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MANOJ CHAUHAN SIR(IIT-DELHI) EX. SR. FACULTY (BANSAL CLASSES)

KEY CONCEPTS (LIMIT)

THINGS TO REMEMBER :

1.

Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as, xa when

2.

Lim f (x) =

Lim f (x) = finite quantity.

xa

− +

xa

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON LIMITS:

Let

Lim

f (x) = l &

Lim

g (x) = m. If l & m exists then :

x

a

x

a

(i)

(iii)

(iv)

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

a

f (x) ± g (x) = l ± m

(ii)

Lim

x

a

f(x) . g(x) = l. m

f(x)

l

=

g(g)

k f(x) = k

m

, provided m 0

Lim

x

a

f(x) ; where k is a constant.

REMEMBER

Limit

x

a

x a

(v)

Lim

x

a

f [g(x)] = f

Lim g(x)

x

a

= f (m) ; provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.

3.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

4.

5.

For example
Lim
l n (f(x) = ln
Lim f (x)
x
→ a
 
x
→ a
  l n l (l > 0).
STANDARD LIMITS :
−1
−1
sin x
tan x
tan
x
sin
x
Lim
= 1 =
Lim
=
Lim
= Lim
x
x
x
0
x
0
x
0
x
x
0
x
[Where x is measured in radians]
x
1 
Lim
(1 + x) 1/x
=
e =
Lim
 1 +
note however there Lim (1 – h) n = 0
x
0
x→∞
x
h
0

and Lim (1 + h ) n → ∞

h

n →∞

0

n →∞

If

If

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

a

f(x) = 1 and

[

f (x)

]

φ (x)

=

e

Lim

φ (x) = , then ;

x

Lim

a

x

a

φ

(x)[f (x) 1]

f(x) = A > 0 &

Lim

φ (x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;

x

a

[f(x)] φ(x) = e z where z =

Lim

x

a

φ (x). ln[f(x)] = e BlnA =A B

Lim

x

0

Lim

x

a

x 1 = ln a (a > 0). In particular

a

x

x

n

a

n

n 1

= na

x

a

Lim

x

0

x 1 = 1

e

x

SQUEEZE PLAYTHEOREM :

If f(x) g(x) h(x) x & Limit

xa

f(x) = l = Limit h(x) then Limit

xa

xa

INDETERMINANT FORMS :

0

0

,

, 0

× ∞

,

0 ° ,

∞° , ∞ − ∞

and 1

g(x) = l.

Note :

(i) We cannot plot on the paper. Infinity () is a symbol & not a number. It does not obey the laws of elementry algebra.

(iv)

(ii)

(v)

(vi) a b = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.

+ =

a

0

(iii)

× =

(a/) = 0 if a is finite

is not defined , if a 0.

6. The following strategies should be born in mind for evaluating the limits:

(a) Factorisation

(b) Rationalisation or double rationalisation

(c) Use of trigonometric transformation ; appropriate substitution and using standard limits

(d) Expansion of function like Binomial expansion, exponential & logarithmic expansion, expansion of sinx , cosx , tanx should be remembered by heart & are given below :

Q.1

Q.4

Q.7

 x = 1 + x l na + x 2 l n 2 a + x 3 3 l n a + > 0 a a 1! 2! 3! e x = 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x ∈ R 1! 2! 3! ln(1+ x) = x − x 2 + x 3 − x 4 + for − 1 < x 2 3 4 3 5 7  π π   sin x = x x + x x +  − − − x ∈  2 , 2  3! 5! 7! 2 4 6    π π   cos x 1 x + x x − = − − + x ∈ 2 , 2  2! 4! 6! 3 5    π π   2 tan x = x x + + 2x + x ∈ − ,  3 15 2 tan –1 x = x − x 3 + x 5 − x 7 + 3 5 7

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

1

2
x
x
Lim
x
→ 1
x
1
100
k
 ∑
x
− 100
Lim
K
=
1
x
→ 1
x
− 1

Lim

sec 4x

sec 2x

x

0

sec 3x

sec x

EXERCISE–I

Q.2

Q.5

Q.8

13
7
x
x
Lim
5
3
x
→ 1
x
x
1 3
/
1 5
/
+
3
x
+
5
x
Lim
x→∞
1 / 3
3
x
2
+
(
2
x
3
)
p
q 
Lim 
p, q ∈ N
p
q
x
→ 1
 1
− x
1
− x

