headed shield is unique like the decoration of the cella and stone vessels of Ayanis. These artifact will surely broad our knowledge about the Urartian art. CATALOG OF SHIELDS 55. Bronze shield, Area VI, diameter 71 em, E2¢c,-4.15 m. 56. Bronze shield, Area VI, diameter 85 cm, D2tb,-4.15 m. 57. Bronze shield, Area V, diameter 120 om, C35a,-22.10 m (Fig. 19). 58, Bronze shield with a lion head, Area VI, dianeter 100 em, D24a,-4.30 m, Helmets Seven helmets were found at Ayanis excavations between 1989 and 1998. Apart from ‘one iron helmet they were all made of bronze. Bronze helmets have a conical form while the iron one has a funnel shape. Remains of leather in the helmets clearly demonstrate that the inner part was covered by leather. Although we have not found any ear flap attached to helmets, small metal circles hanging either side cf a helmet (Cat. 62; Fig.14:62) would have been used to fix the ear flaps to the helmet Two helmets (Cat. 59-60; Fig 13:59-60) were discovered, one inside the other, next to the pillar No. 4 in the temple area (Area VI). “hese conical helmets have decoration and inscriptions, The diameter of the first is 27 em, and its height is 31 em, Decoration consists of processions of chariots with soldiers and mounted soldiers. There are crooks terminating, in snake's heads on front (Fig. 24). A cuneiform inscription runs along the edge of the * LAR UL, 173. * Gilingioglu-Derin 1997, 3 * Merhav 1991, 135. . Fig. 4 164 Zafer Derin ant Altan Gilingirogiu helmet’ The helmet inside the first one has adiameter of 26 em, its height is 30 em (Cat. 59; Fig, 13:59), A crook terminating in a ram’s head is hanging down from the top of the helmet while similar crooks were located on either side of the vertical one, A sacred tree ceremony is the highlight of the decoration. There ar: two warriors at either side of the sacred tree. Two decorative bands citele the helmet. Ths upper circle consist of tent like motifs. A very peculiar animal representation occur in the hwer border. These animals are not lions or bulls as we are used to seeing in the Urartian art, but are simply chickens. Chickens (locally called Iranian chicken) were represented very naturalistically. It is quite interesting to note that a helmet which was dedicated to the god Halii by Rusa Il has chicken motifs rather than lions or fantastic animals, It is difficult to undeistand how the king accepted this new style of representation. This may be a result of 1ew understanding of art, and a result of his renaissance in administration and objection to the traditional representations. A double line inscription siating that the helmet was deditated to the god Haldi by Rusa son of Argishti runs on the edge (see Salvini, The Inscriptions of Ayanis). A bronze helmet (Cat. 61; Fig. 14:61) was found on the floor (-4,10 m) in the temple courtyard. It might have dropped from the pillar No. 2. It was considerably damaged. Its diameter is 28.5 om, and length 16.5 cm. A umber of spears and arrowheads were uncarthed close to the helmet. A conical bronze helmet (Cat, 62; Fig. 14:62) was found in Area VIII in the eastem sector of the fortress. This is among the “are example of helmets deposited outside the Temple Area. It was found on the floor ofthe East Storage Area at a level of ~7.80 m. It might heve fallen from the upper story. Its dameter is 26 cm Two bronze helmets (Cat. 60; Fig. 13:60) were discovered one inside other close to Pillar ‘No, © in the Lemple Area. tsoth of than were damaged and corroded. We have kept the inner helmet inside the outer so as rot fo damage it. The helmets are conical in shape with a diameter of 28 cm, There is a lightning motif on the helnets. Two lines of inscription run near the edge Although no earflap was found, there are small circles should be used which were probably used to attach the earflaps to the helmet There is only one helmet at Ayanis vhich was made of iron (Cat 63; Fig. 14:63). It has a funnel shape with a pointed top, anc a diameter of 23 em. It was deposited in the southeastern section of the Temple Area. The iron helmets and other metal artifacts were found together under the Medieval stone wall. Helmets from Ayanis do not differ rom helmets unearthed at other Urartian sites. Conical and funnel shaped helmets may be cbserved on the decorated artifacts. Although the dates of two helmets from Karmir-Blur, bebnging to Argishti I and Sarduri Il, are different from the helmets from Ayanis, the shapes and their decorations are very similar. Many helmets in private collections have similar ferms and decorations, Some helmets from Ayanis have fouror more crooks terminating in the head of a lion, snake of goose. This kind of represenation might have been borrowed from the contemporary Assyrian helmets. Representaions of a ceremony on the helmets from Ayanis tight also be derived from Assyrian art. Figures at cither sides of a sacred tree and a winged sun-dise above it provide firm evidence for tis resemblance Helmets with a lighining motif were also discovered at other Urartian centers. Although its real meaning is not known, & has been suggested that this motif may be a symbol of the god Haldi, or of animal horns. A number of excellent helmets are Helmet are in the conservation laboratory o” Faculty of Letters, Istanbul University. 1 sincerely thank to Dr, Sait Basaran for his work to repar some bronze artifacts from Ayanis excavation. Armour and Veapons 165 unfortunately kept in private collections. It is yery sad for archeologists not to have the chance to see them in their homelands, There is no major difference from the point of view of form and decoration between the helmets from Ayanis and those from other, zarlicr fortresses. Decorations on the early helmets were usually executed in the repoussé technique. Although Ayanis artisans used this method, they also bordered the figures with a sharp point. According to the inscriptions on the helmets they were all dedicated to the god Faldi, It is clear that weapon dedications to the gods of Urartu were very common practize is the seventh century B.C., a8 in the earlier periods of Urartu, CATALOG OF HELMETS 59. Bronze helmet, Area VI, highth:31 om, diameter 27 cm, D24a, -3.85/-4.15 m. 60. Bronze helmet, Area VI, highth:20 em, diameter 28 em, E24, -3.40 m 61. Bronze helmet, Area VI, highth:|6.5 cm, dianeter 28.5 em, D26a, -4.10 m. 62. Bronze helmet, Area VIII, highth:25.9 cm, diameter 26 cm, A30d, -7.60/-7.90 m. 63. Bronze helmet, Arca VI, highth:23.3 em, dianeter 23 em, C26e-d/C27a, -3.75/-3.95 m. 166 Zater Derin and Altan Gilingiroglu BIBLIOGRAPHY AA «Archéologischer Anzeiger, Berlin - New York. AMI «Archdologische Mitteilungen aas Iran, Berlin. Anst «Anatolian Studies» (Journal ofthe British Institute of Archacology at Ankara), London Akurgal, E., 1968 Urartaische und Altiraniche Kurstzentren, Ankara. Amiel, P., 1982 Antiquités Anatoliennes du Lowre, Les Bronzes ourartéens, Mémorial Atatiirk. Azarpay, G., 1968 Urartian Art and Artifacts; A Clronological Study, Berkeley - Los Angeles, Barnett, R.D., 1950 The Excavations of the British Museum at Toprakkale Near Van, «iraq» XII. 1- B 1954 The Excavations of the British Museum at Toprak Kale Near Van, Addenda,