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.

Przeworski

and Market:

Political and Economic Reforms


in Eastern and Latin America

Cambidge Univesity Pess

1992

..

2000

66.2(0)17
65.7
93

:
.., .., ., ..,
.., .., .., .,
.., , ., ..,
., .., ..

University Library Editoria1 :


Natalia , Tatiana Alekseeva, Mikhail Andreev,
Vyaches1av khmin, Vedeniapina, Ekaterina Genieva,
, Alexander Livergant, Boris apustin, Frances Pinter,
Andrei 1t, Irina Savelieva, Lorina Repina, A1exei Rutkevich,
A1exander Fi1ippov

- ( )

his edition is published with the support of the Society
Institute within the framework of hkin Library megaproject

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( 1 - ..), 2 ., 3 - .., ..,
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1986),

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1989: 116),

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ante - -

78

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post. (Habermas, 1975)


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1988.)
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and Lomasky, 1989: 3)
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1988: 81).
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1986: 181),

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23 , ,

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26 , -

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27

28

L'esprit des 10is (1905)

,

: ,
.

29
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,
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30 .

31 , ,
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(avka, 1986: ch. 4, sect. 3).

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32

post,

33 ;
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83

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36 ,
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84

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40 , ,

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41
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da transicao Arnerica 1atina

(1989).
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1989 .
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, . 4).

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47 ,
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48 ,
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86

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56

Novos Estudos, 1985.

57
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58 , (. m,
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Przeworski, 1982 -

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Cardoso, 1972.

63 :
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64 ,
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66 . Rubinstein, 1988 -

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96

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98

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comunidades de base,
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1980
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1987 Le
Nouvel Observateur (NQ 1200), '. ,
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30 ,
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1989 . 60 . ,
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112

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119

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122

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1989 ,
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123


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125

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1990).

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1932 ,
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126

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141

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.
, ,

, .
,
.

,
, :

? ,

, ,
. , -,
.

,
.
,

. -, -

2.

143

, , ,

ancien regime,
, . ,

,
.

,
, ,
.

. ,

, ,

. .

.

. ,
.

,
;

, ,
.

, ,
. Ancien regime

.
.

.u.

144

I , .
;

,
,
. ;
,
, .

2
, .

,

,
.
,

(Lamounier, 1979: 13)


,
, .

,

40 . ,

- .

1966 35%, 1974- - 60%, 1976- - 78%


. 1971 12% ,
, 1973- 37% ,
, 1975-
56%; , 1976-
41%, 67% (LopezPintor, 1980). 1985 88%
(57,3% ), 81% - , 66% -
62% - (Bruszt, 1988).
,
1976 1981-,
()

1985- 53,I% 1987-


1988 ,
38,6% 1988-
26%

26,6%

66,2%

2.

145

1989-.
20,5/0 1985 26,2% 1988-

45,9%

1989-

(Ostrowski, 1989).

3 ,

,
. ,
,
,

, .

4
. ,
.
.

. .
: ? , - , -
. , :
,
.
. , ,
, , .
,
, - ,
-

5 -

(16,

1987 )

17

, ,

-
...
-
,

.

.

,
.

."u.

146

. ,
, ,
.

6 '

(O'DonneIl,


, ,
( ,

,
),
,

1979: 8),

7 . ,
Przeglad Tygodniowy, 51(403),
Warsaw, 22 December, 1989, .15.

(Szelenyi, 1989)

(Comisso, 1989) ,
.
(Walicki, 1990)

, ,
.

. -,
. ,
,
.

10 (,

Fusi, 1979: 179),


aperturistas,

, ,

,
, , , - immobi-

listas. .
(Rolicki, 1990: 146), 70-
, 25%

.
.

11

, ,
(MaravaIl, 1981). ,
, . 13

1989 - ,

2.

147

; 28 ,
- 5 . . 16
1990 ,
100 . .

12
. ,

1984 . , distensao 1974

. ,
,
-

. ,

. .
,
,
-
. (.
-.) -,
,
. ,
-
, -.

