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ISBN 5-7598-0357-3

:
Doberman Leo Studio
twirpx.com

.., 2006
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, 2006

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ASTRACT

Political regional science came to Russia in l 990s. Gradually this definition has m
widely recognized in Russian political science as one of its principal new trends. Of course
regional political studies have n introduced and caied out for long time in world's
history. Actually any political study has little it of regional one or pays some attention

to spatial dimension. But it is the second half of the 20ih century when scientists started to
work over specialized scientific field like political regional science. On the one hand geog

..:

>

raphers started research in political geography. On the other hand political scientists car

time went political regional science had gotten its status and recognition and was iri

rying out regional studies started to identify their field as political regional science. the

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of making the political regional science in Russia was characterized the lack of uniform
ity in its meaning and definitions.
In 1999 the author of this k wrote and pulished the k called "Political geo
graphy", one of the first such ooks in Russia. Several years have passed since. During the

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t,. !& "
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result the crucial need for new ooks on this subject came into eing. h very first period

g g

cluded in the Iist of obligatory disciplines for Russian students in political science.

time passed regional political studies have gone ahead. 1 continued to work over theory and
methodo\ogy of regional studies, collected and worked up huge informational stuffoth on
Russia and foreign countries. Political life in Russia has not stopped for even moment
supplying me wit\1 new information and driving me for new conclusions. lt also was very
useful to \ecture for many years in Higher Schoo\ for Economics (faculty of app\ied po
litical science) and Moscow State University (faculties of philosophy and geography).
New k ca\led "Political regional science" is result of this work.

The work over this k was started under auspices of National Foundation

for Cadres Training. h text prepared for this Foundation was approved lndepend

.D

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ent Committee for Certification of Educational Materials


rial

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ICCEM Council on 23 Decemer 2004). Working on some parts of this k 1 also used
results of research 1 conducted for Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation project

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N 02-03-\80\2. Partly the text of this book coincides with my several articles but the

main part is published for the first time and was prepared especially for this issue. Last but

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not \east this k was approved Ministry for Science and Education of Russian Fede

.D

ration for training students studying po\itical science.

This k presents political regional science as an integral field within political


science with its own theory and methods. Besides it includes lot of useful information on

aci

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(\) as the main mate

for training students in political science (certificate N 092 issued decision of

processes of teitorial state-building, regional policies and regional political processes in


Russia and other countries.

776

>road

but outliig tl1e


The very first basic definition t idetifyig specific science
may proved to
research spl1ere is the definition of regional studies. study

s (or bot\1).
egio nal if it uses of the followig principle

ional ditereces
The diterentiatio principle whicl1 meas the study of iter-reg

)f the same phenomenon.

clearly defined
The Jocalization principle whicl1 means the study of localized (i.e.

pl1enomena.
d delimited on the territory) complexes of diterent

mea.

of pl1enol
The usage of these principles helps to study the spatial dimesio
of regional studies.
Spatial dimension of phenomena of any origin is the matter

sciece, i.e. po
Object of political regional study is the same as i geeral political
regional science is result of sy
litical institutions, phenomena and processes. Political
as political geography came into
thesis of regional and political sciences tl1e same way
y.
eing as result of synthesis of political science and geograph
n. Even in the West it is
formatio
its
of
Political regional science is still i the process
Russia with its unique territory
too early to say that such science has n clearly defed.
chance to become of the
and consequentially complex regional proiems has good
regional science is gradually
world's leading centers of political regional science. Political
with its own good prospects.
ecoming specific scientific field of interdisciplinary origin
the same as of political
So the object of political regional science is very much
of territorial diterentiatio.
science as it is. For its clearer definition one can use the rule
l heterogeneity m
territoria
This rule means that only phenomena characterized
objects of studies.

intemal teitorial
Objects ig stu,ditd in political regioal science !1ave their

ed to meaingful
diterentiation. If suct1 diteJ"eJ tiatio does not exist or is t consider
object is not relevant for political regional science.

Political regional sciece studies political pheomena sub-ational level, i.e.

within the state. It excludes objects of interational scale or natioal-scale objects eing
spatially homogeeous.
political pl1eThe matter of political regioal science is spatial dimension of
nomea. This matter includes.

