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TPM - 12 Step Approach

TPM - 12 Step Approach 1


Definition of TPM

✔ In early 70’s TPM focused on production sector aiming to


maximize the equipment efficiency
✔ The new definition was set in 1989 aiming to create a
corporate system that maximizes efficiency of production
system
➨ Classical Definition:
Total Productive Maintenance
➨ JIPM Defines it As :
Total Perfect Manufacturing
Leading to
Total Production Management
Leading to
Total Profit Management
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Effects of TPM

✔ Effects of TPM always evaluated in terms of


➨ P - Production
➨ Q - Quality
➨ C - Cost
➨ D - Delivery
➨ S - Safety
➨ M - Morale

✔ Intangible effects
➨ My Machine concept - First - Line operator owns the
➨ equipment
➨ Concept of Zero
➨ Clean Workplace

TPM - 12 Step Approach 3


Philosophy of TPM

✔ Basic philosophy of TPM is Prevention & Participation by all

departments & personnel, including top personnel to first-line

operators

✔ Keeping the equipment in optimal condition with Visual control

✔ Make a clean workplace

TPM - 12 Step Approach 4


TPM & Concept of Loss

✔ The concept of loss is basic to practicing TPM

✔ TPM aims at elimination or reduction of losses

✔ JIPM propounds 16 types of losses in manufacturing

environment i.e.

➨ Equipment Efficiency related

➨ Human efficiency related

➨ Cost related

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16 LOSSES

✔ Equipment Efficiency
Availability Related
1 Break Down loss 2 Setup loss
3 Tool change loss 4 Start up loss
5 Planned Maintenance
Performance Related
6 Minor stops
7 Reduced speed
Defect Related
8a Scrap
8b Rework

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16 LOSSES

✔ Human efficiency

9 Management Losses
10 Operating motion Loss
11 Line Organization loss
12 Loss due to failure to automate
13 Loss due to Adjustment & Measurement
✔ Cost Related

14 Yield Loss
15 Energy Loss
16 Die/Tool loss
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Overall Equipment Effectiveness

✔ OEE is the indicator of effectiveness of machine

✔ A composite factor considering Availability, Performance &

Defect losses

✔ It is tantamount to capability of equipment to deliver the

maximum possible good output

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Step-wise implementation of TPM

✔ Phases of TPM implementation Program

➨ Phase 1 - Preparation for Launch

➨ Phase 2 - Launch

➨ Phase 3 - Execution

➨ Phase 4 - Establish

TPM - 12 Step Approach 9


Step 1 - Resolve to introduce TPM

✔ Top person along with senior management visits TPM


practicing plants to see the effect of TPM

✔ Declaration by top person determination to introduce


TPM at a gathering of managers, staff and all employees

✔ Publicity to the event in company newsletter

✔ Setting up an interim committee to organize for TPM


introduction

TPM - 12 Step Approach 10


Step 2 - Introductory education and campaign

✔ Introduction of TPM without proper training and education can

lead to failure of the movement

✔ Organizing TPM awareness seminars for employees

✔ Poster and slogan contest

✔ Publishing articles on TPM in company newsletter

✔ Plant visits to TPM practicing companies

TPM - 12 Step Approach 11


Step 3 - TPM Promotional Organization & Model Machines

✔ TPM is an activity which requires constant facilitation and


tracking till a critical mass is achieved

✔ A full time promotional office called as “TPM Secretariat” is


formed

✔ People who are trained as TPM Facilitators are part of this


secretariat

✔ Steering committee is formed consisting of senior plant


personnel

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Step 3 - TPM Promotional Organization & Model Machines

✔ Plant in-charge is the chairman of TPM steering committee

✔ Senior level manager is made in-charge of the secretariat

✔ Specialized sub-committees are formed headed by senior

person from the relevant area with representation from each

department

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Model Machine Activity

✔ Each unit selects a model machine/equipment Manager


alongwith his engineers and staff work on the machine to
➨ Do initial cleaning
➨ Identify sources of contamination
➨ Take measures for containing the contamination
➨ Do Kaizens to reduce the losses
✔ Model machines are showcased to all the employees as proof
of TPM’s effectiveness

TPM - 12 Step Approach 14


Step 4 - Setting TPM Policy and Targets

✔ TPM is not the goal but means to achieve the goals

✔ Data on Benchmarks - benchmark is the status at the start

of activity

✔ Stretched targets are set for each of the item

✔ Timelines are fixed within which targets are to be achieved

✔ Master plans are made for each sub-committee

✔ Tracking of progress is done wrt the master plan

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Step 5 - Preparation of Master Plan

✔ Master Plan is prepared to create a schedule for all the 12


steps upto the stage of PM award qualification

✔ Master Plan talks about major activities such as- formation


of sub-committees, their start date and end date etc.