Q.3

Q.6

Lim

x

1

Lim

x

4

2
x
x.1nx
+
1nx
1
x
− 1
1
+
3 tan x
2
1
− 2 cos
x

Q.9

Find the sum of an infinite geometric series whose first term is the limit of the function f(x) =

tan

x

sin

x

sin

3

x

as x 0 and whose common ratio is the limit of the function g(x) =

1 −
x
− 1
2
(cos
x)

as x 1.

Q.10

Lim (x l n cosh x) where cosh t = e

x→∞

− 1
2
cos
2x
1
x
Lim
1 1
x →
x −
2

;

(b)

t

+ e

t

.
2
1
− sin
2
x

4 π

4

x

Lim

x

π

; (c)

Q.11 (a)

Lim

x

→−

7

2

[x] 15[x] 56

+

+

sin(x 7) sin(x 8)

+

+

where [ ]denotes the greatest

integer function

2
2
2
2
1
− tan x
8 
x
x
x
x
Lim
Lim
1
− cos
cos
+ cos
cos
Q.12
Q.13
π
x →
4
1
− 2 sin x
x
→ 0
x 8
2
4
2
4
− cos x
2
− cos
θ −
sin
θ
2
− 1
Lim
Lim
Q.14
Q.15
π
π
θ→
2
x →
π
(4
θ − π
)
x(x
)
4
2
2
a
sin
x
sin
2
x
Q.16
If
Lim
is finite then find the value of 'a' & the limit.
x
→ 0
3
tan
x
a
x 
1
− 1
Q.17
(a)
Lim tan −
Lim   2x
tan
, where a ∈ R ; (b) Plot the graph of the function f(x) =
2
x →
0
x
t
→ 0
π t
2 

Q.18

Q.20

Q.21

Q.23

Q.24

Q.25

Q.26

Q.27

Lim

x

0

[ln (1 + sin²x). cot(ln 2 (1 + x))]

Q.19

Lim

x

1

( l n(1

+

x)

l n 2)(3.4

x

1

3x)

[(7

+

x)

1

3

(1

+

1

3x) ].sin(x

2

1)

Let

n

2

=

r

4

+

+

2x ) sin

π 

r

Lim

n →∞

(3x

(r

2

1) sin

r

1 +

x

+

|

1

x |

π

r sin

3 +

5

then find { l }. (where { } denotes the fractional part function)

Lim

(x

3 +

27

)

1

n (x

2

)

Q.22

x

3

=

x

+

3,

x

=

= x

2

2x

5,

 x 2 − 9 x < 1 − 2, 1 ≤ x < 2 x ≥ 2

g(x)

|x|

3

+

|x|

x
x
x
27
− 9
3
+
1
2
− 1
+ cos x
x
f(x) =
,
x
sin x
=
2
x,
x

2

+

>

0

0

|x| 1

+

and

find LHL and RHL of g( f ( x ) ) at x = 0 and hence find Lim g( f ( x ) ) .

x0

Let P n =

a

If the

Lim

x

0

P n − 1
1 , ∀ n = 2, 3,
1 
1
1 + ax 
3
x
 1 + x
1 + bx

and Let P 1 = a x – 1 where a R + then evaluate

P

Lim n

.

 x→0 x exists and has the value equal to l, then find the value of 1 − a

2

l

+

3

b

.

Let {a n }, {b n }, {c n } be sequences such that

(i) a n + b n + c n = 2n + 1 ;

Then find the value of

(ii) a n b n +b n c n + c n a n = 2n – 1 ;

.

Lim na

n →∞

n

(iii) a n b n c n = – 1 ;

(iv)

a n < b n < c n

Q.28

Q.29

If n N and a n = 2 2 + 4 2 + 6 2 +

a
− b
n
n
Lim
.
n →∞
n

+ (2n) 2 and b n = 1 2 + 3 2 + 5 2 +

+ (2n – 1) 2 . Find the value

At the end points A, B of the fixed segment of length L, lines are drawn meeting in C and making angles θ and 2θ respectively with the given segment. Let D be the foot of the altitude CD and let x represents

the length of AD. Find the value of x as θ tends to zero i.e. Lim x

.