13

1955-1957 -

.
,
.
1974 1975-1977
,

(Andrade,
1980). -
, ,
,

(Diniz, 1986).
:
- .

14 :
.
: " ,
".

15 ,
, -

.u.

148

-,

1980

(Go1bey,

1981).

: :
- , ,
... , ,
,
(. . 7).

16
?

<Czy
boimy sie demokrcji? / / Zycie Warszawy, 291, Warsaw,
12-13 December, 1987, . 3).
17 , -

:
.

>>> >

18 ,
(1971-1973) (1975-1979),
' ,
, ,
.
;
"blandos" ("">.

19 , ,
, , ,

.

,
. (
.: Jean-Pau1 Mari, La derniere
colere de Cheausescu / / Le Nouve1 Obsevateur, 11 Janu, 1990, , 42-45.)

20
(Przeworski, 1986).

. (01son, 1965)
-.
,
, . ,
(Satre, 1960),
,
.
,
, , ,
, .

2.

149

Z generaiem Jaruzelskim stanie wojennym,) / / GazeWarsaw, 18 December, 1989, . 5-6.

21
,

, .
,
<Przewrot niewykonywalny,), //
Gazeta, Warsaw, 11 September, 1989, . 4).

22 . ,

,
, ,

.

.

23
.
.
. 1)
. 2)

3)

(

). , ,

(Przeworski, Wallerstein, 1988),


.

.
,
,

.
1978
. ,
,

. (
. Bresser, Pereira, 1978.) ,

.u.

150

. -, ,

-
, (Conaghan,
1983), -

(Hankiss, 1989)

24

1981 ,

;
- , .

25 ;

3 ..). ;
.

(4

26

, 1981).

<Polityka,>, Warsaw, Septem-

27
-
- 1981 .
, :
? , (
)? , , ,
? ?
,
. ?
! ,
, , 10-20
, . .
? , ,

, : "
, , ' (,
: Toranska, 1985: 290).

28

1989

. -

, -

2.

151


, ,
.

29
.

30

, , ,
, .

31 ,
,
,

(perfect)

. ,

. ( ,
.

(Rasmusen, 1989).)

32 ,

1974

33 , ,

(Schotter, 1981, 1986)


.
. ,
,

; . ,
,
- .
(Benhabib, Radner, 1988)
- , ,
,
;

, .

. ,
.

34 (.

2.2)
4,


- 3.

35 , ,
,
.

.u.

152

, ,
,
.
,
,

.
.

36

1987

100%
, ,
,
.
,
.

37 .

38

, (>

-.

q -

,
-.

(l-p)t,

39

q + (l-q)c.

1987

1983

,

. ,
,
,
.

40
.

41 ,

(Delich, 1984: 135)

,
, .
, ,

2.

153

, .

42

1987

(Murilo de Carvalho, 1987: 18)



:
,
. ,

,
, .. .
,
. ,
,

.
,
,

- <Latin American Weekly Report, 15


1988 :
,

,
()
.

43 ( )

. ,
,
, . -,
,
, (
), , ,

.
,
, ,
. -,
,
,

44 ,
1989 -

."u.

154

, .
(
), (
)
. ,
.

45
, ,
,

.
(Cumings, 1989).

46 ,
,
. , ,

1989

,

;

.

,
. , ,
, ;
, ,
.

, ,
1989 .

.
15,8%. (. Ostrowski, 1989).
.
, ,
, : ,
. ,

.
, (<<Le Figaro, Paris,
26 September, 1989, . 4)

47 ,
, .

Casper, 1989.
1977
,

(
),

1988

2.

155

48 . :

Elster, Slagstad, 1988.

49 . : Rustow, 1955 m, 1959.


50

: 1) versus
, 2) versus
, 3) versus
, (4) versus, ,
5) versus , 6)
versus , 7)
versus
, 8) versus
, 9)
, 10)
, 11) ,
, 12) , 13)
, 14)
, 15)
, 16) ,
, 17) , 18)
, 19) , 20)

21)

. . (.:

Hardin,

mes, Przeworski, 1988).


51

418

, 71%
. 80%
, 60% 45%
(<<Latin American Weekly Report, 12 July, 1990, . 5).