✔ Each sub-committee makes its own master plan

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Step 6 - TPM Kick-Off

✔ TPM Kick -Off is a memorable occasion in the TPM journey


✔ TPM is launched plant-wide with involvement of all employees
✔ Launch function is at a grand scale attended by employees,
suppliers, dealers and crème - de- la - crème of the company
✔ Top person addresses all the employees
✔ TPM organization structure, TPM policy and targets are
announced
✔ Union representatives commit employee support to TPM
activity
✔ Presentations are made by Model machine teams to exhibit the
success of TPM activity on model machines

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Step 7 - Program for improving OEE
(KK, Tools,JH,PM, & E&T)

✔ Kobetsu Kaizen (Focused Improvement)


➨ Focuses on Increasing Production & reducing cost
➨ Reducing manpower and maximising output per person
➨ Cross functional teams take up projects to eliminate/reduce
losses in the system

TPM - 12 Step Approach 18


Tools Sub-Committee

✔Tools focus is on

➨ Eliminating Production Loss due to non- availability of tools

➨ Reducing Tool Cost by

➨ Reducing Tool Inventory

TPM - 12 Step Approach 19


Methodology

✔ Maintain bank and crib inventory levels based on


consumption pattern and lead time.
✔ Achieve price reduction through
➨ Import substitution
➨ Reduction in prices ( where same tool is supplied at
different rates)
➨ Absolute price reduction
➨ Variety reduction and hence price reduction
➨ Alternate cheaper source

TPM - 12 Step Approach 20


Methodology

✔ Achieve enhancement in tooling life through


➨ Change in material
➨ Change in design
➨ Change in process
➨ Surface treatment such as coating
➨ Recycling and or salvaging
✔ Identify non moving tools and tooling and take action for
disposal

TPM - 12 Step Approach 21


Jishu Hozen

✔ Jishu Hozen (Autonomous maintenance)


➨ 70% of equipment failures are due to forced deterioration.
➨ JH focuses on elimination of forced deterioration caused
by abnormalities like splashing of oil / coolant, ingress of
machining chips on machine elements, settling of dust on
electronic parts, exposure to heat, vibrations etc.
• Through “Individuals preserving their own equipment”
• By carrying out routine inspection, oiling & re-tightening
/small repairs

TPM - 12 Step Approach 22


Step - 0 (1s & 2s)

✔ 1S is Seiri in Japanese language which means remove


unwanted material from work place and dispose it off.

✔ 2S is Seiton in Japanese language which means place for


everything and everything in it’s place. There is orderly
arrangement of required material.

✔ After doing 2S, we can retrieve the required tooling in single


touch pickup,in few seconds.

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Implementation of 1s-2s

Formation of circles
Allocate areas to each circle
Training to all Circle
members
Start 1S,2S movement
Start Pick up movement
Change to ‘’No drop’’
movement
Maintain shop floor neat &
clean
Sustain
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Jishu Hozen

✔ Step 1

➨ Dis cover to discover

➨ Discover by cleaning

➨ Cleaning for inspection

➨ Inspection for repairs of malfunction of equipment.

➨ Discovery of areas where cleaning / inspection /

lubrication is difficult
➨ Audit by Unit Head

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Jishu Hozen

✔ Step 2
➨ Eliminate source generating dirt/dust oil etc.
➨ Improve the places of hard to access for cleaning,
lubricating and inspection to shorten the time required
for the above
✔ Passing of the audit
➨ Cleaning / inspection / lubrication time reduction
➨ Break down reduced by 50 %
➨ Machine clean without cleaning

TPM - 12 Step Approach 26


Jishu Hozen
✔ Step 3
➨ Basic condition of activities to prevent equipment
deterioration. (Cleaning, lubrication, tightening)
➨ Create visuals & write standards e.g.
• Levels
• Looseness
• Tension
• Lubrication
• Gaps / clearances.
• Vibration.
• Noise
• Temperature
• Pressure

TPM - 12 Step Approach 27


Planned Maintenance

✔ Planned Maintenance
➨ Achieve Zero breakdown
➨ Focus is on addressing natural deterioration
➨ Supports JH to tackle forced deterioration
➨ Aims at drastic reduction in Repair & Maintenance Cost by
➨ improving service life of parts and reducing time to repair

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Methodology

✔ Step 1: Ranking and support to JH


✔ Step 2: Define role of operation division & Maintenance
division
✔ Step 3: Zero Breakdown activity
Breakdown classification using why why analysis
Implement cause side countermeasure
Use of PM inspection & MTBT concept
Implement TBM activity
Implement CBM
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Methodology

✔ Step 4: Corrective maintenance

✔ Step 5: Maintenance MIS

✔ Step 6: Reduce Maintenance cost

✔ Step 7: E & T support

✔ Step 8: MP activity

TPM - 12 Step Approach 30


Planned Maintenance

Maintenance Improvement
activities activities

MAINTENANCE PREVENTION
Daily Jishu Hozen

Preventive Break down Corrective


maintenance
Periodic Predictive
Maintainability Reliability
(TBM) (CBM)
C rank machine MTTR MTBF
Single bulb
change of OHP
Keep stock of
spares
TPM - 12 Step Approach 31
Education & Training