θ→0

Q.30

At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn, and the points A and B are joined with a chord. Prove that the ratio of the areas of the two triangles thus formed tends to 4 as the arc AB decreases indefinitely.

Q.1

Q.4

Q.6

Q.8

EXERCISE–II

2
8x
+ 3
 
2
2x
+ 3
Lim
Q.2
x→∞
2
2x
+ 5
2
2
n
+ −
n
1
2
n
+ −
n
1
Lim
n →∞
n
2
x
a
 
x
Lim
cos
2 π 
x→∞
 
 1 + x 
 
 
1
 x
− +
1
cos x 
x
Lim
x
→ 0
x

c

x

= 4

Lim

x→∞

a

Q.5

Q.7

1

1

x

+

a

2

1

x

+

n

2 sin

F

G

H

l

n

/ x
  (1
+ x
) 1
Lim
Q.3
x
0
e
  
I
cos π
J
x

+

tan

+

π x

4

a

n

1

x

tan

nx

π x

2

where a 1 ,a 2 ,a 3 ,

a

1 / x

Lim

x

x

+

c

then find c

x→∞

Lim x

x→∞

a R

Q.9

Lim

x

1

a

3

1

x

n > 0

Q.10

Q.11

Q.12

Q.13

Q.14

Let f(x) = sin

1

(

1

1

{ x }).cos (

1

{ x })

Lim f(x) and

x0

+

b cos x

+

ce

Lim f(x), where {x} denotes the fractional

x0

x

= 2

then find

ae

x

2

{ x

}

. (

1

{ x })

Lim

0

part function.

Find the values of a, b & c so that x

x.sin x

 1   a 2 + x 2 − 2 sin   a   π sin π  x     (a 2 − x 2 ) 2   ax  2   2    tan 2 x − x 2 x 2 tan 2 x Lim (1 − x)(1 − x 2 )(1 − x 3 ) (1 − x 2n ) x → 1 [(1 − x)(1 − x 2 )(1 − x 3 ) (1 − x n )] 2 n n ∏ n + r r (b) 1 n! ∏ (4r − 2) r = 1 r = 1

Lim

x

a

Lim

x

0

If L =

(a)

where a is an odd integer

then show that L can be equal to

(c) The sum of the coefficients of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x) 2n 1 .

(d) The coefficient of x n in the expansion of (1 + x) 2n .

Q.15

Lim

n→∞

[1.x ]+ [ 2.x ]+ [ 3.x ]+

+ [ n .x ] , Where [.] denotes the greatest integer function.

n 2

Q.16

Q.17

Q.18

Q.19

Q.20

Q.21

Q.22

Q.23

Q.24

Q.25

Q.26

Q.27

 Evaluate, Lim 1 − x + l n x Lim    x Limit → 1 1 + cos π x    exp ln(1 x + ay    ) x −    exp x 1 n (1 + by   )    x  → 0  x→∞ y  y   π   Let x 0 = 2 cos 6 and x n = 2 + x n − 1 , n = 1, 2, 3, Lim  ln (1 + x ) 1 + x 1    x → 0   2 x − x

, find

Lim 2

n →∞

(n

+ 1)

·
2 − x
n

.

Let

L =

n = 3

1

4

n

2

;

M =

=

n

2

n

3

1

n

3

+ 1

and

N =

n = 1

(1

+

n

1

)

2

1 +

2n

1

, then find the value of

L 1 + M 1 + N 1 .

as shown in

the figure. The point C is the intersection of the two tangent lines at A & B. Let T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let S(x) be the area of the shaded region. Compute:

(a) T(x)

A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle of x radians, 0 < x < π

2

(c) the limit of Tx

Sx (

)

(

)

(b) S(x)

&

as x 0.