Political relations etween cetre (national level) and regios (sub-atioal le

vels). Such relations make up vertical dimesion i political regional science;

AbJtract

Abstract

778

l dimeSpatially heterogeneous political phenomena in regions, i.e. lrizonta

779

Political regional sciece is close to comparative political science. But usually com
parative political science deals with cross-national studies. Political regional science deals
with cross-regional comparative studies on sub-national level.
State territory is studied three possile ways.

Territorial heterogeneity.

Territorial hierarchy.

Territorial development.

Political regional science needs to make order in its terms meaning elements of ter
ritorial structure (geo-structure). It is important ecause the very words "regional science"

derive from one of such terms. Region seems to the most relevant definition. Speaking
about regions one can identify territories delimited according to certain criteria and sepa

rated from the other territories (i.e. other regions). Region is conventional integrity and at
the same time it is part of higher-leve\ integrity. This definition is used to identify and
delimit any part of the land using certain criteria.
Regions have narrow and broad meanings. Political regions in its narrow meaning
are administrative units of first sub-national level. But it does not mean that political re
gional science deals with administrative division only. Political administrative region of the
fust order is the main formal (i.e. officially defined law) unit of political space in any
state. Such units are always taken into consideration researchers.
In broader sense political region is part of state territory with its certain political
qualities.

Formal region exists de jure eing administrative unit.

Informal region is defed scientists according to results of their studies (the

existence and orders of such regions are subject of scientific discussions).

Vemacular region is defined ordinary people and often constitutes the part of

their identity.
Structuring of political space is called regionalization. Regionalization is oth the
process of territorial structuring and result of this process such as heterogeneous horizontal
structure and vertical hierarchy (regional, or territorial, stratification).
Political science has irnportant definition useful for studies of social and regional
stratifications. It is plural society identified Arend Lijphart. According to Lijphart politi
cal contradictions i plural society coincide with social cleavages. Lijphart descries society
eing divided into segments - rather closed and stale communities with their political and
social characteristics. Plural society is not always multi-ethnic. Segments of religious and
class and other origin also exist. All this segments create consociate democracy within plu
ral society. Territorial segments, or regional communities, constitute one kind of segments.

sio of political regional science.

Territorial segments are regions in its informal sense. There are ethno-cu\tura\, socio

diterences of politi
Suffice it to mention that horizotal dimension deals with oth
complexes of
localized
cal phenomena from place to place (diterentiation principle) and

economic and natural-geographic factors of politica\ regionalization.

:
political phenomena (localization prjnciple).
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In political regional science we use comparative, system and structural-functional


approaches. These approaches comine with those acquired from geography. The Iatter are

Abstract

780

CONTENTS

uorma1 regionalization; "centre - periphery" theory, innovation diffusion etc . System


pproach lies in the core ofpolitica1 regiona1 science . Politica1 regiona1 science dea1s with
11 territoria1politica1 systems as specific kind ofpolitica1 systems . States and sub-nationa1

gions are territoria1 politica1 systems of different 1eve1s . The concept of "centre - re
ions" ba1ance is used to study the state as territoria1political system .
Regiona1 policy is one of the principa1 fie1ds of natioa1 interna1 po1icy along with
conomic policy, socia1 po\icy etc . Regiona1policies are measures meat to regulate "cen

re - regions" re1ations . Regiona1 policies are aout regulation of regional development,


t()th politica1and economic, according to po1itica1goals defined on nationa11eve1.
Regiona1 strategy constitutes the core of any conscious regiona1 policy. Regiona1
trategy is system ofthe main goals and decisions worked out in order to stabilize "centre

egions" ba1ance for the future, stimu1ate deve1opment on the all 1evels ofterritoria1hierar
.hy and reduce con.flicts oth vertica1 (etween centre and regio) and horizonta1 (e
ween regioa1communities). In other words regiona1strategy is the very essence oftheory
.nd practice used in regiona1po1icy conducted the ruling elites . Regiona1strategy is of

en part of nationa1ideo1ogy .
Federalism is considered regiona1politica1 science as specific kind ofterritorial
litica1 system and specific mode\ ofterritoria1 state-bui1ding . In "centre - regions" rela
ions federalism gives regions higher \eve1 of autonomy and self-government as compared
vith other territoria1politica1systems .
In this book in its different parts one can find the who1e array of issues political re
;iona1science deals with, fm;t ofall .

Intemationa1and Russian experience ofterritoria1state-building .

State as territoria1 political system; deve1opment of federa1 territoria1 politica1

.ysterns.