✔ Education & Training


➨ Focus on fostering excellence in Skill, Attitude and ability
➨ Eliminating breakdown, defects and accidents due to poor
skill & knowledge
➨ Improving knowledge of operators & maintenance

mechanics about equipment / components


➨ Promoting participation of all

TPM - 12 Step Approach 32


Methodology

✔ 4 Quadrant Skill Matrix Approach


➨ Classification of operators & technicians
➨ Defining skill requirements
➨ Preparation of syllabus and training material
➨ Pre-training test
➨ Developing training calendar
➨ Organizing training programs
➨ Post training evaluation
➨ Recording of competency levels
➨ Feedback and continuous review

TPM - 12 Step Approach 33


Specific Training Modules

✔ Loss based training


✔ Cost awareness
✔ JH Step 4 on various machine subsystems such as -
Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Nuts and Bolts, Drives etc.
✔ Maintenance technician training

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Promoting TPM through events

✔ Best JH Step 4 machine contest


✔ Kaizen conference
✔ TPM quiz
✔ Best Visual Control
✔ TPM Newsletter

TPM - 12 Step Approach 35


Step 8 - Development Management

✔ Development management focuses

➨ To procure ‘maintenance free’ equipment by incorporating

the improvements at the development stage of new

equipment
➨ To establish system for ensuring reliability, maintainability

operability & Jishu Hozenability


➨ To incorporate the improvements emanating from various

Kaizens related to KK, JH, PM etc. into the new equipment


➨ Objective is to get easy - to - use facilities
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Step 9 - Establish Quality Maintenance System

✔ Quality maintenance focuses on


➨ Setting conditions under which no defects will be
generated
➨ Less emphasis on measuring and maintaining the quality
characteristic of the job
➨ Emphasis on controlling the cause side parameters
✔ To achieve the goal of Zero Defect, Zero rework and Zero
Customer complaints

TPM - 12 Step Approach 37


Methodology

✔ Step 1
➨ Gap analysis
➨ Stratification
✔ Step 2
➨ Develop QA matrix
✔ Step 3
➨ Identify 4 M conditions
✔ Step 4
➨ Defect classification (a/b/c type)
➨ Why Why analysis
➨ PM analysis
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Methodology

✔ Step 5
➨ Implement Poka yoke/ kaizen / countermeasures
➨ Set 4 M conditions
➨ Derive Q components
✔ Step 6
➨ Prepare cause side checklist
✔ Step 8
➨ Standard operating procedure
✔ Step 9
➨ Provide specific training to engineers / machine operators
TPM - 12 Step Approach 39
Step 10 - Improvement in Indirect Departments

✔ This team focuses

➨ Reducing cost of buying of incoming material

➨ Optimizing material inventory

➨ Ensuring implementation of 1S,2S across entire plant

➨ Achieving optimum utilization of manpower

TPM - 12 Step Approach 40


Methodology

✔ Material cost reduction is achieved through 16 criteria


approach
➨ Price reduction
➨ Taxation
➨ Value engineering
➨ Packaging
➨ Handling & transportation etc.

TPM - 12 Step Approach 41


Methodology - Optimum Manpower Utilisation

✔ Job analysis under

➨ Job elimination

➨ Job clubbing

➨ layout changes

➨ Reduction in mudas

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Step 11 - Establish system for Safety Health & Environment preservation

✔ Focus on building shop-floor which is -


➨ Clean ,Bright & Safe
✔This is achieved by eliminating tasks which are -
➨ Dirty ,Difficult & Dangerous
✔ Aim is to achieve
➨ Zero accident
➨ Zero pollution
➨ Zero health hazards

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Intangible benefits
Change in attitude Listening
No doubting
Leading to
Doing
Change in thinking style We can achieve ZERO
Forget the past glory
Leading to
Not enough
Change in Culture Working together

Leading to
Commitment of all
Involvement of workforce
Happy and Motivated employees
Ready to face challenges &
Satisfy changing customer needs
TPM - 12 Step Approach 44
Step 12 - PM award qualification examination

✔ After establishing framework for TPM implementation


and achieving the results in each area, the plant appears
for PM award by JIPM
➨ Pre-assessment audit
➨ Final certification audit

Culminating the part I of TPM journey with


‘TPM Excellence Award”

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Beyond 12 Steps…...

✔ 12 Steps are part I of TPM which lays the foundation of


TPM movement in any organization

✔ In part II objective is to reinforce and spread the movement


deeply and widely towards the ultimate goal of world class
manufacturing

✔ TPM is an ongoing journey encompassing the entire company


for a cultural transformation in pursuit of excellence

TPM - 12 Step Approach 46