52 (Kavka, 1986: 185)


(impure) .
,
- .
,
, ,
. , .

S3 1854 1983
52%
: 72% - 1930 37% -
(.: de 10, 1990: 113). 1853

. -

.u.

156

, -
.

, ,
. ,

,

54

(<Yeja, 9 Sep-

tember, 1987.
55 ,

.
,
, ,
.

56 .

XVIII

57

(Hardin, 1987: 17,23),

- ,
.
,
. : 1787 .
,
,
>.
(Kavka, 1986) .

58 ,
,
-
.

59

1987)

(Kavka, 1986)

(Hardin,

, .
,

.
, * (1); ,
ante , * ();
* (1) = * ()/, <1. ,
, ,
, * (
*().

>

ante,

2.

157

, ,
..

60

,
,

(veil-of-ignorance reasoning)
1789 .

: , - , -
.

, , ,

,

.

,
,
(Fd, 1966: 1, 49).
.

61

'

Schmitter, 1986: IV, 73),

('lI,

, ,

,
, ,

,
,)

62 ,

.
,

, .
,
. ,
,
.

63 ,
, .
(.: , Fusi, 1979).
.

64
,
-

m .

.lluii.

158

, ,

(. Tygodnik SlidalOS,
,

Warsaw, 22 December, 1989).

, ,

. ,
,
. ,
, m

. ,

,

. , ,
,
. ,

,

1989 .

65
,

.
,

1)

; 2) ;
3) )
, )
) ; 4)
, ..

5)

, ,

66
, .

67 ,
, .
, .
, ,
,
.
.

2.

159

68

. ,

(Andrade, 1980) (Moises, 1986),
, ,
,
.
, -
, ,

, . ,
,
.

69

-
-

'
.

70

1939

-.

Mysli
1903 ,
1989 .

nowoczesnego polaka,

71
.
' ('lI, 1989).

1988 : - ,
(<<Pagina 12,
nos Ayres, September, 1988).
,
, ,
, ,

-
1990, . 19).

(<<Liberation, 1 October,

72
, ,

, .
Wina: i od (1990).

Wiara i

73 ,

.u.

160

, .

.
, ,

.
,

, .
1989 .

74
.
.
,
.
, ,
,
,
,
.
:

. ,

;

75
?
?

.
?
- :

(
, 1990 ). ,
, (1990).

76 ,
,

2.

161



(<<New York , 21 November, 1989).
,
, (1990)
.

77
.

78 , , ,
1979
' -
m .

79 ,
-
: ,

. , ,

6 - 550

AJI

, -
. ,
?
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,

.
.
, ,
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.

.
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,
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?

(Elster, 1975). , ,
,

(blueprint),
1848 1891

163

, !

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4)
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2)

3) .

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1) ,

2)
3)
, ,
.
, 6'

.u.

164

,

. ,

. ,
(Du, 1984: ch. 1).
,
(),
(). ,
- ,
,

.
,



. 3.1,
IJ

1,

J2.

3.1.

SC

CS
SS

165

SS
, SC CS
.
.

.
: 1) , 1,
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J. 2) J,
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, . ,

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166


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167

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,

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168


.
, ,

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XIX

; ,

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. ,

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, .

(Walras, 1874) (Edgeworth, 1881)
(, 1927), (Pigou, 1932) .
. , ,
,

169

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: 1) , 2)
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2)

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.
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170

,
, ,

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15.

, .. ,

(w,

1964).

, ,
.

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1 6

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!".

-,
,

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, 18.

,

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(Fischer, 1989: 36),

171

,
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(Hahn, 1989: 64), ,
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172

. -
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(w, 1971: 137),


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173

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450.

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174


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, Kurz, 1977: 1139), ,
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175

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(EIson, 1988: 18),


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176

.

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177



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179

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1500
2000 , 20 000
30 000
,

(, , 1988). ,

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,

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1988: . 5) ,
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180

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181

->, , ..
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wicz, 1973),
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182

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183

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185


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186
,

. 1960-

1980

5,2%,
6%.
,

, ,

, 1970- .
1980 1985 .
0,0%.
, , ,
- 1,0%.