State's regional structure including its administrative territorial division .

Regional politics and policies; federa1intervention in federations.

"Centre - regions" ba1ance; regiona1 participation and influence national

1nstitutions ofregiona1and 11govemment .

Regiona1politica\ processes .

Regional elites .

eve\ .

Regiona1politica1situations .

Applied regiona1studies .

Foreword

...................................................................................................................

Introduction. Theoretical framework of political regional science

............ .

15

................ ....

30

.................

Chapter 1. Theory and methodology of political regional science .

..........

13

1.1. State's regiona1structure ...................................................................................... 30


1.1.1. The state as territory .... .. ................... ..............................................

30

1.1.2. The region and terrltoria1structure (geo-structure).............................:::::::::36


1.1.3. Regiona1ization in plura1society .................................................................43
1.1.4. Factors and forms ofregionalization ...........................................................46
1.1.5. Regionalization study's methodo1ogy .......................................................... 49
1.2. Geographica1modeling and regiona1politica1ana1ysis .......................................... 52
1.2.1. Geographic mode1ing ofregiona1 structure ..................................................52
1.2.2. Politica1 innovations' diffusion ................................................................... 59
1.2.3. "Understanding" (interpretative) politica1regional science ......................... 63
1.3. The state as territoria1politica1system ................................................................ 68
1.3.1. Territoria1state-building ............................................................................. 68
1.3.2. Region in "centre - regions" ba1ance ......................................................... 70
1.3.3. Centre in "centre- regions" ba1ance ......................................................... 72
1.3.4. Conceptualizing "centre- regions" ba1ance ............................................... 75
1.3.5. Functionalist approach towards "centre- regions" ba1ance ........................ 78
1.3.6. Regiona1policy: the definition .................................................................... 80
1.3.7. The matter ofregiona1 policy ...................................................: .................. 83
1.3.8. The approaches in regiona1policy ............................................................... 88
1.3.9. Regiona1participation and regional politica1process ...............'...' ................. 89
1.4. Territoria1-politica1character oft11e federa1state .................................................. 90
1.4.1. Federalism: the definition ...................................................: ....................... 90
1.4.2. The cl1aracter ofthe federa1 territoria1political system .................: ............... 95
1.4.3. The concepts ofthe federalism ................................................................. 100
References ............................................................................................................... 104
Control questions ..................................................................................................... 1 06
Chapter 2. World practice of territorial state-building

..........

:................................... 108

2.1. Administrative territoria1 division ofthe state ...................................................... 1 08


2.1.1. Main definitions

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2.1.2. Factors of administrative territoria1division ............................................... 110


2.1.3. Pattern of administrative terntorial division

...............

2.1.4. Toponymy ofadministrative tetritorial division .


.

.....................

. . ....................

......

. . 116
.

... .-. ..... ...... 130

Contents

Contents

782

2. 1.5. Morphology of administrative territorial division

.....

133

3.2.2. Chambers' hierarchy and functional differences

. . . . ....................

136

3.2.3. The ways of regional chamers' formation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ........

138

3.2.4. Criteria of regional representation

. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. 1.6. Capita1s in administrative territoria1 division system

. . . ....

2.1. 7. Leve1s of administrative territorial division

.............

...

2. 1.8. Scenarios of administrative territoria1 division reorganization...................... 139


2. 1.9. The principles of administrative territorial division changes
2.1.1 . State jurisdiction in the sea

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........

. . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . ............... . . . . . . . . . . .

..
.

....

...........

2.2.3. The order-making process

........... .... . . .............

of federa1 states

. 153

. .

2.2.4. Border's morphology

..

. ..... . . .

154

. . . 156

. . .................... ................ ................................. ................ . .

2.2.5. Border dispute as result of conflict in administrative territoria1


........... ....................................................... ..................................................

2.3. Territoria1 political decentralization .


..

2.3. 1. Main definitions

. . . . . . . . . . . ...........

...

.................

..

.....

..

........

........

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... .. .
.

.....

...

160
162

.....

. . . . . . ...

..

.........

.........

........... .

....

.. .
..

........

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......

162

...

.........

..
.

2.3.3. The formation of regionalist states

..............

.....

.....

..

.......

..........

.........

.. .

.....

..

. .. .
..

..

.........

........

. .
..

. . ....