Let f (x) =

Lim

n →∞

n

n = 1

3

n

1

sin

3

x

3

n

and g (x) = x – 4 f (x). Evaluate

(

Lim 1+ g(x)

x

0

) cot x
.

n

If f (n, θ)=

r = 1

1

tan

2

θ 

2

r

, then compute Lim

n

→∞

f

(n,

θ

)

L = Lim

x

0

 cos 2x + + 1 3 4 cos 3 − l n(1 + x) 4 (1 3x) − 3 x 2 4

x

If L = a b where 'a' and 'b' are relatively primes find (a + b).

Lim   cosh (
π
x) 
x
→∞
cos (
π
x)

x

2

where cosh t =

e

t

+

e

t

2

f (x) is the function such that

Lim

x

0

f (x)

x

= 1

. If

Lim

x

0

x(1 + a cos x) b sin x

(

f (x)

)

3

= 1

, then find the value of

a and b.

Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such that AT = AP. If TP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that the limiting value of AQ when P moves upto A is double the diameter of the circle.

Q.28
Using Sandwich theorem, evaluate
1
1
1
1 
(a)
Lim
+
+
+
+
n →∞
2
2
2
n
n
+ 1
n
+
2
2n 
1 2
n
Lim
(b)
+
+
+
2
2
2
n→∞
1
+ n
2
+ n
n
+ n
2
x
+ 1
Lim
Lim
Q.29
Find a & b if : (i)
ax
b
= 0
x
2 − +1−
x
ax
b
   = 0
x→∞
(ii) x→−∞
x + 1
 
1
1
L +153 .
Q.30
If L =
Lim
then find the value of
x
0
l n(1
+
x)
2
L
l n(x
+
1
+
x
)
EXERCISE–III
x
tan
2
x
− 2
x
tan
x
Lim
Q.1
is :
[ JEE '99, 2 (out of 200) ]
2
x
→ 0
(
1
− cos
2 x
)
1
(A) 2
(B) − 2
(C)
(D)
− 1
2
2
x
 x − 3 
Q.2
For x ∈ R , Lim x→∞
=
[ JEE 2000, Screening]
 x + 2 
e −1
(A)
e
(B)
(C) e −5
(D) e 5
sin(
π cos
2 x)
Q.3
Lim
equals
[ JEE 2001, Screening]
2
x →
0
x
(A) –π
(B) π
(C) π
(D) 1
2
tan x
sin x
a
− a
Q.4
Evaluate
Lim
, a > 0.
[REE 2001, 3 out of 100]
x
→ 0
tan x
− sin x
(cos x
1)(cos x
e
x )
Q.5
The integer n for which
Lim
is a finite non-zero number is
n
x →
0
x

Q.6

Q.7

(A) 1

(B) 2

If
Lim
x
→ 0
1
(A) n

sin(n x)[(a

n)n x

tan x]

x

2

(B) n 2 + 1

= 0

Find the value of

Lim

n→∞

2

 

π

(n

+ 1) cos

1

(C) 3

(D) 4 [JEE 2002 (screening), 3]

(n > 0) then the value of 'a' is equal to

1  − n

n

(C)

  

.

n

2 +

1

n

(D)

[JEE 2003 (screening)]

None

[ JEE ' 2004, 2 out of 60]

KEY CONCEPTS (CONTINUITY)

THINGS TO REMEMBER :

1.

2.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

f(x) = f(c). Symbolically

f is continuous at x = c if

i.e. LHL at x = c = RHL at x = c equals Value of ‘f’ at x = c. It should be noted that continuity of a function at x = a is meaningful only if the function is defined in the immediate neighbourhood of x = a, not necessarily at x = a.

Reasons of discontinuity:

A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x =

c,

if

Limit

x

c

Limit

h

0

f(c - h) =

Limit

h

0

f(c+h) = f(c).

Limit

x

c

f(x) does not exist

i.e. Limit f(x)

xc

Limit

x

c

Limit f (x)

xc

+

f(x) is not defined at x= c

f(x) f (c)

Geometrically, the graph of the function will exhibit a break at x= c. The graph as shown is discontinuous at x = 1 , 2 and 3.

Types of Discontinuities :

3.