".
'".

, ,
, ,
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,

XIX ;

.
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187



. ,

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1963-1970 ;
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?

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1980- , ,

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1988: 44, 47),
,
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.u.

188

,
,

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1988: 64).

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189

. , ,
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.
6% 50% .

'",

,
.

,

, -

.u.

190
,

,
; Nove, 1983: 200),
(, 1986: 328)),

, ,
, ?
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, .

70% ,
30%54. ,
:

,

: ,
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Elster, 1989), (Elster, ,
1989), (, 1986)),
.

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191

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-, (Elster,
, 1989: 27)

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(Burawoy, 1979), , 1)

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58. ,
,

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, ,

.u.

192

,
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.
(, 1989: 87, 93), ,
,

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(Elster, 1989: 110) ,

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(<<
); .
,

193


?
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: 1985



,

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,

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.

20%

.
,

.

,
, 7 - 550

.u.

194


,
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,

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195

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.


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20%
7*

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196

60% .
20%

, - 20%,

,
.

2%
,
, -

, , '<.

,
,

.
, , ,

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1) ,
2)

, '",

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(.: Lange, Gt, 1985; Hicks,


1988).3)

4)


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197

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,

(Becker, 1976).
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198

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3.

199

,


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200

,


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;
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3)

,
, ,
. ,
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,
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.

201

1 , ,

(E1ster, 1986).

1960- 1970-
.
, ,

,
.

, .

4 . (Wetfort,

, (1989),
(Ka1yvas,

1989)

1989).
5 ,
,

, .
.

6 , ,

1983: 11),

, (Nove,

...

(Buchanan, 1985: 44-45)

.
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.
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,

.u.

202

! ,
, ,
, - ,
.
, ,
, .
, , ,
:

.

8 .: Kolarska-Bobinska, 1988 -
; Bruszt, 1988 -
; , 1988 - .

(,

1969).

10 ,
, ,

5:30
,
. , ,
,
. ,

, .

11

(Buchanan, 1985: ch. 2)

.
(l1, 1987) .

12 ,

1)

2)
m,
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( ).

13 .
.

14

'

(O'Neill, 1989: 209):

... -
.

3.

203

15 .
,

. ,

. ,
.
: , ,

.
, .

16
;
( ),
,

. ,

;
,

17

(Bowles, 1985).

(Newbery, Stiglitz, 1981: 209).

18 ,
, -

. ,

,

(, 1967: 1, 355356), ,
()
,

(,
1967: 11, 494-495). , ,
,
,

.

, .

19
.

20 - , ,

.u.

204

, ,

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,
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, , ,
, . -
, .

21 ,


, .

22 . ,

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.

23
: ,
...

.

, , ,

(ll, Johnston, 1984: 533).

24
,

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(
).

(Lancaster, 1973); . (Levhari, Mirman, 1980),


(Przeworski, Wallerstein, 1982).

25
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,

205

. -,
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(
). ,


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26 ,

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(Roemer, 1989 , ).

27 ,
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206

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. .

New Left Re-

view (Mandel, 1988; Elson, 1988).


,

.
1970-
.


. .
,
, , ,

,
. ,

, .
, -,

.
,
. ,

28 ,


. :
.

,

.
.
, ,
.
,

29 --
,
,

. ,

, ,
. ,

. -

207

, .
,
, ,
. (.: Lavoie, 1985, irzner, 1988, Shapiro, 1989 -
.)

30 , ,
, ,

. ', , ,


(Nove, 1983: 105).
,


. :
,

31
. ,
,

. ,
,
,

(.:

Col1ard, 1978).

.
:
,
?
, ,

, ? -
.
,
, ,
, , -

.u.

208

32
(30
1928 ),
,

(Wilk, 1988: 78-9).
,

. 1960-

, .
.
,
,
.
:
,
.

,

.
, (.:

Ostrowski, Przeworski, 1965).


33 .

(Roemer, 1989 ).
-,
,
. ,
,
,

34
. -,
,
, ,

. -,
, .