164
l67

2.3.4. Post-co1onia1 mode1s of decentralization.................................................... 17 1


2.4. Contemporary comparative federalism

...

...

. . . . . ....

2.4. 1. Comparative studies of federalism

.........

..

...............

.........

....

. .
..

.........

. . .....

....

............

...............

2.4.4. C1assifications of federations

References

......

......

Contro1 questions

...

. . . ..... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... .
.

.......

....

...

..

...

......

.......

.........................

...............

...

. .
..

....................

..............

.....

..............

. . . .........

...

.. .
.

..............

........

...... .

....

..........

................... . . . . . .

..

. . . .......

...

..........

3.1. 1. The unity if the nationa1 1ega1 space

. ..
.

...........

....

..........

................ . . . ......

204

.....

............

. 208
.

..........

......

..
.

200

. . . ..........

. . ...............

197
202

.....

. .

194

. . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 3. Modeling state as territorial political system: the world practice


3. 1. National territorial political contro1 ...

..

..

176

. 176

..........

......................

..

.................. . . . .

....................

.............. ...............

.. .
..

...

..

..........................

. .... ....
.

..

............

2.4.5. Federacy as form of federalism


2.4.6. Federa1 transformation .

. .. .

2.4.2 The genesis of the federalism and historica1 mode1s of federalization


2.4.3. Federalization's factors

. . 176

209

......

209

.......

209

3. 1.2. Territoria1 networks of the centra1 administration agents.

3.2.8. Widespread forms of regional influence

.....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . ......

. 224
.

....

. 226

....

227

230

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.1. Principles of power sharing

.......................

. . . . . . .......

...... . . . . . . .

.........

233
235

..

........

. . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . .

3.4.1. Organization of regional government

..............

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

3.4.2. Mode1 of e1ected governor

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. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

3.4.3. Par1iamentary model

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3.4.7. Swiss model

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262

3.5. Local government in modern state

.........

3.5.4. Powers of loca1 government


.

. . . . . . . . .........

Control questions

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268

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267

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. . . . . . . .....

...

270

3.5. 1. Concept and practice of\ocal (self)-government

References . ..

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...........................................

3.5.2. Territorial units of\ocal government


3.5.3. Organization of loca1 government

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. . ....... . . . . . . . . . . .

26 1

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266

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3.4.8. Regional governent in unitary state .

. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....

26 1

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3.4.6. Monarchic model

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259

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. 258

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254

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3.4.4. Canadian and Australian (quasi-parliamentary) models


3.4.5. Model of appointed governor

252

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250

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246

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3.4. Regiona1 government in modern state

24 1

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...

.....

. . . . .......

...............................

3.3.6. Power sharing in infrastructure

3.3.7. Some main princip1es of power sharing

...

3.3.4. Power sharing in land and subsoi1 use, and in agricu1ture


3.3.5. Power sharing in socia1 sphere

. . . . ...........

............................

....................

...........

...

3.3.2. ldeology of power sharing and the powers of the centre


...........

. . . . . .......

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............

3.3. Power sharing among the power leve1s

Direct and indirect federa1 administration ......................................................... . 2 1 1

..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . .

.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.2 Decentralization in unitary state .

.........

. . . . . . . . . ................

......... . . . . . ...

3.2.7. Other forms of regional influence in federations

3.3.3. Power sharing in economy

division system

3.2.5. Other means of regional representatio in parliaments


3.2.6. Regional icamera1ism in unitary states

. . . . ............................. ..

..... . . . . . ................. .. .... ................. .................

...............

149

2.2. 1. The definition.......................................................................................................... 15 1

..........

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................

147

2.2. Political administrative borders and border disputes................................................... 15 1


2.2.2. Characteristics of political limology

783

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28 1

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285

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289

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293

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295

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3. 1.3. Specia1 institutions of centralized contro1 and sanctions against


regional administrations

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.

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...

2 17

Chapter 4. Political historical development of Russian

3. 1.4. The federal intervention: defining the intervener and forma1 cause

"centre- regions" system . . .

for intervention

4. 1. "Centre- regions" re1ations in medieval Russia

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3. 1.5. Indirect sanctions ..


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:
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3.2.
1.
Bicameralism
and
regiona1
chamers
in
nationa1
parliaments
Doberman Leo Studio
twirpx.com

3.2. lnstitutions of regiona1 influence on nationa1 1eve1

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4. 1. 1. Confederative- votchina mode1 of XIII-XIV centuries .. .. ..