Type - 1: ( Removable type of discontinuities)

In case

or discontinuity of the first kind. In this case we can redefine the function such that

make it continuous at x= c. Removable type of discontinuity can be further classified as :

Limit

x

c

f(x) exists but is not equal to f(c) then the function is said to have a removable discontinuity

f(x) = f(c) &

Limit

x

c

(a)

(b)

MISSING POINT DISCONTINUITY : Where

Limit

f(x) exists finitely but f(a) is not defined.

e.g. f(x) =

(1

x)(9

x

2 )

(1 x)

x

a

has a missing point discontinuity at x = 1 , and f(x) = sin x

x

has a missing point

discontinuity at x = 0

ISOLATED POINT DISCONTINUITY : Where

Limit

f(x) exists & f(a) also exists but ;

Limit

e.g. f(x) =

x

2

16

x

4

x

a

, x 4 & f (4) = 9 has an isolated point discontinuity at x = 4.

x

a

Similarly f(x) = [x] + [ –x] =

0

if x

I

has an isolated point discontinuity at all x I.

 −

1

if x I

f(a).

Type-2: ( Non - Removable type of discontinuities)

f(x) does not exist then it is not possible to make the function continuous by redefining it.

Such discontinuities are known as non - removable discontinuity or discontinuity of the 2nd kind. Non-removable type of discontinuity can be further classified as :

In case

Limit

x

c

(a)

Finite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = x [x] at all integral x ; f(x) = tan 1

( note that f(0 + ) = 0 ; f(0 ) = 1 )

1

x

at x = 0 and f(x) =

1

1

+

2

1

x

at x = 0

(b)

(c)

1 or g(x) =

4

1

1 at x = 4 ; f(x) = 2 tanx at x =

4)

2

Infinite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = x

at x = 0.

Oscillatory discontinuity e.g. f(x) = sin x

(x

at x = 0.

π

2

and f(x) =

cosx

x

In all these cases the value of f(a) of the function at x= a (point of discontinuity) may or may not exist but

Limit

x

a

does not exist.

Note: From the adjacent graph note that

– f is continuous at x = – 1

– f has isolated discontinuity at x = 1

– f has missing point discontinuity at x = 2

– f has non removable (finite type) discontinuity at the origin.

4. In case of dis-continuity of the second kind the non-negative difference between the value of the RHL at x = c & LHL at x = c is called THE JUMP OF DISCONTINUITY. A function having a finite number of jumps in a given interval I is called a PIECE WISE CONTINUOUS or SECTIONALLY CONTINUOUS function in this interval.

5. All Polynomials, Trigonometrical functions, exponential & Logarithmic functions are continuous in their domains.

6. If f & g are two functions that are continuous at x= c then the functions defined by :

F 1 (x) = f(x) ± g(x); F 2 (x) = K f(x), K any real number; F 3 (x) = f(x).g(x) are also continuous at x= c.

Further, if g (c) is not zero, then F 4 (x) = f x ) is also continuous at x= c.

g x

(

(

)

7. The intermediate value theorem:

Suppose f(x) is continuous on an interval I , and a and b are any two points of I. Then if y 0 is a number between f(a) and f(b) , their exists a number c between a and b such that f(c) = y 0 .

The function f, being continuous on [a,b) takes on every value between f(a) and f(b)

NOTE VERY CAREFULLY THAT :

(a)

If f(x) is continuous & g(x) is discontinuous at x = a then the product function φ(x) = f(x) . g(x) is not necessarily be discontinuous at x = a. e.g.

f(x) = x & g(x) =

 ≠ 0

0

sin

0

x

π

x

x =

(b)

If f(x) and g(x) both are discontinuous at x = a then the product function φ(x) = f(x) . g(x) is not necessarily be discontinuous at x = a. e.g.

(c)

(d)

(e)

f(x) = g(x) =

1

1

x

<

x

0

0

Point functions are to be treated as discontinuous. eg. f(x) =

1− x +

x 1 is not continuous at x = 1.

A Continuous function whose domain is closed must have a range also in closed interval.

If f is continuous at x = c & g is continuous at x = f(c) then the composite g[f(x)] is continuous at x = c.

x

sin

x

x 2 + 2

eg. f(x) =

be continuous at

x
sin
x
x 2 + 2

& g(x) = xare continuous at x = 0 , hence the composite (gof) (x) =

x = 0 .

will also

7.