35 ,
,
(Cas-

209

,
(

troriadis, 1979).

); ,
,

.
, :

,
. (Nove, 1983: 179)
, ,
-
(), ,
10
, 1000 .
(Beck, 1978) ,

,
.

36
. ,

.

,
*()
,
.

*(),
.

37 ,

, ,

. ,
;
, ,
.
,

m
,

. (. ,
,

R,

1989 .)

21

.u.

38

(Asselain, 1984: 35),



:
,

39

(Zaleski, 1984: 615) ,

,
, .

, ,

40 .

Roland, 1989 -

41 .

Bideleux, 1985 -

42

, , , .
( .: Bergson, 1984;
- Komai, 1986; - Wnuk-Lipinski, 1989.)
,

( )
37%: ,
,

.
(, 1987-1988: 35),

3 % . (1521 1989 , . 99) ,

111 , - 24 .
,

43 .

88:

44
, .
, 8% ,
. -
.

45 .:

Zalyguine, 1987 - .

211

46

1977 198

16%, - 12%, 11%, - 9% ( CEPAL,


Weffort, 1989). 1978 1985
8%.
1985
1960 ,
1978 .
6,7
1960- 10,6 1985-,
70 68 ,
(, 1988). 1973 1984

1,58 , 1,97 ,
, 0,64 1,40

0,92
(Mad-

dison, 1989: 91).


47 ,

.
, .
(Comisso, 1989),
,
, -
. ,
, .


,

.
.

48
(Staniszkis, 1984),
(Wiatr, 1989), (, 1988).

49 ,
,

(Asselain, 1984).
1986.)

(. :

Nove, 1983:

4; Kornai,

50
, , ,
, ? (Roger Thurow,
,
, , 27 1986 ).

51 ,

.u.

212

, ,
,
, .

,
,
.

52 .

Hansmann, 1988 -

53

(Leijonhufvud, 1986: 219), - ,
, ,
,
, ,
.

,
, - , -
,
.
-,
.
,
,
,

.

.

,
. ,
,
:
, ,
,
.
;
, , (Cui, 1990).

.

54

72,2%

213

, 52,3%
(<<
, 25 1990 , . 4).

55 (,

1989),

, ,

.
:
(Baka, 1986: 130)
, ,
,
(.. ).

56
.
.

57 , ,
, .

, ,
. ,
.

58 ,
(Holmstrom, 1982)
. ,

. ,
.

59
. ;
100%
,

50%

60 ,

. 17,3% (
35,9% ), 7,5%
(31,9%), 4,8% (27,1%), 16,3%
(33,2% ) 22,4% -
- (30,3%).
(Rainwater, , Smeeding, 1989).

61

."uii.

214

(Comisso, 1989),

,
,

62 , '
,

(O'Neill, 1989: 209-210)

.
, ,


.

.

63

(Dahl, 1985),

(Bowles, Gin-

tis, 1986).
64 ,

(Przeworski, 1985).
65 ,
.
,
.

66

(1987

. ).

1985

67 ,
,
( ,

) 5,6% , 5,8%
, 7,4% , 8,3% ,
11,8% , 12,7% 13,2%

(Rainwater et al, 1989).

. (Matthews, 1986)
, , ,
,
.

68 ,
,


.
,

215

,
, - ;
,

;
, , .
(Lucas, 1988), ,
,
:
,
,
,
.

69 ,
Przeworcki, 1990, . 1.

70
u, 1985: 166, 174, 177, 185)

(Saunders,

,
. ,

, ;


;

, ;

.

71 .

Przeworski, WaIIerstein, 1988 - ,

72
(van der Yeen, van Parijs, 1986).
,

(Przeworski, 1986 ),
,
, .
,

; .

.
.

,
.
,
,


.

.

,
, ,
, :
, ,

(Baka 1986: 46).



.
, , -

,
, ,
.
,

4.

217


, .

,
.
.

'

:
- ,

- ,
, , -

,
, .
4.1,
,

(S).

4.1

.u.

218

,
S
,
,
. ,
, -

.
,

.
,

-.