4. 1.2. Transitiona1 ude1- uyezd mode1 ofXV ' century

..... : -

223

4. 1.3. Zemstvo model of XVI'1' century . .. ..

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297
304

. 3 12
.

784

Contents

40 1.40 Asymmetry in regiona1 policy and the government


of rogue cu1ture peripheries

5 0 20 2 Contemporary politica1 administrative structure .41 6


31 9

50 203 Factors of regional structure's formation

323

50 2. 4 Prolems of regiona1 mu1tiplicity and en1argement

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

40 20 "Centre - regions" relations under Romanovs dynasty

00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0

40 20 1 0 Transitional military-administrative model of XVII '1' century

323

5 2 5 Federa1 districts' system

00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 . . 0 0

4 20 20 Peter the Great model of regiona1 policy

5 03030 Exc1usive status of Russian republics . ....

5030 20 Nationa1-territoria1 autonomy and asymmetry..........oo..oooooooo......oo....oo....oo.. 441


.

5 030 50 Some prospectsoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo464

353

40 20 1 00 Nicho1as the Second: losing the ba1ance

5.40 10 Lega1 framework of inter-regiona1 orders and their changes......oo..oo...........46 6

35 8

4030 20 Soviets: from the aiternative se1f-government towards


the new state powerooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo36 0
403030 Octoer revo1ution and the irth of Soviet federalism
40 3 . 4 0 C1eavages of Russian space
0

36 2

36 5

6 0 20 1 0 Russian presidentooooooooooooooooooo

372

6 0 20 20 Russian government

395

4030 1 00 Regiona1 economic p1anning and govemment 397


398

484

00000000000000 0

0000000

484

0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0

486

.. 488

...... ......................

6 0 2040 The role ofConstitutional court ...


.

383

479

..479

............

6 2 3 The role of Fedel Assemly


0

...

6 0 20 Federa1 centre in "centre- regions" relations

..

. ...489

6 0 20 5 0 The role ofjudicial power and prosecutor's office ......

References

475

60 1 0 Lega1 framework of Russian regional policy..

4 3 8 Regiona1 participation 393


4030 90 Regiona1 and 11 government

Chapter 6. Regional policy and "centre- regions" balance

in Soviet federa1ismooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo378
4030 70 Nationa1-territoria1 autonomy in RSFSR
0

in contemporary Russia

4030 6 0 Sovereignty and politica1 territoria1 subordination

... 46 7

. ..............

Contro1 questionsooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!ooooooooo4780

4 3 5 Overcoming the nationa1 states' po1ycentrism


0

......

......

50 50 Exterritorial forms of ethnic se1f-organizationooo....oo........oo........oo......oo..oooooooo....o473

4 3 1 February revo1ution and its consequencesooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 35 8


0

5.40 20 Inter-regional order disputes ...


References

35 5

4030 "Centre- regions" relations in Soviet period

445

5 . 40 Inter-regiona1 orders and order disputes in contemporary Russia..oooooo.............46 6

in " centre- regions" re1ations

339

40 20 90 Alexander the Third: new partia1 centralization

341

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0000 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 00 00

4 2 8 Zemstvo model of Alexander the Secondoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 347


0

... .......

....

5 3 4 Status of autonomous districtsoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo45 8

40 20 70 Nicho1as the First: new ordering in the systemoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 344


0

440

335

0 0 0 0 0 0 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0

40 20 60 Alexander the First: partia1 decentra1ization

435

5 3 10 Definition of federa1 regions' statusoo........oooooo........oo......oooooooooooooooooooooo....oo440

of regional po1icy

431

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .

334

4 2 5 The emperor Pau1: new centra1ization and simplification


0

430

00 0 0 0 0 .

5 030 Federal regions' status and the prolem of territoria1 politica1 asymmetry

40 2.40 Catharine the Second mode1 of regiona1 policy


(renewed gubernia model)

42 1

5 0 20 60 Princip1es of new federa1 regions' formation

(gubemia mode1 with e1ements of se1f-government) 327


4 23 Centra1ization after Peter the Great

785

Contents

6 0 20 6 0 The role of pressure groups in regional policy ..

.. .490

..

. 491

. . . .............

