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Grade 7 Science

Unit 2
Scientists use the Particle Theory
of Matter to describe temperature.

Chapter 5

Discussion
What are objects (or matter) made
up of?
What makes something an object
(matter) in real-life?

Matter
Matter: Is anything that has mass
and takes up space.
Mass is measured in kilograms
(its related to how heavy something is)
Taking up space means volume
Big (an elephant) or small (a bacteria)

So what makes up matter?


If we had the best microscopes in the
world and we looked at matter what
is it made up of?

So what makes up matter?


If we had the best microscopes in the
world and we looked at matter what
is it made up of?
Particles! also called atoms (sadly
we cant see them with our
microscopes!)

The Particle Theory of Matter!


5 points about this theory:
1. All matter is made up of tiny
particles.

Particle Theory of Matter


2. These particles are always moving
they have energy. The more energy
they have, the faster they move.

Particle Theory of Matter


3. There is space between all particles.

Mini Activity: Pg. 137, 5-1A

Particle Theory of Matter


4. There are attractive forces between
the particles.

Particle Theory of Matter


5. The particles of one substance are
the same but different from another
substance.

Particle Theory of Matter


Iteractive to relate to the PTM:
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulatio
n/legacy/states-of-matter-basics

Particles have Energy


PTM #2 says all particles have energy
This is important for Temperature!
If particles have more energy will
they be hotter or colder?

Particles have Energy


PTM #2 says all particles have energy
This is important for Temperature!
If particles have more energy will
they be hotter or colder?
Hotter!

Particles have Energy


kinetic energy: The energy that
particles have due to motion (moving)
Measured in Joules or J

Moving faster means they have more


energy!
Does this relate to temperature?

Temperature
Temperature: The average energy of
the particles of a substance.

Question 1:
All particles in a glass of room
temperature water are moving at the
same speed.
Explain whether this statement is true
or false.

Question 2:
Will the particles of air closest to a
sunny window have the same amount
of kinetic energy as those near the
floor?
Explain

Kenetic Energy
Do all the particles have the same
energy?
The kinetic energy is the average of
all the particles energy

Kenetic Energy
Do all the particles have the same
energy?
The kinetic energy is the average of
all the particles energy

12.9J

What is the kinetic energy of the


matter in the following test tubes?

What is the kinetic energy of the


matter in the following test tubes?

10J

15.8J

Review Questions

Page 145 Qs: 1, 2, 3, 4 & 8

Matter can be in different States


Matter can change depending on how
much energy it has
What will happen to ice water if I add
energy to it?
What will happen to liquid water if I
add energy to it?

3 States of matter

Observe the differences between


the 3 states of Matter
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulatio
n/legacy/states-of-matter-basics

Discussion
How are these three states different
from one another?

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Volume

Does Not Change

Does Not
Change

Expands to fit
the container

Shape

Does not take the


shape of the
container

Takes the
Shape of the
container
*flat top

Takes the
Shape of the
container

Particle
arrangement

Closely packed
together

Close together, Large spaces


but can slide
between them
past each other

Particle
movement

Vibrate in the same


position

Slide past one


another

Drawing

Moves freely
in all
directions

Interactive and Quiz:


http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guid
es/z2wmxnb/activity

*Important note
When energy is added or removed
the state of matter can change!

Adding Heat
When heat is added what happens:
Do the particles change into new ones?
Do the particles change speed?
Do the particles have different amount of
space between them?

Adding Heat
When heat is added what happens:
Do the particles change into new ones?
No!

Do the particles change speed?


Yes they move faster!

Do the particles have different amount of


space between them?
Yes - more, especially if it becomes a gas

When heat is added the volumne


increases!
Expansion
Increasing the volume of a substance

Contraction
Decreasing the volume of a substance

Expansion
When the particles are heated, they:

gain energy,
move faster,
spread out and
take up more space thereby increasing
their volume.

Contraction
When the particles are cooled:

they lose energy,


move slower,
move closer together and
take up less space thereby decreasing
their volume.

Explaining why
Why does air pressure in tires
increases during a car trip?
Why do footballs or soccer balls
deflate when they are taken outside
on a cold day?

Activity Day!
1. Activity 5-2 B Bulging Balloons
2. Activity 5-2 C Race to for the Top
3. Activity 5-2 D Expanding Solids

Pages 151 -155

Review Questions

Page 157 Qs: 2, 3, 4, 9 & 10

Changing States
Adding or removing heat changes the
state of matter by changing the
movement of the particles
* the type of particles does NOT
change, just there motion

Changes of State

Changing State interactive


http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienc
eclips/ages/9_10/changing_state_fs.s
html

We can graph the changes of state


by observing temperature
Core Lab activity
Activity 5-3C The Plateau Problem
Page 166 (7)

* When matter is changing state all the


energy is used up, so temperature
does NOT increase!

Review Questions

Page 169 Qs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 & 8

Chapter Review Questions

Page 170-171 Qs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7,


8, 11, 13, 15 & 18