. :
1)
;

2)
3)

4)

(, ]988).
,
,

,

.
,
,


. ,


.

4.

219




, ?
:

1)

2)

3)

, , ,

, ,

, - ,
.


. ,
,

,
, ,

ro
,
,

,
. -, ,

.

-,

.80U.

220


,
,


,
,

.
(Bruszt, 1989: 716):
, ,


. ,
,

.., ,


.
.


.


,
, ,
:

. ,

-'.

, ,

, .
, ,
- ,
.

4.

221

, ,

,
, , . ,
,
(. 4.1).
-, , ,

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.
,

,
: ,
,
.



. ,

- ,
, ,

,
.

".
,

1)
, 2)
, 3)
, 4) ,
, 5)

.

: 1)

1984

1989

1983

1983

1989

1989

/.]
. . ,

3 . .
. %

I/.

($)2

[/,

. . / %
. . / %
I %
W/ %

2710
-39

2370
10 5

1 590
-1 3

1650
26

1 520
05

2210
08

-24,8
66 1
1 128
520
65
188
21
-50/10
14,3

26,4
21 1
1 539

-9,1
1792
750

-13,3
4337
1 556
485
245
268
192
-23/10
4,0

11,1
180
1 112
540
76
404
234
-10/7
0,0

4,8
17
1656
293
32
583
349

272
334
154
-28/5
11,0

288
232
19
-

6,7

:
3 . . ,

] 1980 -

1989

30
8,0
02
87
16

(Wor/d Bank, 1989).

( ).

2 .

4.1

4.

223


,
, 2)

,
.

,
:

, ,

( )
.

. ,
, -


, ,

, ,
,
. ,
, ,


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.

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, ,
,

. ,

>.
, ,

;

....

224

.u.

".

, ,

.
,
,

-
: ,
,
(.: Cardoso, Dantas,1990 -
).

.

,
,
.

.
, ,
; ,
1%

- 2%7.

, ,

.
, 1988
4%. ,

.

,

. ,
, -
. , ,
1960-

4.

225

, .

.
,
,

. ,

: 55,2 %
, ''.
, ,

,
, 1968
.

".

, ,
!".
-
. 4.2

,
, -
, .

, ,

8 - 550

20%

1970
1983
1977
1972
1987
1987
1972
1978
1976
1979
1973
1973
1980
1980

vo

WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB

11,4
26,1
19,9
32,1
3,0
3,6

4,4

WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB

5,9
7,9
4,3
16,1
9,4
5,8
4,6

1975
1977
1981
1978
1980

WB
WB
WB
WB
WB

1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1984
1988
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985
1985

7,7
7,1
5,6
5,0
7,5

WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB

19
19
25
15
32
24

37

WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB
WB

29
27
35
23
44
41
50

4.2

1984
1985
1985
1985

WB
w

w
w

38
35
47
40

, .

.
: w

York Times, 17

World Bank Development Report(l987); - Bergson, 1984; - . (New


1989).

Octoer,

."u.

228


?
, ,

? ,
, ,

. ,
.

;
,

. ,

.
,

!'.

,
.
,
,

.
,
,
, ,

.
.

, ,

.

,
.
,


(Williamson, 1990),

1)

2)

4.

229

, 3)
, 4) , 5)

, 6)
, 7) ,
8) 9) .


.
.

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1.
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3.
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4. )
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5.

,

, :

230

."u.

1) ,
,
sui generis,
, ? 2)

, ,

3)

,
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,

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.


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; - .

1)

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3)
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4.

231

.
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31

1989

, 333
.
,


. ,

222

232

.u.

1 ;
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111
1

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333 1 , - 667 1 ,
.

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1000 .

333

333%,

,
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,
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4.

233

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.

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234

.uii.

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, (Lopez, 1990),

.
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4.

235

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.

70% .
,
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300 000 4 000 000 , 13.
, ,

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,

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1 8 .
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.

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236

.u.

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.

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pacotes

.

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4.

.

237

,
:


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.

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,

238

.uii.

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, .

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4.

239

. ,

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.
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. ,
.