6 3 Legal practices and institutions of federal intervention


0

and centralized control..ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo:ooooo492

Contro1 questions

000

00

400

6 0301 0 Presidential constitutional powers in federal intervention..........oo..oooooooooooooo492

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00

6 030 2 0 Institutions of presidentia1 influence in regional policy

Chapter 5. Regional structure of contemporary Russiaooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo402

(presidential representatives)

50 1 0 Deve1opment of administrative territoria1 division in Russia

6 3 3 System of bureaucratic verticals .......... ............

0 0 0 00000 0 0 0 0 0 0 00

0 0 00

.402

00

496

.. . 5 03

....................

402

6 3 4 Governors' suspension..ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0o000o 5 05

5 0 1 0 20 The formation of new administrative territoria1 division system

603050 Regiona1 legis1atures' dismission .......................... 00........ ....... .

in Soviet periodoo..ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo405

6030 60 Withdrawing powers from the regional govemment ......00. .. ............. .....00 5 1 1

5 0 20 Contemporary federalism and politica1 administrative structure of Russiaoooooooooooo413

6 040 Regiona1 influence institutions on federa1 1evel ..................oo......oo.... .'o1oo'......o:...... 5 1 2


6.401 0 Character of Russian icameralism .......... ..... .........
! .. .. .......... 5 1 2

5 1 1 Pre-revo1utionary administrative territoria1 division system


.

0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00

:
2Doberman
1 The influence
of theStudio
USSR break-up on the regional structure of Russia .413
Leo
twirpx.com
0

..

..........

.. . ...... 5 1 0

..0 0...

00

..

Contents

786

Contents

787

6.4.2. Deve1opment of the Federation Council .................................................... 51 5

7.4. Legis1ative (representative) power in federa1 regions ............................................ 61 9

6.4.3. Federation Counci1 powers in 1egis1ation .................................................... 51 8

7.4.1 . Main characteristics of regiona1 1egis1atures ................................................ 623

6.4.4. Regiona1 and federa1 influence in the Federation Counci1 ...........................51 9

7.4.2. Power division and counter-ba1ances' system in Russian regions ................. 631

6.4.5. Consu1tative structures of regiona1 representation ....................................... 521

7.5. Systems of 1oca1 govemment .............................................................................. 632

6.4.6. Regiona1 1obbyism on federa1 1eve1 ............................................................. 524

7.5.1 . Constitutiona1 princip1es of loca1 se1f-government organization .................. 633

6.4.7. Regiona1 integration structures ................: .................................................. 527

7.5.2. Formation of loca1 se1f-government in contemporary Russia ....................... 634

6.5. Power sharing etween centre and regions .......................................................... 53\

7.5.3. Territoria1 pattern of loca1 se1f-government ................................................ 637

6.5.1 . Lega1 framework of power sharing .............................................................. 53\

7.5.4. Formation of loca\ se1f-government structures ............................................639

6.5.2. Centra1 and regiona1 powers in Russia ........................................................ 535

7.5.5. Loca1 powers ............................................................................................. 641

6.5.3. Autonomous districts' powers ....................................................................540

7.5.6. Loca1 se1f-government responsibllity to the state ......................................... 643

6.5.4. Agreements on power s1taring between centre and regions ...........................541

7.5.7. Patterns of inter-municipa1 integration ....................................................... 645

form of regiona1 po1icy ......................................... 548

7.5.8. Territoria1 community se1f-govemment ...................................................... 645

6.6.1 . The ro1e of economic regiona1 po1icy in politica1 process ............................ 548

7.6. Politica1 conflicts in Russian regions ................................................................... 646

6.6. Economic regiona1 policy

as

6.6.2. Regiona1 financia1 resources and their changes ........................................... 550

7.6.1 . Approaches towards regiona1 conflicts' studies in Russia ............................. 646

6.6.3. Regiona1 financia1 dependency from centre ................................................ 553

7.6.2. Conflict etween governors and 1egis1atures ................................................ 649

6.6.4. Individua1 federa1 aid ................................................................................. 557

7.6.3. Conflict etween governors and 11 se1f-government ................................ 651

6.6.5. Exc1usive economic regime in regions ........................................................ 560

7.6.4. Conflict"governors vs . federa1 officia1s in regions" ..................................... 655

6.6.6. Positions of the 1eading regions .................................................................. 563

7.6.5. Parties and business structures in regional conflicts ..................................... 656

6.7. Modeling"centre- regions" re1ations in Russia ................................................. 566

References ............................................................................................................... 659