(a)

CONTINUITY IN AN INTERVAL :

A function f is said to be continuous in (a , b) if f is continuous at each & every point (a , b).

(b) A function f is said to be continuous in a closed interval[a,b] if :

(i) f is continuous in the open interval (a , b)

(ii) f is right continuous at ‘a’ i.e. Limit f(x) = f(a) = a finite quantity.

&

xa

+

(iii) f is left continuous at ‘b’ i.e. Limit f(x) = f(b) = a finite quantity.

xb

Note that a function f which is continuous in [a,b] possesses the following properties :

(i) If f(a) & f(b) possess opposite signs, then there exists at least one solution of the equation f(x) = 0 in the open interval (a , b).

(ii) If K is any real number between f(a) & f(b), then there exists at least one solution of the equation f(x) = K in the open inetrval (a , b).

8. SINGLE POINT CONTINUITY:

Functions which are continuous only at one point are said to exhibit single point continuity

Q.1

Q.2

Q.3

Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

x
if
x
∈ Q
x
if
x
∈ Q
e.g. f(x) =
and g(x) =
are both continuous only at x = 0.
x if x Q
0
if x
Q
EXERCISE–I
3x
2 +
ax
+ +
a
3
If the function f (x) =
is continuous at x = – 2. Find f (–2).
x
2 + x −
2

Find all possible values of a and b so that f (x) is continuous for all x R if

|
ax + 3 |
if x
≤−
1
| 3x
+ a |
if
− 1 <
x
0
f (x) =
b sin 2x
2b
if
0
< <π
x
x
2
cos
x
3
if x
≥π
l n cos x
if x
> 0
4
2
1
+
x
1
Let f(x) = 
sin4x
e
1
if
x
< 0
l n(1
+ tan 2x)

Is it possible to define f(0) to make the function continuous at x = 0. If yes what is the value of f(0), if not then indicate the nature of discontinuity.

f

( x )

x

3

K

x 3

3

x

=

Suppose that f (x) = x 3 – 3x 2 – 4x + 12 and h(x) =

(a)

(b)

(c)

x x

,

,

then

find all zeros of f (x)

find the value of K that makes h continuous at x = 3

using the value of K found in (b), determine whether h is an even function.

2 2

2

x

Let y n (x) = x 2 +

Discuss the continuity of y n (x) (n N) and y(x) at x = 0

Draw the graph of the function f(x) = x −x , 1 x 1 & discuss the continuity or discontinuity of f in the interval 1 x 1.

+

1+

x

2

(

1

+ x

2

)

2

+

+

(

1 + x

2

)

n

1

and

y (x) = Lim y

n→∞

n

(x)

Q.7

Q.8

Q.9

Q.10

1
sin
π
x
,
1
+
cos 2
π
x
p,
Let f(x) = 
2x
1
4
+
2x
− −
1
2

x <

x =

, x >

1

2

1

2

1

2

. Determine the value of p, if possible, so that the function is continuous

at x=1/2.

Given the function g (x) =

(a) evaluate h ( g(2) )

6 2x and h (x) = 2x 2 – 3x + a. Then

(b) If f (x) =

g(x),

h(x),

x

x

> , find 'a' so that f is continuous.

1

1

Let f(x) =

1

3

+

x

x

,

,

0

2

x

< ≤

x

2

3

. Determine the form of g(x) = f [f(x)] & hence find the point of

discontinuity of g , if any.

Let [x] denote the greatest integer function & f(x) be defined in a neighbourhood of 2 by

f (x) =

 

(

exp { x 2 n4}

(

+

)l

[x 1]

+

)

4

16

A

4 16

1 cos(x 2)

x

(x 2)tan(x 2)

,x < 2

.

,x > 2

Find the values of A & f(2) in order that f(x) may be continuous at x = 2.

Q.11

The function f(x) =

tan6x
()
6
tan5x
5
b
+
2
a
tanx
(
)
1 +
cosx
b

if 0 < x <

if

x =

π

2

π

2

if

π

2

< x

Determine the values of 'a' & 'b' , if f is continuous at x =