,
. .
, .

,
,

,
,

.

,

.
, , .
, 20%
1990 , ,

'",

, .

,
,
, -

.u.

240

. ,
,

.
,

. ,
,
,
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.

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?

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. -

4.

241

,
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. ,


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,

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,
.

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: ,

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,

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1.

. -

.u.

242

,
1982 .
2. ,
.
,
( ,

).

, .

3.

, ..
,

4. ,
. ,

.

5.

, .
6. .
,

, ,
. .
7. ,
.
.
8. ,
, ,

9. ,
,
23 .
10. ,
.

11.

12.

,
, , -

4.

243

- . ,

,
.

-
,

(Tarkowski, 1989),

- .
.

-
.

1/
, 8%

1989 ,
- .

,
.

,
.


,
,

.u.

244

. , ,

, ,
:
, ,
..
,
,
.

, ,

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,
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. ,
.
, ,
.

.
,

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, .
,

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( -
. - . .).
,

60%,

, .

,
?
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, ,

4.
,

245

,
.

, ,

, .



, ,
,

,
,

.
, ;
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.
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.

,
, ,

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,

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,
.


,

.u.

246

,

,

(Comisso, 1988)

. ,
,

,
:

, .

(.: Vickers, 1987), -",

, .

. ,


.
.

. , ,

,
, .
,
,

.

(Shapiro, Taylor,

1989: 12), 20-30-

4.

247

,
. ,
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. ,

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;

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."u.

248

.

.

,
,

.
,

. 1970-x

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,

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,

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1)

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,

4.

249

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-

250

."u.

, .
, , ,
,
,
,
,

binska 1988,

(Bruszt 1988, Kolarska-Bo1988)27.

, ,
.

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.

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4.

251

;
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.

(Comisso, 1988),

:
,

,

1987

,
.
,

252

.u.

m ;
, . ,
,
,

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.

. -, ,

.
-,

. ,
: ,
.


,
,
, 4.2.
,

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.

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,
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4.

253

O~--------------------

4.2


: ,

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,

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254

.u.

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R > G >

S6.

, -G
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, G
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>

S > G > R:

>

>

, -.
, ,
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. -

4.

255

,
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), ,
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. (Nelson, 1984:
108), " " ,

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. ,
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.u.

256

; ".

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,

4.

257

,
.
1985
.
15 ,
, 6
. ,
,

.

1989
, ,
.

. ,

, ,

(Sola, 1990: 21).
1989
.
-

29 ,


- 5 .
( .

Porozumienia Okraglego Stolu, 1989).


, , ,
,
,

(Domaranczyk, 1990: 93).

, ,

SZDSZ,

MDF,
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MDF .
,
,

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9 - 550

."u.

258

''',

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, ,
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4.

259

, .
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,

1985 ,
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,

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,

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,
, 75%
,
,

, l ll (Folha de S. , 15
1990 ).

, ,
;

.
.
,
,
,
,

9*

.80U.

260

Jl

. ,
,
1985 ,
, ,

, 65,4%
1989
(Cariaga, 1990). ,
;

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,

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, ,

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4.

261

. ,
-

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(Elster, 1984).)
,
.

,

(reps, Porteus,

1978, 1979, 1979). , ,


, , , ... ',
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, '42.

(Weil, 1990: 32),

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(Loewenstein, 1987),

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:

."u.

262

. ,
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ante 44,

GR (
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4.

263

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4.3


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,
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."u. JI

264

. , ,
t= 1 GS
G, R RS.
, ,

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2. G R
t= 1, R,
t=l: RG (1
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G(O) > R(O), -
RG(1) RS(I).
,
,
t =1, .
, GS(I)
G(1) RG(I) R(1),
, GS(2)
G(2):
t=2,

>

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3. -
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265

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4.4.
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266

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267

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5" ~-----:';"':'7-::Ir-~~....

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4.4

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268

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4.

271

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. 1981
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27,5%.
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( ) 71,6%
, 1988
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63,0%

. ,
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78%

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1975: 69).




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cerowicz, 1989: 45).


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51

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