6.7.\."Post-sovereignization" mode1 of 1 991 -1 993 ............................................ 566

Contro1 questions ..................................................................................................... 661

6.7.2. Mode1 of 1 994-1 996 (mode1 ofYe1tsin and Chernomyrdin) ...................... 569
6.7.3. Mode1 of 1 997 (young reformers' mode1) ................................................... 571

Chapter 8. Political situation in Russian regions

6.7.4. Mode1 of 1 998 (mode1 of Primakov) ........................................................... 574

(regional elites, inOuence groups and political regimes)

6.7.5. Recentralization mode1 2000-2005 (mode1 of Putin) .................................577

8.1 . Regiona1 elites ................................................................................................... 663

6.7.6. Optimization of"centre- regions" re1ations after 2005 .............................. 582

8.1 .1 . Main definitions ......................................................................................... 663

References

....... ............. . . . ...... . . . ...... ............ . . . . . ...... .............. . . . . ........... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ......

582

Contro1 questions ..................................................................................................... 586

...... . . . . .. . . . . ...... ....... ...............

663

8.\.2. Structura1 transformations of regiona1 elites ................................................ 665


8.\.3. Periods of regiona1 elite's transformation .................................................... 668
8.2. Framework of regiona1 political analysis ............................................................. 671

Chapter 7. Regional and local government in contemporary Russia

... .. . . ....... . . . . .. . . . . . .

588

8.2.1 . Studying the regional politica1 situation ...................................................... 671

7.1 . Systems of regiona1 govemment ......................................................................... 588

8.2.2. Politica1 institutions and influence groups

7.2. Executive power in federa1 regions ...................................................................... 591

in regiona1 politica1 situation ............................................................................... 674

7.2.1 . Executive power in repulics ...................................................................... 592

8.2.3. Regiona1 politica1 regimes .......................................................................... 684

7.2.2. Mode1s of executive power in repulics ...................................................... 594

8.3. Regiona1 politica1 regimes and politica1 situation in repulics .............................. 688

7.2.3. Executive power in the rest of regions ......................: .................................. 597

8.4. Regiona1 politica1 regimes and political situation in the rest

7.2.4. Main characteristics of governor's institution ............................................. 602

of federa1 regions . ..................................................................................................... 696

7.3. Organization of executive power in regions: comparative ana1ysis ........................ 609

8.4.1 . North-Western federal district ................................................................... 696

7.3.1 . The structure of regiona1 executive power ...................................................6\0

8.4.2. Centra1 federal district ............................................................................... 701

7.3.2. Institution of vice-president (vice-governor) .............................................. 61 3

8.4.3. Volga (Privolzhsky) federal district .............................................................707

:
7.3.3.
lnstitution
ofLeo
regiona1
govemment ............................................................. 61 6
Doberman
Studio
twirpx.com

8.4.4. Southern federa1 district ............................................................................. 71 1

Contents

788

88

8. 4.5 U rals federal district

....................

8.4.6. Sierian federal district

8.4.7. Far-Eastern federa1 district


References
Control questions

..

............... . . . . . ......

............................

...

..

..........

..................

.........................................

.........................................

.........

.......

715
718

....................

................................ ..... . . . . . . . . . .................................................

. ..............

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. . . . . . . .......

724
727

, . . u [] : . n
1 . . ; . - - u . -. : .
, 2006. - 780, [4) . + 8 . . . - (
). - .: . 735-768. -: . 769-776. - Abstract (in English):
. 777-780. - Contents: . 781-788.- 3 000 .- ISBN 5-7598-0357-3 ( .).

729

.IIIJlJICC.I 11.1 IIICIOIHO


.1 .I I , u
. .I n

731

n.I .IIIJlJICC.I -

Conclusion. Applied political regional science

............. . . . ...........................................

n.I

Appendix

............ ........ . . . . . .................. . . . . . . ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................

.l

Iu

n. ifi

1113

: . .

735

n n n
, .I .

Astract (in English)

....

..

. . ................... ......................................................... . . . . . .......

.1 n n n
, nr r , .1

777

nDi

"rr.1"

"r.I",

a.JOICe

11.1

.1

() .

323
66.3

1 .

:
Doberman Leo Studio
twirpx.com

.)
..

:
Doberman Leo Studio
twirpx.com